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The Presidents: Clay to Smith (1836-1920)

Hello everyone, and welcome to my latest AAR, based off of alternative history game play during my United States Grand Campaign game. “The Presidents” was inspired by me by Nathan Madien and his AAR The Presidents: Hoover to Dewey. This AAR will cover the Presidents as well as the history of the United States during their term(s) as Presidents of the United States. The contents of the AAR will dive into the politics of the United States, the policies of the Presidents, the movement of the people, the wars fought (focusing on the reasons/motives and eventual gains and losses) and will primarily be “History-Book” style. So without further ado, I present with you, The Presidents: Clay to Smith. Hope you all enjoy.

List of Famous People and Events
Summary of the Eras (The Alternative History of the United States) - I advise all new readers to check this page out instead of reading from scratch (you will find 3 abridged posts spanning pages 1-13 in this AAR)

Intermission Section (World Highlights)
Intermission Part I: Overview of World Highlights, 1836-1848
Intermission Part II: Overview of World Highlights, 1848-1856
Intermission Part III: Overview of World Highlights, 1856-1868
Intermission Part IV: Overview of World Highlights, 1868-1892

Episode Content (Index)
i. Introduction and lead up to the 1836 Presidential Election (below)
ii. Introduction Part II, The Election of 1836
1. Henry Clay - Whig, 1837-1841
2. William Henry Harrison - Whig, 1841
3. John Tyler - Whig, 1841-1845
4. James Polk - Democrat, 1845-1849
5. Daniel Webster - Whig, 1849-1852
6. Abbott Lawrence - Whig, 1852-1853
7. Lewis Cass - Democrat, 1853-1857
8. Millard Fillmore - American "Know Nothing," 1857-1861
9. Abraham Lincoln - Republican, 1861-1866
10. William Rosecrans - Democrat, 1866-1868
11. Benjamin Wade - Republican, 1868-1869
12. Ulysses Grant - Republican, 1869-1877
13. Joshua Chamberlain - Republican, 1877-1881
14. Samuel J. Randall - Democrat, 1881-1889
15. Walter Q. Gresham - Populist, 1889-1893
16. John Tyler Morgan - Democrat, 1893-1901
17. William McKinley - Republican, 1901-1903
18. Theodore Roosevelt - Republican, 1903-1912
19. John Rockefeller Jr. - Republican, 1912-1920
20. Alfred E. Smith - Democrat, 1921... (epilogue)
Acknowledgement


Work Time on AAR: 2009-2014. Finally finished!
 
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Introduction

1836 was a critical year in the history of the North American continent as well as the United States of America. President Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) was finishing up his final year in office as President of the United States. To the south, the Mexican Republic was in a crisis of her own as the Republic of Texas had declared her independence from the Mexicans. With Texan independence and many Americans (particularly frontiersmen most notably Davy Crocket, a former US Representative from Tennessee) rallying to their ‘brothers’ in Texas to fight against tyranny, most of America had sympathetic feelings for the Texans and wanted the United States to act in the crisis.


Texan mural of the famous Texan battle cry, “Come and Take it!” It was intended to show to the Mexicans, if they wanted Texas and the guns that the Texans had, then the Mexicans would have to fight in order to achieve what they wanted.

However, President Jackson didn’t want to lead America into an “unnecessary” war for little or no gain. When the question arose of whether or not America would get involved in the War, particularly after the Battle of the Alamo where American legend and former congressman Davy Crocket was killed and Americans were heavily demanding the United States act in the matter, President Jackson would reply in his famous speech, “The Texas Question:”

“As President I have to oversee the prosperity of the country and her people… now it isn’t in the United States best interest, regardless of what the people want. The real question about Texas is what they want. They have already declared independence and elected a President, and are currently fighting the Mexicans to keep their freedom. Thus it is obvious that, if they wanted to be part of the United States; then we would move into action to protect American interests in Texas, but they haven’t asked us to help them. What good will come of Americans losing their lives for Texas, when Texas just wants to be their own independent country; I now firmly believe I have answered the Texas Question.”


President Andrew Jackson, the 7th man to hold the office.

Although Andrew Jackson was a very popular President during his tenure, his cabinet reaped the benefits of “Spoils Systems”[1] where Old Hickory[2] was filling out important positions with his friends that had little or no experience in the office they held in comparison to more highly qualified men. Despite these problems as well as earlier problems during his presidency, the American people stood behind ‘their man’ [3] in the Question over Texas. Jackson’s persona and take on the problems in Texas would however have deep impacts for the upcoming presidential election. As the first Democratic President, despite being a former war hero and general, he gave a bad impression for the hawks as what the Democratic Party stood for: isolationism over a strong foreign policy, which would be partly true.

Senators Henry Clay of Kentucky, a prominent member and de-facto leader of the Whig Party [4] along with fellow Senator Hugh Lawson White of Tennessee took a strong stance against Andrew Jackson and his antics. Both men were prominent leaders for the Whig ticket for President which was quickly approaching, and Henry Clay was in a tough battle for the National Whig ticket against William Henry Harrison. Senator Clay took this moment to try and distance himself from William Henry Harrison of Ohio as he was outspoken on the Texas Question, saying that he would be a strong President that would increase Congressional power (with the fear of the federal government becoming too powerful) and take a strong stance in foreign policy, particularly in Texas and beyond the Mississippi. These tactics worked as he started to gain ground over William Henry Harrison coming towards the crucial election month.

Down south, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was marching on Austin where a majority of the Texan cabinet was located. Texan General Sam Houston was on the retreat towards the small town of San Marcus after suffering a minor setback at the Battle of Fannin’s Hill, named after Texan Colonel James Fannin who lead 400 Texan soldiers (part of Houston’s rearguard) in an engagement against the leading elements of Santa Anna’s Army. The two day battle left nearly 200 Mexican soldiers killed and wounded. Despite this, and the fact that only 17-23 Texans were killed, 340 were captured and the survivors deserted after the battle. Fannin was reported to die heroically while taking a stand against the Mexican charge of over 800 soldiers led by General Jose de Urrea [5].

The “Napoleon of the South” appeared to have victory within his mouth, with three corps advancing through Texas, one in the north which was largely unopposed, and two heading for Austin with only around 3,000 troops (with another 2,000 scattered in the south) in comparison to Santa Anna’s corps of over 5,000 and his two subordinate corps numbering around 8-10,000. However, while only a few days march from Austin, Santa Anna was stunned when Houston appeared at his camp located at San Marcus. With must of his men still asleep when the first Texan shots were fired, the ensuing panic engulfed the Mexican ranks that were not able to put up an effective early resistance. The Texans charged forward shouting, “Remember Goliad, remember the Alamo!” and fought the Mexican Army where it stood. The majority of the Army was defeated within the first few minutes, but a small force commanded by General Manuel Fernandez were able to put up a small amount of resistance long enough for Santa Anna to escape. During the battle: 813 Mexicans were killed and around 4,000 were captured leaving few men who escaped. The Texans remarkably only lost: 19 killed and 226 wounded.


The pivotal Battle of San Marcus, the turning point of the Texan War for Independence and a important moment for the Democratic Party led by Martin van Buren to seize upon.

Indeed Democratic Presidential candidate Martin van Buren, and his running mate Richard Mentor Johnson, would take a major stance on the Battle of San Marcus, showing Americans that the war was not needed, and that the warmongering Whigs of Clay, Harrison, and White would have thrown away hundreds if not thousands of lives and hundreds of thousands of dollars when it was just not needed. Van Buren also tried to capitalize on the separation of the Whig Party heading into election month. The Whigs were at a loss nationally of who was going to be their candidate, William Henry Harrison or Henry Clay, while regional Whigs like Hugh Lawson White (South) and Daniel Webster (New England) would certainly take votes away from either Clay or Harrison during the election in the core regions.

Realizing the move van Buren was making, Henry Clay cut a deal with Senator White; he would become his running mate which would hopefully give him the numbers to convince the national Whig party to give the nomination to Clay over Harrison whose running mate Francis P. Granger had dropped out.

From Left to Right: (Left) Senator Henry Clay, the National Whig candidate for the Presidency. (Center) Vice President Martin van Buren, the Democratic nominee and steadily gaining ground as the Whigs were divided. (Right) Former Southern Whig candidate and now the Vice Presidential nominee on Clay's ticket, Senator Hugh Lawson White of Tennessee.

As the heavy weights for the nomination looked forward, the Whigs still had complicated problems to deal with back home. Their original strategy, which called for the nomination of several regional candidates (William Henry Harrison - West, Daniel Webster - Northeast, Hugh Lawson White - South) was hampering the national candidate Henry Clay who, when receiving his support made the Whigs realize that the original strategy wasn't going to work with the heavy weight Henry Clay in the lead. However, with the South dealt with, and Webster losing ground in all states except for Massachusetts, things looked good for Clay, but in the West - Harrison was still a major force; and likely to deprive Clay the White House if still in the election.


William Henry Harrison, Western Whig candidate and a major thorn in Henry Clay's side.

[1] System where friends and more un-qualified men get into office because of who they know.
[2] Old Hickory was Andrew Jackson's famous nickname.
[3] Jackson was considered to be the first President that was 'just like the rest of the people,' thus very popular.
[4] Historical party that formed in 1833-1856. Joined the Republican Party in 1856.
[5] Mexican general and aide to Santa Anna during the historical Texas Campaign.
 
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Second Lieutenant
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Yes! This is off to a great start! Senator Henry Clay is considered to be one of the best Senators in US history, too bad he never won an election in RL. Combined that this is a prequel to Saints and Angels, I'm very eager for more and too see who else is going to become the President of the United States! :D
 
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Great! :D Always love to see alternative history especially involving the Presidents. Henry Clay is one of my favorite historical characters; it should be interesting to see him fare better than in RL and what Henry Clay would've done as President which could ultimatley change US history.
 

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@ jpj1421: Thanks, and glad to have you on board. The history of the Presidents has always been interesting, especially if you get a chance to re-write history with different men. :D

@ Erie_Patriot: Thanks, glad you like it. Indeed Henry Clay was called by Truman as "one of the best Senators in US history..." he may not be in the Senate as much this time around however... :p

@ TheEnlighted1: Good to have you reading! Henry Clay is one of my most favorite historical persons of the United States. Never did win an election in the true history of the United States, would've been more interesting reading about Clay as President rather than Senator and Runner-up.
 

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Introduction Part II: The 1836 Election

The Election of 1836

Henry Clay was in a more viable position heading into October. With his Vice-Presidential nominee in Hugh Lawrence White, he solidified the Southern Whigs under one ticket, a problem that Henry Harrison was going to have problems with, being mostly popular in the western states which yielded few electoral votes. Facing the real possibility of not being able to win enough of the southern votes now that their man White was Clay’s vice-president, Harrison announced in Columbus, Ohio where the Whigs were gathering that he would support Henry Clay for the Presidency and that all of his supporters should stand beside Henry Clay and elect a ‘true’ American into the White House once again, someone who is willing to listen to the mass majority and put clamps on the Federal Government from getting too powerful. With Clay successfully removing his largest opponent to his path to election, he made his way back to Washington for a session of Congress nearing Election Day.

When Clay arrived back in Washington, thousands of people from Virginia, Maryland and some even from the states of North Carolina and Pennsylvania had ventured to the capital of their country to listen to Henry Clay’s speech. In a time without radio and television, speeches were given only at crucial points with the newspapers around to redistribute the words to their populous days before the election.

Senator Henry Clay, in front of Congress and a gathering of around 6 or 7,000 people; Clay gave his infamous “We are America,” Speech.

I am Senator Henry Clay… it is obvious that the Democratic Party doesn’t listen nor care much about the common folk of this country. They hid behind Andrew Jackson as a man of the people to gain the American vote, but they didn’t listen to you when you voiced your concern to them. Do you think that Martin van Buren is going to be any different? Can we afford another four years of the power hungry Democrats in the White House? We are America! We are the people! We are the patriots who fought against the British in 1776! Elect America!

It was one of the first documented speeches given by a Presidential candidate, and with several hundred newsmen present, Senator Henry Clay’s words were spread all across the country in the closing days of October. Despite this, Martin van Buren and the Democrats were confident of victory especially after the printed words of Henry Clay’s seemed ‘over the line’ especially to many Americans who elected Old Hickory into office because he was ‘one of them.’

Martin van Buren also sat well knowing that the war in Texas was taking support away from the Whig Party, in many aspects it was this principal that led to Henry Clay and other Whig nominees to gain the support of the people. But as the Texans were starting to beat back the Mexicans, and Santa Anna captured during the San Marcus Chase; it would appear as if the War in Texas was going to end with Texan independence and keep the Whigs from interfering with politics outside of the United States. Martin van Buren's biggest asset over the question of Texas was his Vice Presidential running mate, and former Senator from Kentucky - Richard Mentor Johnson who was outspoken over the Texas Issue arguing for diplomacy and no reason for war, garnering many wavering voters from the Whig Party and coming to the Democratic Party.


Martin van Buren, heading into the final day before the election, he was confident of victory. Not only was he confident of victory, but several newspapers in New York thought that van Buren was going to win and trying to get the rights to the Presidential Election results from Washington in anticipation of van Buren’s victory.

Despite the Whigs losing steam because of the faltering Mexican advance on Texas, and the Texans ability to beat the Mexicans in a full fledged engagement, Henry Clay that he had the back of the American South and West, which should be enough to garner him the needed 148 electoral votes to become the Eighth President of the United States of America.

The night leading up to the election was filled with anxiety on the part of Henry Clay; he knew that New England Whig candidate Daniel Webster was likely to steal the Massachusetts vote and possibly other New England states. Likewise, Willie Person Mangum of the South Carolina Whig Party, running under an ‘Independent’ ballot was more than likely to win South Carolina and steal a hefty amount of votes in North Carolina and Georgia. These key factors, albeit minor, made van Buren sure that he would win the states of Alabama, Mississippi, and possibly Georgia, while the minor Whig party candidates would take away the needed votes for Henry Clay to win the election.

As general election came the next morning, van Buren read a newspaper dealing with the fragmentation of the Whig Party. The Whig Party tickets in South Carolina held Mangum’s name only, and the tickets of both North Carolina and Georgia had Mangum-Tyler and Clay-White. In the far northeast, Massachusetts and Maine held Webster-Granger’s name over Clay, though every other state held Clay-White, the fact that he wasn’t on the crucial states of Massachusetts, Maine, and South Carolina, as well as being split in North Carolina and Georgia, van Buren knew that Clay would lose at least 25 electoral votes or possibly more to Whig minors that couldn’t threaten either major candidate, but do enough damage to Clay that van Buren would be able to edge him out when all said and done.


Southern Whig Party candidate Willie Mangum, with his name as the only ticket in South Carolina, it was without a doubt he would win the state of South Carolina. Although he couldn’t win the election due to the fact his name was only on the ticket in three states, his Southern popularity could be enough to deter Henry Clay enough to allow Democrat Martin van Buren to emerge victorious. His name in North Carolina and Georgia, the proverbial ‘battleground’ states could lead to enough voters to vote Magnum instead of Clay, thus Clay wouldn’t be able to overtake van Buren in these crucial states.

The day of the election, Senator Henry Clay and Hugh Lawrence White stayed inside the Congress building for the majority of the day discussing the possible outcomes and the likelihoods of winning the election. Meanwhile van Buren remained in White House at the Vice-Presidential estate awaiting the results. As the election finished, a known 1,498,678 people voted more than any other election to date in the young American nation, slightly over 200,000 more votes than the previous election in 1832. Despite all the problems facing Henry Clay and the National (Western) Whig Party, his narrow victories in the states of Georgia and North Carolina, much to the chagrin of Martin van Buren who was hoping enough votes would go to Mangum and allow him to have narrow victories there, along with the surprise of Pennsylvania voting for Clay over van Buren allowed Senator Henry Clay to emerge victorious in the general election, albeit barely and the fact he became the second president not to achieve over 50% of the popular vote, the last being the 1824 election that went into the Congress [1].


The outcome of the 1836 Presidential Election, Clay just edged out Martin van Buren in the states of Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Georgia giving him just enough for victory with 152 of the needed 148 Electoral votes.

[1] The Presidential election of 1824 pitted John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson against William Harris Crawford against Henry Clay. Although Jackson won the popular vote at around 41% and 99 electoral votes over JQ Adams who received 31% of the vote and only 84 electoral votes, the election went over to the House of Representatives (because no candidate had the needed 131 to win) where 2 states that Jackson had carried went over to Crawford, and several other states were then carried by John Quincy Adams which included Ohio, Kentucky, and Missouri (states that Clay won) along with several states that Jackson carried during the popular vote thus allowing John Quincy Adams to win the election. In 1828, Jackson would defeat JQ Adams 178 to 83, re-writing any revenge that may have gone done in 1824.
 
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American Fascist
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Excellent stuff :)
 

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Second Lieutenant
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President Henry Clay (even though he just managed enough electoral votes to get there!), that's just sounds so great to say. Very interested to see what President Clay can do in 4 or more years! :D
 
Aug 15, 2008
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Clay just pulled out enough electoral votes to get into office! :D

I ever do wonder what Clay will do about Texas...
 

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@ Slaughts: Thanks! ;)

@ Jape: I believe that is with Paul Giamoni, I might be mistaken. I haven't seen all parts however, I've only seen the first three parts. Thanks, glad you like it so far.

@ Hardraade: Thankyou! Hopefully I won't disappoint you then.

@ Erie_Patriot: Well, maybe Clay will get 8 years... we'll just have to wait and see what happens with President Henry Clay.

@ TheEnlighted1: Yes, 152 of the needed 148 giving the Whigs their first President, and first non-Democratic President in the United States.
 

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Episode One: Henry Clay

The Presidents: Episode One – Henry Clay

Number Eight: Henry Clay
Party, Whig
60 years old, from Kentucky.


The White House portrait of President Henry Clay, the eighth President of the United States and the first Whig Party politician to hold this office.

The Beginning of the Clay Presidency.

The election of Henry Clay was a momentous moment for the United States of America, it was the first time that a non Democrat (or Democratic-Republican [1]) to be elected into the White House. Henry Clay had campaigned on the founding principals of the Whig Party: Protectionism, Congressionalism, and modernization. While entering office, Henry Clay, a highly respected and probably the most well-liked Senator before winning the Presidential election drew up the American Conscription Act of 1837 within the first month of his presidency, while his Vice-President Hugh Lawson White was brainstorming to build upon the Baltimore-Ohio Railroad System [2] to build the Baltimore-Charleston Railroad System to connect the south to the north via Railway. At the same time, Clay put more effort into the National Bank of the United States to battle minor economical problems left by Andrew Jackson.

The National Bank & Conscription Act

The re-chartering of the National Bank of the United States helped lead to a rebound economically in the United States. The economy suffered minor setbacks which the Whigs blamed on Andrew Jackson's laissez-faire principles, and with the bank aiding the American economy once again; northern industries profited the most from Clay's re-chartering and control on the bank. This too was important for bringing in the extra money from protective tariffs to fund the American Conscription Act and the Baltimore-Charleston Railroad. Henry Clay's Secretary of the Treasury, former Bank President Nicholas Biddle, was thrilled with the re-chartering, as it was voted down by President Jackson and restored some of his credibility after the Bank Wars [3]; and led to the Financial Boom of 1837-1839.

This rechartering of the National Bank, and the following Financial Boom of 1837 was a high watermark of the early Clay Administration. With the economic upturn, a declining unemployment rate, and an increase in national wealth, President Clay was able to retain his old "War Hawk" stances that he had held when he was first elected back in 1811. This financial boom, coupled with mounting problems abroad, Henry Clay would introduce a new Conscription Act calling for an increased military buildup over the next two years.

Although the Democrats opposed the American Conscription Act, the Senate Majority Democrats were however somewhat divided on the overall implications. With 35 Senators over the Minority 17 of the Whigs, 10 of the Democratic Senators were considered Moderate Hawks who could swing the vote in favor of the Whigs. Meanwhile, in the House the breakdown was: 129 Democrats (House Majority) against the House Minority Whigs which totaled 100, along with 7 Anti-Masonic and 6 Nullifiers who would more than likely give their allegiance to the Whig Party giving them a total of 113 votes. All it would take was 9 Democrats to go along with the plan to pass the Act. It didn’t help that Speaker of the House James K. Polk was a leading Democratic-Hawk who believed in the ideals of former Speaker of the House and current President Henry Clay.

During the session of the 25th Congress, James K. Polk persuaded enough Democrats to go along with the Whig plan to increase the size of the armed forces by 30,000 men. Speaker Polk gave his first publicized speech in support of the plan:

Our fore-fathers didn’t fight and die against the British Empire to watch the country they founded to be overtaken by another foreign power. As we all know Mexico went to war over the succession of Texas from their nation, and they responded by force. It was only the grace of God that the Texans, many of them Americans, defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Marcus allowing them to keep their independence. But it is worth to note that the Mexican Republic is larger than the United States of America, and has an army that is at least twice the size of our military. It would be a shame to have let our founding fathers and patriots who fought and died to build this country to let this country be taken by another power. We already know the Mexican foreign policy to a problem; they respond with force, we need this bill to pass to solidify our position as a nation and on this continent.

After his speech, he had convinced 23 House Democrats to go along with the Whig plan, and the Whigs had the Nullifiers and Anti-Masonic members in the bag, and the plan passed with 136 votes to 106 against. In the Senate, the Whigs managed to win 32 in favor, 30 against and passed the conscription act which went into effect by the end of the year (1837).


A young portrait of James K. Polk as Speaker of the House, although a Democrat, his high Hawk-like feelings and Whig sympathies convinced enough House Democrats to go along with the American Conscription Act. Unknown to him at the moment, he started to gain popularity within the Democratic Party despite his more Whig-like ideals rather than Democratic.

The Baltimore-Charleston Railroad

Henry Clay then easily passed the Baltimore-Charleston Railway Act that would put many people into work and over the span of at least 3 years, connect Baltimore with Charleston, South Carolina thus connecting the North with the South via a railway system. It wasn’t Henry Clay’s first year in office that would show the people the sheer determination of the President; it would be the following year. The Baltimore-Charleston Railroad was the staple of the Whig Party platform of modernization. Since a new railroad was being built to connect the major east-coast cities, President Clay also issued orders to modernize both harbors in anticipation of the increased trade as a result of the railroad being built to connect the major trading cities together.

The Second Mexican-Texan War.

In March 1838, the Mexican Republic, full of its own internal problems as more people outside of Mexico Proper [3] were angry with the Mexican Republic. When the Republic of Texas demanded territory belonging to the Mexican Republic, the Mexicans responded by telling the Texans to back down; and when they refused, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took the moment to inform the Mexican people that now was the perfect time to strike back and reclaim Texas in the name of Mexico.

“Two years ago the Texan people had rallied together in the name of independence and freedom, now they don’t hold that patriotic feeling. Now is the perfect time to take our mighty forces north and crush the Texans once and for all, and bring back the fruit-basket of the Mexican nation.”

Santa Anna would lead the Mexican forces that would invade Texas. He divided his forces into three wings; the first was controlled by General Urrea in the northern-tier of Texas which numbered around 12,000 men. Santa Ann would control the main force numbering around 28-32,000 men and sweep through Texas capturing San Antonio and crush the Texan Army mustering in Austin. As this is going on, the smallest corps of around 4,000 men commanded by Mariano Arista [4] would sweep across the Gulf Coast and take the Texan capital of Houston. In total, around 45-50,000 Mexican soldiers would invade a country with of under 70,000 people. Unlike the earlier attempt which involved only around 12-15,000 Mexican troops, this war would bring about the full force of the Mexican Army upon Texas. Texas was ready for this however. 800 men commanded by Colonel Henry Stevenson would command the garrison at Houston, while General and President Sam Houston gathered a large Texan Army of 14,000 men and around 4,000 American volunteers and moved to fortify the key defenses around San Antonio. Houston however was removed from command due to the fact he was President and command went to Lt. Colonel and second-in-command Matthew Caldwell.

As the Mexicans invaded, Henry Clay took a strong stance and declared war on Mexico since the Conscription Act was in full force in the name of “National Interest.” This move was however less popular than before, needless to say the Democrats believed Clay was going to declare war on Mexico regardless of a legitimate casus belli, justified by the Conscription Act. The Americans quickly shipped off 35,000 troops to the Texan Theatre which broke-down to 15,000 men under General Zachary Taylor and defeat the Mexican forces under General Urrea. Meanwhile the main Army under the command of Winfield Scott, roughly 17,000 men would move to Austin to support the Texan troops. The remaining 3,000 men under the command Edmund P. Gaines would move to Houston.

While the Americans were still forming, and President Henry Clay spent twenty-three days out of the White House personally leading American forces across the border into Texas before heading back to the White House, the only time in American History where the President personally led troops into war; the Mexicans delivered the first blow in the war, and it was a devastating one that may just end the war before American involvement.

Texan forces under Caldwell were starting to fortify the hills around San Antonio when Santa Anna’s Army, twice the size of the Texan but showing only around half their number tricked the Texans into attacking the Mexican forces. The ensuing Battle of San Antonio became a blood bath. The Texans left their positions and rushed down into the plains to engage the Mexican forces. While this occurred, the rest of the Mexican Army swept around their flanks and took the hills from a few thousand defenders. Realizing the mistake, panic engulfed the Texan Army which broke and fled before a full circle could be developed around their forces. The Battled ended with the Texans losing 1,116 men killed; 3,007 men wounded; and 2,112 captured of the 15,000 soldiers that engaged in the battle. The Mexicans only lost 812 killed; 917 wounded; and 37 captured of the 21,000 men that engaged of an Army of 30,000 men.


A painting of the Battle of San Antonio where Mexican forces under General Santa Anna absolutely crushed the Texan Army, nearly destroying the country’s entire ability to wage the war against Mexico with any effectiveness.

[1] The Democratic-Republican Party was one of the first permanent Political Party within the United States under Thomas Jefferson, It largely formed with the Democratic Party led by Andrew Jackson in 1832.
[2] The Baltimore-Ohio Railroad was built in 1830 and the first large and complete track within the United States.
[3] The Bank Wars was a term coined between the conflict between Andrew Jackson and the National Bank led by Nicholas Biddle during the Jackson Presidency (1829-1837).
[4] Modern day Mexico.
[5] Mexican general who campaigned with Santa Anna during the Texan War for Independence.
 
Last edited:

Le Jones

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What a great idea, I absolutely loved the HOI one. Has anyone told Nathan Madien?
 

stnylan

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I did like the '36 election writeup. That was very nicely done.
 

unmerged(134141)

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So, the Whigs are gathering for war with Mexico, will be interesting to see; especially if Texas cannot hold her own against the Meixcan Military might.