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From: ---------@----.edu
To: umg@-----.com
Subject: Re: request for Leon lecture notes

Here they are. I copied the transparencies too.


33udf7q.gif


the iberian peninsula
mid-11th century
five christian kings: galician, leon, castille, aragon, navarra
galicia is coastal
leon is central
castille is the richest
aragon is the weakest
navarra is the basque homeland
barcelona is christian but not a kingdom
rest of iberia controlled by islamic powers

iberian kings are brothers and stand to inherit each other's titles
alfonso the wise of leon poisons fernando the great of castille
alfonso the wise inherits castille, uniting the kingdoms in 1065
alfonso the wise attempts to poison garcia of galicia
he is not successful
garcia's wife bears children who stand to inherit
alfonso the wise assassinates the children
in one case a wet nurse is the killer
the two kings trade assassins for years
ultimately alfonso the wise is victorious
three kingdoms united in 1077
duchies of leon and galicia become personal territory of king of leon
alfonso the wise dies in 1080
he is 40 years old
supposedly he died of typhus or an infected wound
more likely he was poisoned
navarra is overrun by france in 1091
navarra will never again be considered a kingdom
basque power wanes

leon turns to the reconquista
iberian catholic belief in holy mission to conquer islamic iberia
alfonso the just declares kingdom of portugal in 1090
duchies "liberated" in rest of iberia
bajadoz: 1104
seville: 1110
toledo: 1113
cordoba: 1114
granada: 1120
meanwhile, france dominates aragon

leon invades africa
kingdom of mauretania declared by garcia the noble in 1190
kingdom of africa declared by juan-alfonso the hunter in 1266
france captures fez
initially these conquests are unproductive and rebellious
gradually they assimilate, becoming catholic and culturally iberian
some of most technologically advanced areas in world
on paper, kingdom of africa includes byzantine cyrenacia
this boundary dispute is never resolved

16c6scl.gif


leon conquers france and claims aragon
previous policy of friendship with france
navarra taken from france during french civil war by alfonse viii in 1127
alfonse viii is first iberian king to marry a moorish woman
umm bint ya'far, salacious poet from cadiz
wars for aragon begun by pedro the fat in 1276
a long series of separate hostilities
sometimes conducted against breakaway capet states
capet aragon independent during much of the fighting

luis the cruel, jimena count of atlas mountain in africa, claims french throne
successfully installed by vela the cruel in 1375
this follows an earlier failed attempt
vela the cruel was infamous for killing to gain the crown
the origin of luis the cruel's claim to france remains mysterious
beginning of end for capet dynasty
capets linger as leaders of french breakaway states

jimena kings of france do not end leon/france hostilities
france repeatedly intervenes in civil wars against kings of leon
leon continues to acquire french territory
french military no match for arab armies developed to crusade
iberian jinetes lead to crushing victories

fez captured in 1420 by fadrique ii
majorca captured in 1443 by menendo i
at this time the duchy of majorca includes amiens
fadrique ii declares himself king of aragon in 1422
conquest of aragon completed by menendo i in 1444
nearly 350 years since france took aragon from its jimena king
french influence visible in barcelona even today

scb37t.gif


leon made many crusades
european powers in general crusaded often
even vassals of leon crusaded
such as tlemcen, tangiers, alger, bajadoz
but crusades were almost all unsuccessful
crusades focused on holy land, specifically ascalon and jerusalem
leon captured ascalon and declared duchy of ascalon in 1217
under the command of juan-alfonso the fat

leon's kings were catholic, with two exceptions
juan-alfonso the great, reigned 1314-1356, byzantine-educated, popular
and benito i, reigned 1356-1368, by all accounts inadequate
ascalon declared independence during reign of juan-alfonso the great
catholic religious unrest a factor
independence successfully suppressed
but left ascalon weak
shi'ite caliph invaded, successful jihad to reclaim ascalon in 1323
civil war left leon unable to intervene effectively

legend has it that ascalon was protected by fadrique the magician
fadrique diaz never held land
but he was an important member of the jimena family
grandson of facundo the fat of leon and kaiser ulrich i of the holy roman empire
married into english royal line
later remarried into scottish royal line
key advisor to pedro the fat, juan-alfonso the ill-ruler, juan-alfonso the great
studied with jewish kabbalists in ascalon
wrote extensively on gematria (sacred numerology)
lived nearly 80 years
ascalon fell shortly after his death

all other attempts for jerusalem and ascalon unsuccessful
the eight year crusade began when the caliphate collapsed
but the caliphate reconstituted itself and retook the coastal castles
the crusade ended in failure
shia caliphate true success story of the east
withstood catholic military power, byzantine empire, eastern invasions

15hhba1.gif


the rise of leon was also the rise of a remarkable family
the jimena dynasty remained central to leon throughout its flourit
this is a map of areas whose highest authority was a jimena
map shows mid-15th century
80 years after the overthrow of capet france
france has a jimena king
although those kings were often at war with leon over aragon
what you see in the east are territories of the golden horde
under dwarf empress gaudina ironside, the orthodox jimena mongol
byzantine sources claim she was visibly moorish
note also jimena rule in parts of wales, norway, and italy
at this point leon is allied with france, england, scotland, and bohemia

after 1478 the reformation would essentially destroy leon and the jimenas
leon was a fundamentally catholic power
africa, mauretania, andalucia break away to form the free western principalities
following tradition of heir to leon being prince of mauritania
prefigures modern republic of mediterranean
castille, aragon, portugal declare independence
leon is invaded by france and becomes galicia
1510, alcacerian dynasty begins
spain is not united until 1622 and only includes pre-reconquista territory

reminder to study for midterm