• Crusader Kings III Available Now!

    The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Advisors may now jockey for positions of influence and adversaries should save their schemes for another day, because on this day Crusader Kings III can be purchased on Steam, the Paradox Store, and other major online retailers.


    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

unmerged(17581)

AARlander
Jun 12, 2003
8.591
8
Visit site
From the title I thought that you might be Nejd or something. :eek:o

But Oman is fun, too. But what's boring about 1836 start, 1891 civlised? :confused:

Anyways, great writing!
 

Sir Humphrey

Fat Cat Public Servant
33 Badges
Sep 21, 2003
6.108
1
s9.invisionfree.com
  • Cities: Skylines - Green Cities
  • Pride of Nations
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Cities: Skylines - Natural Disasters
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Cities: Skylines - Mass Transit
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • Cities: Skylines Industries
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Prison Architect
  • Crusader Kings III
  • 500k Club
  • Victoria 2
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Hearts of Iron III Collection
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Darkest Hour
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
Great update. A word of warning though. Wikipedia can sometimes be unreliable with information (especially about small detail), but usually a good source for AAR information.
 

unmerged(17581)

AARlander
Jun 12, 2003
8.591
8
Visit site
Mike von Bek and Sir Humphrey are confuzling me greatly with their identical avatars. :wacko:
 

Mike von Bek

Lt. General
85 Badges
Jun 28, 2002
1.472
0
Visit site
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Teleglitch: Die More Edition
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Ancient Relics
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Ancient Space
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
1839-1842: The Yemeni Conflict


The people generally are addicted to Theft, Rapine, and Robberies; hating all Sciences Mechanicall or Civill.​

1839-1842: The Yemeni Conflict

Misguided historians have often described the conflict between Oman and Yemen in the early 1840’s as a war between two unified states – but nothing could be further from the truth. At that time, Sultan Sa'id al bu Said of Oman controlled little beyond the coastal regions of his country. The Bedouin tribes of the interior paid lip-service to his decrees, if that.

As the bu Said dynasty had long since abandoned any pretence of religious authority, and there was no Imam of the Ibadi faith at that time, there was little the Sultan could do to control these unruly elements. Whilst he had greatly extended his control since taking the throne in 1806, he was still not the disputed master of his lands. The same could be said of Yemen.


Comparison of Oman and Yemen power, prior to Yemeni Conflict 1839-1843 (British Bureau of Statistics, London 2001)

There was in fact, no Sultan of Yemen – which had been divided since 1729 between the Sultan of Lahej in the south, and the Imamate of Sana in the north. Mohsin, the Sultan of Lahej, controlled Aden, which harboured the Qawasim pirates that had so precipitously begun the war. Aden had once been the greatest harbour in the region, such that the 16th century Italian explorer, Ludovico di Varthema had described it as a city so ‘mighty and powerful that I have hardly seen another city of its might during my life.’ It had thrown back Portuguese, Egyptian and Ottoman invaders, yet under the Lahej sultans, it had been reduced to a fishing village of little more than a 1000 people. But its great harbours, remnants of an ancient volcano, remained – and the pirates came.

Overview of Oman and Yemen, prior to Yemeni Conflict 1839-1843 (National Omani Archives, Muscat 2005)

Of course, the fractured state of Yemeni politics made little difference to Captain Atkins Hamerton, and none at all to the East India Company. Captain Hamerton had a mission, and he intended to fulfil it. The pirates were a threat to the vital Indian shipping route, and they had to be eliminated.

However, when Sultan Sa'id marched across the border into Hadramaut in July of 1839, Mohsin of Lahej wasted no time in turning to the powerful Imam of Sana, Abdullah al-Hassan. The Imam saw the conflict as an opportunity to bring the Sultan of Lahej under his control – and extend the power of the Imamate of Sana. He was convinced that the soldiers of Oman – led by a schismatic Ibadi Sultan, would fall before the righteous Sunni Moslems warriors of Yemen. He swiftly agreed to the alliance with Mohsin, and marched his troops south to join the Sultan of Lahej in Mokkha – the westernmost portion of Lahej. There they awaited the soldiers of Oman on a battleground of their own choosing.

As the Royal Army of Oman marched into Lahej, Captain Hamerton convinced Sultan Sa'id– who desired to test his new soldiers against his foes – that the best tactic would be to pacify the lands behind them, so as to secure their rear. The Sultan eventually agreed, though he split the Royal Army into two divisions, and granted control of one division to General Qasim al-Nawfuli, an Omani leader in the new style. General al-Nawfuli would be responsible for pacifying Hadramaut, whilst the Sultan marched west to Schibam.

Meanwhile, in the Gulf of Aden, the vessels of the Royal Navy of Oman fought a brutal tooth-and-nail campaign against pirate forces in order to assure Omani dominance of the seas. The Sultan, with his love of steamers and other naval projects, was convinced that dominance of the sea would factor into his victory. He demanded his Royal Navy win for him free and unfettered control of the coasts, which they eventually achieved.

By February of 1840, both Schibam and Hadramaut were under Omani control. Meanwhile, the Sultan of Lahej and Imam of Sana had moved their forces east to Aden itself – were they had spent six months preparing their forces, fortifying their positions and studying the terrain. General al-Nawfuli took advantage of this, and the Royal Navy swiftly transported his men to Mokkha, bypassing the two enemies altogether, and began to lay siege to the capital of Lahej.

For his part, the Sultan Sa'id marched into Aden – determined to face his untested soldiers against the Yemeni warriors. It was to prove a costly battle – the Yemeni fortifications were unassailable, their knowledge of the local terrain allowed them to attack and retreat swiftly, and the soldiers of the Royal Army swiftly became discouraged. After two weeks of fierce battles the Sultan was forced to retreat to Schibam. The Sultan of Lahej swiftly followed, attempting to rout the retreating soldiers, and the Sultan was forced to move further west to Hadramaut, where they swiftly regrouped under their Sultan – and were able to set about re-organising themselves for another assault.

It is interesting to note that Captain Hamerton’s diaries blame the loss not on the location and fortifications of the Yemeni warriors, but rather on the Ottoman military advisors – many of whom were still attached to the Royal Army. He concluded that they lacked the ability to lead men properly, and that this lack was directly responsible for the Omani defeat. “They were not defeated in battle, but in mind”, he would later write of the Royal Army. It is interesting to note that in the years following the Yemeni Conflict, the Sultan of Oman would turn to the British Empire to provide his military advisors.

In Hadramaut, the Sultan was disheartened by the defeat, and the Imam of Sana quickly proposed a treaty – without informing the Sultan of Lahej – ceding both Hadramaut and Schibam to Oman, in return for peace. It is unknown whether Sultan Seyd seriously considered this treaty or not, as the Sultan of Lahej became aware of the treaty and quickly denied it.

Infuriated, the Imam of Sana marched west, where his warriors surprised General al-Nawfuli from the rear, forcing him to retreat to Aden. The Imam of Sana then set about undoing General al-Nawfuli’s work, as he had succeeded in bringing Mokkha under Omani control.

It was now November of 1840. The impetus of the Omani invasion had been blocked, and they now found themselves engaged in what looked like a long-term war. One that perhaps they, with their new methodologies, was better prepared to fight than the warriors of Yemen, whose leaders already had begun to look at each other with scepticism. The alliance of Lahej and Sana, not even a year old, now found itself on shaky ground. The Royal Army of Oman, though defeated, swiftly regained its composure – sure of its eventual superiority. Conversely, the warriors of Yemen saw every loss as an insurmountable defeat – a sign of Allah’s displeasure – and it was only with great effort that the Sultan of Lajeh and the Imam of Sana would be able to force them to continue to fight.

Sultan Sa'id al Bu Said leads an attack on Sultan Mohsin of Lahej (National Omani Archives, Muscat 2005)

Meanwhile, in Hadramaut, Sultan Sa'id summoned up his remaining men and boarded the vessels of the Royal Navy and joined the retreating General al-Nawfuli in Aden, bypassing the Sultan of Lahej who was still occupied in Schibam. There, the united Royal Army led a vicious rear-guard campaign against the Sultan of Lahej in January of 1841. Abandoned by the Imam of Sana, Mohsin’s warriors broke, fleeing back to Aden – were the Royal Army fell upon them, and destroyed the forces of Lajeh. The Sultan of Lahej himself was captured, and brought before Sultan Sa'id and forced to sign a humiliating treaty that reduced him in power to little more than a local chieftain. The independence of Lajeh was at an end.

Aden had fallen to the Royal Army of the Oman, and Sultan Sa'id turned his eyes north, to the Imamate of Sana. The Imam remained in Mokkha, which he had reclaimed from Omani forces, and began to fortify his positions in the mountains. His position swiftly became all but unassailable. Thus, while General al-Nawfuli remained behind in Aden to continue pacification of any remaining forces, Sultan Sa'id sailed north with Captain Hamerton to Haradja, where he quickly lay siege to the capital of the Imamate.

To the south, the Imam saw a chance, and swiftly struck at the forces of the General al-Nawfuli in March of 1841. In a daring dawn raid, Imam Abdullah was able to capture the General, whom he swiftly executed. The 2nd Division of the Royal Army was broken, and fled before the warriors of the Imam, who ran them down in great numbers.

Hearing of this, Sultan Sa'id was enraged. The execution of a prisoner was antithetical to an Ibadi Moslem. Violence was given religious consent in almost only one case – that of the unjust Imam or ruler. Sultan Sa'id declared that Imam Abdullah al-Hassan was such a man, and he demanded of Captain Hamerton that the British assist in the defeat of this man, or he would eject the Resident from Muscat and turn to the French who were eager to extend their influence in the region.

With little choice, Captain Hamerton contacted a passing British vessel, and within a month a detachment of Royal Marines had joined the Royal Army of Oman, which was greatly buoyed in spirit by the appearance of these soldiers that they strove to emulate.

This combined force then marched south, and attacked the Imam’s forces in Mokkha, where he had returned after executing the Omani General. With the assistance of the Royal Marines, the outcome was in no doubt whatsoever – and in late April of 1841, the Imam was killed in battle at Mokkha. The warriors of the northern Imamate were slaughtered, much as they had done to General al-Nawfuli’s army a few scant months before. In fact, such was the slaughter that ‘Sa'ids Revenge’ became a byword for bloody vengeance on a massive scale in later years.

However, even with their forces broken, it would not be until August of the following year that the Imamate of Sana would be incorporated into Oman.

The Yemeni Conflict had taken three long years to resolve. Of the twenty thousand men of the Royal Army of Oman who had marched into Yemen in 1839, less than ten thousand would march out. An entire division had been lost, a costly loss that would take several years to resolve.

For the bloody price it paid, the Sultanate of Oman had greatly increased its power. Now not only the most powerful Arabian state economically, it was also the largest. The soldiers of the Royal Army had been tested, and had seen the worth of their new training and weaponry. Oman was poised now as the dominant native force of the Peninsula.

Kingdom of Oman, 1842 (National Omani Archives, Muscat 2005)
 
Last edited:

Stuyvesant

Field Marshal
40 Badges
Dec 7, 2002
6.230
39
Visit site
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Magicka
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Semper Fi
  • The Showdown Effect
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Leviathan: Warships
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Achtung Panzer
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Cities in Motion
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For the Motherland
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
I'm sure that in the long run it will pay off to have incorporated Yemen into the Omani state, but are there any risks associated with it? Now that you've effectively lost half your army until you can reinforce it, is there anyone out there in your neighbourhood strong enough to pounce on you? I don't quite remember what the situation on the Arabian Peninsula is like.

Another question:
...and within a month a detachment of Royal Marines had joined the Royal Army of Oman, which was greatly buoyed in spirit by the appearance of these soldiers that they strove to emulate.
Is that literary embellishment or were you allied to the Brits and did they send you an expeditionary force?
 

Mike von Bek

Lt. General
85 Badges
Jun 28, 2002
1.472
0
Visit site
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Teleglitch: Die More Edition
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Ancient Relics
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Ancient Space
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
Morning gang, sorry about the lack of photos - it was rather late last night when I posted this and I didnt get a chance to add any. I should be able to go thru the whole AAR and add screen-shots to the various updates over the weekend. I think this chapter may have been rather large, in future I may break down such posts to cover wars in several posts.

The next update probably wont be until the weekend unfortunately, as Im fairly busy thru to Friday night. I might try and sneak in a short update on Thursday (ha, short!), so lets keep our fingers crossed.

Stuyvesant: Taking Yemen does jump the BB up a bit, true - in the next post Ill discuss some of the wider implications of the move, particularly in relation to the Ottomans. The Ottomans start the game quite friendly with the Omani's, so they arent particularly fussed. The Egyptians however... in regards the other Arab kingdoms, the only one that borders Oman at present is Abu Dhabi, which is of no threat at all. Although I have to admit, Ive never lost a division whilst taking Yemen before, so... we shall see - Ive only played as far as 1843 as of this post :)

And yes, it was complete embellishment to use the British. Im not allied to them, or British India at this time (though I eventually hope to achieve such). In RL the British took Aden with a company of the Royal Marines, so I thought it would be nice to use them - in order to show the British supporting the Omani's in their proxy war.

Sir Humphrey: Thanks! But I hear you on Wikipedia - I use it as a base resource only, for which it is very good. For example, its got nothing on Lajeh or Sana - and dumps them all into a made-up kingdom called Yemen. But then, most other historical resources do the same. Sadly, there is very little information available about the Peninsula nations prior to the British arrival. Makes it difficult when looking for some of the names, and such. But - apart from General al-Nawfuli, every single name mentioned thus far existed in real life in much the capacity Ive shown them here, even the poorly named Atkins Hamerton :)

Pablo Sanchez: Wow, youre favourite AAR? Thanks! *blush* I'll admit, its my favourite too - but Im kinda biased :) As to whether Ill be able to make it a better place, I guess we'll have to wait and see!

Anon4401: Ha ha, if I chose the Nejd, Id probably have to name the AAR something like 'Saudi Arabia: Choose Your Friends Wisely'. A Saudi AAR in WW1 with al-Laurens himself would be rather interesting tho. As to our avatars, well - it must be an Aussie thing :)
 

unmerged(17581)

AARlander
Jun 12, 2003
8.591
8
Visit site
Seems to me that you haven't posted a single in-game screenshot.

Is it from lack thereof or from a desire to keep this AAR with that sense of pure historical realism?
 

Sir Humphrey

Fat Cat Public Servant
33 Badges
Sep 21, 2003
6.108
1
s9.invisionfree.com
  • Cities: Skylines - Green Cities
  • Pride of Nations
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Cities: Skylines - Natural Disasters
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Cities: Skylines - Mass Transit
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • Cities: Skylines Industries
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Prison Architect
  • Crusader Kings III
  • 500k Club
  • Victoria 2
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Hearts of Iron III Collection
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Darkest Hour
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
Wikipedia is a good base source, but maybe you should have a look in a library. University Libraries are very good, or maybe online papers?
 

unmerged(17581)

AARlander
Jun 12, 2003
8.591
8
Visit site
Yes, university libraries are awesome. Unless there's some crazy guy that claims he's the Emperor of China trying to burn down the Chinese section. Then they turn you away at the door if you don't have an ID ready. :mad:
 

Sir Humphrey

Fat Cat Public Servant
33 Badges
Sep 21, 2003
6.108
1
s9.invisionfree.com
  • Cities: Skylines - Green Cities
  • Pride of Nations
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Cities: Skylines - Natural Disasters
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Cities: Skylines - Mass Transit
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • Cities: Skylines Industries
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Prison Architect
  • Crusader Kings III
  • 500k Club
  • Victoria 2
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Hearts of Iron III Collection
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Darkest Hour
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
Is that likely to happen in most places?
 

Mike von Bek

Lt. General
85 Badges
Jun 28, 2002
1.472
0
Visit site
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Teleglitch: Die More Edition
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Ancient Relics
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Ancient Space
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
Well, its never happened to me - but then, I dont go to the Library. Maybe I should - sounds like the Library is where the action is :)

As you can see, Ive got around to adding some graphics - I finally located my old photoshop CD! I'll try and make the gfx a bit more presentable on the weekend, and fill out the other posts as well. I'll re-edit the banners to drop the size a bit too - gotta keep it friendly for our 56k brethren!

Next update probably wont be till Sunday. Sorry gang.
 

Stuyvesant

Field Marshal
40 Badges
Dec 7, 2002
6.230
39
Visit site
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Magicka
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Semper Fi
  • The Showdown Effect
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Leviathan: Warships
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Achtung Panzer
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Cities in Motion
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For the Motherland
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
Nice! Not only did you take the time to add some screenshots, you went even further and spent some time on their presentation! I particularly like those little 'copyright notices', a nice little touch. :)
 

Fiftypence

Debased coinage
27 Badges
Aug 19, 2004
3.308
69
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis: Rome Collectors Edition
  • 500k Club
  • 200k Club
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For The Glory
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Deus Vult
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II
I'd like to second what Stuyvesant said about the screenshots. Nice going in conquering Yemen. Btw, you do know this has won the Weekly Showcase, right?
 

Mike von Bek

Lt. General
85 Badges
Jun 28, 2002
1.472
0
Visit site
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Teleglitch: Die More Edition
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Ancient Relics
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Ancient Space
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
1842-1845: Peace, Arms, and Money



Our school is correctness bearing the possibility of error, and the schools of our adversaries are erroneous bearing the possibility of correctness.
– Shaikh Muhammad Yusuf Atfaiyish, regarding the Ibadhi faith​

1842-1845: Peace, Arms, and Money

In the wake of the destructive Yemeni Conflict, Oman now found itself as the largest Arabian power in the Peninsula. However, the loss of General al-Nawfuli’s army had cost the Omani kingdom dearly, and the size and strength of its armed forces was not commensurate with its landmass. In essence, it was weak militarily – and the elements of the East India Company that had favoured the proxy war now realised that far from strengthening the Omanis, it had weakened them.

Sultan Sa’id was not un-aware of this. In order to maintain his new possessions, he would have to increase the size of the Royal Army of Oman. However, it had become painfully apparent during the Yemeni Conflict that the Ottoman Empire was not capable of providing the training necessary to create a true Western military. Increasingly, the Omani’s reliance on technology and aggressive desire to break the will of the enemy was at odds with the more hidebound doctrine of the Ottomans.

In order to improve the Royal Army of Oman, the Sultan turned to the British and particularly the British Consul, Captain Atkins Hamerton. He requested of the British government British officers to train the Royal Army of Oman, but was disheartened to discover that there was a sizeable price attached to the deal. Captain Hamerton informed the Sultan that in return for training, the British would require three provisos.

The first was that the Sultan would agree to purchase his arms and military supplies from British merchants. This was a pre-emptive move by the East India Company to stop the growth of French influence, who had recently become active in the area once again.

The second proviso was much more troubling – the Sultan would agree to end the export of slaves from his East African possessions. In effect, this would end Oman’s slave-trading economy.

The final proviso was to allow the British to establish a resupply point in Aden, and to ensure that all British citizens would fall under British, rather than Omani law. In a sense, this was actually rather more beneficial to the Sultan than to the British – a British military presence in Aden would help quell the regions populace, and the safety guaranteed by British law would encourage British merchants to trade in Oman, secure in the safety of their persons and their goods.

The Sultan, who with Captain Hamerton’s influence had become an ardent fan of Western military, had little choice. He knew well the benefits of a Western trained and Western led army, and was an ardent fan of Western military technology – in 1855, shortly before the Sultans death, Captain Hamerton would present Sa’id with one of the first breech-loaded rifles. In the end, there was little choice – and in late 1843 the Sultan agreed to end the export of slaves from Zanzibar, though the Hamerton Treaty would not be formally signed by Sa’id until 1845.

With British officers and equipment on the way, the Sultan raised two new regiments which were to be fully trained by the British. The remaining irregular forces – the veterans of the Yemeni conflict, having been trained under the Ottomans – were now relegated to an auxiliary force, responsible for guarding the supply trains of the new British-trained regiments.

The training of these regiments – once complete – had an immediate effect, as in a series of short campaigns the Sultan was able to bring the Bedouin tribes of Raschid, on the border of the Rub al-Khali, under his direct authority. The Sultan was delighted with his new soldiers, and heaped praise upon their British officers. He also became enamoured of the bagpipes, which the British had brought with them. An intensely musical people, the Omani’s relished any opportunity to incorporate music in their military affairs, and as such the bagpipe was swiftly adopted by the new soldiers. To this day, the Royal Omani Pipers remain a local and tourist favourite.

The safety guaranteed British merchants, the resolution of the Eastern Question, as well as Sultan Sa’id’s large purchases of arms and other materiel led to an increased British merchant presence in the region. Aden swiftly became the heart of British commerce in the Arabian Peninsula, with its natural harbours and prime location at the mouth of the Red Sea. Whilst the Suez Canal would not exist until 1869, the short overland route from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea was often taken by merchants in preference to the long and dangerous journey around the Cape of Good Hope, and Aden swiftly became a prime port along both routes.

In early 1845, with the Sultans blessing, an Indian firm began a steamer service between Aden and Zanzibar. This would serve to tie the Sultan East African possessions even tighter to the kingdom, which led – even in light of the Hamerton treaty – to a stronger economy for Oman. In the years to come, the Indian firm would add Bombay to its itinerary – which would serve to bring the Sultanate even further under the influence of the British.

In fact, European presence in the region was exploding in light of the Second Oriental Crisis and the resolution of the ‘Eastern Question’ which had occurred during the Yemeni Conflict. Essentially, in 1838 the Pasha of Egypt, Mehmed Ali, made what amounted to a declaration of independence by refusing to pay further tribute to the Sublime Porte (as the government of the Ottoman Empire was known). The Ottoman Empire, which for years had tried to bring the truculent Mehmed Ali to heel, was left with little choice and declared war in 1839, one week prior to Oman’s declaration of war on the kingdoms of Yemen. The uncertainty provided by this Crisis may have had some influence upon the East India Company’s decision to engage in a proxy, rather than direct war, in Yemen.

The European Powers watched with trepidation as the Ottoman Empire and Egyptians warred, and the Russians watched with abject pleasure – any weakening of the Ottoman Empire furthered Russia’s avowed goal of controlling Constantinople, and fulfilling Peter the Greats century long dream.

Fearing an intervention by the Russian, the Western powers met together in December of 1839 to decide the settlement of this ‘Eastern Question’. They offered to recognise Mehmed Ali as hereditary Pasha of Egypt, as well as confirming him Pasha of Syria for his own lifetime. Mehmed was a gifted soldier, and had forced the British to terms in the early 19th century following an ill-conceived campaign in Alexandria. Perhaps believing that he could do so again, he refused the European overtures – and was made to pay the price.

The British Navy swiftly bombarded and destroyed the forts of Beirut and Acre, forcing Mehmed Ali to the negotiation table. The treaty offered was harsh – Mehmed, whilst still being confirmed as hereditary Pasha of Egypt was forced to relinquish Syria and to promise continued tribute payments to the Sublime Porte. Worst of all, Mecca was returned to the Ottoman Empire, under whose control it was to remain for the next century.

For Oman, this removed the Egyptian presence on her border, and the far friendlier forces of the Padishah now replaced them. The Padishah confirmed the Omani possessions in Yemen, and reaffirmed the ties between the two nations.

However, the peace the peace the Omani’s had experienced the last few years was to be short lived, and the Sultans new regiments would not remain inexperienced for long. For in the Trucial States north of Oman, the French had begun to aggressively expand their influence – something neither the East India Company, nor the Sultan were willing to tolerate.
 

Mike von Bek

Lt. General
85 Badges
Jun 28, 2002
1.472
0
Visit site
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Teleglitch: Die More Edition
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Ancient Relics
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Ancient Space
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
Howdy gang - apologies for the delay - it was a busier weekend than I expected, what with Henri Rollins, basketball championships and the like. But enough with my pathetic excuses - on with the show. As can be seen with this post, Im attempting to keep tabs on the local arena - the Ottoman Empire/Egypt in this case, which I hope to do in the future - assuming it doesnt throw my posts out to giant size - I already feel they are starting to push the boundaries of what is really readable in a sitting. I may have to put together a PDF or Word document.

No screenshots in this post, though I will try and add some later on tonight of the new Ottoman Empire and the like - sorry guys.

hasskugel: Thanks, I agree - initially, I felt they might distract from the text. But Im liking how they add to it, actually - Im currently replaying the first few years as Oman in order to get screenshots for the earlier posts which will hopefully be coming soon.

Stuyvesant: Ha ha, I was wondering if anyone would notice them :) I kind of threw them in as a spur of the moment, but I do think now that they add to the 'authenticity' of the piece. Now I just have to play around with some sienna filters in photoshop to aquire that 'old photo' style look.

Fiftypence: Thanks! As to winning the Weekly AAR Showcase - I didnt know until you told me, and since I dont generally hang around the General AAR forum, I might never have known - so thanks. Im glad the AAR won it though, as I think its my best work - and Im quite proud of it, so Im glad that others like it. Leaves me in a bit of a pickle though, having to choose the next one - my fave AAR right now is Gjerg Kastrioti's Guomanding - and thats already been selected! :)
 
Last edited:

Lord Boreal

Pangalactic Gargleblaster
67 Badges
May 22, 2004
2.808
5
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Semper Fi
  • Sword of the Stars
  • Victoria 2
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Mount & Blade: With Fire and Sword
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Stellaris
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
  • Cities: Skylines - Mass Transit
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mandate of Heaven
  • Stellaris: Lithoids
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Cities in Motion
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Diplomacy
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Divine Wind
  • For the Motherland
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III Collection
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Magicka
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
Great AAR Mike, nice to see an Arabian one, go smash them Ottomans :)

I'd just like to point out to King of Minors that I do enjoy the first line of your signature. You may also notice that the new Knights of Honor has a typo in the last word of its title :D
 

Stuyvesant

Field Marshal
40 Badges
Dec 7, 2002
6.230
39
Visit site
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Magicka
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Semper Fi
  • The Showdown Effect
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Leviathan: Warships
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Achtung Panzer
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Cities in Motion
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Deus Vult
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For the Motherland
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
I like the added attention to the world around you. It's always nice to know the country you play doesn't exist in a vacuum. I hope you also manage to keep in those references to the slow modernization of Oman, it is after all what Victoria is all about, right? The industrialization/political development of the world during the game time frame.

To finish things off, an ominous reference to more war on the horizon. Let's see who you're going to hit next (or should that be: who is going to hit you next?)...