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Prutenio

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NOTE: This AAR using HoI2 1.3 with SMEP.

A. THE QING RESTORATION 1936-1937

I. THE MARCH ON NANJING: DECEMBER 1935

On December 2nd 1935 the Emperor Puyi of Manchukuo requested an urgent meeting with the Japanese government. His wish was granted, and on 3rd December he simply asked whether the Japanese intended to unite Manchukuo and China as a reformed and independent Qing Empire. The Japanese responded by telling Puyi in no uncertain terms that he would never inhabit the Forbidden City again.

Puyi walked out of the conference, and later that day made a radio broadcast ordering the Manchu army to mutiny and march on Nanjing, while abdicating as Emperor of Manchukuo. Roughly 50,000 men, half of the Manchukuo Army, mutinied against the Japanese and joined Puyi. Meanwhile the Japanese appointed Kenkichi Ueda of the Kwantung Army as a more loyal 'Premier' of Manchukuo.

Puyi's army escaped Manchukuo with only minor skirmishes with the Japanese, before battling merely to pass through the Shansi Clique's lands. By 16th December the Emperor's forces, now numbering 60,000 with the support of local pro-monarchy citizens, had passed through Beijing and controlled Yantai.

However all gains in Shanxi were lost as Puyi, who had actually ridden anonymously in the middle of the pack for most of the journey, led his men on Christmas Day into the city of Nanjing, demanding to meet with Chinese Republican dictator Chiang Kai-Shek. Chiang accepted, his army as ever in disarray, with the nearest force large enough to fight the monarchists only to reach Nanjing in a week's time.

On 28th December Chiang and Puyi locked themselves away in a small room for nine hours, stopping only to request water, wine, whisky, vodka, etc. Only at 10pm did they emerge, slightly drunk and holding a scrappy piece of paper in their hands. On the paper was a draft constitution for a reformed Qing Empire, with the new constitutional-monarchist government to form on the 1st of January as an 'Emergency Coalition Cabinet' to last until the Emperor and the majority of the Cabinet voted in favour of its dissolution. Until Beijing fell again into Qing hands, Chengdu in Szechuan would serve as temporary capital.

This was the makeup of the Cabinet that convened on January 1st 1936:

qing1.png


And these were the borders of the Empire as defined by the Constitution:

qing2.png


The Qing Empire's Cabinet decided firmly in favour of pursuing a self-strengthening project before engaging in any wars of unification. This would focus primarily on military expansion and exploration of the doctrine of Mobility Focus. The mastery over the Ma Clique was also ended, as a show of pacifism to the warlord states.

qing3.png
 
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unmerged(142211)

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interesting.
 
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Those communists will have it very, very difficult.

Good luck with the AAR!
 

unmerged(50292)

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Interesting! I have always like the dragon flag!
 

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SPOT THE DISCREPANCY: Which two ministers in the Cabinet have incorrect pictures?

EDIT: Three, not two. Sorry about that.
 
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Vesimir

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Chief of Staf and the Armaments minister. The name is Chiang Kai-Shek with the picture of Lin Sen.

Looking forward to some imperial glory. You also forgot to claim northern Vietnam and those three border provinces between Tannu Tuva and Manchuria.
 

Prutenio

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By two I meant three, and that counts as the same person. Try and get the other two.

And I only intend to expand to the 1850 borders of the Qing Empire, so Buryatia and Tonkin miss out.
 
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Prutenio

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II. THE QING CONSTITUTION

With the Xuantong-Chiang Constitution being one of the least descriptive Constitutions of all time, Premier Kang Tongbi, daughter of reputed Chinese monarchist Kang Youwei, was charged with heading a Committee on producing a new Constitution for the Empire to be put into use upon the end of Cabinet rule.

Kang's proposal was one of a federalised Constitutional Monarchy. The Qing Empire would be split into six autonomous 'National Conferences' that would act as minor constitutional monarchies, with an hereditary King and an elected (First Past the Post) Conference headed by a Chairman. Above this there would be a bicameral 'Imperial Government' consisting of an elected Lower House 'Imperial Parliament' and an hereditary Upper House 'Imperial Court', with the Emperor as the Constitutional Monarch.

Political Parties could only operate within one Conference, and could join a 'Faction' on the national stage, or decide to sit as 'Non-Inscrits'. To be able to hold factional or partisan allegiance, Courtiers would have to resign their seat in the Court.

The Kings were decided on as so:

Manchuria (Manchu)- the Heir to the Imperial Throne (Crown Prince Yuyan)
China (Han-Mandarin)- the Emperor's closest blood relative not in power in Manchuria (Prince Pujie)
Tibet (Tibetan)- the Dalai Lama (Regent Reting Rinpoche)
Mongolia (Mongol)- the Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (Jampal Namdol)
Korea (Korean)- the Choson King (Yi Eun)
Sinkiang (Uyghur)- the Emir of Khotan (Muhammad Amin Bughra)

The borders of the Conferences were as so:

confelence.png


Manchu, Mandarin and the Conferencial language were to become compulsory school subjects from age 6, and the Imperial Government language would become Manchu when all members of the Government became able to speak it. For now it would remain Mandarin.

However this Constitution was only to be put in place upon the consolidation of the Empire, which for the Cabinet meant defeating Japan. It was time for the Qing Empire to prepare for war.
 

Vesimir

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I guess Yuan Keding should be Yuan Shikai... But the rest seems to be right.
 

Prutenio

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I guess Yuan Keding should be Yuan Shikai... But the rest seems to be right.

I used Shikai's picture since I couldn't find one for Keding.
The other wrong picture is for Prince Zaizhen using his father Yikuang (for the same reason as Keding).

Either way, I'll change Chiang's.
 

Mico94

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...and Puyi is the qing of Qing again:D
nice
 

Prutenio

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III. THE QING CONSOLIDATION: MARCH-MAY 1936

By Spring 1936, any rebellions against Qing suzerainty in the Free Zone were crushed, and at the order of the Emperor, Chiang Kai-Shek had brokered the end of hostilities between the Empire and the Communists.

Now the Cabinet had but two main aims- to defend against Japan and to unite the warlord cliques under the Yellow Dragon Flag. Thus the Emperor and Premier Kang decreed that, while 4 new and upgraded divisions deployed every 68 days would join the interior border troops, each port along the seafront would be manned by at least 30,000 men, following Chiang's advice not to bother wasting resources on trying to bridge the massive gap in naval power between the Qing and Japan.

qing5.png


Meanwhile it was decided that the first offensive action of the reborn Empire would be to subjugate the southern warlords of the Kwangsi Clique, in order to attain its valuable factories in Kwangtung Province, currently vastly underused by the Guilin administration.

Also, unlike Kwangsi, the equally-industrialised Shansi Clique area acted as a valuable buffer against Japanese agression, and it was the view of the Cabinet that while attacking Kwangsi would rile the Japanese, Shansi would lead the Qing into a war for which it would not be ready. Thus troops were also moved to the South of China, in preparation for an attack planned for September 1936.
 

Prutenio

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IV. THE QING-KWANGSI WAR JUNE-AUGUST 1936

At midnight on June 12th, 1936, the Emperor and the Cabinet were called into an emergency meeting by Field Marshal Chen Yi. There Chen announced that Kwangsi Clique had discovered Qing plans to destroy them and had launched a surprise attack on the Empire. Their stated aim was to return China to full Republican control under Kwangsi rule, and to repel what was called ‘Manchu idiocy and aggression’.

qing6.png


Chen told the concerned Emperor that the mobilisation of forces to the South was incomplete, and that Imperial Forces were outnumbered on all fronts. Chen declared that his orders to all divisions was to use the Mobility Focus doctrine, and that he believed that any territorial losses before the army got to full strength would be minimal, due mostly to the superior organisation of Imperial forces compared to the warlords’.
The tide was quick to turn on the warlords. Within fifteen days, the yellow dragon flag was flying over Guilin, and any Kwangsi advances were overturned before the end of July.

qing7.png

The state of affairs on August 1st.

On August 7th, the Qing Cabinet voted 9-1 in favour of offering peace to Kwangsi on the terms that Kwangtung be ceded to Imperial rule, as a way of staving off a Japanese invasion. The warlord government accepted this offer, and peace was returned to China once more, but not without consequences.
Premier Kang Tongbi, a Socialist and Chinese nationalist, voted against the move and argued in favour of full annexation of Kwangsi. She resigned her post on 8th August, with the Emperor appointing another member of the Aisin-Gioro clan- Prince Zaifeng- to the post of Premier.
 

Prutenio

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OK, the preparation stage is over, so what do you think I should focus on from now on? Battle pictures, maps or narrative?

Also please give your advice on what to do during the wars.
 
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unmerged(166917)

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Really interesting.
Good luck!
 

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  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mandate of Heaven
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cradle of Civilization
  • Hearts of Iron IV: La Resistance
  • Crusader Kings II: Jade Dragon
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rule Britannia
  • Europa Universalis IV: Dharma
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Imperator: Rome
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • 500k Club
  • Victoria 2
B. THE IAPO-QING WAR 1937-1940

I. THE JAPANESE DECLARATION OF WAR

On 26th June 1937, at midnight, the Emperor was once again awoken to attend an emergency cabinet meeting. He hurried to the meeting, arriving not wearing, for the first time in public since the restoration, his yellow Imperial robes. Instead he was wearing a yellow Imperial bathrobe emblazoned with the Imperial coat of arms. There he was told that the Japanese had issued a declaration of war upon the Qing Empire, Shansi Clique, Kwangsi Clique, Yunnan Clique, Xibei San Ma and the Communists. The Emperor’s first remark was ‘why can’t anyone declare war on us in the daytime?’ The Cabinet nodded in agreement, and decided that little mercy should be shown to the Japanese because they woke up His Celestial Highness.

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Next followed a talk by Chief of Staff Chiang Kai-Shek and Chief of the Army Chen Yi, or ‘Chiang ‘n’ Chen’, as Zaifeng whispered to Zaizhen. Chiang ‘n’ Chen pointed out that, while the ‘Nipanese’ had 100 divisions in their army compared to 82 for the Qing, the ‘Nipanese devils’ had tied up 430,000 men in fixed garrison divisions, with only 45 infantry divisions compared to the 72 held by the Qing. This, von Falkenhausen’s research, and the extra divisions provided by the warlord cliques and Communists, all of whom Chiang intends to forge an alliance with, should apparently make defeating Japan hard but likely.

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At 8am on June 26th Chiang reported to Prince Zaifeng and the Xuantong Emperor that, in order to harmonise the military forces of the ‘Chinese’, alliances had been formed with Yunnan and Shansi Cliques, but the Kwangsi warlords and Communists had, as expected, refused an alliance.

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However on June 27th, Chiang made a plea to all warlord cliques and Sinkiang to forge a ‘United Front’ against the Japanese invasion. This gained the support of Sinkiang and Kwangsi, but continued to isolate Mao. By July 3rd all the armies of the United Front were united under Chen Yi’s control, and thus China went to war as one for the first time since the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Meanwhile, as a safety measure, industry was transferred toward the interior, a move also motivated by a sense of making Chengdu feel more important.

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