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Transport Capacity and Supply Efficiency FAQ (final version)


Transport Capacity (TC) is described in the TC tooltip rollover as trucks trains and river barges which are used to supply your armed forces with fuel and supply. TC is an abstract number as it is primarily based upon Industrial Capacity. The various modifiers that affect TC are shown in the tooltip:

TC is a direct function of IC – each point of IC gives you 1.5 TC

The tooltip then repeats the overall TC status by displaying Used TC and Available TC. That line is followed by a list of modifiers that affect the TC calculation:

Technology Modifier on IC -> TC:
Minister Modifier on IC ->TC:
Fuel and Supply Transportation:
Occupied Territory Maintenance:
Redeployment Load:
Partisan Activity:
Undeployed Bases:

The net effect of this is calculated and shown as:
== Current supply efficiency: 100.00%

This Supply Efficiency number is calculated once a day at midnight and is the base number for any supply efficiency calculations for that day for your divisions. This Average Supply Efficiency number is combined with the infrastructure value in each province for each div to produce an Effective Supply Efficiency for that corps/division. ESE has a combat effect and also potentially affects unit speed, upgrading progress, organization gain, and the reinforcement rate. While your TC has some overall effects, each corps does it own separate ESE calculation and this ESE calculation has direct effects.

Many postings are about TC when they should instead focus on ESE as shown below. It is possible to have no TC problems by being under your TC capacity while some of your divisions have ESE problems due to being in low infrastructure provinces. ESE will be discussed first, and TC later, though most are so intertwined that discussing one means having to discuss the other.

ESE Calculation: When you click on a corps, Effective Supply Efficiency is shown in the line between the province name and the list of divisions in the corps. When you wait for the tooltip rollover, you see a calculation that averages the overall Supply Efficiency base number with the infrastructure of the province that the div is in. Any Headquarters’ ESE bonus is added to that average. Example of tooltip details for Effective Supply Efficiency: 93.03 percent

Average Division ESE: 100.00
Infrastructure: 76.06
HQ Bonus: 5
(Average 100.00 + Infra: 76.06)/2 + HQ 5.00

ESE Combat Effect:
ESE has a direct combat effect for land combat that is shown in the list of combat modifiers for each div. when the div. is in combat. To calculate the ESE combat effect:

subtract 100 from the division’s ESE then divide that by 2.

Ex.: with an ESE of 108.04: (108.04-100) = 8.04 = ESE +4.02 which is shown in the combat modifiers.

Ex.: with an ESE of 71.90: (71.90-100) = -28.10 = ESE –14.05 which is shown in the combat modifiers.

ESE combat effects can be positive but are usually negative. Defenders in their own countries can have negative ESE combat effects due primarily to low infrastructure. ESE combat modifiers can often be the equivalent of subtracting several skill levels from your Generals.

ESE lower than 100 has other unit effects. Unit with <100 ESE will recover organization slower and will get upgrades and reinforcements slower. ESE also has a speed effect which reduces speed by up to 50% that is proportional to the ESE: lower ESE means lower speed. The HQ’s ESE effect is directly added to the speed so that an HQ which gives 5% ESE will also given nearby corps a 5% speed boost. Speed calculations including ESE effects are discussed in this thread.


1) Put your corps on Offensive Supply. Offensive supply increases the average Supply Efficiency for just that corps by 1.5x for one month. The tooltip reads: Assign fuel and supplies for an Offensive to the selected units. This will increase their supply efficiency by 50% for 30 days. The supply efficiency calculation for Offensive Supply adds 0.50 to the overall average supply efficiency for that corps. Ex.: an average division ESE: 87.97 in the Corps window ESE tooltip becomes average division ESE: 137.97 just for that corps due to offensive supply.

If your Average Supply Efficiency was 100 (you are under your Transport Capacity), that corps gets an Average Division ESE of 150 for it’s specific ESE calculation when given an Offensive Supply order. Ex.:

in an 80 infrastructure province, 150 and 80 average to 115 which with a 5 HQ effect nets 120 for that corps. Without offensive supply, the ESE calculation would be to average 100+80 and then add the 5 HQ effect netting 95. The Offensive Supply order results in +25 ESE. In combat that would mean changing a –2.5 ESE combat modifier to a +10 ESE combat modifier, which is the equivalent of adding more than 2 skill levels to the leader of that corps.

If your are exceeding your Transport Capacity: If your average Supply Efficiency was 80%, with an Offensive Supply order that becomes 130% (shown in the ESE tooltip for that corps as Average Supply Efficiency: 130). That 130 would then be averaged with the infrastructure that the province is in. If the infrastructure was 60, the before and after Offensive Supply calculations would be (without any HQ effects):

BEFORE: 80+60 Average: 70
AFTER: 130+60 Average: 95

Example from screenshots: Motor Inf with eng bde fighting deep in Russia June 1942 go from 57.4 ESE to 82.4 ESE after they get Offensive Supply. ESE will increase by about 25 for each corps which gets Offensive Supply Orders.

How much does Offensive Supply Cost? The supply and oil amount for each div and each bde that is put on offensive supply are shown in the Offensive Supply icon tooltip rollover if you pause before giving the order. The Offensive Supply Icon is in the bottom right of the Corps information window and has an --> over a supply graphic. Examples of the Offensive Supply order costs for one month:

3 Inf Eng  Supply Cost: 217.2     Fuel Cost: 0.0
9 Inf        Supply Cost: 492.5     Fuel Cost: 0.0
9 Pz eng   Supply Cost: 2189.3   Fuel Cost: 3603.8
These supply and fuel costs are additional costs beyond the normal daily costs. For the 9 inf div in the example above, that’s an additional supply cost of 1.82 supplies a day for the offensive supply order. Each inf div normally uses 1 supply each day.

- Note that you can not add brigades to a division that has been given an offensive supply order as bde are part of the supply and fuel cost calculations. If you could add them, this would be an exploit as the bde fuel and supply costs would not be factored into the offensive supply calculation.

Can Offensive Supply be useful in high infrastructure provinces when you do not exceed your TC? Yes. Your ESE combat effect would be +12.5 (150 + 100 infra average to 125 from which 100 is subtracted with 25 cut in half for the combat effect). Infrastructure in provinces can also temporarily decrease due to combat. Ex: German Pz take an open Amiens which is just north of Paris. Infrastructure is 0.50/100 due to combat damage when you pause over infrastructure in the province info screen. Without offensive supply, those Pz div attacking Paris would have an ESE of 75 (average of 100+50) and an ESE: -12.5 combat effect. With offensive supply, their ESE is 100 (average of 150+50) which results in a neutral ESE combat effect rather than a negative ESE combat modifier.

Where else would Offensive Supply be useful? Any place where province infra is below 100 (which is ¾ of the world) and when your Transport Capacity is exceeded. It is particularly useful where you need certain div to more quickly regain strength and organization.

2) What other IMMEDIATE steps can I take to increase my ESE?

2.1) Move an HQ next to your corps to get a small ESE boost. The amount of ESE boost from an HQ is determined by your land doctrines. Any ESE from an HQ is directly added to the ESE for that corps as shown above. The USA gets the most benefit from HQ for ESE from their land doctrine path, Germany starts high, and the Soviet Union has almost no HQ ESE effect early on though it can eventually catch up to the Germans). See the Land Doctrine FAQ on Wiki for more details.

2.2) Use Logistics Generals as much as possible especially in quieter areas. Each Logistics General reduces supply and fuel usage by 25%. That results in fewer supplies and oil having to be sent to your divisions and that will reduce the Fuel and Supply Transportation modifier to your TC.

2.3) Put all div in non national provinces on anti partisan duty. Zoom and sweep the mouse to grab a lot of corps in an area. Then look at their mission list to make sure that these div are on anti partisan duty. Ex.: I switched some German div in Poland from none to anti partisan and this decreased the Partisan Activity part of the TC rollover to 4.47 from 7.11

2.4) When anything that uses fuel moves, that increases the strain on your TC as more fuel needs to be shipped and that decreases the average Supply Efficiency. Ex.: I had most of my German Panzer and Motor Inf div stationary in Russia in 1942 and my overall Supply Efficiency was 64.06% I deliberately gave them all move commands and waited until midnight for the daily calculation and Supply Efficiency dropped down to 52.50% That's an 11.56% drop in average Supply Efficiency just because more oil was consumed when all the Pz and Motor div started moving and using lots more fuel. While you can’t avoid moving your armor and other oil using div and bde, movement affects your TC and ESE.

2.5) You can liberate occupied territory. The usefulness of this will depend upon how much IC these liberated areas get. Occupied Territory Maintenance can be a big drain on your TC when you start conquering (note that annexed territory does not add to TC except for the small partisan activity factor). Ex.: as Germany I liberated Lithuania which has five provinces. Transport Capacity went down from 747 to 745 due to the small lose in IC. Supply Efficiency, however, increased from 84.50% to 88.48%.

2.6) Don’t keep a lot of bde or div or bases in your deployment pool. Deploy newly built bde immediately as they cost as much as a division for the Redeployment Load (5 each). Undeployed Bases add 100 to the TC costs.


- The more IC that you have, the higher the TC you have due to the direct 1.5x factor (TC = 1.5x your net IC).

- You should research the three infantry supply tech which each have a positive +10% TC modifier:

Rear area supply Dumps (a 1936 tech which some countries already have)
Deep Logistic Organization (1940)
Frontline Supply Service (1942)

- Keep a large supply surplus rather than building yet another unit. You need to balance whether having more div on the field is as effective as using Offensive Supply for your units that are already in action.

- The fuel costs for oil using div and bde such as Pz div can be a big strain on your TC. Consider substituting air power or using inf div rather than using Armored or Mech Inf Div. You also have to factor in the supply and oil use effects for brigades into this analysis. Arty bde use around 1 supply which is the same supply (and TC) cost as an inf div. Heavy armor bde use 2+ oil a day. You probably shouldn’t just use unbrigaded inf or inf-eng, but the fuel and supply drain on your TC from unit's fuel and supply requirements is yet another factor that you need to consider.

- The biggest factors affecting your TC will likely be Fuel and Supply Transportation (FST) for your troops and Occupied Territory Maintenance (OTM) when you have a lot of occupied territory. Air and navy bases are a big TC drain unless you deploy them immediately.

- Partisan affects are often relatively minor in comparison to the FST and OTM factors. To reduce this small factor, put some cav or inf div on anti partisan duty in a web pattern where they can automatically move to put down any revolts. Security div with police bde on antipartisan duty will suppress partisan levels very effectively.


There are three infantry supply techs that directly affect TC:

Rear area supply Dumps (a 1936 tech which some countries already have)
Deep Logistic Organization (1940)
Frontline Supply Service (1942)

Each of them has the same four effects:

command = { type = tc_mod value = 10 }
command = { type = tc_occupied_mod value = 20 }
command = { type = attrition_mod value = 15 }
command = { type = supply_dist_mod value = 10 }

The earliest, rear area supply dumps, also adds some things that do not directly affect TC:

command = { type = enable_task which = strat_redeploy }
command = { type = task_efficiency which = strat_redeploy value = 0.5 }
command = { type = activate_unit_type which = engineer }

Researching land doctrines will affect your HQ ability to add ESE.


The \db\misc.txt has these factors:

# TC Undeployed Division Load

# TC Occupied Province Load

# TC Land Division Load Multiplier

# TC Air Division Load Multiplier

# TC Naval Division Load Multiplier

# TC Load from partisans

# TC load factor from offensives

# TC Load from province dev

# TC Load from bases in queue


- Each undeployed brigade also seems to cost 5 (same as a division). The manual’s info about these costs is incorrect.

- Each occupied province costs 3 TC but that can be reduced by inf/supply research. The formula for each supply tech level uses the tc_occupied_mod value = 20 found in each inf/supply tech. These are cumulatively added which results in these factors:

(1/1+0.2) for one tech
(1/1+0.4) for the second supply tech
(1/1+0.6) for the third supply tech.

Multiply these factors by the 3 TC Occupied Province Load from the \db\misc.txt file and then by the number of occupied provinces to get the Occupied Territory Maintenance number. Ex.: Germany conquers Western Europe and gets 14 occupied provinces in Belgium and the Netherlands (no Sealion). With one supply tech, OTM is 35 and with two supply techs OTM is 30.

- The 3.0 TC Load from partisans adds up all the partisan activities and then multiplies them by 3. Since the partisan activity is displayed as 14%, 8%, etc., that means multiplying 0.14*3. If you just add up the partisan numbers for each province such as partisan activities in Poland after Germany annexes it, the numbers on the partisan activity line add up precisely to the sum of the partisan activity numbers multiplied by 3. To verify this, you would obviously need to focus on only a few provinces at a time.
- The partisan activities line on the tooltip summarizes all unsuppressed activity. Putting units on antipartisan duty will directly (though perhaps minutely) reduce this TC penalty. Putting units on antipartisan duty doubles the suppression in the province. There is also a small percentage of the suppression that is applied to adjacent provinces of around 20 to 25%. Due to rounding, it is difficult to be more precise than that. Ex: each 1939 Garrison div suppresses 8 and a police bde suppresses 3. With four garrison+mp in adjacent provinces on antipartisan duty netting 44 suppression, the partisan number in that province is reduced by 9% due to suppression just from adjacent provinces. Ex.: Germany annexes Poland and switches div there to antipartisan duty. Partisan activity line decreases to 4.47 from 7.11
- The overall penalty for partisan activities, however, is often just a very small part of any TC problems as fuel and supplies for your troops and Occupied Territory Maintenance are usually much higher than partisan activities. Ex.: Germany conquers most of Western Europe prior to Barbarossa, but only Belgium and the Netherlands are occupied territory with the rest annexed. Germany gets a 30 OTM penalty for those 14 provinces with two inf/supply techs while partisan activities overall might contribute only 12.66% Since the partisan activities line includes the higher partisan levels in those 14 occupied provinces, the effects of Occupied Territory on TC far outweigh the overall partisan effects.
- Partisan activity will diminish over time in non-national annexed provinces until it is reduced to 2%. These values are found in the misc.txt as # Nationalism starting value 20 and as # Monthly Nationalism reduction 0.2 Partisan levels will decline to very low levels in around a year and a half in annexed territory.
- Partisan activity, however, in occupied territory does not diminish. Dissent will also increase the base amount of partisan activity so any event that results in lots of increased dissent will increase partisan values.

WHAT IS STILL UNCLEAR? (at least to me)

- Each inf/supply tech shows the same effect: supply_dist_mod value = 10. It’s not clear to me whether the supply_dist_ means supply distance or supply distribution. Since this is an inf/supply tech, I guess it has something to do with enhancing supply distribution rather than any TC effects. The information in the research screen, however, reads as Supply Distance Modifier: +10.0% Where this is shown in the game and what it really is remains a mystery to me.

- Distance factors: The unit load and province factors in the TC rollover seem to be straight forward and don’t show any discernible distance effects. The game calculates ESE for each corps by using only the infrastructure of the province that the corps is in rather than trying to calculate the infrastructure of each province along a supply chain (info from the manual). Whether one of your divisions is in the capital or thousands of km away from the capital on a different continent does not seem to be part of the TC calculations. Having to send supplies 89 km or 1438 km does not seem to be a factor in the game.

- TC load factor from offensives: this is mentioned in the \db\misc.txt file. While I use offensive supply a lot, I have yet to figure out where this would be shown in the TC tooltip. If it is a factor, it seems to be relatively insignificant.

John Heidle - 25 March 05

With assistance from several posters in the Original draft FAQ thread:
draft TC and ESE FAQ


Dec 19, 2003
all power to you, my friend! this is good stuff. especially the cumulative anti partisan effect on adjacent areas of networked garrisons. gonna save me a fortune in INF divs doing AP duty in every area[kinda what roum., bulg., and hung. troops are for!! he he].

and the reduction of AP effect in annexed areas.
hmmm... i wonder if occupied france is considered annexed? prolly not since 'occupied' can't be annexed, i guess. apart from anything else, i can't imagine the french populace eventually accepting german domination so easily!



Second Lieutenant
Feb 15, 2005
Dear Friends:ll How do I supply my CMF as Japan in making my raid on Pearl Harbor. My game tells I cannot supply my fleet carriers as far away as Honolulu!! Please explain. l33


Second Lieutenant
May 8, 2004
1) Put your corps on Offensive Supply. Offensive supply increases the average Supply Efficiency for just that corps by 1.5x for one month. The tooltip reads: Assign fuel and supplies for an Offensive to the selected units. This will increase their supply efficiency by 50% for 30 days. The supply efficiency calculation for Offensive Supply adds 0.50 to the overall average supply efficiency for that corps. Ex.: an average division ESE: 87.97 in the Corps window ESE tooltip becomes average division ESE: 137.97 just for that corps due to offensive supply.
This says two conflicting things, that Offensive Supply multiplies the ESE by 1.5 and that it adds 50% to it. (These don't mean the same thing; a unit that would otherwise have 60% ESE would have 90% one way and 110% the other, for instance). Which is correct? Your example seems to assume the second, but my (admittedly very limited so far) in-game observations suggest the first.


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Jun 10, 2002
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It's +50%. e.g. with a heavy TC overload and province infra 40% I have a one-division corps with ESE = (47.23+40)/2
After clicking offensive supply it becomes (97.23+40)/2