The Celtic invasion of Greece and the Celts in Pannonia and Transylvania

The Celtic invasion of Greece and the Celts in Pannonia and Transylvania

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Palando

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When we think about Celts, we often only think about Gaul and Britain. There was, however, a major Celtic population in Pannonia and Transylvania ("Kingdom of Hungary without the Kingdom of Croatia"), which gave us one of the most famous quotes about Celts as well as one of the most famous military campaigns against the Mediterranean world.
This thread will, therefore, deal with this campaign, the archeology of the Celto-Pannonians, Daco-Celts and their link to Gaul. @Trin Tragula , I hope you've prepared a can of coffe ;).

The military campaign of the Celts against Delphi and its prehistory


The first written mention of the Celts in the Balkans is also one of the most famous ones. It dates to 335 BC and describes an episode between Alexander the Great and a Celtic envoy:
The king received them kindly and asked them, when drinking, what it was that they most feared, thinking that they would say himself, but they replied they feared nothing except that the sky might fall on them, although indeed, they added, they put above everything else the friendship of such a man as he (Strabon, Geog.7.3.8).
Another Celtic envoy reached Alexander the Great in 324 BC in Babylon. It's quite likely the Celts were able to gather information about Anatolia and its riches during this journey.

The first military encounter was in 298 BC, when the Celts marched into Thrace and Macedonia under their leader Cimbaules, but met significant resistance. A few years later, in 280 BC, the Celts defeated the Macedonian army and paved the way for their largest military campaign against the Greek world.
The onslaught heading towards Greece was first halted at the Thermopylae, but the Celts managed to advance further until they reached Delphi. Accounts on what happened thereafter vary, but the Celts were repelled back and their leader Brennus commited suicide. It is reported that the Celts moved back to Pannonia and to the region around Belgrad, where the tribe of the Scordisci is first mentioned.

Meanwhile, there were two Celtic settlement treks. One founded the ominous Tylis in Thrace, which still evades a more precise localisation. The other one is known as the Galatians, who penetrated into Anatolia and Asia Minor. The Galatians consisted out of three tribes, the Tectosages, the Tolistobogii and Trocmeri, and where lead by Leonorios and Lutorios. Thereby, half of their total number of 20,000 was made up by women, children and aged. They settled permanently in the region that is now known as Galatia (around Ankara), after they were defeated in the Elephant Battle (275/74 BC) and were resettled there.

Archeology of the Celts in the Carpathian Basin

In the following, I'm going to talk about the archeological evidence of Celts in the Carpathian Basin. This account is based on the book by Barry Cunliffe (The Ancient Celts, 2018). The following two maps show the principal movements of the Celts into this region (1st map) as well as early La Tène finds and the absence of any archeological evidence of the attack on Delphi (2nd map).
Screenshot_2018-12-30 The Ancient Celts.png


Screenshot_2018-12-28 The Ancient Celts Amazon de Barry Cunliffe Fremdsprachige Bücher.png


The Transylvanian Celts lived in a delicate cohabitation with the Dacians (mutual influence, Dacian settlements in the 'Celtic' area, possibly shared burials of the Celts with the Dacians), but the elite was of Celtic origin. This lasted until the 2nd century BC, when the Dacians seem to have subjugated and/or expelled the Celts; some argue this might have been an assimilation process instead, but the sharp decline makes it less likely.

The Pannonian Celts increasingly came under the influence of the Boii, which had started to move to the area around Bratislava in the decades before and after 300 BC. The Boii's advance was halted, when they were defeated by the Dacian king Burebista in around 60/59 BC. Burebista was able to extend his sphere of influence deep into Pannonia, but his 'kingdom' collapsed when he was assassinated by Dacian nobles in 44 (a few weeks later than Ceasar who had planned to intervene against the Dacian threat).

There were also migrations into Gaul from Pannonia during the 3rd century BC. A notable one targeted the Marne region (a centre of early La Tène culture) around the middle of the 3rd century BC. The sparsely populated area saw a massive population boost and showed Pannonian influence: new warrior burials, Pannonian women dresses (e.g. use of anklets) and prevalence of small Pannonian funerary enclosures.

A more famous one is related to the Languedoc and Toulouse area. Both areas are characterised by a rapidly increasing La Téne-isation during the first half of the 3rd century BC. The Toulousian area is, however, even more notable, as highly decorated gold torcs and armlets of the Pannonian type make a sudden appearance around the middle of the 3rd century BC. Most of those were deposited in hoards like the one at Fenouillet and Lasgraisses. Most of those were produced locally, indicating a migration of craftsmen to this area from Pannonia. I said it is more famous, because of a mention by Ceasar who says the Volcae had moved there from the Hercynian forest and because of a legend surrounding the Tolosan treasure, which the Romans attributed to the sack of Delphi. Roman sources claim that a Roman leader drained a lake and found this treasure, but he seized it for himself, leading to the 'curse of Appollo' befalling him. Those myths' core might be related to these gold torcs and armlets.


Púchov culture of the Slovakian highlands

At around the same time of the Celtic migration into Pannonia, a Hallstatt-isation and a partial La Tène-isation of the populace of the Slovakian highlands can be seen, i.e. the population produces less ornate objects (Hallstatt) but some reach the La Tène level. This population was one of the last remnants of the Bronze age Lusation culture.
The Púchov culture itself started in the 2nd century BC, when a full La Tène-isation can be seen in the produced material. It might have been linked to some fleeing/migrating Celts because of the Dacian expansion under king Rubobostes.

See http://www.archeologiask.sk/fileadmin/PDF/Na_stiahnutie/Kelti_na_Slovensku_zbornik_2014.pdf (Slovakian)

Screenshot_2019-01-21 Kelti_na_Slovensku_zbornik_2014 pdf.png

Dashed lines: early Púchov culture, dotted lines: extend around the turn of the ages


Discussion and personal interpretation

The easiest change encompass the culture in Pannonia and Transylvania. Pannonia would see a large Pannono-Celtisation with most of its populace of Celtic origin and some Dacians. The Daco-Celts would only be represented by higher ranking pops being of Celtic origin, while the 'slaves' and possibly even some tribesmen would still remain Dacian. Thrace, however, should have no Celtic population, as there were neither Celtic settlements nor Celtic cemetries; the found artefacts there are possibly related to trade or some other form of exchange.

Now when it comes to name of tribes that lived in that region (at least for a time) we have the following ones for Celts or highly Celtised people:
The three Galatian tribes (Tectosages, Tolistobogii, Trocmeri)
The Celts which appear to have lived close to Dacia (Anartes, Cotini and Teurisci)
The Celts of Transdanubia (Eravisci, Hercuniates and according to Tacitus also the Osii)
The Scordisci around Belgrade

Galatians:
Although we don't know when each of the tribes moved into this region, it is at least highly probable that they lived there a few years before the attack on Delphi, as those three tribes took women, children and aged with them. They also had to live close to each other for a time to explain their bond to each other, leading ultimately to the migration into Galatia. Areas of lower density could be used as borders between those three, and I'd place them somewhat closer to Greece in order to reduce the distance they'd need to take.
When it comes to the relation between the Galatian Tectosages and the Tolosan Tectosages, the same name and the archeological evidence are just one coincidence too much for there being no relation at all. As there wasn't a high influx, I'd say that a part of the Tolosan's moved to Pannonia (in prospect of 'great spoils'), lived there and then ultimatelly a part of them moved back to Tolosa and another one became part of the Galatians. I'd tend to having Tectosages both in Gaul and in Pannonia.

Anartes, Cotini and Teurisci
All these three seem to have had a Celtic origin. We know about the Cotini that they mined presumably in Slovakia and they are often linked to the Púchov culture. Whether or not the name originated from a Celtic elite that subjugated those people is something we might never know, but they could've been forced to move there by a rising Dacian strength in the 2nd century BC. I'd, however, go and place them in the Slovakian mountains and give them their own culture which could be used for other "Hallstatt people". It also seems like there was a Spanish mining site called Kotinai (Strabon, 3.2.3), so an etymology related to prospection might be possible.
Ceasar mentions the Anartes living at the end of the Hercynian forest (together with the Dacians) and later on they are mentioned for the northern part of the Carpathian basin by Claudios Ptolemaios. They might have been the Daco-Celts of Transylvania who got expelled (partially).
The Teurisci could be either related to the tribe splitting and one half moving to Dacia, while the other half called Taurisci moved to Slovenia in the years preceding 300 BC or to the Taurisci who were subjugated by Burebista in 60/59 BC. I'd personally go with no representation, as their story is a bit more volatile.

Eravisci, Hercuniates and Osii
The first two are already located in Transdanubia, so I'd leave them there because of 'inertia' (they later on appear there, but there could have been a move to the west because of the Dacians were on the advance and the area being left behind by other tribes). The Osii were a 'Pannonian' tribe and where living somewhere in the Carpathian mountains according to Tacitus, so they might have lived somewhere close to Pannonia before. I went with them getting pushed out of Slovakia and Pannonia by the Boii and, later on, getting pushed to the north by the Dacians.


My resulting setup would look like this, but there are some uncertainties which could lead to a somewhat different setup:
Mapus.png


I'd also like to mention that the Taurisci and Carni were 'Slovenian' tribes; for more information see my comments here: https://forum.paradoxplaza.com/foru...ici-and-germania.1134917/page-2#post-25001989
 
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Nikolai

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Palando

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Palando

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I forgot to mention that Thrace shouldn't have Celtic culture. The La Tène findings are scattered there and neither settlements nor cemetries were found. This is also true for the ominous Tylis, which was founded after the attack on Delphi and lasted until approx. 212 BC.

I say this because the culture currently extends a bit too far into the Balkans, i.e. far too close to Greece. (Strip of land between Triballoi, Thracian and Macedonian culture)
CultureThrace.png
 

LoLLarN

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Very interesting and good read. Thank you for your research and contributions. I hope Paradox takes your info and implements it into the game.
 

Palando

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So what was Tylis then?
Simultaneous to the migration of the Galatians, another Celtic group migrated into north-eastern Thrace. They founded the city of Tylis there, but neither with the written sources nor with archeology has it been possible to locate its position. Some speculate that the reason for this could be that Tylis was a 'wandering city' or that the Celts became similar to the Thracians fast. Tylis lasted only around 70 years until it was destroyed by a Thracian uprising.
 

Zerodv

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Simultaneous to the migration of the Galatians, another Celtic group migrated into north-eastern Thrace. They founded the city of Tylis there, but neither with the written sources nor with archeology has it been possible to locate its position. Some speculate that the reason for this could be that Tylis was a 'wandering city' or that the Celts became similar to the Thracians fast. Tylis lasted only around 70 years until it was destroyed by a Thracian uprising.
But if it was destroyed specifically by a Thracian uprising, wouldn't it make sense to have it be Celtic to have that cultural unrest?
 

Palando

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But if it was destroyed specifically by a Thracian uprising, wouldn't it make sense to have it be Celtic to have that cultural unrest?
Tylis was founded in 279 BC, so nearly 30 years after the game starts. This was the first settlement of Celts in Thrace, so there shouldn't be Celts in Thrace.
 

Palando

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With the access to new maps (thanks dev clash :D), I re-made my map and made it look fancier:
Mapus.png
 

Neonate

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should those alleged Graeco Illyrians and taulantians, and Thracians be in the same culture group as macedonian/greek?

talking strictly from historical point of view. gameplay aside

by that logic, boetian and aetolian are same as aetolian and graeco illyrian
 

Palando

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should those alleged Graeco Illyrians and taulantians, and Thracians be in the same culture group as macedonian/greek?

talking strictly from historical point of view. gameplay aside

by that logic, boetian and aetolian are same as aetolian and graeco illyrian
It is assumed that the Illyrian languages were Indo-European just like Latin and Greek. Some Illyrians used Greek as their administrative language and aspired for the Greek 'way of life' in general. Similarly for the Thracians.

It's not that much of a stretch to have them in the Italics or Greek group, but one could obviously create more and more groups, as some cultures of a group are closer to each other than others.
 

Zerodv

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Isn't that Boihaemia too big? Is it possible to fragment it in constituent groups?
 

Palando

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Isn't that Boihaemia too big? Is it possible to fragment it in constituent groups?
The Bohemian-Moravian highlands were nearly uninhabited at that time. Most of the population lived around Prague and Brno, while both the highlands and the southern part of Bohemia proper had a very low population. The current state is, however, that it's even the more populous area of the Bohemian basin. I've pointed that out in my other thread that deals with Bohemia. Otherwise, there are no other tribes that inhabited the area.
 

Nykyus

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When did the Boii settle in Bohemia? They first lived next to the Senons in Northern Italy
 

Palando

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When did the Boii settle in Bohemia? They first lived next to the Senons in Northern Italy
In the 5th century BC. It also seems that the Boii that migrated to Italy came from Bohemia in the 4th century BC, as the Italians' style resembled the Bohemians' style.