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liefwarrior

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It has been a long time since I last entered these hallowed halls, well, calling two years a long time is a stretch, but it seems it to me. Attempts at writing AARs and myself have a short, and rather bitter history. "From the Fields of Tuscany", started with the hope of one newly discovering this forum, lasted an entire four days, and didn't even make it out of 1836. "Declaro Que Mi Amor a Centroamérica" did little better. The playthrough actually went rather well, stretching into the late 19th Century, but the writing failed to keep up. I've already slapped back over seven thousand words on this one, and with a government-enforced lockdown in place I'll have plenty of motivation to pump out some more.

It would have been interesting to have written this AAR in the style of Paul Du Chaillu; whose work, the name of which is borrowed for this piece, was one of the few that I could acquire with any depth on the subject at hand. Perhaps, when we reach the moment of his writing, I could indulge in some imitation, although to do so might stretch my capabilities beyond their limits. Rather, these updates shall be shortish, perhaps lacking in the intricate details whilst we remain an autocracy, mostly due to the limitations of my research (both in resources and motivation) but in part also a result of my own lackluster efforts.

Now, I've provided more extensive a preamble than ever necessary. With time, this shall grow into a table of contents, and provide a starting point for navigating your way through this tale. Now, let us bring you into the port of Göteborg, and from there, a train to Stockholm, from whence we shall take you through a brief history of the Land of the Midnight Sun.
 

liefwarrior

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Prologue
Sweden in the Post-Napoleonic Era

Gustav IV Adolph, Karl XIII, Karl XIV Johan
1792-1836


421px-Berlin_.Gendarmenmarkt_.Deutscher_Dom_010.jpg

As with most other nations of Europe, the defining events of the early 19th Century was the dramatic rise and fall of Napoleon, and the resolution of the related conflicts with the Congress of Vienna. Sweden would find itself represented at the Congress by Carl Löwenhielm, who found himself falling in line with the influential French foreign minister, Talleyrand. Ultimately, Sweden came out of the negotiations rather well off in many aspects, but in order to understand the end result, its origins must first be discussed.


387px-Gustav_IV_Adolf_of_Sweden.jpg

Gustav IV Adolf became King of Sweden at the age of 14, when is father was assassinated in 1792; his was to be a reign which was of severe detriment not only to the monarchy but also Sweden as a whole. He refused a Russian princess in favour of a German one, sparking tensions with the Russian bear, only defused by the Paul I hatred of French republicanism. Gustav IV also held great distaste for Jacobinism, and joined the Third Coalition in 1805. The Third Coalition suffered several severe military defeats at the hands of the newly crowned Emperor Napoleon, who preceded to annex Swedish Pomerania and push the Russian’s into making peace. Sweden was isolated, the Continent had fallen and only Great Britain and Portugal persisted in resistance. This provided the perfect opportunity for Russian expansionism, and thus Finland was invaded in 1808.


Gustavarrest.jpg

The Swedish High Command, in particular the King, were weak and ineffective so, despite initially favourable conditions, the Russians quickly overran much of Finland. The defeat was complete, and after less than a year of fighting Sweden surrendered, ceding the entirety of their Finnish dominion. This was the final straw in the already tenuous relationship between the King and his Generals; led by Georg Aldersparre they deposed him in favour of his uncle, Charles XIII. Along with a new King, a new constitution was drawn up, balancing power between the King and the Riksdag of the Estates.


422px-Charles_XIII_of_Sweden.jpg

Charles XIII was virtually impotent by the time he came to the throne, now a man of 60 he had never been of strong character, and deteriorating health was to have a significant impact on his engagement with politics. Effective rule of the nation was in the hands of his advisors. Charles XIII had no children, and to avoid the return of the Crown to Gustav IV or his son, Gustav, the Riksdag elected Charles August, a Danish prince, as Heir to the Throne. Unfortunately the Crown Prince would die within months of his appointment, and thus an alternative was found in Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, a Marshal of the French Empire. Due to the ineffectual rule of Charles XIII, Bernadotte would effectively become the leading power in Sweden from 1810 onwards, as the King slowly wasted away.


379px-Carl_XIV_John_of_Sweden_%26_Norway_c_1840.jpg

As he would later be known, Karl XIV Johan would guide Sweden towards a mild recovery at the Congress of Vienna. Although Finland had been lost to Russia with no immediate chance of recovery, there was still hope for the return of Swedish Pomerania. Although he initially refused to devote himself to either side of the Napoleonic Conflict, personality conflicts having prevented any significant relationship with the Emperor forming, he would eventually side with the Coalition after the French defeat in Russia. Rather than seeking the return of Pomerania, whose indefensible position on the Continent made it a poor asset to the Swedes, Karl XIV instead placed his sights on the acquisition of Norway from his Danish rivals, who had been staunch French allies.

2560px-Eidsvoll_riksraad_1814.jpeg

Having led parts of the Coalition armies to a series of successes on the Continent, culminating in the Battle of Leipzig, Karl XIV was now in a position to force a Danish surrender. The Treaty of Kiel ratified the exchange of Swedish Pomerania for Norway, although the Norwegians launched a liberal revolution in response. Karl XIV launched a swift campaign against the infant Norwegian state, bringing it to heel. Eventually an agreement was reached whereby the liberal Constitution of Norway would be recognized, albeit with Charles XIII ruling as King of Norway. These territorial exchanges would eventually be confirmed by the Congress of Vienna: Finland ceded to Russia, Swedish Pomerania to Prussia, and Norway to Sweden.

752px-Norge_og_Sverige_1847_copy.jpg

This is how Sweden-Norway would stand in 1836, a personal union between two nations. Karl XIV had effectively absolute power in Sweden, although the Instrument of Government Act 1809 did allocate some power to the Riksdag. The Constitution of 1814 provided the Norwegian Störting much more power than their Swedish counterparts, and the 1815 Act of Union, the Riksakten, provided them near complete autonomy in all but foreign affairs. Karl XIV is faced with a multitude of choices on many fronts. Does he focus on the extraction and export of Sweden’s iron reserves, or is it better to create a market for domestic production? His peaceable efforts to tighten the union with Norway have so far been rebuffed, he could become more forcible, but he has to be careful not to let his grip on Sweden slip either. Perhaps it is better to look elsewhere, to restore the Sweden to its previous privileged place as the predominant Baltic power. That would require conflict with the Russians in the East or the Prussians in the South, either of which could be used as a an ally against the other, or maybe he should look to the East, and the might of the British Empire. The 19th Century offers many opportunities for Sweden, although only so many of them can be seized.
 
Last edited:

stnylan

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Good preamble.
 

liefwarrior

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Chapter One
Domesticity

Karl XIV Johan
1836-1843


Bernadottefamilie.jpg

The last decade of Karl XIV’s reign would be a peaceful one for Sweden. Having made multiple attempts at drawing Norway into closer union, and expanding his powers beyond those outlined in their 1814 Constitution, he had failed to make any progress. The Swedish military may have met with a resurgence under his command, but it was not strong enough to stand up to the Tsar alone. There was little spirit for liberalization in Sweden, and thus the nation existed in a peaceful equilibrium.

9b6dc5e2e857b28d99052ead9f8124ff.jpg

There was very little occurring during this period of time, although that is not to say that Swedish society to came to a complete standstill. Karl XIV sponsored several reforms in agricultural practices in an effort to promote the growth of the nation’s farms. There was a slight reorganization of land ownership, and decreased regulation of markets, allowing for a moderate growth in the crop yields. Further, British equipment was imported for use in mines, as well as on farms – this too furthered the effective extraction of goods. The Crown Prince was also became involved, as he advocated for the reform of the educational system, with Karl Johan eventually mandating that every child should be receive a primary education.


International-affairs-Muhammed-Ali-fanack-HH1024PXjpg.jpg

Things weren’t quite so tranquil outside of Sweden. In Egypt, the warlord Muhammed Ali had challenged the Ottoman Sultan for control of Syria. This regional conflict quickly rose in importance as the British Empire, fearing that the defeat of the Ottomans would lead to further conflict in the Balkans decided to intervene on their side. The French, seeking to increase their influence on the rich lands of Egypt backed Muhammed Ali. No other power was willing to get heavily involved in the conflict, and as the French and British could not reach an agreement, war broke out between the two powers.


Battle_of_Santo_Domingo_%28French_and_British_ships%29.jpg

A French task force was dispatched to occupy Tripoli, while Ali travelled north to secure Syria. There he engaged in a series of battles with the Ottoman forces, and despite initial successes, including the capture of both Cyprus and Crete, he was forced to pull back. Linking up with the French task force, he was once more able to drive northward, until the timely intervention of the British. Fortunately for the people of both Western nations, the majority of the combat occurred on the sea, and no hostile troops ever landed in either mainland. Instead the conflict was effectively decided with the Battle of the Irish Sea. Guy-Victor Duperré sought to establish naval dominance in order to prevent British troops from interfering in the main conflict in the Orient. His fleet, including six modern steam vessels, clashed with that of Thomas Cochrane, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars. The French were outmanned and outgunned, and despite both sides experiencing similar levels of destruction, Duperré’s fleet was effectively crippled by the engagement, while Cochrane maintained a sizeable detachment of capable vessels. This allowed Hardinge’s 36 thousand strong force to be transported to Syria, where they promptly crushed the remaining forces of Muhammed Ali, forcing his surrender.


1-signing-and-sealing-of-the-treaty-of-nanking1.jpg

The British reaffirmed their role as the world superpower following an incident in Kowloon which they escalated into all out war with the Qing. The war was relatively short, and consisted of just three significant battles. The first were a pair of simultaneous conflicts, as war junks intercepted the landing of the British army under Sir George Brown. Despite being vastly outnumbered, the steamers attached to protect the transport fleet quickly sank the entirety of the attacking fleet, while the garrison was quickly overwhelmed. With the Qing slow to gather their numbers, their small concentrations were quickly overwhelmed, culminating in the Battle of Tianjin where the last force between the advancing Brown and Peking. With an attempted Chinese advance into India also having been thwarted, the Emperor folded and accepted the Treaty of Nanking, ceding Hong Kong to the British Empire, giving them unrestricted access into China.

Bennet_Carl_XIV_Johans_ryttarstaty_hero.jpg

While Victorian Britain sliced its way into China’s soft underbelly, Karl XIV had grown ill. He had grown from a mere Sergeant to the King of a proud nation, but his story was coming to an end. His faltering health saw the Crown Prince coming to into an increasingly significant role, although Karl XIV kept as much of a grip on the reigns as he could. Eventually, as spring blossomed into summer, in May of the Year of Our Lord 1843, the King suffered a stroke. Despite the attentions of the best doctors in the land, nothing could be done for him. Jean-Baptist Bernadotte, Karl XIV Johan, King of Sweden and Norway, was dead.


Oscar_I_portr%C3%A4tterad_1836_av_Fredric_Westin.jpg

Oscar I Bernadotte was born in Paris following the Revolution, although he moved to Sweden still a boy. It was there that the majority of his personal views were formed, a form of liberal despotism which led him to oppose many of the more authoritarian of his father’s actions. Unfortunately for advocates for constitutional reform, Oscar would not prove to be as supportive of their movement as they might have hoped. Furthermore, although his father’s principle advisor, Magnus Brahe, had become inclined to furthering relations with the Russians, however his timely death mere months prior to the ascension of the new King meant that the nation would swing away from the East. Oscar was in a similar position to that his father had been in a decade previous; there was little interest from recently anointed Frederick William IV of Prussia nor the British Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel in helping Sweden in reclaiming Finland, and the Swedes could not manage alone. Life in Sweden was idyllic, with little complaint abounding, perhaps decades more of prosperous tranquility were ahead.

 

DensleyBlair

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Prosperous tranquility can be a blessing, but not always what you want during a game of Vicky. No doubt it’s a only a matter of time before Sweden finds itself embroiled in other affairs.
 

stnylan

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I am sure it is only a matter of time before becomes embroiled in the wider world
 

liefwarrior

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Prosperous tranquility can be a blessing, but not always what you want during a game of Vicky. No doubt it’s a only a matter of time before Sweden finds itself embroiled in other affairs.
I am sure it is only a matter of time before becomes embroiled in the wider world
Well the Swedes are infamous for their neutrality, not quite to the extent of the Swiss, but such is the case when you offer iron instead of gold. Maybe we would like to simply develop in peace? Although, it does appear that the rest of the world won't let us.
 

liefwarrior

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Chapter Two
Shifting Away from the Russians
Oscar I Bernadotte
1843-1847


TradeInPeople.jpg

The early years of Oscar I’s reign were marked by a series of moderate social and economic reforms. The first related to one of the more shameful carryovers of Sweden’s historical attempts at colonization, the continued existence of the slave trade. Although the practice had been outlawed on the Swedish mainland, there remained the matter of the small Caribbean isle of St Barthélemy which had been ceded by the French in 1784, where a third of the population were enslaved, mostly by French plantation owners. The island had been granted a level of autonomy in its lawmaking to appease the French majority, which made it difficult to immediately outlaw the barbaric practice. Instead, Oscar I unilaterally declared that anybody born within his territories was born a free man, where previously the children of slaves had been themselves considered slaves. This was one of a series of regulations which Oscar I introduced, to allow for a level of security when dealing with any business within the realm.


Erik_Gustaf_Geijer_in_the_1840s.jpg

The second important area of reform was education and philosophy, more a continuation of the reforms which Oscar I had pushed through during the reign of his father than an entirely new movement. The legislation which obligated every child to attain at least some level of schooling had been frustrated by the difficulties in providing that education. In the cities of Göteborg, Stockholm, and Malmö the majority of tutors are engaged in private practice with the children of the aristocracy; in more rural areas, there is simply a lack of available facilities and manpower. In order to realise the goals which he had laid out previously, Oscar I undertook a serious investment into the construction of educational facilities for the youth of Sweden, where they might be taught literacy, numeracy, and how the communal history of the Swedish people brought them together under the enlightened rule of the King, borrowing from the ideas of Erik Gustaf Geijer, an influential political philosopher.


mining-industrial-revolution-engraving-19th-century-united-kingdom-137081007-58d855673df78c5162d7127e.jpg

There was also a significant change to the mining industry during the early years of Oscar I’s reign. Steam-powered pumps and pulleys were imported from Britain, while rudimentary rail systems were built locally. These introductions further increased the output of the various Swedish mines; the iron they produced was proving a valuable export. Incidentally, this also had they effect of spreading the dark powdered stains of the mines from the ground to the sky, where the once clear air was slowly filling with a harsh smog. Nonetheless, the beginnings of industry were forming in Northern Europe, although they were limited to extraction for the moment.


Karl_XV_och_Lovisas_av_Nassau-Oraniens_f%C3%B6rm%C3%A4lning_1850._Hemkomsten_till_Kongl._slottet%2C_1850-06-19_-_Nordiska_Museet_-_NMA.0051134.jpg

There was also a series of developments in foreign affairs. Oscar I pursued an alliance with the Prussians, and wasn’t afraid to put his eldest son, the Crown Prince Karl, into the fray. However a proposed courtship between the Crown Prince and one of Friedrich Wilhelm III’s nieces fell through. Instead an arrangement was made between the Crown Prince, Karl Ludvig Eugen, and Louise of the Netherlands, a niece of William II. This marriage secured the support of the Dutch in the event of war with the Russians. To the mind of Oscar I the Tsar had secured too much influence within the upper reaches of the Swedish nobility, undermining his sovereignty. Unlike his father, Oscar I had his eyes on the return of Finland to his demesne, a feat which would be impossible so long as the Russians mustered large amounts of support within Sweden. Those perceived as having undue sympathy towards the Tsar were to be purged from positions of power, while any Russian officials within Sweden would be deported. If the Tsar responded with force then William II would come to the aid of Oscar I, and they would together petition Friedrich Wilhelm III to join them in defending the independence of the Scandinavian peninsula.
 

stnylan

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One should not trust Russia.
 

DensleyBlair

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An audacious gambit in the works for Finland. Always a decent thing to be wary of the Tsar.
 

Cromwell

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What a great AAR, I'm glad to be in near the start. I hope to see Finland returned to the fold in Oscar's lifetime but I must confess I'm concerned about how much help the Dutch will be.

Do you think settling for the Netherlands rather than a Prussian alliance will make the fight against Russia much harder? On the other hand I suppose it opens up the ambitous but exciting possibility of taking back Finland and the Pomerania at a date date...
 
Chapter Three

liefwarrior

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Chapter Three
The Build Up to War

Oscar I Bernadotte
1847-1852

15332022882_4c1b2f1b5e_o.jpg


The fears of Oscar I proved unfounded, and the Tsar failed to react when less friendly cabinet members were appointed. That didn’t mean that tensions had dissipated; the Tsar’s slothful response instead persuaded Oscar I that more gains could be made. This led to an incredible level of investment into the somewhat outdated navy. Although marine steam technology was beginning to make its way northwards, Oscar I preferred the certainty of more traditional designs. An initial investment saw the number of warships nearly double, built from sturdy local timber. This number would later be further increased following a second round of construction, to the extent that there was little space left any further tonnage.


f83341fb-d67d-4db1-af3c-6ca968c6cd14.jpg


There was further activity in the Swedish Caribbean as Oscar I continued in his humanitarian pursuit of anti-slavery policies. Following an incident involving a British naval officer and a French-Swedish slaveholder action was taken to resolve the issue. Slavery was abolished in all Swedish dominions; further, it is the opinion of the Crown that no man can be another’s property, so any person who exists in, or arrives in, Swedish territory is to be considered a free man. In order to promote the well-being of the newly freed Afro-Caribbean population, Swedish tutors were sent to the West Indies to provide basic educational services.


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The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 had, albeit with something of delay, provided a spark for a sudden surge of liberalism across the entirety of the European continent. Although they would cause some turmoil, most of the existing regimes would maintain their power. Minor, mostly urban, revolts in France and Prussia would be quickly put down. The Hungarians, despite putting up a year-long resistance to the Austrians, would eventually be forced to submit. In Sweden, the wave that had momentarily unbalanced Europe was barely a ripple. The Swedish people were largely content with the rule of Oscar I, and the abolition of slavery was widely celebrated. Further, the Crown had invested into the construction of a large sawmill in Göteburg, providing a source of employment in the increasing squalor of the city.

Battle_of_Bov.jpg


Not everybody was as fortunate as Oscar I had been; two close neighbours suffered greatly from what became known as the Springtime of Nations. In Denmark, Frederik VII faced an uprising by the German population of Schleswig-Holstein who preferred self-rule over integration into the foreign Danish nation. Tsar Nicholas I was faced by a large Jacobin uprising, mostly in Poland and Byelorussia, but with elements in St. Petersburg and Ukraine. The Imperial Army was often caught out and, especially in urban areas, quickly overwhelmed. Fortunately, the serfs further into the Russian heartland had not stirred from the isolated village lives, so there was a pool of manpower to draw from as loyalist forces recovered from their initial losses. The Cossacks were quick to respond in Ukraine, were a quick campaign dispersed what had not been a strongly organized resistance. The Polish uprising was much harder to repress, and as Imperial forces became bogged down attempting to root them out, Jacobins began to move out from St. Petersburg. When a column intercepted Tsar Nicholas I attempting to ecape Moscow the Russian Revolution of 1852 came to an end, as the Tsar was left to hang from a noose tied to the gates of the Winter Palace.

Panorama_dentro.JPG


Oscar I had found the moment which he had been waiting for. The Russians were weak and disorganized. Although a new provisional democracy had been formed with supposed control over the nation, there was still sporadic fighting occurring, were Tsarist forces refused to surrender. Friedrich Wilhelm IV had been brought onboard, and was willing to take the opportunity to assert himself over this new threat to his rule. This would also provide a means for preventing Prussian involvement in the Schleswig War, as they would be too busy protecting Germany’s eastern border from the Slavic barbarians. This suited Oscar I perfectly, as he much preferred that the Danish population of Schleswig remain within the Scandinavian sphere. On 13 November 1852, Oscar I declared war on the Provisional Government of Russia.
 

DensleyBlair

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What an excellent opportunity to strike against the Russians.

great to see this back!
 

The Number 9

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It was the perfect time to declare war on Russia. They are weak, and I'm really confident on the outcome.


This AAR is still nice, glad to see you did not abandon it.
 

liefwarrior

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What an excellent opportunity to strike against the Russians.

great to see this back!
It was the perfect time to declare war on Russia. They are weak, and I'm really confident on the outcome.


This AAR is still nice, glad to see you did not abandon it.
Haven't seen a Sweden AAR before, this has my interest. Looking forward to seeing how the recovery of Finland goes!

Was just slowly building up towards an eventual confrontation when the perfect opportunity fell into my lap! Thank you for the support, I have a little already written ahead but my muse is only slowly returning, so updates may be slow and irregular.
 
Chapter Four

liefwarrior

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Chapter Four
The First Russo-Swedish War
Oscar I Bernadotte
November 13, 1852 – July 5, 1853



b23f3bc08758a430d5bec644f710b04e.jpg


The majority of the fighting done by Swedish forces occurred at sea in the opening moves of the war. The Russian Baltic Fleet had been split between that left in Finland, that in Estonia, and that near St Petersburg; this allowed the numerically inferior Swedish Royal Navy to employ a strategy of divide and conquer. First, the Estonian fleet was intercepted trying to sail out of Riga. This section was the weakest, and was comprised mostly of transport hulks, although the escort of five man o’ wars was blown out of the war, with just two limping back to the safety of Riga’s coastal batteries. Then came the Battle of Alands, where the Finnish Fleet tried to prevent a Swedish invasion of the Alands Islands. This was a much stronger force, including eight ships of the line, two modern steamships, and a multitude of smaller vessels. A Swedish sloop was sunk in the exchange, but Prince Admiral Oscar Fredrik successfully turned on the smaller Finnish fleet and forced them back northwards, inflicting several casualties. This essentially gave complete control of the Baltic to Oscar Fredrik, who captured the Alands Islands mere months later.

90


The campaign in Northern Finland was much quieter. Oscar I was reluctant to push too far into the tundra, for fear of losing his supply lines, while the Russians refused to send enough men northwards to seriously threaten the Swedish positions. This led to an effective stalemate, where slight Swedish gains in the north were slowly consolidated as most of the men holed up in as much comfort as they could find. Ultimately, no significant engagements would occur in Finland at any point throughout the war.

Kossak_Battle_of_Olszynka_Grochowska.jpg


The situation on the continental mainland was not nearly as placid. There were two initial Prussian advances, the first into Lithuania, and the second into Poland. Albrecht von Roon, who led the Lithuanian advance, met with a hastily assembled Russian force at Memel in January 1853. The vastly outnumbered Russians crumbled before von Roon with only minimal resistance. The rout was complete and the slaughter immense, those note dead or dying had scattered into the nearby forests. Lithuania effectively fell to the Prussians with barely a whisper. The story in Poland was startlingly similar. Attempts by von Lüders to concentrate Russian forces in the area were continually frustrated by Helmuth von Moltke, until he was eventually caught between Lodz and Warsaw. Trapped between two Prussian forces, von Lüders was shot along with nearly every last man he had gathered. The Massacre at Skierniewice was so devastating, that of nearly 18 thousand Russians, less than a thousand survived.

Battle_of_Ostroleka_1831.PNG


The early defeats were a sign of things to come for the exhausted Russians. Muraviev-Karsky’s relief column arrived in Poland just over a week too late to save von Lüders, and they were violently repulsed by von Moltke at the Battle of Plock. In what was the first relatively even battle of the war, the superiority of the Prussian forces was on display. Muraviev-Karsky was broken by this battle, where nearly half of his men had been become casualties. His wounded column managed to retreat to Warsaw, where they hoped to hold out until reinforcements arrived in the form of forty thousand under the command of Grigoriy Brusilov. Hope did not last long, and Marviev-Karsky was forced to surrender when news arrived that the entirety of Brusilov’s command had been wiped out by von Roon.

2560px-Battle_of_Groch%C3%B3w_1831.JPG


Having successfully crushed the Russian counter-attack in May, von Roon was once more freed up to advance into Lithuania, which Freidrich Wilhelm IV had discussed with Oscar I as worthwhile compensation for the Prussian war effort. Unfortunately for von Roon, and the nearly forty thousand Prussians with him, his rearguard that was protecting his supply lines were happened on by the next wave of Russian troops, this time led by Boris Nikolaevich. Taken by surprise and lacking leadership, the Prussians were soundly defeated for the first time in the entire campaign. Nikolaevich had struck perfectly at the Prussians weakest point, and von Roon was now completely separated from von Moltke in Poland, as well as his supplies coming from Prussia. Fortunately, von Moltke was quick to react, and marched north from Warsaw, arriving at Allenstein in early July. The skirmishes of the Prussian vanguard with Nikolaevich’s forces would mark the start of the bloodiest battle of the entire war. Nikolaevich would prove the most capable commander of the Russian forces; having had a few weeks to prepare he had entrenched his position, inflicting heavy casualties upon the attacking Prussians. Unfortunately, the infamous discipline of the German troops carried them through the hail of gunfire, were they fell upon the Russian forces. The seemingly unstoppable Prussian advance began to wear at the defender’s moral, as they continued to flood over the barricades, the Russians wavered, then broke, freeing the massed Prussian cavalry to tear through them as they fled. Nikolaevich would succeed in hurting von Moltke, but even so he was incapable of defeating him, and the Provisional Government, their people suffering from the continued fighting, petitioned for peace.

300px-Pr%C3%A4st%C3%B6tornet_1854.jpg


The Treaty of Allenstein had three main components to it. As had been agreed prior by Oscar I and Freidrich Wilhelm IV, Prussia was to receive Lithuania in return for their efforts during the conflict. The Swedish seizure of the Aland Islands was also ratified, returning the island to their control some 44 years after it was lost. The final matter was that of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The mandate of the Provisional Government extended across all the lands which had previously been part of the Russian Tsardom, however the matter of Finland was somewhat more difficult. The Congress of Vienna had confirmed the cession of Finland to the Tsar, however it had done so by awarding him the title of Grand Duke of Finland, a title additional to that of Tsar. The exiled Alexander II, eldest son of Nicholas I, was nominally the Grand Duke following the death of his father; having fled to France he had no actual control over the nation, whose local government had instead acquiesced to the power of the Provisional Government. Thus, the Governor-General of Finland, Alexander Menshikov, became a fourth signatory of the Treaty. He, having been vested with the authority of Nicholas I, and successively Alexander II, agreed to the initial annexation of Finland by the Provisional Government, which then ceded it to the Swedish Crown. Thus the borders of the Kingdom of Sweden were returned to their state prior to the Congress, ignoring the lack of Pomerania and Oscar I dual title of King of Sweden and Norway.
 
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