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The Royal Court of England




Richard II,
by the Grace of God King of England, King of France,
Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine



Realm: England
Head of State: Richard II
Religion: Catholic - Rome
Culture: English, French
Stats: 8/5/10/10/7 --> [8/5/10/10/7]
Provinces: 27
Ports: 8
Owned: London(5), Anglia(2), Armagnac(3), Bayonne(2), Bedford(3), Berkshire(3), Bordeaux(4), Calais(4), Cardiff(3), Cornwall(2), Cumberland(2), Derby(3), Devon(2), Dorset(4), Dublin(2), Gloucester(3), Guyenne(4), Isle of Man(0), Kent(4), Lancashire(3), Limoges(3), Lincoln(3), Northumberland(3), Saintogne(3), Sussex(3), Wales(2), York(3).
Ireland is a vassal
 
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Richard II, born 1367, son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent

The son of Edward (the Black Prince) and grandson of Edward III, Richard succeeded to the throne in June 1377. He had not yet come of age and England was ruled mainly by his uncle, John of Gaunt. Gaunt's misrule exacerbated economic crises brought on by the Black Death and war with France. The resulting Peasants' Revolt of 1381 was the first crisis of Richard's reign. He handled it well, placating the rebels with false promises.
In 1382 he married Anne of Bohemia, daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Elizabeth of Pomerania.
The Last years Richard has started to get more and more involved in the ruling himself, though still guided by John of Gaunt


John of Gaunt (1340-)
Born: March 1340 at St. Bavon Abbey, Ghent, Flanders
Earl of Richmond,Lancaster, Derby, Lincoln and of Leicester,Duke of Lancaster, claims to be King of Castile and Leon


This prince, the fourth son of King Edward III and Queen Philippa, was born at Ghent (or Gaunt) in Flanders, in 1340. In his infancy, he was created Earl of Richmond and, by that title, admitted into the Order of the Garter upon the death of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, one of the original knights. In 1359, at Reading Abbey, he married Blanche, the younger of the two daughters and co-heirs of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, and upon the death of his father-in-law, in 1361, he was advanced to that Dukedom. He held also, in right of his wife, the Earldoms of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, and the high office of Steward of England.
Blanche, dying in 1369, the ambition of the Duke - who had taken an active part in the war carried on by the his brother, Black Prince, for the restoration of Peter, King of Castile & Leon - induced him to direct his views towards Constance, the elder of the two daughters of that monarch, then lately slain by his illegitimate brother, Henry of Transtamare, his successor under the title of Henry II. In 1372, the Duke married this princess and thus assumed the regal style of those kingdoms.
Although John of Gaunt had been engaged in warlike enterprises from his earliest years, yet his martial achievements did not increase the lustre of British glory or secure for himself the character of a great commander. In three expeditions into France, in 1369, 1370 and 1373, he gained no laurels and the peculiar misfortunes which attended the last, when a considerable number of his followers perished amongst the mountains of Auvergne, rendered him very unpopular on his return to England in July 1374. All Guienne and Gascony, with the exception of the towns of Bordeaux and Bayonne, had fallen from their allegiance and a suspension of hostilities was negotiated at Bruges, by the Duke and others, with the Duke of Anjou, before the expiration of that year.
After the death of the Black Prince, in 1376, the Duke of Lancaster acquired a marked ascendency in the councils of the infirm monarch, his father. His administration of public affairs is said, furthermore, to have been stained by several acts of violence. John continued to govern the Kingdom during the minority of his nephew, Richard II.


Anne of Bohemia,Queen of England 1366–
Queen of Richard II of England, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. She was married to Richard early in 1382 and quickly gained popularity in England. It was probably through her entourage that the writings of John Wyclif were introduced into Bohemia, where they gained much prominence through the teachings of John Huss.


Edmund of Langley, Earl of Cambridge, (June 5, 1341 -)
Edmund was a younger son of King Edward III of England, the fourth of the five sons of the King who lived to adulthood.
Like so many medieval princes, Edmund gained his identifying nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley in Hertfordshire. At the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge. His wife, Isabella, is the daughter of Pedro "the Cruel" of Castile. They had two sons, Edward and Richard, Earl of Cambridge, as well as a daughter, Constance


Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Essex, Earl of Buckingham (January 7, 1355 -)
Thomas was the thirteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa. He was the fifth of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood.
Thomas was born after two short-lived sons, one of whom had also been baptised Thomas. He was born at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He married Eleanor de Bohun in 1376, and inherited the title Earl of Essex from his father-in-law, Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. Woodstock's wife's younger sister, Mary de Bohun, was subsequently married to Henry Bolingbroke.At the age of 22, in 1377, Woodstock was created Earl of Buckingham.

Thomas Mowbray, Lord Marshal of England, Earl of Nottingham, 6th Lord Mowbray and 7th Lord Segrave (1365 – )
Mowbray was the son of John 4th Lord Mowbray, and Elizabeth, Baroness Segrave. She was the daughter of John 4th Lord Segrave and Margaret, Countess of Norfolk, who was a daughter of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, a son of Edward I. Thus Mowbray was the great-great-grandson of Edward I.
He succeeded his brother John as 6th Lord Mowbray and 7th Lord Segrave in 1382, and soon afterwards was created Earl of Nottingham, a title his elder brother had also held.


Henry Bolingbroke, 3rd Earl of Northampton, (April 3, 1367 –
Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence the name by which he was known, "Henry Bolingbroke". His father, John of Gaunt was the third and oldest surviving son of King Edward III of England, who had enjoyed a position of considerable influence. In 1380 Henry married Mary de Bohun

Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin
He is a favourite companion of Richard II of England, and he holds the title of Lord Chamberlain. Therefore he is an important man of the Privy Council, and one of the first men visitors to the court must meet to address their business. The king created him Marquess of Dublin. He was thus the first Marquess in England.

Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March and 6th Earl of Ulster (11 April 1374-
Roger Mortimer was 4th Earl of March and 6th Earl of Ulster. His father was the powerful Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, and his mother was Philippa, Countess of Ulster and March, the only issue of Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, a son of King Edward III of England. He held enormous estates in Wales.
He succeeded to the titles and estates of his family when a child of seven, and a month afterwards he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, his uncle Sir Thomas Mortimer acting as his deputy. Being a ward of the Crown, his guardian was Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, half-brother to Richard II.


Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (March 16, 1339-
Thomas was an English nobleman, and one of the primary opponents of Richard II.
He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Catherine Mortimer, a daughter of the 1st Earl of March, and succeeded his father in 1369.
The earl accompanied John of Gaunt in campaigns in France in 1373, and around that time was made a Knight of the Garter. In the parliamnets of 1376 and 1377 he was one of those appointed to supervise reform of Richard II's government. When these were not as effective as hoped, Beauchamp was made governor over the king

Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350-
Thomas is a councillor of his half-brother Richard II. He was the son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock and granddaughter of Edward I. After his father's death his mother married Edward the Black Prince.When his father died in 1360 he became Baron de Holland. His mother was still Countess of Kent in her own right. At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine. He fought in various campaigns over the following years, and was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375. In 1381 he was created Earl of Kent.

John Holland, (1352 -
He was the third son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan "the fair maid of Kent", daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, a son of Edward I. His mother later married Edward, the Black Prince. Holland was thus half-brother to Richard II, to whom he are very loyal.Early in Richard's reign, Holland was made a Knight of the Garter (1381). He was also part of the escort that accompanied the queen-to-be, Anne of Bohemia, on her trip to England


Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and 10th Earl of Surrey (1346 -
was an English nobleman and military commander.He was the son of Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster. In 1377 he was made Admiral of the West and South. His wife is Elizabeth de Bohun, daughter of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton. They married around September 28, 1359

John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1372-
The Earldom of Pembroke, associated with Pembroke Castle in Wales, was created by King Stephen of England.

Edward de Courtenay, 12th Earl of Devon (1357-
The title of Earl of Devon was created several times in the Peerage of England, and was possessed first by the de Reviers family, and later for the Courtenay.

John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury ( 1350-
He was the son of Sir John Montacute and Margaret de Monthermer. His father was the younger brother of William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury. His mother was the granddaughter and heiress of Ralph de Monthermer.
As a young man Montacute distinguished himself in the war with France, and then went to fight against the pagans in Prussia, probably on the expedition led by the Henry Bolingbroke




John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (1365–).
He took a prominent part in the pageantry at the coronation of the ill-advised, and ill-fated Richard II, then only years old. Following the coronation he was made a Knight of the Bath.

Walter FitzWalter, 4th Baron FitzWalter 1345-)
The title Baron FitzWalter is an ancient one in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1295.

John de Clinton, 3rd Baron Clinton
The Barony of Clinton is a barony by writ in the Peerage of England, dating to 1298.

Thomas de Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford (1363-
The Barons de Clifford were a notable family in late medieval England, their title dating to 1299

William la Zouche, 3rd Baron Zouche (1355-)
The title Baron Zouche of Haryngworth is an ancient one in the Peerage of England, having been created in 1308 by writ for William la Zouche (1276-1352) His grandson William la Zouche, 2nd Baron Zouche (1321-1382) was himself summoned to parliament during his grandfather's lifetime in 1348 as Baron Zouche of Mortimer

Robert Willoughby, 4th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (1349-)
The Barony of Willoughby de Eresby (pronounced "Willuhby Deersby") is a barony by writ in the Peerage of England, dating to 1313

William Dacre, 5th Baron Dacre (1357-
The title Baron Dacre has been created several times in the Peerage of England, every time by writ. The first creation was for Ralph Dacre in 1321

Philip Darcy, 4th Baron Darcy de Knayth (1341-
The title Baron Darcy de Knayth is an ancient one in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1332 for John Darcy

Ralph de Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell
The title Baron Cromwell has been created several times in the Peerage of England. The first creation, which was by writ, was for John de Cromwell in 1308. At his death, the barony became extinct for he left no heirs. The second creation was for Ralph de Cromwell in 1375, again by writ.

Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys
The title Baron Camoys has been created twice in the Peerage of England, both times by writ. The first creation was in 1264, and became extinct at the death of the fourth Baron. The second creation was in 1383

Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley the Magnificent (1351-
The title Baron Berkeley has been created twice in the Peerage of England, both times by writ. It was first granted to Sir Thomas de Berkeley in 1295.

Elizabeth Nevill, 5th Baron Latymer (c. 1357-)
The title Baron Latymer has been created twice in the Peerage of England, both times by writ. The first creation was for William Latimer in 1299.

Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange (1326-
The title Baron Strange has been created several times in the Peerage of England.In 1299, John le Strange was granted the barony.

Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford (1342-
The title Baron Stafford has been created several times in the Peerage of England. The first creation was by writ in 1299 for Edmond de Stafford


Thomas la Warr, 5th Baron De La Warr ( 1358-
(pronounced "Dellaware")
The barony De La Warr is of the second creation; however, it bears the precedence of the first creation, 1299


Sir Ralph de Neville 1354-
Sir Ralp was born in Raby, County Durham, England . A Knight of the Garter. He was the son of John de Neville and Maud Percy. His wife (1382) was Margaret Stafford, daughter of Sir Hugh Stafford and Philippa de Beauchamp.

Sir Hugh Segrave
Sir Hugh Segrave is the Lord high Treasurer of England since 1381. He is responsible for the economy of the king. He was given this position after the peasant rebellion to see what could be made to the economy to make sure the peasants are not taxed to high, to avoid a new rebellion.

Sir Robert Tresylian
Sir Robert Tresylian is the Chief Justiciary of England since 1381. He got this position after the last Chief Justiciary of England, John de Cavendish was murdered in the peasant rebellion of 1381

Sir Simon de Burley
Simon de Burley holds the offices of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and Constable of Dover Castle.
Although of humble origin, he was brought up with Edward, the Black Prince; they became intimate friends, and De Burley was raised to become a tutor to the prince's son, later Richard II. In 1377, king Richard confirmed an annual grant of £100 to de Burley by the King's father along with the custody of Kerwerdyn castle, in terms referring to him as "the King's father's Knight." In the same year, de Burley was given the office of Master of the Falcon, and was appointed constable of Windsor Castle for life. The following year the king further granted Simon de Burley the manor of Chiltenham in Gloucester and the 'fee simple' of the castle and lordship of Llanstephan. In 1382 Richard granted him the office of under-chamberlain of the King's household for life, and appointed him surveyor of the lands in South Wales in the King's hands during the minority of the heir of Edmund Mortimer. In 1383 the King granted him for life the constableship of Dover Castle and the wardenship of the Cinque Ports, and three hundred pounds yearly (for the maintenance of himself, chaplains, etc.) with provision that he exercise the office himself. His long connection with the family of Richard II is indicated by his being named by Joan of Kent, King Richard's mother, as one of the executors of her will.

Sir Thomas Mortimer, acting Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
Uncle of Roger Mortimer, 4h Earl of March and 6th Earl of Ulster. When the young Roger inherited the earldoms and his father’s position as Lord-Lieutenant in Ireland at the age of seven, Sir Thomas Mortimer was appointed deputy of the young boy’s the King’s Lord-Lieutenant in Ireland. Since the young Roger Mortimer is still under age, sir Thomas is current the Lord-Lieutenant in Ireland in the name of His Majesty King Richard II.

Sir John Hawkwood (1320-)
It is said that he was the son of a tanner of Hedingham Sibil in Essex, and was apprenticed in London, whence he went, in the English army, to fight in the Hundred Years War. At the conclusion of the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360, he collected a band of mercenaries, and moved to Italy, where his so-called “White Company” fought for various Italian states and factions. In 1375 Florence entered into an agreement with him. In 1377, he led the destruction of Cesena by mercenary armies, acting in the name of Pope Gregory XI. Shortly after, he switched allegiance to the anti-papal league and married the illegitimate daughter of Bernabo Visconti, the Duke of Milan, but a quarrel with Visconti soon ended the allegiance, and Hawkwood signed another agreement with Florence. In 1381 he was appointed by Richard II of England as ambassador to the Roman Court



William Courtenay ( 1342 –
English prelate, was a younger son of Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devon (d. 1377), and through his mother Margaret, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, was a great-grandson of Edward I.
Being a native of the west of England he was educated at Stapledon Hall, Oxford, and after graduating in law was chosen chancellor of the university in 1367. Courtenay's ecclesiastical and political career began about the same time. Having been made prebendary of Exeter, of Wells and of York, he was consecrated bishop of Hereford in 1370, was translated to the see of London in 1375, and became archbishop of Canterbury in 1381, succeeding Simon of Sudbury in both these latter positions.
As a politician the period of his activity coincides with the years of Edward III’s dotage, and with practically the whole of Richard II's reign. From the first he ranged himself among the opponents of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; he was a firm upholder of the rights of the English Church, and was always eager to root out Lollardry. In 1373 he declared in convocation that he would not contribute to a subsidy until the evils from which the church suffered were removed; in 1375 he incurred the displeasure of the king by publishing a papal bull against the Florentines; and in 1377 his decided action during the quarrel between John of Gaunt and William of Wykeham ended in a temporary triumph for the bishop.
Wycliffe was another cause of difference between Lancaster and Courtenay. In 1377 the reformer appeared before Archbishop Sudbury and Courtenay, when an altercation between the duke and the bishop led to the dispersal of the court, and during the ensuing riot Lancaster probably owed his safety to the good offices of his foe. Having meanwhile become archbishop of Canterbury Courtenay summoned a council, or synod, in London, which condemned the opinions of Wycliffe; he then attacked the Lollards at Oxford, and urged the bishops to imprison heretics.
He was for a short time chancellor of England during 1381, and in January 1382 he officiated at the marriage of Richard II with Anne of Bohemia, afterwards crowning the queen. In 1382 the archbishop’s visitation led to disputes with the bishops of Exeter and Salisbury, and Courtenay was only partially able to enforce the payment of a special tax to meet his expenses on this occasion. During his concluding years the archbishop appears to have upheld the papal authority in England, although not to the injury of the English Church.

Alexander Neville
The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury.
There was a bishop in York from very early Christian times. Bishops of York were particularly present at the Councils of Arles and Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was later blotted out by the pagan Saxons. There was no important archbishop of York till the consecration of St. Wilfrid in 664. His successors acted as diocesan prelates until the time of Egbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. The sees of Canterbury and York were long struggling for precedence, often leading to scandalous scenes of dissension. In the 11th century, for instance, there was an arrangement which lasted until 1118 that the archbishops of York must be consecrated in Canterbury cathedral and swear allegiance to the Archbishop of Canterbury






The Privy Council

Keeper of the Privy Seal: Walter Skirclaw, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
Lord Chancellor: Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk
Lord High Treasurer: Sir Hugh Segrave
Chief Justiciary: Sir Robert Tresylian
Lord Chamberlain: Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin
Lord High Marshall: Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, 6th Lord Mowbray and 7th Lord Segrave
Lord Constable: Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Essex, Earl of Buckingham
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports: Sir Simon de Burley
Archbishop of Canterbury: William Courtenay
Archbishop of York: Alexander Neville
Lord Chancellor in France: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent




The Lords
Dukes
Duke of Lancaster: John of Gaunt

Earls
Earl of Shrewsbury: -vacant-
Earl of Derby: John of Gaunt
Earl of Huntingdon: -vacant-
Earl of Pembroke: John Hastings
Earl of Devon: Edward de Courtenay
Earl of Lincoln: John of Gaunt
Earl of Suffolk: -vacant-
Earl of Westmorland: - vacant-
Earl of Nottingham: Thomas Mowbray
Earl of Essex: Thomas of Woodstock
Earl of Carlisle: -vacant-
Earl of Albemarle: -vacant-
Earl of Arundel: Richard Fitzalan
Earl of Kent: Thomas Holland
Earl of Richmond: John of Gaunt
Earl of Leicester: John of Gaunt
Earl of Cambridge: Edmund of Langley
Earl of Buckingham: Thomas of Woodstock
Earl of Oxford: Robert de Vere
Earl of March: Roger Mortimer
Earl of Northampton: Henry Bolingbroke
Earl of Surrey: Richard Fitzalan
Earl of Salisbury: John Montacute
Earl of Warwick: Thomas de Beauchamp
Earl of Wiltshire: -vacant-

Barons
Baron de Ros : John de Ros
Baron Mowbray : Thomas Mowbray
Baron Hastings: John Hastings
Baron FitzWalter : Walter FitzWalter,
Baron Clinton: John de Clinton,
Baron de Clifford: Thomas de Clifford
Baron Zouche of Haryngworth: William la Zouche,
Baron Willoughby de Eresby: Robert Willoughby
Baron Strabolgi: -vacant-
Baron Dacre: William Dacre
Baron Darcy de Knayth: Philip Darcy
Baron Cromwell: Ralph de Cromwell
Baron Camoys: Thomas de Camoys
Baron Berkeley: Thomas de Berkeley
Baron Latymer: Elizabeth Nevill,
Baron Strange: Roger le Strange
Baron Stafford: Hugh Stafford
Barons De La Warr: Thomas la Warr

Marquess
Marquess of Dublin: Robert de Vere
 
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English Kings and Queens


Norman Line


William I, the Conqueror (1066-87)
William II, Rufus (1087-1100)
Henry I, Beauclerc (1100-35)
Stephen (1135-54)
Empress Matilda (1141)


Plantagenet, Angevin Line

Henry II, Curtmantle (1154-89)
Richard I the Lionheart (1189-99)
John, Lackland (1199-1216)
Henry III (1216-72)
Edward I, Longshanks (1272-1307)
Edward II (1307-27)
Edward III (1327-77)
Richard II (1377-


History of England

England before the English
Archaeological evidence indicates that southern England was colonised by humans long before the rest of the British Isles due its more hospitable climate between and during the various ice ages of the distant past. The first historical mention of the region is from the Massaliote Periplus, a sailing manual for merchants thought to date to the sixth century BC, although cultural and trade links with the continent had existed for millennia prior to this. Pytheas of Massilia wrote of his trading journey to the island around 325 BC. Later writers such as Pliny (quoting Timaeus) and Diodorus Siculus (probably drawing on Poseidonius) mention the tin trade from southern England but there is little further historical detail of the people who lived there. Tacitus wrote that there was no great difference in language between the people of southern England and northern Gaul and noted that the various tribes of Britons shared physical characteristics with their continental neighbours.
Julius Caesar visited southern England in 55 and 54 BC and wrote in De Bello Gallico that the population of southern England was extremely large and shared much in common with the other Iron Age tribes on the continent. Coin evidence and the work of later Roman historians has provided the names of some of the rulers of the disparate tribes and their machinations in what was to become England.
There are surprisingly few historical sources for Roman England, we have only one sentence describing the reasons for the construction of Hadrian's Wall for example. The Claudian invasion itself is well-attested and Tacitus included the uprising of Boudicca, or "Boadicea," in 61 in his history. Following the end of the first century however, Roman historians only mention tantalising fragments of information from the distant province. The Roman presence strengthened and weakened over the centuries, but by the 5th century Roman influence had declined to such a point that the peoples who were to become the English were emerging.


The Anglo-Saxon Conquest
In the wake of the Romans, who had abandoned the south of the island by 410 in order to concentrate on more pressing difficulties closer to home, what is now England was progressively settled by successive, and often complementary waves of Germanic tribesmen. Among them were the (more commonly mentioned) Angles, Saxons and Jutes together with undoubtedly large numbers of Frisians and Ripuarian Franks who had been partly displaced on mainland Europe. Increasingly the Romano-British population was assimilated, a process enabled due to a lack of clear unity by the native inhabitants against a unified armed foe, and the culture pushed westwards and northwards. The settlement of England (alternately, the invasion of England) is known as the Saxon Conquest or the Anglo-Saxon
In the decisive Battle of Deorham, in 577, the native people of Southern Britain were separated into the West Welsh (Cornwall and Devon) and the Welsh by the advancing Saxons.
Beginning with the raid in 793 on the monastery at Lindisfarne, Vikings made many raids on England.
The Saxons founded a settlement beside the River Sheaf, which was called Scafield or Escafeld (later to become Sheffield in South Yorkshire) and it was at Dore (now a suburb of the modern city) that Egbert of Wessex received the submission of Eanred of Northumbria in 829 and so became the first Saxon overlord of all England.
Having started with plundering raids, the Vikings later began to settle in England and trade, eventually ruling the Danelaw from the late 9th century. There are many traces of Vikings in England today, for instance many words in the English language; the similarity of Old English and Old Norse led to much borrowing. One Viking settlement was in York (which they called Jorvik).


England during the Middle Ages
The defeat of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 at the hands of William of Normandy, later styled William I of England and the subsequent Norman takeover of Saxon England led to a sea-change in the history of the small, isolated, island state. William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes.
The English Middle Ages were to be characterised by civil war, international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue amongst the aristocratic and monarchic elite.
Henry I, also known as "Henry Beauclerc" (on account of his education), worked hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman societies. The loss of his son, William, in the wreck of the White Ship in November 1120, was to undermine his reforms. This problem regarding succession was to cast a long shadow over English history.
During the disastrous and incompetent reign of Stephen (1135 - 1154), there was a major swing in the balance of power towards the feudal barons, as civil war and lawlessness broke out. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land. His conflicts with his cousin Matilda (also known as Empress Maud), whom he had earlier promised recognition as heir, were his undoing: she bided her time in France and, in the autumn of 1139, invaded (with her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou and her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester).
Stephen was captured and his government fell. Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London. The period of insurrection and civil war that followed continued until 1148, when Matilda returned to France. Stephen effectively reigned unopposed until his death in 1154, a year after reaching an accommodation with Henry of Anjou, (who became Henry II) in which peace between them was guaranteed on the condition that the throne would be his by succession.
The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power back from the barony to the monarchical state; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state. This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism.
The Black Death, an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread over the whole of Europe, arrived in England in 1349 and killed perhaps up to a third of the population.
 
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Foreign envoys in England
Auvergne:Sir Raphaël-Lucien de Fayolle
Denmark: Jorgen Stærke af Vendsyssel
Teutonic Order: Gottfried von Osterna
Naples: Antonio d'Altavilla, Sieur de Ruvo.
Venice: Marco Zeno



Envoys abroad
Portugal: Thomas la Warr, 5th Baron De La Warr
France: Roger le Strange, 5th Baron Strange
Rome: Sir John Hawkwood
Castile: Philip Darcy, 4th Baron Darcy de Knayth

Trade agreements

Agreement of Expanded Trade and Cooperation of 1383 between England and Venice​

I. The Republic of Venice and Kingdom of England shall leave open to one another all ports and harbors under their control, for trade and safe harbor.

II. Venice shall at a favourable price to English merchants bring various luxuries, inclulding spices, wines, sugar, etc...on a recurring schedule, to the ports of England, and in doing so shall enjoy a 15% discount on usual tariffs and harbor fees.

III. As a rider to normal trade situations England shall bring a large quantity of Malmsey, and other wines, particulalry those sweetened with sugar, exclusively to the Port of Plymouth/Portsmouth to be inspected and made ready for market by agents of Venice.

IV. To facilitate the expanded trade in England, his Majesty Richard II shall allow the creation of a Venetian colony in Plymouth/Portsmouth, enclosed by a wall, and separate from English law and taxes, in exchange for which the products from these houses will be sold at a discount of 10% from prices in similar markets.

V. Venice shall have preferred access to stores of fine wool from English merchants, which can be accepted in barter for all Venetian imports or paid for in bullion at market prices.

VI. As concession for His Majesty Richard's benevolence, Venice shall offer a discount of 5% on all tradeables carried on behalf of English merchants, who shall enjoy a special privilege of being allowed to rent space on Venetian tradeships.

[ ]Antonio Veniero, Duke of Venice

[ ]Richard II, King of England, King of France, Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine

Alliances and defence treaties

The North See Treaty between England and Denmark/Norway

I. This treaty is made to recognize and support the mutual co-operation between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdoms of Denmark-Norway.

On trade

II. To improve trade the Kingdoms of Denmark-Norway will promise not to confiscate goods owned by English merchants

III. To improve trade the Kingdom of England will promise not to confiscate goods owned by Danish or Norwegian merchants

On defence and war

IV. Both England and Denmark-Norway are strong naval nations, and in the event of war, the navies of the realms will co-operate in the protections of the homeland of each Kingdom, and the destruction of enemy naval forces.

V. In the event of warfare the navies of the three kingdoms will co-operate in transporting and landing forces on fronts abroad

VI. In times of warfare the Kingdoms will look in favour upon request of economic aid from the other Kingdom

VII. In deep time of need, during war, the Kingdoms promises to aid each other with land forces


Right of Passage



Royal marriages

In 1382 Richard II married Anne of Bohemia, daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Elizabeth of Pomerania.
 
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English armies


The English army is large during time of peace, but in time of war it can become over double as large.
The army consists of the heavy cavalry, the knights, fighting with their lances and swords upon strong English war horses.
The pikemen fighting with their pikes and spears, almost invincible in defence against attacking cavalry, and a strong force against infantry as well.
The longbowmen, the real backbone of the English armies and one of the leading causes to the great victories of English armies abroad in war. The longbowmen are fear in all of France, and it is a mighty weapon when the sky turns grey from arrow raining down on the enemy, leaving many dead and wounded. Also the longbowmen have a much great distance than the crossbowmen favoured by the French, and therefore English longbows can secure victory even before enemy archers are within range.




English navies


The English navy is strong, and consist of the King's privat ships, and ships called upon fom merchants and nobles during time of war. The Navy has proven strong in the last wars with France making sure no Frnechman have been able to invade England, and the anvy has made it possible for the King to transport English armies to France to win great battles.


Warfare

We are at peace
 
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Religion


Map

England sees the Holy Father in Rome as the one and only Holy Father, and believes the so called pope in Avignon to be an imposter. The Holy Father is Urban VI

Roman Papacy
Head of State: Urban VI
Religion: Catholic
Culture: Italian

Archbishop of Canterbury
William Courtenay ( 1342 –
English prelate, was a younger son of Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devon (d. 1377), and through his mother Margaret, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, was a great-grandson of Edward I.
Being a native of the west of England he was educated at Stapledon Hall, Oxford, and after graduating in law was chosen chancellor of the university in 1367. Courtenay's ecclesiastical and political career began about the same time. Having been made prebendary of Exeter, of Wells and of York, he was consecrated bishop of Hereford in 1370, was translated to the see of London in 1375, and became archbishop of Canterbury in 1381, succeeding Simon of Sudbury in both these latter positions.
As a politician the period of his activity coincides with the years of Edward III’s dotage, and with practically the whole of Richard II's reign. From the first he ranged himself among the opponents of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; he was a firm upholder of the rights of the English Church, and was always eager to root out Lollardry. In 1373 he declared in convocation that he would not contribute to a subsidy until the evils from which the church suffered were removed; in 1375 he incurred the displeasure of the king by publishing a papal bull against the Florentines; and in 1377 his decided action during the quarrel between John of Gaunt and William of Wykeham ended in a temporary triumph for the bishop.
Wycliffe was another cause of difference between Lancaster and Courtenay. In 1377 the reformer appeared before Archbishop Sudbury and Courtenay, when an altercation between the duke and the bishop led to the dispersal of the court, and during the ensuing riot Lancaster probably owed his safety to the good offices of his foe. Having meanwhile become archbishop of Canterbury Courtenay summoned a council, or synod, in London, which condemned the opinions of Wycliffe; he then attacked the Lollards at Oxford, and urged the bishops to imprison heretics.
He was for a short time chancellor of England during 1381, and in January 1382 he officiated at the marriage of Richard II with Anne of Bohemia, afterwards crowning the queen. In 1382 the archbishop’s visitation led to disputes with the bishops of Exeter and Salisbury, and Courtenay was only partially able to enforce the payment of a special tax to meet his expenses on this occasion. During his concluding years the archbishop appears to have upheld the papal authority in England, although not to the injury of the English Church.

Archbishop of York
Alexander Neville
The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury.
There was a bishop in York from very early Christian times. Bishops of York were particularly present at the Councils of Arles and Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was later blotted out by the pagan Saxons. There was no important archbishop of York till the consecration of St. Wilfrid in 664. His successors acted as diocesan prelates until the time of Egbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. The sees of Canterbury and York were long struggling for precedence, often leading to scandalous scenes of dissension. In the 11th century, for instance, there was an arrangement which lasted until 1118 that the archbishops of York must be consecrated in Canterbury cathedral and swear allegiance to the Archbishop of Canterbury





The Most Noble Order of the Garter



History
The Order was founded circa 1348 by Edward III as "a society, fellowship and college of knights." Various more precise dates ranging from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed; the wardrobe account of Edward III first shows Garter habits issued in the autumn of 1348. At any rate, the Order was most probably not constituted before 1346; the original statutes required that each member admitted to the Order already be a knight (what would today be called a knight bachelor), and several initial members of the Order were first knighted in that year.
Various legends have been set forth to explain the origin of the Order. The most popular one involves the "Countess of Salisbury" (it may refer to Joan of Kent, the King's future daughter-in-law, or to her then mother-in-law, whom Edward is known to have admired). Whilst she was dancing with the King, her garter is said to have slipped from her leg to the floor. When the surrounding courtiers snickered, the King picked it up and tied it to his own leg, exclaiming "Honi soit qui mal y pense." (The French may be loosely translated as "Shame on him who thinks ill of it"; it has become the motto of the Order.) According to another myth, Richard I, whilst fighting in the Crusades, was inspired by St George to tie garters around the legs of his knights; Edward III supposedly recalled the event, which led to victory, when he founded the Order.

Sovereign and Knights
Since its foundation, the Order of the Garter has included the Sovereign and Knights Companions. The Sovereign of the United Kingdom serves as Sovereign of the Order. The Prince of Wales is explicitly mentioned in the Order's statutes and is by convention created a Knight Companion; aside from him, there may be up to twenty-four other Knights Companions. In the early days of the Order, women (who could not be knighted), were sometimes associated with the Order under the name "Ladies of the Garter," but they were not full companions

Poor Knights
At the original establishment of the Order, twenty-six "Poor Knights" were appointed and attached to the Order and its chapel at Windsor.Poor Knights were originally impoverished military veterans. They were required to pray daily for the Sovereign and Knights Companions; in return, they were lodged in Windsor Castle.

Officers
The Order of the Garter has three officers: the Prelate ,the Registrar and the Usher.

Chapel
The motto and symbol of the Order is depicted on this plaque seen at St. George's Chapel, Windsor.The Chapel of the Order is St. George's Chapel, Windsor, located in the Lower Ward of Windsor Castle. It was founded for the Order in 1475.
Each member of the Order, including the Sovereign, is allotted a stall in the choir of the chapel, above which his or her heraldic devices are displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall is his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Under English heraldic law, women other than monarchs do not bear helms or crests; instead, the coronet appropriate to the Lady's rank is used. The crests of the Sovereign and Stranger Knights who are monarchs sit atop their crowns, which are themselves perched on their helms. Below each helm, a sword is displayed.

Above the crest or coronet, the knight's or lady's heraldic banner is hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall is affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order.

Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling, crest (or coronet or crown) and sword are taken down. No other newly admitted Knight may be assigned the stall until (after the funeral of the late Knight or Lady) a ceremony marking his or her death is observed at the chapel, during which Military Knights of Windsor carry the banner of the deceased Knight and offer it to the Dean of Windsor, who places it upon the altar. The stall plates, however, are not removed; rather, they remain permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel are festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights throughout history.
 
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Royal residences



Windsor Castle

The castle is located in the Berkshire town of Windsor, in the Thames Valley to the west of London. It was originally built by William the Conqueror to act as a line of defence for London and has since had many additions and improvements. King Edward III made its St George's Chapel the home of the Order of the Garter in 1348. The castle's layout dates back to the mediaeval fortifications. The lower ward (at the bottom of the accompanying illustration) is home to St. George's Chapel, while the upper ward (at the top) contains the royal apartments and grand state rooms (such as St. George's Hall, whose ceiling is decorated with the coats of arms of all the knights of the garter). The two wards are separated by the round tower, a descendant of the original motte of William the Conqueror's castle. The immediate environs of the castle called "The Home Park" also contain the school (St.Georges, Windsor Castle) that provides choristers to the Chapel.





Tower of London
The first known fortification on the site was a Roman fortress that Claudius built to protect the city of Londinium.
In 1078 William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built, as much to protect the Normans from the people of the City of London as to protect London from anyone else. Earlier forts there, including the Roman one, had primarily wooden buildings, but William ordered his tower to be of stone that he had specially imported from France. It was King Richard the Lionheart who had the moat dug around the surrounding wall and filled with water from the Thames. The moat was not very successful until Henry III employed a Dutch moat building technique.
A Royal Menagerie was established at the Tower in the 13th century, possibly as early as 1204 in the reign of King John, and possibly stocked with animals from an earlier menagerie started in 1125 by Henry I at his palace in Woodstock, near Oxford. Its year of origin is often stated as 1235, when Henry III received a wedding gift of three leopards (so recorded, although they may have been lions) from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1264 it was moved to the Bulwark, which was duly renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance.
During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 the 14-year-old King and many of his family and household were forced to shelter in the Tower while over 10,000 rebels plundered and burnt the capital for two days





Dover Castle
The first castle was probably a Saxon fort, but after the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror improved the fortifications, building a motte and bailey design castle.
It was during the reign of Henry II that the castle began to take recognisable shape. The inner bailey and the great Keep belong to this time.
In 1216, a group of rebel barons had invited Louis VIII of France to come and take the English crown. Canterbury, Rochester and London had already fallen to Louis, and King John's forces were besieged by Prince Louis at Dover. The constable of the castle, Hubert de Burgh had successfully defended the castle at Chinon in 1205 and he had a well-supplied garrison of men.

The siege began on 19 July. Louis' men successfully undermined the barbican and attempted to topple the castle gate, but De Burgh's men managed to repulse the invaders, blocking the breach in the walls with giant timbers.
After three months spent besieging the castle, Louis called a truce on 14 October and soon after returned to London. However the Dover garrison repeatedly disrupted his communication with France, and Louis returned to Dover to begin a second siege on 12 May 1217. However, with many of his men involved in the siege, he suffered heavy defeats in the Battle of Lincoln on 20 May 1217. After another defeat at the Battle of Sandwich, Louis gave up his claim on the English throne. Dover Castle had stood firm.




Bolingbroke Castle
Bolingbroke Castle, at Bolingbroke in Lincolnshire was founded by Ranulf, Earl of Chester, in 1220, and in 1311 passed to the House of Lancaster. It is currently owned by John of Gaunt, and it is the birthplace of his son, Henry Bolingbroke, as well as the place were John of Gaunt’s wife Blanche of Lancaster died in 1369.




Dublin Castle
Dublin Castle in Dublin, Ireland. A castle has stood on the site since the days of King John, the first Lord of Ireland. The Castle served as the seat of the English government of Ireland.
It was first and foremost a royal residence, resided in by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the representative of the King . It also serves as a military garrison.
 
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Windsor Castle
The court of the King of England was very busy. People were walking and running back and forth carrying messages, food, drink or anything else. As visitors entered the courtyard, they are directed to the Lord Chamberlain to state their business, who they are and if they want to see the King.


The court is open
 
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” I think it is going to rain…”

“What?”

”I said I think it is going to rain…”



John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster was looking towards the clouds coming in from the Channel. They seemed like huge dark monsters, the ones in the behind almost black and the ones in front dark grey. It was almost as the monster was eating up the blue sky, and stealing the sun away.
He could feel the wind blowing in his hair, and for every moment it seemed like the dark clouds were coming closer and closer. Further south, closer to the Channel, the storm had probably already struck, but it had not reached the point where he and the young King stood.
John turned his eyes around from the dark monster in the south, and looked down on the boy, though boy wasn’t the right expression any more, King Richard II of England was not a boy, but still not a man. And already he had experience disaster…
John allowed his mind to wander back to the rebellion of 81. In that event Richard had left his childhood it seemed. He had acted like a King, but still there was much for the boy to learn, not least now after his marriage last year.

His mind returned to the peasants and the rebellion. Luckily Sir William Walworth, the major of London, had taken care of the traitor Wat Tyler, but still it had been a dangerous situation, and who knows what could have happened had the peasants actually fought, instead of following the king when he said that Tyler was a traitor and that he, the king, should be their leader.
Yes, John felt proud of his young nephew while he was thinking over it all. The situation had been dangerous, but it had been taken care off. And of course the bodies of the leading rebels were still hanging on display in Essex and Kent to avoid the survivors thinking of rebelling against their King again…

The dark clouds had come much closer, and John looked down on the King again.


” Yes, Your Majesty I really think it is going to rain…
We need to leave now.”


The King was standing some steps away and looking in the other direction, and he turned on the words of his uncle.

“But I don’t want to leave… I want to stay here!”

” Your Majesty I must insist, the weather is getting worse, and it seems we might soon have a storm on our heads…”

Storm over Europe, and it was all coming from France. The rumours floating in from Portugal, the English ally since 1373 was that the realm had still not decided on what Pontiff to recognize, and that the country was unstable, it might prove to have been a dangerous alliance to sign… Again the Pontiff problem was because of France…

France… always France. This damned weather seemed to come from France, and those evil Frenchmen, you could never know what they were up to. John looked south again, as if to see if he could spot the French coast on the other side of the Channel, but no all he could see was the English countryside, and the huge dark monster closing in on them. Still he knew that somewhere down there was France, the cause of trouble, but also the place for some of England’s finest victories.
John though of his brother, Edward, the Black prince. He could probably have made a fine King, a warrior King, but still a fine King. There wasn’t anything wrong with warrior kings, and who knows what glorious victories he could have given England if he had lived to be King. But it was maybe because of his great victories that he died before he could become king, after all by the time of his death he had won more victories than many previous kings of England, and it was perhaps faith who decided that the Black Prince had lived his life to the full, and the he shouldn’t become King. Still John would never had become regent had his brother lived, so…


The King had just mounted his horse, looking a little grumpy at his uncle.
The young Richard though most better of these riding trips with his uncle than life at court. It was the boy in him, the boy that had not been able to live a boy’s life to the max that found pleasure in being out riding and playing. Having become king upon his grandfather death in 1377, only 10 years old, the boy had not had much of a childhood.

Looking at his uncle, Richard waits for John of Gaunt to speak.

” Good your Majesty. I think it is time for us to get back to the castle. Dark clouds are approaching, there seems to be a dark carpet hanging over England tonight, and more dark clouds approaching on the horizon …”

The young king kicked his horse, but John couldn’t get his mid of all the worries, and it was only when the first raindrops started to hit his face, and Richard called out for him that the Duke of Lancaster kicked his horse and left the dark clouds behind…
 
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A young blonde knight enters the English court and presents his credentials and a sealed letter.

zum Seine Majestät, Richard II, König von England

I am honored to submit introductions for my servant, Gottfried von Osterna, whom I hope will be allowed to reside at your court and serve as my ambassador. We value continued good relations with the English kingdom.

May you continue to find peace in Our Lord,


Konrad III Zollner von Rothstein
Hochmeister, Der Deutscher Orden
 

Lord E

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Windsor Castle

The English court was filled with busy people walking around, several servants running back and forth with different things to do, and the courtiers just walking around talking or playing.
At the arrival of the knight in the courtroom everyone goes silent, and looks at the entrance.
Trying to avoid the silence the King favourite, the Lord Chamberlain, Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, walks forward to greet the newcomer. The earl bows for the Knight and smiles. Receiving the letter de Vere stands still looking at it form some moments, before bowing aging as to excuse himself, and walks out of the room, leaving the knight standing there. But just moments after de Vere returns now together with the young King and John of Gaunt.


John of Gaunt reads the letter quickly before handing it to the young king. Richard is having a little more trouble, and as such he uses a little more time to read.
John of Gaunt smiles to the knight.



”Noble sir knight, I am John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and regent of His Majesty King Richard II. We are honoured to welcome a knight from the Order here in England, and we all know what great work your Order is doing for Christianity! ”

After having read through the letter, Richard hands it back to his uncle and then speaks, probably pronouncing the name of the knight wrong.



“Gottfried von Osterna, We are honoured to see you in Our court. We hope that your stay will be pleasant, and that your Order and England will be able to work together for mutual benefits.
Now is there any matter you would like to dress Us about?”

In the background John of Gaunt has taken the letter, and is already dictating a reply to the order to have it sent as soon as possible.
 
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A letter arrives from the Kingdom of Denmark.

Onto Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk, Lord Chancellor of England.

Good sir. I trust this letter finds you well, and that both you, His Majesty of England, and the KIngdom of England, thrives under the protection of Our Lord and Saviour.

On behalf of my son, King Oluf III of Denmark, I express his and mine gratitude for your kind words. The common history shared beween our kingdoms, allthough hailing back to the barbaric days of our pagan ancestors, nevertheless holds a special place in Danish history. It is most kind of Your Grace to remember these times, and to mention them as a unifying bond, rather than to think back and remember two nations at war.

The Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway recognises in England a Christian power of unparalled might and importance, and sees England as influential in the matters of Western Europe as Denmark and Norway holds in Northern Europe, mainly Scandinavia.
It is our hope that these our three kingdoms, Denmark and Norway and England, may develop peacefull bonds of friendship, that will serve us all well in the future.
In addition, it is our hope that Your Grace will brings these my words to the attention of His English Majesty Richard the Second, and that His Majesty will be kind enough to answer with a letter from his own hand, so that I may know that these my wishes are shared by Him.

Know that I have much to discuss with the influental powers of Europe, and that such discussions could bring results that will serve the interests of both England and Denmark and Norway, the interests of both my son and your liege.

Dictated in Vordingborg.
Margrethe, mother of His Danish Majesty Oluf III, his Norweigen Majesty Olav IV.
Guardian of her Son. Lady of Denmark.
 

unmerged(17489)

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Jun 7, 2003
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Anno Domini 1383

Unto Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Lord Chancellor

Your Majesty's hunger for knowledge of Sweden is an admireable virtue that should not be forsaken, for knowledge is an important tool when it comes to governing a country. Wise children have always been a great although rare gift to countries, and since wisdom comes naturally with the thrist for knowledge I congratulate England to its very promising heir to the throne. I hope I will still breath the day he finishes his education and I trust that Sweden can gain a fruitful cooperation with England with him on the throne.

Albert of Sweden (or Albrecht von Mecklenburg in German/Abrekt av Mecklenburg in Swedish) currently holds the Swedish crown and he was born in 1338 and became king of Sweden in 1363. In 1384 he inherited the ducal title of Mecklenburg and united the two countries in a personal union. He's the second son of Duke Albert II of Mecklenburg and Eufemia Eriksdotter, the daughter of duke Erik Magnusson of Sudermannia and the sister of king Magnus Eriksson of Sweden. He married Richardis, daughter to count Otto von Schwerin but she died in 1377 and is today buried in Stockholm. Before she died she gave him two children; one son, Erik of Mecklenburg, and one daughter, Richardis Catherine. Today he's married with Agnes, the daughter of duke Magnus von Braunschweig and she has given him one son, Albert V of Mecklenburg.

Albrekt bases his claims on two family ties with the Sverker dynasty of Sweden. Both through Albrekts mother from where he was granted the first spot in the Swedish succession order and through Kristina Sverkersdotter, a daughter of Sverker II Karlsson of Sweden, also known as Sverker the Young. Sverker II was the king of Sweden between 1196 and 1208.

It was in 1363 when the members of the Swedish regency council led by Bo Jonsson Grip arrived in the court of Mecklenburg. They had been banished from the country after first launching a revolt against the unpopulair king Magnus Eriksson in order to replace him with someone more suitable. At the nobles' request Albrekt launched and invasion of Sweden supported by several German dukes and counts. Stockholm and Kalmar with their high percentage of German population gladly invited the German duke's son and in February 4th he could already proclaim himself King of Sweden. The coronation took place illegally at Mora Sten.



The arms of the king, displaying Sweden (upper left), Mecklenburg (upper right), Rostock (lower left) and Schwerin (lower right)


This was the beginning of an eight year civil war. Magnus and his son king Håkan of Norway were defeated by the Germans near Enköping and the former was taken as prisoner by Albrekt in 1365. Now Denmark decided to intervene on Håkan's side, and to counter this several Hanseatic cities and dukes in Northern Germany expressed support of the new king. The Germans also gained another dangerous enemy this year, the Swedish peasants who weren't content with Albrekts policy in appointing Germans as officials in all Swedish provinces. The peasants suffered tremendously under the oppression of those Germans so they revolted in support of the old king. With the help of his allies Håkan managed to beat back Albrekt and lay siege to Stockholm in 1371.

The Swedish landlords now decided to help Albrekt military and after forcing the king to promise to give almost all power in the country to the regency council they beat back the Norwegians and the Danes. Now finally a peace was signed, on the condition that Magnus was released and got to travel back to Norway where he spent the rest of his life. Albrekt got to keep the crown of Sweden, but most of western Sweden is still today unhappy with the king and de facto independent. The rumours you have heard are mostly true, king Albert spends a very little part of his time at his residence in Stockholm. Since the compulsory "Eriksgatan", the travel around Sweden that every newly crowned king has to do, he hasn't officially visited any part of Sweden apart from the cities. He rules from Lübeck, and he has German bailiffs here collecting taxes in his place, bailiffs who are highly impopulair among the rural population and the peasants has numerous time brought the oppression up in the royal council.

You see, in the kings absence Sweden is governed by a council consisting of members of all four social statuses in Sweden. The council existed during the misrule of Magnus Eriksson, but it wasn't until the peace after the civil war the council got its current extreme power, most domestic decisions are taken in the council while foreign policy is mostly handled by the king in Lübeck. The king merely owns Stockholm and a few royal farms while I, if I'm allowed to take myself as an example, am the overlord of the entire Finland, most of Mälardalen, the Småland coast, Eastern Östergötland, a few farms in Dalarna and most of Västergötland.

As for the Lappmarck which I believe was what you spoke of, we do not yet know what is there. Rumours from explorers tells about giants with feets ten times larger than yours and mine living there. They speak also of eskimos, herding some deer-like beasts with antler twice as large as their head. Needless to say, it is way too dangerous to try to explore the wide landmass today, but the Swedish crown has claimed everything north of Jemtia and everything west of Viborg. Only time will tell if there is anything to trade there. Sweden trades Russian and Finnish fur and timber, Swedish grain, tar, honey and other goods. We import mostly silver, weapons and other luxuries like wine which unfortunately seems to be impossible to grow so far north.

If your Majesty or one of His representatives has any more questions you are welcome to write back or even come to visit Sweden.

Let me last but not least take the oopportunity to thank you for the kind words in your letter. May God be with you

Signed on behalf of
Bo Jonsson Grip, Viceroy of Sweden, Officialis Generalis, Duke of Sudermannia, Duke of Finland and head of the Grip dynasty.

Sverker Svensson, Writer and Advisor at the Gripsholm Castle.
.
 

Mettermrck

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Gottfried was impassive and stolid during the entirety of the English greeting. He cared little for England’s politics, interested more in its strength as a Christian kingdom. For that, the land had some respect for him. He cared not, however, for favorites or advisors. The knight stared straight at the King, bowing correctly and respectfully. ”I am pleased that you have accepted my person as envoy from the Hochmeister. England’s martial virtues are respected even in Marienburg, and it is of our common ties as Christian states that I speak. In the East, the pagan threat continues to loom nigh, and I am part of an earnest plea for support from the West, from great rulers such as yourself. Without your aid, we may fail. With it, we cannot be denied. I humbly request any provision of English material support for our noble cause.”
 

Lord E

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Windsor courtroom

Richard smiles, and looks at his uncle, John of Gaunt walks forward to the knight again.




”Good sir knight, as you say England has proud traditions in warfare, and we would be most honoured to aid our fellow Christians against they great threat from the pagans for the east.
So might I ask what your Order would like?
We have strong English longbows, a weapon of great strength that will kill the evil pagans at long distance, and we have strong knights and horses, also England would be able to produce and ship weapons to the order. We are honoured to be able to aid, so I am sure we can make something out, if you have any ideas what the order wants?”
 
Last edited:

unmerged(35921)

Benevolent Despot
Nov 7, 2004
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Unto - His Majesty Richard the second, by the Grace of God King of England and France, Lord of Ireland and Aquitaine , Sovereign of the Order of the Garter


Good day my fine sir. It is with immense pleasure that I receive your script. Further, let me extend a prayer for the health of his glorious majesty Richard II. Now, let me say, that it is good to know that even in this age some men still value peace. Before I continue further, let me address your query upon maters concerning Norway and Denmark. It is true that the two kingdoms are bound under one man’s hand. Further, the rumor you seem to have heard of his majesty Olav IV moving his courts and establishments to Denmark is indeed, sadly, correct. And while it is also true that in regards to many political actions, meaning war, the nobles of Norway are bound to support our King, we are independent from him in many ways. Thus, your lordship may send any scripts or envoy’s concerning Norway directly to the noble regency within said nation.

Next, to address your words upon Norway and England being in fact, more or less, neighbors. After talking to some prominent nobles, I have come to believe that the same view is held here in Norway. Thus, the regency welcomes peaceful communications and cooperation with England with open arms. Several of the nobles, to whom I have talked, seemed very eager to maintain good relations with your majesty. This, in my opinion, is most likely due to that some of these men maintain interests in Iceland, which stable relations with England might encourage. Let me conclude this script with the noting of my hope that your majesty is good spirits and health. May God guide you in the years to come sir.​

Godspeed ~ Inge Galtung, on behalf of his majesty Olav IV – King of Denmark and Norway
 

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Gottfried bowed low, pleased at the King's favorable response. The Grandmaster had informed him to expect a variety of reactions depending on who he achieved audience with. The knight was beginning to receive the impression that either King Richard was sufficiently military and Christian for their purposes, or he was heavily influenced by those who were.
"Ihre Majestät, your words provide reassurance to our Order. Soon our armies will continue their holy mission against the pagans and march into their territories, bringing forth the choice between the sword or the Bible. England's aid, in any form, would be greatly appreciated. If any of your forces could be spared, or any economic assistance. Your knights, of course, are invited to the chance to fulfill vows of holy Crusade against the pagan Lith, those who, if not enlightened by Our Lord's own words, would consume their young in orgies of chaos and lawlessness. Our Order aims to prevent precisely that."
 

unmerged(17489)

General
Jun 7, 2003
2.475
7
Anno Domini 1383

Unto Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Lord Chancellor

Your concerns about the peasants are noble ones and I cannot say I have not shared them when I have pondered during my lonely nights here at Gripsholm. Also Swedish peasants are rebellious, His Majesty Albert still have no control of the people of Värmland as I said and I believe the people of Värmland doesn't want to be controlled either. This situation could not continue, and that was why the peasants were let into the royal council and allowed to have their own representative there. However, this is by no means a sign of weakness by the aristocracy of Sweden because while the peasants are allowed to have their say in the governing of the kingdom they are still under strict control when it comes to taxes and services to their lords. They are by no means free to do as they please, I am sorry if my previous letter gave you that impression.

Concerning trade in Sweden, it is currently more or less monopolized by the hanseatic league. I will make no secret that the German influence that the Hansa practises on Sweden is unfortunate, but currently we are by no means capable of competing with them. Cities like Stockholm and Kalmar, the only places where the German duke on the Swedish throne keeps a loose control of the kingdom, has a very high percentage of Germans, mostly Germans but also burghers, bailiffs and a few aristocrats immigrating from throughout the Empire. I am afraid you will have to council with them before Swedish goods can begin making their way to England, which I believe some of them are already, through the Hansa, until Sweden is able to rid of the German influence.

Concerning the dethroning of his Majesty Albert III of Sweden, it is a dangerous thing to conversate about in Sweden. I'm sure the English king is eager to inprison traitors in his own kingdom as well and with all due respect I will not participate in even discussing such treason. I have sworn alliegance to the throne and his Majesty Albrekt is far more competent than the traitor Magnus Eriksson who I personally participated in the dethroning of. Should, God forbid, the realm of Sweden again degenerate into destabilization and civil war and Albrekt av Mecklenburg be dethroned as a result of this, King Olaus III of Denmark-Norway is next in line as the second cousin of king Albrekt. If your Majesty wanted to know whether I was interested in the crown myself, I think I made this clear during the election of Magnus Erikssons successor. There is noone in the aristocracy in Sweden who has a single drip of royal blood in their venes, and if anyone is as mad as wishing to usurp the crown, I want you to know that I have no knowledge what so ever of it.

I hope I made myself clearer and I pray for your health and consent

May God bless your king and country,

Dictated on Gripsholm Castle and signed on behalf of his Excellency
Bo Jonsson Grip, Viceroy of Sweden, Officialis Generalis, Duke of Sudermannia, Duke of Finland and head of the Grip dynasty.

Sverker Svensson, Writer and Advisor at the Gripsholm Castle.
.
 

Lord E

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Windsor courtroom

Richard stepped forward after speaking with his advisors. John of Gaunt was whispering in his ear fro some time, before the King spoke

“Sir Gottfried, as my uncle informed you about we will do our best to aid your Orders’ struggle for the best of Christianity. I see my self as a great, Christian ruler, and therefore it must be in mine, and England’s interest to aid in the fights against ht pagan.
My father, as you maybe know, was a great warrior, and my uncles have participated in many campaigns, and I wish to continue that traditions, and there is not better way than to aid your Holy Order.
We would be more than willing to send your Order money, or weapons made here in England, but as for troops We need to look on the business of France first, I am afraid. As you know, France is supporting the usurper, heathen co called pope of Avignon, and we fear that if we send away too much of our forces the French heathens will come to England try to force us to support the usurper. But I am confident that we will be able to send your Order some troops. As my uncle said the English longbows are second to none in the world, and we would be honoured to aid your Order with longbow men, as for our knights, I know that some of them have been interested and wanted to fight for Christianity in your order, but I don’t think very many of them are ready to take the Holy vows for the rest of their life, maybe it is possible for them to serve in your Order for only a short matter of time, and not their entire life?”
 
Feb 23, 2002
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A letter arrived at the English court, all the way from Naples. Although ruling kingdoms far away from eachother, Charles had some interest with his Angevin relatives in England. With it came a man named Antonio d'Altavilla, Sieur de Ruvo. He handed the letter to a man who seemed to be in charge at the gates of Windsor Palace. He furthermore asked for allowance to see the King.

Unto Richard II, King of England and France, Lord of Ireland,

Greetings from the Kingdom of Naples, I, Charles d'Anjou wish you the best of health and good tidings. As you probably know I should rightfully be King of Hungary aswell, but Louis' stubborn dowager Queen insists on putting an end to the Angevin line of that country, and Poland aswell. I hear you are fighting for your throne in France aswell these days. Charles the Mad is but a lackey of Louis d'Anjou, false claimant to the Neapolitan crown.

But to more pleasant matters. I have sent you this letter with matters of ties. Our line has grown distant, and long has it been since our family has bonded by marriage. I wonder, does England see the possibility of a future marriage with their brothers in Naples?

I have a daughter, Giovanna, who is my first child, and first in succession should my son Ladislas pass away before leaving an heir. And it is in my wish to make sure that should this happen, God help us it won't, that the Angevin line is upheld. I understand your brother, Edmund of Langley, has a son called Edward. He should be about the same age as my daughter Giovanna, ten years am I right? Both about the same age, I see a possibility for a marriage here, in a few years in the future of course, as they are both at the moment too young. If you have any interest in this, the man I send with you, brother of my
Major-Domo, is allowed to discuss details with you.

Charles III d'Anjou, Roi de Naples, Jérusalem et Hongrie etc., Principe d'Achaea, Duc de Durazzo et Calabrie