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Thread: Subject: Re: request for Leon lecture notes

  1. #1

    Subject: Re: request for Leon lecture notes

    From: ---------@----.edu
    To: umg@-----.com
    Subject: Re: request for Leon lecture notes

    Here they are. I copied the transparencies too.




    the iberian peninsula
    mid-11th century
    five christian kings: galician, leon, castille, aragon, navarra
    galicia is coastal
    leon is central
    castille is the richest
    aragon is the weakest
    navarra is the basque homeland
    barcelona is christian but not a kingdom
    rest of iberia controlled by islamic powers

    iberian kings are brothers and stand to inherit each other's titles
    alfonso the wise of leon poisons fernando the great of castille
    alfonso the wise inherits castille, uniting the kingdoms in 1065
    alfonso the wise attempts to poison garcia of galicia
    he is not successful
    garcia's wife bears children who stand to inherit
    alfonso the wise assassinates the children
    in one case a wet nurse is the killer
    the two kings trade assassins for years
    ultimately alfonso the wise is victorious
    three kingdoms united in 1077
    duchies of leon and galicia become personal territory of king of leon
    alfonso the wise dies in 1080
    he is 40 years old
    supposedly he died of typhus or an infected wound
    more likely he was poisoned
    navarra is overrun by france in 1091
    navarra will never again be considered a kingdom
    basque power wanes

    leon turns to the reconquista
    iberian catholic belief in holy mission to conquer islamic iberia
    alfonso the just declares kingdom of portugal in 1090
    duchies "liberated" in rest of iberia
    bajadoz: 1104
    seville: 1110
    toledo: 1113
    cordoba: 1114
    granada: 1120
    meanwhile, france dominates aragon

    leon invades africa
    kingdom of mauretania declared by garcia the noble in 1190
    kingdom of africa declared by juan-alfonso the hunter in 1266
    france captures fez
    initially these conquests are unproductive and rebellious
    gradually they assimilate, becoming catholic and culturally iberian
    some of most technologically advanced areas in world
    on paper, kingdom of africa includes byzantine cyrenacia
    this boundary dispute is never resolved



    leon conquers france and claims aragon
    previous policy of friendship with france
    navarra taken from france during french civil war by alfonse viii in 1127
    alfonse viii is first iberian king to marry a moorish woman
    umm bint ya'far, salacious poet from cadiz
    wars for aragon begun by pedro the fat in 1276
    a long series of separate hostilities
    sometimes conducted against breakaway capet states
    capet aragon independent during much of the fighting

    luis the cruel, jimena count of atlas mountain in africa, claims french throne
    successfully installed by vela the cruel in 1375
    this follows an earlier failed attempt
    vela the cruel was infamous for killing to gain the crown
    the origin of luis the cruel's claim to france remains mysterious
    beginning of end for capet dynasty
    capets linger as leaders of french breakaway states

    jimena kings of france do not end leon/france hostilities
    france repeatedly intervenes in civil wars against kings of leon
    leon continues to acquire french territory
    french military no match for arab armies developed to crusade
    iberian jinetes lead to crushing victories

    fez captured in 1420 by fadrique ii
    majorca captured in 1443 by menendo i
    at this time the duchy of majorca includes amiens
    fadrique ii declares himself king of aragon in 1422
    conquest of aragon completed by menendo i in 1444
    nearly 350 years since france took aragon from its jimena king
    french influence visible in barcelona even today



    leon made many crusades
    european powers in general crusaded often
    even vassals of leon crusaded
    such as tlemcen, tangiers, alger, bajadoz
    but crusades were almost all unsuccessful
    crusades focused on holy land, specifically ascalon and jerusalem
    leon captured ascalon and declared duchy of ascalon in 1217
    under the command of juan-alfonso the fat

    leon's kings were catholic, with two exceptions
    juan-alfonso the great, reigned 1314-1356, byzantine-educated, popular
    and benito i, reigned 1356-1368, by all accounts inadequate
    ascalon declared independence during reign of juan-alfonso the great
    catholic religious unrest a factor
    independence successfully suppressed
    but left ascalon weak
    shi'ite caliph invaded, successful jihad to reclaim ascalon in 1323
    civil war left leon unable to intervene effectively

    legend has it that ascalon was protected by fadrique the magician
    fadrique diaz never held land
    but he was an important member of the jimena family
    grandson of facundo the fat of leon and kaiser ulrich i of the holy roman empire
    married into english royal line
    later remarried into scottish royal line
    key advisor to pedro the fat, juan-alfonso the ill-ruler, juan-alfonso the great
    studied with jewish kabbalists in ascalon
    wrote extensively on gematria (sacred numerology)
    lived nearly 80 years
    ascalon fell shortly after his death

    all other attempts for jerusalem and ascalon unsuccessful
    the eight year crusade began when the caliphate collapsed
    but the caliphate reconstituted itself and retook the coastal castles
    the crusade ended in failure
    shia caliphate true success story of the east
    withstood catholic military power, byzantine empire, eastern invasions



    the rise of leon was also the rise of a remarkable family
    the jimena dynasty remained central to leon throughout its flourit
    this is a map of areas whose highest authority was a jimena
    map shows mid-15th century
    80 years after the overthrow of capet france
    france has a jimena king
    although those kings were often at war with leon over aragon
    what you see in the east are territories of the golden horde
    under dwarf empress gaudina ironside, the orthodox jimena mongol
    byzantine sources claim she was visibly moorish
    note also jimena rule in parts of wales, norway, and italy
    at this point leon is allied with france, england, scotland, and bohemia

    after 1478 the reformation would essentially destroy leon and the jimenas
    leon was a fundamentally catholic power
    africa, mauretania, andalucia break away to form the free western principalities
    following tradition of heir to leon being prince of mauritania
    prefigures modern republic of mediterranean
    castille, aragon, portugal declare independence
    leon is invaded by france and becomes galicia
    1510, alcacerian dynasty begins
    spain is not united until 1622 and only includes pre-reconquista territory

    reminder to study for midterm

  2. #2
    clever clever creative stuff!

    Edit: btw dear god I hope no one has to suffer through transparencies anymore!

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