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Veldmaarschalk

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Hi all,

This will be my second CK-AAR, after A Saxon imperial dream, which is by no means finished. :)

The style of this AAR will be different, it will be based on some the AAR's I have seen lately.

Patch: 1.05
Scenario: 1066 Hastings
Ruling family: Counts of Salerno

I have again modified cultures, duchies and kingdoms to my own liking. The counts of Salerno has received the Lombard culture, I also gave the provinces of Salerno, Capua, Benevento, Apulia and Foggia Lombard culture.

In the vanilla scenario, the count of Salerno, Gisulf only has one sister, Sichelgaita, the wife of Robert Guiscard. While I have found information that Gisulf had besides that another sister, Gaitelgrima who had been married to an elder brother of Robert, named Drogo de Hauteville. Gisulf also seems to have had 2 (half-)brothers Gaimar and Landulf. I have added these three characters to the game.

Gisulf (II) was also known for his cruelty, that is why I have given him the cruel and suspicious trait.

Salerno also had a famous medical school in those days, so Salerno starts with a school and monastery.
 

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The last Lombard Princes of Italy


Introduction:
The Lombards or Langobarden were a German tribe who came to Italy the first time as allies of emperor Justinian to fight against the Ostrogoth kingdom of Italy. In 568 they returned to Italy under the leadership of Alboin, they quickly overran great parts of northern Italy and established a kingdom in the city of Pavia.

375.jpg

But the Lombards were not able to expell the Byzantine completely out of Italy, around Ravenna, the Pentapolis and in southern Italy, Campania, Apulia and Calabria the Byzantines were able to hold their ground. Also the Pope in Rome was able to keep its independence.

The Lombard kings in Pavia most of the time were not powerfull enough to keep all their dukes under control, especially the dukes of Spoleto, central Italy and of Benevento in southern Italy were virtually independent. But in midth of the 8th century king Liutprand was able to reduce Spoleto and Benevento to vassalage. His succesor Aistulf conquered Ravenna from the Byzantines ans started to threaten Rome, this action of Aistulf lead to the downfall of the Lombard kings of Pavia, since Pope Stephen II called in the help of the Frankish king Pippin ‘the Short’.

Pippin invaded Italy and defeated the Lombards, forcing them to recognize the Pope as an independent secular ruler in the Latium. After Aistulf death, his successor king Desiderius again started to threathen Rome, but the Pope againt sent for help from across the Alps. And the Franks, who were now ruled by their greatest king and future emperor of the west, Charlemagne, again intervened in Italy. Charlemagne, defeated the Lombards completely and crowned himself with the iron crown of Lombardia in 774.

charlemagne.jpg

There was only one independent Lombard duchy left, that of Benevento in southern Italy. The rulers of Benevento from that day on, started to call themselves Princes. The Princepality grew in size, driving the Byzantines almost out of Italy. But the Princes were unable to keep their realm together and slowly the Princepality became divided, Capua and Salerno became a Princepality of there own. In the 10th century there also started the Byzantine renaissance under the Macedonian dynastie. The Byzantines again took interest in southern Italy and started to win back the lands they had lost, and they established a ‘Theme of Langobardia’ also known as the ‘Capitanata’.

The Lombard princes were now reduced to being small petty lords, but they were still rich and in the early 11th century they were able to convince a small band of pilgrims from Normandy to join them in a rebellion against the Byzantines, butthe rebellion was crushed at the historical battle site of Cannae. The Normans having seen the richness of the lands and inspite of their defeat having proven to fearsome warriors decided to stay in southern Italy, were they were joined by more and more young Normans form Normandy, among them were the brothers de Hauteville.

At first the Normans just fought as mercenaries, either on the Lombard, Greek or Papal side. Untill in 1030, Rainulf Drengott was given the county of Aversa, by the Greek duke of Napoli, from that moment on the Normans started to become feudal landowners, making use of the divided Lombardian princes to expell them from their lands and taking over their titles. And so it came that in 1066, Gisulf II of Salerno was the last Lombard Prince in Italy. And with him we will start our story.
 
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Veldmaarschalk

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Gisulf II
Born 1029 - died 1088
Ruled 1052 - 1088


1066gisulfII.jpg

The man:
Gisulf, the second prince of Salerno with that name, was the eldest son of prince Gaimar IV. He was born in 1029 and became the prince of Salerno after his fathers death in 1052. He had two younger brothers, Gaimar born in 1033 and died in 1072 and Landulf born in 1035. Gisulf also had two sisters, Gaitelgrima, who had been married to first to count Drogo de Hauteville and then to his brother Humphrey de Hauteville, and Sigelgaita who was married another de Hauteville, the most renowned of them all, Robert Guiscard, duke of Apulia and Calabria.

Even for his time which saw a lot of cruelty, Gisulf was known as a cruel man, he just to keep his prisoners in an icy dungeon and torture them himself. One victim, a merchant of Amalfi, first lost his right eye and then everyday after that one finger and then one toe was removed.

Gisulf also trusted no one, not even his own brothers and he was also very proud, since he still like to call himself prince of Salerno, Cumae and Amalfi even though the latter two were just empty titles.

Gisulf was married two times. His first wife was Felicia of Acerenza, they got married in 1067. This marriage only brought one daughter, Flandina, born in 1068 she became married Richard de Hauteville a son of the count of Benevento, Guillaume de Hauteville. Felicia died in labour in 1076.

His second marriage was with Jimena de Lara, a woman from Castille, this marriage produced two childern a son and a daughter but both died in their infancy.

1066politicalmap.jpg

The political situation:
Salerno was almost completely surrounded by the lands of Robert Guiscard de Hauteville, only to the north there was the Greek duchy of Napoli and the Norman county of Capua. Capua, was conqeured by Robert Guiscard, after the count, Richard of Aversa was excommunicated.

North of that were the lands of the Pope and the duchy of Toscane-Spoleto, the duchess of Toscane-Spoleto was a vassal to the king of Germany. The great island of Sicily to the south was in the hands of the Saracens, the sheiks of Trapani, Palermo and Siracusa. To the west lay another great island, Sardinia, divided between the counts of Aroborea and Calgiari.

In the east lay what was left of the Empire of Byzantium, now fighting for its survival against the Seldjuk Turks.

1070gisulfII.jpg

His deeds:
Gisulf II was not the smartest of man, but when he saw an oppurtunity he acted, disregarding the finances of his small princepality. In 1068, the archbishop of Romagna, declared himself independent and because of that he was excommunicated by the Pope. Gisulf claimed to be the rightfull heir to the titles of the archbishop. And after a short war in 1070, Gisulf. became duke of Romagna and count of Ravenna. But even this short war, poured his small realm into financial ruin, it took almost 10 years to get out of the debt.

In 1079, the orthodox Greek in Siracuse revolted against theire Saracen sheik, Gisulf, claiming to be the defender of the christian faith in southern Italy, invaded Siracuse and took possession of the county in 1080, again leaving his realm with a large debt.

In 1088, Gisulf II died, after a short illness, he had no sons, so the new prince was his youngest brother, Landulf I.

 
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This is off to a very good start. I have always loved playing as Salerno, so I think I will enjoy this AAR a lot.

- Crusaderknight
 

coz1

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So the de Hautevilles will fall to the Lombards, taking things full circle. This should be fun. I'll be following along.
 

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Landulf I
Born 1035 - died 1100
Ruled 1088 - 1100


1088landulf.jpg

The man:
Of his brothers and sisters, only his sister Sichelgaita was still alive in 1088. Landulf I was a much more dipomatic man, then his brother Gisulf II, he also wasn’t as cruel as him, but during his reign he became much more deceitfull, helping for example his spymaster Fausto de Morra, the bastardson of the magistrate of Bologna, twice with a assasination attempt to his halfbrothers. Landulf also was one of the first christians to install a converted arab, Najmaddin ibn Abbad, as his chaplain. A decision that cause a lot of eyebrowes to be raised in Italy. Landulf didn’t really care about what the people thought of him. Since he was excommunicated during his entire reign.

Landulf I was married 3 times, his first wife was a Italian lady, Isabella Turati, she died in 1093. His second wife, was also Italian, Bona della Scala, she died 1099 and again going against the church laws of that time, Landulf married a third time, this time to Isabel Pais a Portugese lady from the duchy of Braganza. His three wifes all served him as his chancellor. The three marriages of Landulf stayed childless.

His two heirs were the sons of his elder brother Waimar, Faroald, born in 1075, and who married a daughter of the duke of Toulouse, Heloise de Toulouse, and Daufari, born in 1076 and who married Isabella de Hauteville, a daughter of Bohemund de Hauteville, the bastard-son of Robert Guiscard who was count of Consenza. Daufari was made count of Salerno in 1093.

1088political.jpg

The political situation:
For the most part of Landulf reign, duke Robert Guiscard stayed his most important neighbour, together with Mathilda the duchess of Toscane-Spoleto, who was the most powerfull woman of her days, having the Pope as her string-puppet. When the Pope refused to listen, she and her liege the king of Germany, declared war on him. In the other parts of Italy the two merchant-republics, that of Genoa and that of Pisa were able to loosen themselves from the Holy Roman Empire and became independent. Other Italian vassals of the emperors followed, like the duke of Lombardia, Fulco d’Este and the counts of Savoye and Urbino.

In the east the Byzantine Empire had fallen to the Seldjuks, alltough Constantinople had been conquered back by the prince of the Agean Islands at the time of Landulfs death, none of the prime prince of the Empire had yet claimed to be the new emperor.

To the north-east, the king of Poland, Boleslaw Piast had gone mad and the king of Hungary, Kalman Arpad, was expanding his kingdom eastward at the expense of the heathen Penchenegs.

In the west, the united kingdom of Castille y Leon, was succesfully reconquering the Iberian peninsular.

Landulf was not alone in his excommunication, among the other excommunicated were, the king of England, William ‘the Conquerer’ and the Consul of the Pisan Republic. Pietro d’Appiano.

During Landulf’s reign, the Pope had also called for a crusade to liberate Jerusalem, a call that was followed by the kings of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. And in 1099, Jerusalem was back in christian hands.

His deeds:
Alltough Landulf had more eye for the financial (im-)possibilities of his duchy then his brother, he to couldn’t be stopped when he saw an oppurtunity for expansion. The excommunicated consul of the Pisan Republic was just a to tempting target. Landulf, claimed the titles of count of Livorno and Corsica, An in a succesfull war in 1091 took both counties and made them his. This again let to such a financial disaster that for example the fortifications in Siracuse couldn’t be maintained anymore. To lighten the burden, Landulf called the Estates General two times, during his reign and this plus the special tax he had collectied for his two marriages resulted in the fact that at the moment of his death, the treasury consisted of more then 150 gold pieces.

Landulf died of old age in 1100. His titles were inherited by his nephew, Daufari I, the count of Salerno.

amalfi.jpg

 
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Veldmaarschalk

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Crusaderknight. Thanks

COZ1 de Salerno family will take every oppurtunity for expansion in the central mediterranean. de Hautevilles are not the special target, yet :)
 

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Daufari I
Born 1076 - died 1124
Ruled 1100 - 1124


1100daufari.jpg

The man:
Daufari I was still a young man when he inherited his uncle’s titles. Because of his martial education, he was quit good at that work, but he lacked confidence and courage to make him a really great commander. And alltough he was able to achieve some remarkable successes, those were all done against much weaker opponents. In administrating the realm he was almost just as good, or rather just as bad, as his two predecessors. The problems Daufari I had to face were about the same as that of Landulf I, Daufari I became excommunicated in 1103, but lucky for him the catholic church was in such turmoil that in 1117 a female was elected as Pope, Ausonia Turati, for the first time, and this ‘Mama’ gave Daufari the possibility to become incommunicade again if he just paid her a fee.

Daufari I only brother Faroald, who was one of the worst administrators of de Salerno family was regardless of that installed as count of Corsica in 1101.

1100faroald.jpg

Daufari I was married three times, also. His first wife, Isabella de Hauteville gave him one son, Landulf born in 1094 and but died while giving birth to another child. His second marriage was with Maria de Haro, who because of her superb intrigue skills was during her lifetime the spymaster of her husband, this marriage only produced daughters, six in all, Margarita born in 1097, Kriemhild born in 1098, Alcardi born in 1099, Matilde born in 1102, Gisela born in 1103 and finally Esperanza born in 1108. The third wife of Daufari I, was Bregida de Provence, she gave Daufari I another son, named Unigild, born in 1115 and another daughter,Areagna born in 1122.

Besides his legitimate childern, Daufari I also had 5 bastardchildern, Landulf ‘the Bastard’ born in 1116, Birinus also born in 1116, Sinibaldo born in 1117, Hermenfred born in 1120 and finally Erlembald born in 1124.

These 14 childern, made it quit obvious that his modesty was only something for his public affairs, in the privacy of his own rooms, Daufari I showed no modesty at all.

His heir was his first born son Landulf, who in 1110 was married with Judith de Hauteville, another daughter of Bohemond de Hauteville, which ment that she was besides his wife also his aunt.

1100political.jpg

The political situation:
The Italian boot, was still divided, in the south the duchy of Apulia,was ruled by the son of Robert Guiscard, Roger Borsa and after his death in 1116 by his grandson Henry.
The Pope was for the most time controlled by either Mathilda of Toscane-Spoleta and after her by the duke of Lombardia, Fulco d’Este.

The most important political event during Daufari I reign was the war between the Holy Roman Emperor (the king of Germany-Burgundy), Wilhelm von Franken and the Seldjuk Turks. This war lasted almost 15 years, resulting in large devastation in a lot of counties. The Turks were able to settle themselves in some parts of the Holy Roman Empire, like in Upper-Lorraine, Savoye and event just east of Rome in Orvieto, which even became the capital of the Seldjuks and Ancona. But strangely enough the Germans setlled themselves in far away Persia and Transoxania.

In Iberia the wars between the christians and mulsims also continued. In the north-east the kingdom of Poland and Hungary succesfully expanded at the cost of the pagans on their borders. But further to the east the pagan Cuman Turks overran a lot of Russian lands.

In the north the kingdom of Denmark, had foolishly started a war against the muslims to, resulting in the Danish homeland being overrun. In France, England, Scotland and Ireland,, nothing really important happend.

His deeds:
Despite the fact that Daufari I wasn’t fond of fighting he was able to substantially expand the Lombard possesions, not just by conquest but also by diplomacy.

His reign started with the conquest of the county of Cagliari in 1102, making it possible to create the title duke of Sardinia in 1107. Because of this the count of Arborea offered his vassalage but the count wasn’t reliable and he revolted in 1112. This revolt came at a rather inconvenient time for Daufari I, since he was at that moment just busy with the conquest of the sheikdom of Trapani on Sicily. But with the help of his brother, Faroald, the count of Corsica and his nephew, Hildeprand, eldest son of Faroald and count of Cagliari, this rebel count was crushed. And in 1114, Daufari I made his son Landulf, count of Arborea.

Another great diplomatic succes had happend in 1106 when he magistrate of Bologna, Elio de Morra offered his vassalage. A setback was the fact that Najmaddin ibn Abbad, his fathers chaplain, who had been made bishop in his hometown of Siracuse, declared himself independent. But Najmaddin independence didn’t last long, just five years later his small realm was overrun by the sheik of Palermo and Najmaddin fled to the court of Daufari. Daufari forgave him and gave him his old position as chaplain again. And after proving himself he trustwurthy, Najmaddin was again made bishop, this time of Trapani in 1122.

In 1116 Daufari I was able to take advantage of the war between the Seldjuks and the Germans, when the bey of Parma decided to make himself independent, with a large army Daufari conquered Parma in 1117.

In 1121, Daufari I invaded the last stronghold of the Pisaean merchant republic in Piombino and made this county his own, thereby ending the independence of this former republic.

All these wars caused financial havoc for the realm which resulted in numerous revolts in Ravenna, Salerno and Livorno. These were also caused by the sometimes extra-vagance feasts and tournaments that Daufari I become to like at the end of his reign.

Daufari I died in 1124 and for yet still unclear reasons, the catholic church decided to beatify Daufari I. The next ruler was his son, Landulf II.

1124daufari.jpg

 

unmerged(48100)

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I just lost the time to read your other AAR, which I'm sorry, but I had not the time while school and it will take me around three afternoons of constant reading to get to your newest update, and now you start another one. That's mean! I feel like I have to read it!

Which difficulty and aggressivity to you play? It seems not really hard, or you would never have survived as excommunicated Duke. Oh, and Germany is instable, am I right the King of Germany is not King of Burgundy and Italy?
 

Veldmaarschalk

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CSK said:
I just lost the time to read your other AAR, which I'm sorry, but I had not the time while school and it will take me around three afternoons of constant reading to get to your newest update, and now you start another one. That's mean! I feel like I have to read it!

Which difficulty and aggressivity to you play? It seems not really hard, or you would never have survived as excommunicated Duke. Oh, and Germany is instable, am I right the King of Germany is not King of Burgundy and Italy?

Oops, good to remind me.

I didn't check the aggressivity level, that was stupid of me, the AI was set at weakling :eek:o. I had set it to weakling to try somethings out and never set it back when I started this game, so the first three rulers had it easy. But I don't want to start over.

But the next ruler Landulf II will face a more furious AI. :)

Landulf I as an excommunicated duke had no real problems with his vassals. since he most of the time didn't have any vassals only at the end his nephew and heir Daufari.

EDIT
And yes, the king of Germany only is king of Germany not more, but he has created the title king of Burgundy now.
 

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Well a mostly quiet start (nothing wrong with that!) and loots of potential for things to get more lively.
 

unmerged(48100)

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Nice, you have updated while I commented. Seems to get weird.
Veldmaarschalk said:
His heir was his first born son Landulf, who in 1110 was married with Judith de Hauteville, another daughter of Bohemond de Hauteville, which ment that she was besides his wife also his aunt.
His aunt is his wife? :wacko: Did I hear inzest?:D
Veldmaarschalk said:
The Turks were able to settle themselves in some parts of the Holy Roman Empire, like in Upper-Lorraine, Savoye and event just east of Rome in Orvieto, which even became the capital of the Seldjuks and Ancona.
The capital of the Seljuks is Ancona? Again: :wacko:
Veldmaarschalk said:
Daufari I died in 1124 and for yet still unclear reasons, the catholic church decided to beatify Daufari I. The next ruler was his son, Landulf II.
Why does the church beatify a ruler that was once excommunicated? :wacko: I know that is quite a extrem use of this smilie, but I think it fits.
Veldmaarschalk said:
Landulf I as an excommunicated duke had no real problems with his vassals. since he most of the time didn't have any vassals only at the end his nephew and heir Daufari.
I actually meant why nobody of your neighbours just wiped you out. Now I see why.
 

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CSK said:
Nice, you have updated while I commented. Seems to get weird.

His aunt is his wife? :wacko: Did I hear inzest?:D

The capital of the Seljuks is Ancona? Again: :wacko:

Why does the church beatify a ruler that was once excommunicated? :wacko: I know that is quite a extrem use of this smilie, but I think it fits.

I actually meant why nobody of your neighbours just wiped you out. Now I see why.

Inbred, his mother was a de Hauteville and his wife is a de Hauteville and they are sisters. Don't know if that will lead to inbred trait, his childern untill now don't have it.

The capital of the Seldjuks is in Orvieto, the Papal summer residence I believe :). It is kind of weird looking now on the map, eastern Persia is part of Germany while, Lorraine, Savoye and central Italy are part of the Seldjuks.
 

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A little expansion and a little weirdness. Yep, sounds like CK to me. Progression is steady and you've done well even excomunicated. It's weird that it keeps happening. What in heavens name did you you say to that Pope? Or maybe it's something you said to "Mama." ;)
 

Veldmaarschalk

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Landulf II
Born 1094 - died 1136
Ruled 1124 - 1136


1124landulfII.jpg

The man:
Landulf II had received a martial education and this made him an even better warrior then his father, alltough he also showed signs of cowardice later in his life. But again this ability was offset by his administrative skills which were lagging far behind his martial skills. He was also proud and arbitrary in his decisions which ment that the people weren’t really fond of him. During his youth Landulf II had suffered from a depression and disease that would plague him more often. He didn’t have much contact with his many half- sisters and brothers, most of them he just ignored.

Landulf II and his wife Judith de Hauteville, had two childern, a son named Saxo, born in 1113 and a daughter named Albina, born in 1114. Landulf II had one bastardson, Erlembald, born in 1125. Saxo was married to Elisabeth von Nordheim and was made count of Salerno and Piombino in 1131. Albina again strengthened the bond between the de Salerno’s and the de Hauteville, she was married to Robert de Hauteville, the eldest son of count Abelard of Capua in 1130.

Landulf II made his nephew Grimoald, the second son of Faroald count of Corsica, count of Arborea in 1124. His uncle Faroald died in 1125.

1124political.jpg

The political situation :
The war between Holy Roman Empire and the Seldjusk Turks had ended. The Seldjuks now wanted to take on Rome, but in this they failed in the Pope was able to win back his summerresidence in Orvieto.

Duke of Apulia was Henry de Hauteville, a young man who showed great promise but eventually failed because he became a member of a heretical sect, which led to his excommunication.

The old duke of Lombardia was for most of the time, the Papal Controller.

In the north-east the Russian prince of Polotsk had declared himself king of Lithuania.

In Iberia the muslims overran the duchies of Braganza and Galicia, but the king of Castilla and Leon was able to win back the duchy of Braganza.

For the rest there were inconclusive wars between the Holy Roman Empire and the kingdom of Bohemia and between the kingdom of France and of England. The king of England was now Godfrey de Montgomery, a king who was also excommunicted for unknown reasons.

3_hattin.jpg

His deeds :
In 1125 the sheik of Palermo attacked the vassal of Landulf II on Sicily, bishop Najmaddin of Trapani. Landulf was surprised by this attack and it took him to long to gather his forces to prevent Trapani from falling into muslims hands, but once he had his army on Sicily. Landulf II didn’t want to hear anything of peace, he had decided to put an end to the muslim rule of Sicily. In march 1126 the decisive battle between the two opponents was fought, Landulf II outnumbered the muslims, but he still decided to take up a defensive position and alltough he won the battle people from now on considered him a coward. Then Landulf, one after another started conquering Palermo, Trapani and Agricento. The sheik of Palermo, whose realm was now reduced to Siracusa only offered Landulf a large sum of money.

Since Landulf was in huge debt, he decided to accept the offer and a peace was signed, but Landulf didn’t intend to keep his word and in 1127 he attacked Siracusa and took the town by storm. On the same day Siracuse fell, Landulf II proclaimed himself duke of Sicily.

Najmaddin was again installed as a bishop on Sicily, this time of Agricento and Siracusa. A hero of the battle of Palermo, Ottobono di Razzi was made count of Trapani.

The Papal curie was so pleased with this succes, that Landulf became the one who decided what the Pope should do, Landulf used this power to excommunicate the young duke of Lombardia Cosmo d’Este and then claimed the title duke of Lombardia as being his. But Landulf then felt sorry for the litte boy and just a few months later decided to lift the church ban again.

After this, for some reason, Landulf II became depressed again, he limited his actions as much as possible. In 1132 he made his halfbrother Unigild, count of Parma.

In 1135, Landulf II decided to attack the independent county of Urbino in central Italy, this small war was succesfull but Landulf II had enough of being a ruler and on the 7th of may 1136 he abdicated in favour of his son Saxo. Landulf II died shortly after his abdication.

1236abdicate.jpg


 
Last edited:

stnylan

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Slowly but surely you are unifying Italy. mmm, never had the abdiction even yet though. Something to look foward to.
 

Veldmaarschalk

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stnylan said:
Slowly but surely you are unifying Italy. mmm, never had the abdiction even yet though. Something to look foward to.

It is not in the 'vanilla' game, but from a mod called :

SMACK, you can find it here
 

coz1

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Yeah, I've never seen that abdication event either. But it certainly makes sense given that most thought him a coward. Though for a coward, he sure didn't think twice before starting a war.
 

unmerged(48100)

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Really nice work you've down. Especially he felt sorry for the young boy and revoked the excommunication after he had claimed the title sounded really funny to me.
 
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Veldmaarschalk

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coz1 said:
A little expansion and a little weirdness. Yep, sounds like CK to me. Progression is steady and you've done well even excomunicated. It's weird that it keeps happening. What in heavens name did you you say to that Pope? Or maybe it's something you said to "Mama." ;)

It is not that weird, being a neighbour of the Papal Controller leads to that, and in the game the duchess of Toscane, Mathilda starts as Papal controller.

She was my neighbour and she excommunicated everyone, around her, but she didn't claim any of the titles. :confused:

But that may have to do with the agressitivity level at that moment :eek:o

CSK said:
Really nice work you've down. Especially he felt sorry for the young boy and revoked the excommunication after he had claimed the title sounded really funny to me. But you have a few typos with 1200 instead of 1100, or do the Lombards just live more than 100 years? Not that it is a problem, just seemed weird.

Made corrections in the text.

I lift the ban to prevent others from all claiming his titles to. :)