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Introduction

Osterreich Will Rule

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The year is 280 BC, and Europe stands at the crossroads of destiny.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 7.57.26 AM.png


In the East, the Mauryan Empire stands ready to dominate India under the rulership of Bindusara, son of Chandragupta. While local dominance is assured, it still remains to be seen whether Mauryans will strike against the Hellenic Kingdoms to its West.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 7.57.45 AM.png


Those Hellenic Kingdoms have never been so fractured. Just a mere year ago Seleucus had conquered Makedonia and Thrace, and was making plans to conquer Egypt and unite Alexander's Empire. But with his assassination by Ptolemy Keraunos, his own vassal king of Makedon and brother of Ptolemy II of Egypt, Seleucus's dream lay broken on the sand. Now his son Antiochus makes plans to reclaim the West, even as the East falls further and further out of his grasp.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 7.59.17 AM.png


On the other side of the Mediterranean, Carthage lies battered, but recovering. Issue with colonial unrest and political infighting from the previous century still hamper their expansion into Syracuse, but with the ongoing events in Magna Graecia the Mediterranean power may now have another shot at complete naval supremacy.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.00.53 AM.png


The barbarous lands of Britannia, Gallia, and Germania lay divided as ever. Without a strong leader, they will remained divided and weak, waiting for a Mediterranean power to venture northwards and try their hand at controlling the tribes.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.01.17 AM.png


Greece itself is a period of great upheaval. With the sudden collapse of Seleucus's domain, the Greeks have once again regained independence from Makedonian overlords. Yet with Ptolemy Keraunos's reestablishment of the Kingdom of Makedon, and his alliance with both his brother and the ascendant lord of Epirus, Pyrrhus, many wonder how long it will last. Even so, the reformation of the Aetolian, Achaean, and Arcadian Leagues spells a great cataclysm that will soon take place in the birthplace of the west. But that is not where our story starts.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.01.36 AM.png


It has been 474 years since the founding of Rome by Romulus. While at first a city-state ruled by the family of Romulus, the monarchy would be abolished after the assassination of Servius Tullius, who reformed the city's army into a phalanx structure, by his arrogant son-in-law Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Replacing the monarchy would be the Senate, made up of the elite patricians, and later on, the plebeians. Rome would slowly expand, conquering their neighbors of Veii and Antium before seizing the rich Etruscan mining cities to the north, while fighting many long and difficult campaigns against the adaptive Samnites, who still remained independent in the South of Italy.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.08.14 AM.png


In 282 BC (or 472 by Roman Standards), the Greek city-state of Thurii in Southern Italy requests a Roman garrison. The local power in Magna Graecia, Taras, was outraged at this perceived encroachment on their sphere of influence, and attacked Roman supply ships to their new ally in the South. Over the next year, hostilities continued to grow as Rome established garrisons in Locri, Croton, and Rhegium. With this, the city of Taras sent pleas to Phyrrus, King of Epirus, and legend of the Greek world, to intervene on their behalf and reclaim Southern Italy for the city. Phyrrus, planning on expanding his realm into Magna Graecia, accepted, and in late 281 BC would go to the South. There he would reaffirm his alliance with the Aetolian League, request and receive aid and guarantees from his Ptolemaic allies, and consult the Oracle of Delphi on his plans.

That meeting would change the course of history.

---

Table of Contents

The Pyrrhic War (280-277)
The Invasion of Epirus (277-275)
Omnium Rerum Principia Parva Sunt (275-269)
Lords of Graecia (269-266)
Rome Ascendant (266-254)
The Ashes of a More Glorious Time (254-240)
Interlude: A World Divided (240)
Securing the Republic (240-228)
The Iberian Campaigns (228-218)
The Rise of the Populares (218-214)
The Second Makedonian War (214-210)

---

Hello, and welcome to my AAR of the Imperium Universalis mod for EU4 as Rome. With all the news about the upcoming game Imperator, I decided to start a game as Rome, with plans to play a game as Rome when Imperator comes out and compare the two games. This AAR will feature narrative portions written in either a history book style like above or in a person account style for major characters. I will also occasionally comment on the mechanics of EU4 and the mod, saying what I think it does well, poorly, and how I think Imperator could improve off the mod.

Big shout out to Zenphoenix. His Hohenzollern Mega Campaign inspired my first AAR on this site and he has helped me a lot when it comes to writing, both from advice and from reading his work. Check it out if you haven't.
 
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stnylan

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Will look forward to it
 

Nikolai

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Same here, looking forward to reading it. :)
 
Chapter 1

Osterreich Will Rule

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The Pyrrhic War (280-277)

Pyrrhic adjective
To be hesitant or unwilling to take action even when victory is assured
Pyrrhus.jpg



Before one can speak of the Pyrrhic War, one first must know of Pyrrhus himself. Pyrrhus was born as heir to the kingdom of Epirus and a distant relative to Alexander the Great in 318 BC. Due to a multitude of coups during his childhood, Pyrrhus's family were forced from power, and Pyrrhus was left without his birthright. Nevertheless, Pyrrhus was a strong general and intelligent planner, and when the Wars of the Diadochi broke out he would serve as a commander under the Antigonid dynasty with distinction. However, it was peace, not war, which brought him the most glory. Under one of the many peace treaties of the era, Pyrrhus was given to the Ptolemic court of Egypt as a hostage. While there, Pyrrhus would marry the stepdaughter of Ptolemy I, and eventually coerced him into reinstalling Pyrrhus as a co-king of Epirus with the current ruler, to act as an ally on the Western side of Makedon. From this position, Pyrrhus would continue to amass power, eventually seizing all of Epirus.

Delphi.jpg



Pyrrhus was not only a brilliant military leader, but also a very devote worshipper of the Greek Pantheon. When Taras first sent letters requesting the assistance of Epirus, Pyrrhus was enthusiastic. His attempts to conquer Makedon were thwarted first by Seleucus's victory, and then by the rise of Ptolemy Keraunos. With this invitation, he may finally achieve his plans of carving out a Greek kingdom for himself rivaling the Alexandrian successor states and earn himself a position equal to his 2 Ptolemaic allies. However, as a true worshipper of Apollo, he went to the Oracle of Delphi to consult her wisdom, just as Alexander had done before invading Persia.

But instead of words of encouragement, he was met with warnings. The Oracle warned of death, failure despite success, and the loss of his small kingdom. These messages shook Pyrrhus to his core. However, he still accepted Taras's offer, and began to muster a grand force of Epirotes, Makedonians, and Greeks.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.16.10 AM.png


While the Epirote Intervention into Italian Affairs, the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt began its own expansion in all directions. The massive manpower and rich trade income from the Nile combined with their alliance with the 2 greatest powers of Greece and the sudden decline of their Seleucid Rivals meant that dominance of the East was within their grasp. It was during this period where the first contact between Egypt and Rome occurred, when Egyptian aid to help Taras was intercepted by Romans.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.16.27 AM.png


The war in Italy quickly turned in the favor of the Roman Republic. Despite the early seizure of Thurii and Heraclea by the Tarantines, their army would be found and crushed by 2 Manipular Legions under the command of Marcus Valerius Corvus with the assistance of some Etruscan Cavalry. With this defeat, Taras was left without an army in the field, and would be doomed to conquest by Rome without the speedy arrival of Pyrrhus.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.17.37 AM.png


But Pyrrhus never arrived, and Rome would liberate both Thurii and Heraclea, as well as declare war on Metapontion, a local city that had been supporting the Tarantines. While winter would force the withdrawal of the armies, the next year's campaign would be lead by Decius Licinius Felix, not only a good military commander but also an experienced diplomat who knew the tactics of the local tribes well.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.23.39 AM.png


Felix quickly lead the Republic to victory in Metapontion, opening the way to Taras. However, fearing a surprise arrival from Pyrrhus in his rear, Felix withdrew, choosing another direction to attack the Tarantines.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.25.35 AM.png


That direction would be through the Illyrian tribes to the north. Accusing such tribes as plotting to raid the supply trains of his army, Felix attacked, promising the land taken to a variety of local Samnites and other Illyrians.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.26.02 AM.png


The campaign was a quick affair, with the 2 Legions quickly overwhelming the tribes in a surprise attack while Felix was away negotiating with the Greek city-states. In truth, the battle had been completely accidental, with the Romans simply wandering into the tribal army. This is most apparent in the writings of Lucius Cornelius Scipio, a military tribune of the army who had helped take command during the battle, and is a primary source for much of the early actions in the war.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.27.36 AM.png


Felix's time away from the army had been quite successful. After a long a tense negotiation, he was successfully able to pressure the Metapontion Council into accepting a permanent garrison, as well as pay a heft amount of coin in reparations for aiding the Tarantines.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.43.30 AM.png


With the news of the surrender of Metapontion came also the fall of Taras. Attacked from 2 sides, abandoned by their fellow city-states and with Pyrrhus still gathering troops on the mainland, the people of the city rose up and overthrew the defenders, handing the city to Rome.

Some wonder why Pyrrhus never crossed the Adriatic to aid his Tarantine allies. The answer to that question is one of the greatest enemies of a military commander: weather. Due to the warnings of the Oracle, Pyrrhus stayed in Epirus for another year, strengthening his alliances, executing opportunistic governors, and growing his army. Yet by the time he was ready to cross in 279 BC, the weather turned against him, and his fleet was wrecked on the Greek shore. With such loss of men and materials, Pyrrhus was forced stay in Epirus until his army had recovered. Some historians speculate that if Pyrrhus has crossed sooner, he would have prevented the defeat of the Tarantine Army, and gained the support of the Samnites, but in the end it is just speculation. Despite these failures, Pyrrhus still promised liberation for the Greek city-states, and continued to support the local tribes and cities which resisted the Romans. Rome would still not have its dominance yet.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.47.44 AM.png


The winter of 278 BC saw the election of Cornelius Metellus, an military genius, in order to subdue the remaining forces on the Peninsula. Felix, despite all his work, would be sent home in disgrace for "dealing with barbarians", according to Lucius Cornelius Scipio.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.53.26 AM.png


Metellus quickly raise a 3rd legion to add to the southern army, and would lead all 3 of them to victory against the Illyrian tribes, splitting his forces when subduing villages and then quickly reuniting them to defeat major pockets of resistance.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.55.32 AM.png


Lucius Cornelius Scipio writes that Metellus, after subduing the Illyrians, detached one legion and sent them against the Lucanian Tribes, finally fulfilling Rome's promise of protection to the Greek city-states. Metellus, however stayed with his men, and began ordering them to build a fleet of ships, with the aid of his brother, Marcus Calpurnius Metellus.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 8.58.59 AM.png


Calpurnius Metellus, unlike his brother, had no knowledge of military matters, but was a genius a shipbuilding theory. Born just a year after Cornelius, Calpurnius was constantly in his brothers shadow, and when time came to select military tribunes he was given a very inglorious post helping protect the northern Etruscan towns. However, while there, he became fascinated by the pirates of Pisae, the sole remaining Etruscan power independent of Rome, and after a punitive raid on one of their mainland bases Calpurnius had the benefit of capturing many of these brigands. These men would join his personal retinue, and as his tribuneship went on Calpurnius became more and more skilled in seamanship. While his brother rose in the ranks of the Cursus Honorum through pure military skill, Calpurnius was elected due to his intricate knowledge of the waters, which while looked down upon in Roman society, was still valued. When it came time for Consular selection, the Metellus brothers came to the senate with their audacious plan:

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 9.07.26 AM.png


A naval invasion of the Greek Mainland.
 
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stnylan

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Definitely - take the fight across the water.
 

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Not being an EU4 player (yet, anyway) I wasn’t really aware of this Rome mod for it. Interested to see how it works and what people (especially the author) think of it.

I like your premise for doing this (ie lead-up to/ warm-up for Imperator) as I have done the same using the (appropriately ancient) EU: Rome (Vae Victis) game. Which I think first came out in the time of the early Empire! :D
 

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subbed
 

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So, Pyrrhus must be smoked out of his stronghold to be defeated. He may prove a tough opponent on his own ground, but surely the Roman legions wil triumph.
 
Chapter 2

Osterreich Will Rule

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The Invasion of Epirus (277-275)

"Tyranni moriantur"

-Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, on the fate of Pyrrhus

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 11.53.16 AM.png


The Metellus brothers' invasion of Epirus was quick and effective. The tribal lands of recently-conquered Apollonia were quickly subdued by a combination of diplomacy and displays of might from the siblings, allowing them to advance their Legios Southward. While Pyrrhus would attempt to use his Makedonian alliance to cut off supplies to the Romans, the local Taulantii tribes sent word to Calpurnius, who would send a subordinate to pursue Pyrrhus while he helped oversee the invasion of Pyrrhus's homeland: Molossia.

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The two armies would come to blows in the far north of Apollonia on the coast of the Adriatic. Pyrrhus had taken a defensive position on a high hill that was only scaleable from 2 sides, overlooking a natural port which was key to Roman resupply. Ironically, such a location would have been perfect for countering the Roman landings, if Pyrrhus hadn't kept his army in Molossia, attempting to gain parity in numbers to Rome.

Pyrrhus had a strong advantage in cavalry at the beginning of the battle, however local Taulantii cavalry drew them off the field, leaving Pyrrhus surrounded on the hill. For 3 days the Romans would charge up the hill only to be forced down again. Any attempts to starve out the Epirotes were hampered by the significant stores looted by the Greeks during the pursuit. On the 4th day, Lucius Cornelius Scipio would lead an assault up one of the two treacherous sides of the hill (which side has been lost to history). The attack opened up a breach in Pyrrhus's center, which the Romans exploited, nearly leading to a mass rout, which would have caused a slaughter. However, at the climax of the battle it is reported in myth that Pyrrhus killed Lucius, shattering his rear action and allowing the Epirote Army to charge down the hill, saving Pyrrhus.

With Lucius's death, we lose our major source on the war, and yet his heroic sacrifice is likely the sole reason we have such a significant primary source of this period. Upon his death, the men of his legion would send back his belongings to his older brother, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, along with the wealth he had looted from the campaigns in Magna Graecia and Epirus (along with some from his comrades, if Gnaeus's eulogy is to be believed). Such funds would be leveraged to give Lucius a proper funeral, and revitalize Gnaeus's political aspirations, which had been hamstrung ever since his father's death in 280 BC. It is because of Gnaeus and his children's achievements in Roman politics that such records to have been preserved for so long.

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Despite their success in Apollonia, the Metellus brothers faced harsh criticism in Rome for their failures in capturing Molossia or defeating Pyrrhus. Despite Calpurnius's request to be declared Dictator (with his brother being his master of horse, of course), the people and senate would deny such a proposal, electing Decius Julius Cicero, an experienced general in the Samnite Wars and a political opponent of the Metellus brothers.

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Decius would launch a new campaign against Pyrrhus, force marching across Molossia and besieging Pyrrhus's capital, just barely beating Pyrrhus, who had spent the winter trying to gain favor in Apollonia, instead of returning. Decius would choose to end the pursuit of Pyrrhus, recognizing his strategic flaws as a leader and deciding that while any battle will be deadly, Pyrrhus would paralyze himself if denied an enemy. These forces would be diverted South to Acarnania and the Aetolian League, both allies of Pyrrhus.

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As expected, Pyrrhus fled through Makedon to Aetolia, refusing to strike the divided Romans and instead choosing to consult the Oracle of Delphi for his next move. When the news of Pyrrhus flight, the Acarnanian Greek Cities surrendered to Decius, who moved onto the Aetolian League's capital at Thermos. With both of their capitals under siege, the Aetolians began to demand an attack from Pyrrhus. The war was drawing to a close.

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But Decius's offensive fell short in the end, with both capitals left unconquered and Pyrrhus finally sallying out of Delphi. In the end, Aulus Brutus, an ally of Cicero, was given the privilege of defeating Epirus. We lack many sources on Brutus, but most records mention him as a skilled siege general, who had spent his career pacifying Etruscan cities on the Peninsula.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 12.08.19 PM.png


The Pyrrhic War would end in a climatic engagement in the Agrafa Mountains Range. Aulus's skills proved highly useful with the speedy fall of both capitals, after which he would combine his forces and meet Pyrrhus in Lamia. The Battle of Lamia would be a brutal, grueling affair, lacking any of the tactics that Pyrrhus was skilled at. In a way, by finally striking against the Romans, Pyrrhus would place himself in the worst possible position, and thus dooming Epirus. After a long day of combat, a breach began to form in the opposing Epirote Phalanges. Aulus would lead his cavalry through the breach, and when Pyrrhus rode out to face him, it was Aulus Brutus, not Pyrrhus, who won the day.

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With Pyrrhus captured, Aulus would return to Rome, leaving his many legions to garrison the captured Greek territory. When Aulus arrived with Pyrrhus, a glorious triumph was held in his honor. But in Pyrrhus, unlike many other captured leaders, would be left alive. After the celebration, a great debate began in the senate over the fate of Pyrrhus.

The senate was divided in half by this debate. Many of the elder senators, including Aulus and Decius, advocated for reestablishing Pyrrhus as King of Molossia and Leader of the Aetolian Council, as a Roman Ally in Greece. On the opposing side sat the senatorial new blood, advocating for the direct incorporation of Epirus and Aetolia into Rome, and the public execution of Pyrrhus for his crimes against Rome. Leading this faction was Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, demanding retribution for his younger brother. While lacking the political capital of the elders, Gnaeus would win significant public approval at the eulogy of Lucius, where he used the significant funds looted from the Greek States to throw a lavish ceremony, during which he praised the soldiers that fought alongside his brother, denounced the incompetence of the Roman Consuls during the war, and would end the speech with the phrase "Let tyrants die."

While the funeral and deabte would remain peaceful, this is seen by many historians as the first significant act of political partisanship in Rome, as the 2 sides of this debate would later evolve into the Populares and Optimates. Regardless, despite public praise, Gnaeus was scorned for his attacks upon the Metellus brothers in senate, causing the council to decide on reinstating Pyrrhus.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 12.12.11 PM.png


The kingdom of Epirus would be broken into 3 parts: the north under a Taulantii tribal confederation, the south under the Acarnanian League comprised of the revolting Greek cities, and in the middle the kingdom of Molossia under Pyrrhus. East of Acarnania, the Aetolian League was defanged, with council turned into a figurehead and the leadership of the League made hereditary to the Kings of Molossia. Rome had gained a foothold in Greece...

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 12.12.43 PM.png


And begun the path to empire.
 
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stnylan

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Epirus is well and truly broken.
 

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now for Magna Grecia itself and the Islands!
 

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A good win, expanding Roman influence far into Greece!
 
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Omnium Rerum Principia Parva Sunt (275-269)

"Our greatest triumph will not be won with sword and shield, but with pick and shovel"
-Gnaeus Calpurnius Arvina

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 1.15.17 PM.png


With multiple victories at home and in Greece, Aulus Brutus would return to Italy in late summer, leaving a quarter of his army in Greece to suppress revolts. Upon his return, Aulus would disband much of the Metellian navy, which was fanatically loyal to their founders, sending the rest northwards to deal with Etruscan piracy with his co-consul. With this done, Aulus would look to the local Illyrian tribes. Aulus, unlike the Metellus brothers, had faced multiple difficulties dealing with the Illyrians, for he believed any deal made with them would were worthless and in mid fall would march his Legion against the Daunians, who had refused to assist Rome in its war in Greece and had taken some hostile actions against the local colony of Ausculum.

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The war would quick spiraled out of Aulus's controll, as Iapygian (Italian Illyrian) tribal federation forged by Decius Felix rose in revolt. The federation, lead by Peodician chieftain that had assisted in the conquest of Taras, had been a Roman ally and an official Friend of Rome. Aulus's plan, which from the sparse historical documents we have, seems to have been to uproot the local authority in the area to strength his ambitions for the office of censor, failed miserably, leaving Rome by Winter embroiled in a war it was ill-prepared for.

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The people would elect Quintus Valerius Hibrida, an experienced statesman and moderate who had held the consulship previously. Quintus spent little time in Rome itself, and would raise a new legion to assist the others wintering in Magna Graecia. Under his leadership, the army would crush the local tribes, and the elderly general would reaffirm the Poedicii as the Roman-approved leaders of the Iapygian tribes.

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During this year, the unrest that had followed the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War was finally dispersed, and with their subordinates entrenched the local Roman authorities began to look outwards towards the powerful Makedonia, who under its Ptolemaic king had subdued the Greek city-states and now eyed Epirus hungrily. Something would have to be done.

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But if Hibrida heard of these worries, he didn't not seem to care. After reasserting Roman rule over the tribes, Hibrida would moves his armies and invade Croton and Paestum. While before the war both had been effectively Roman puppets due to their strong garrisons, the length of time the Roman military spent embroiled in the invasion of Greece had given these garrisons enough independence to lead a series of coups throughout these two cities, as well as two more in both Locri and Rhegium. Rome would now return to reinstate the exiled Greek governments to their cities, as well as reaffirm their allegiances.

Screen Shot 2018-04-04 at 1.36.12 PM.png


However, such strenuous campaigning was to much for Hibrida, who would die after capturing Paestum while marching on Locri. The people would elect Mamercus Nobilior, Hibrida's second-in-command, as his replacement. Nobilior was a diplomatic genius, but his military skill was severely undeveloped, leading to multiple blunders on the march southwards.

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But in the end the might of Rome was unmatchable. One by one, the "garrison tyrannies" were crushed underfoot, and their pro-Roman leaders were returned.

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Three years would pass quietly. The consuls of this period busied their time with foreign diplomacy, internal scheming, and patrolling the realm. Roman authority was strengthened, and the people rested.

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During this time Rome would be contacted by the League of Achaea. Achaea, like Sparta and other Peloponnesian cities, had revolt upon the succession of Ptolemy Keraunos. While Rome had been waging war in Italy, Keraunos had fought this coalition of Greeks, and while Rome conquered Epirus he had crushed the Greeks. Seeing both their military might and their experience in cross-Adriatic warfare the League would request they be given a military garrison both stronger and more loyal than those in Magna Graecia, as well as receive Rome's protection from Makedonia. Rome readily agree, and these troops would be sent to the Peloponnese, once again increasing their sphere at Makedon's expense.

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It is in the year 269 that the Arvina family makes its first appearance. While a minor player historically, Gnaeus Calpurnius Arvina had served as praetor during the Pyrrhic War in 279, and was a vital subordinate of Decius Felix, managing the vital sieges of Metapontion and Taras. An ingenious delegator and architect, Arvina would spend a significant amount of his time as consul touring the many subjugated cities of the republic, acting less as a consul and more as a censor. During his travels he would make plans for immense building projects, including the completion of the Via Appia, and the construction of the Via Valeria from Rome to Rhegium, the Via Metella from Apollonia to Delphi, and the Via Arvina from Rome to Pisae. While these projects would cost large amounts of money, time, and political pressuring, Arvina's ability to play the major families off each other to complete his agenda not only ensured his election as censor, but also helped unite the empire and entrench the Arvina family for centuries.

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While Arvina was off wandering Rome's conquests, his co-consul Aemilius would lead a military and diplomatic expedition to Massalia. Rome still remembered the sack of their city by the Gauls, and with the great victories of the Gallic raids into Makedonia they expected only greater attacks. Massalia was a strong city-state, with a large fleet, powerful army, and strategic control which would allow it to block the Alps if necessary. Aemilius and his army would temporarily settle the western side of the Rhodanus river as a military colony, and would gain promises of alliance of cooperation between both nations, as well as the right to provide a garrison to Massalia. Rome was expanding at an extraordinary rate, both militarily and diplomatically.

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But the peace could not last.

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And Rome would return to Greece.
 
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stnylan

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Makedonia before Carthage - an interesting turn of events, but not surprising given how swiftly you moved into Greece.
 
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Lords of Graecia (269-266)

"It was in the Pindus Mountains of Graecia where Rome completed her transformation to Empire"
-Titus Scapula, Bellum Makedonica

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The First Makedonian War, despite its massive relevance to Roman expansion into Greece, is surprisingly clouded in cause. The primary sources on the cause of the war would be lost to fire, decay, and raids, leaving historians with little first hand knowledge on the conflict, unlike the previously discussed periods. Most historians agree with the accounts of Titus Scapula, who 3 centuries after the war would write the book Bellum Makedonica.

The Apollonian Tribes, wary of the back and forth policy of the Roman Consuls displayed during the Pyrrhic War, as well as the sudden occupation of their land, would contact Ptolemy Keraunos, King of Makedonia. Ptolemy, who at age 52 lacked a legitimate heir and was disliked for the circumstances of his succession as well as his dealmaking with the Gauls to invade his rival, saw the situation as a perfect reason to regain prestige and force the submission of the long-resistant Pyrrhus in Molossia. For this task, he would send the popular general Pausanias, a Thraco-Makedonian ex-mercenary who wielded a self-drilled loyal army as well as many foreign Thracian contacts.

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However, Pausanias was not alone. In the south, the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues were beset with the armies of Corinth, Argos, Athens, and Thebes, as well as those of the many smaller city-states in Graecia. These forces alone outnumbered the Romans 2 to 1, not including the well-trained Makedonian Phalanxes. These forces would quickly seize Patras and Acarnania, before finally being halted in Ambracia by Roman-Molossian Army.

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Over the winter Arvina would be replaced by Sextus Felix, the sibling of Decius Felix and a skilled veteran of the Samnite Wars. This skilled would best be displayed in the battle of Stratus, where Sextus utilized his experience in difficult terrain to maneuver his Roman Phalanges into a dominating position, crushing the Thebian Army and liberating Acarnania.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 8.46.56 AM.png


Meanwhile, despite an early victory against Pausanias in the First Battle of Byllis, Consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio would be mislead by his Illyrian Scouts, placed out of position and helpless as the superior Makedonian Navy crushed the barebones Roman Fleet and Pausanias organized the Thracian tribes in a northern strike.

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Sextus would be forced to abandon plans to assist Achaea, who at this point was the Roman's sole militarily independent ally. Sextus would meet Pausanias in the Second Battle of Byllis, which ended in a victory for Pausanias, sealing Makedonian control over the Apollonian tribes.

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Sextus would lead a succesful ambush of some Thracian tribes attempting to cut off Gnaeus's retreat back to Molossia, but in the end would also abandon Molossia to seek victory in the South.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.00.10 AM.png


Sextus and Gnaeus performed far better there, with Felix quickly seizing Thebes and the surrounding area while Scipio reorganized the Achaean military, taking control over their forces and leading their government northward to safety.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.02.46 AM.png


Both Consuls however would surprisingly denied being declared Dictator, even in such dire times. The Senate was dominated by Cicero's faction, which saw the Greek territories as non-vital, and believed that if need be they could be abandoned. Moreover, both Consuls were part of the Metellus-Felix-Scipio alliance, who had like Cicero's group had become more and more partisan during the 3 year period between the wars. In the end, Mamercus Scipio, cousin of Ganeus, would be sent to Greece, while his co-consul would be sent to Sicily to deal with an escalating crisis between the Sicilians and Carthaginians.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.07.23 AM.png


Mamercus's first weeks went well, crushing the Athenian Army garrisoning Apollonia while send his cousin to fight the Corinthian Army.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.11.38 AM.png


But it would not last. For the next 2 seasons Mamercus and Pausanias would skirmish. Mamercus would be ridden down in the Second Battle of Ambracia while trying to reinforce his cousin, who had been caught off guard by the sudden return of Argos from the fighting in Boeotia. In a single battle, Molossia would be left defenseless, and all of the years work would be reset.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.18.50 AM.png


Only an early winter saved Molossia from complete occupation like Achaea or Apollonia. Titus Sulla would be sent to aid Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, who was only supposed to be in Greece for a year but now would fight for 3.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.23.20 AM.png


Sulla was sent north to liberate Molossia, but unbeknownst to Rome Pausanias had marched south through winter and know threatened all the Roman progress in Greece. If Thebes fell, Cicero's faction would seek terms with Ptolemy.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.26.20 AM.png


In a move memorialized by the art piece "Pyrrhus's Last Charge", Pyrrhus of Molossia, ex-King of Epirus and Makedonia, Leader of the Aetolian League lead the cavalry charge in the Battle of Lamia, the same place Pyrrhus had lost the Pyrrhic War. The Epirote, Apollonian, and Tarantine cavalry would ride against the Thracian Mercenary force defending the passes 5 times before Pyrrhus was struck down. The devastating victory opened the way to Thebes while also unleashing the mob of disorganized and scared Thracians upon Thessaly and Larisa.

Pyrrhus's Last Charge.jpg


After the war, Pyrrhus's body would be taken to Rome, where Brutus, Cicero, Calpurnius Metellus (his elder brother had passed by now), and Scipio publicly praised Pyrrhus as a Friend of Rome. The Pyrrhic Ideal would be instilled in many of the western Greeks, who saw the Romans as half-Greek like the Makedonians, defending them from a half-Thracian and his client kings.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.29.18 AM.png


With the Battle of Lamia, the war was over. Without his mercenaries Pausanias was left powerless to the machinations of his rivals, who would have him killed in less than a month after the failed siege of Thebes. The massive amount of Thracian mercenaries unleashed into Makedonia would lead to rioting in Larisa, which would revolt against Keraunos. Antigonus II, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who had lead the revolt of the Arcadian and Achaean League with Sparta against Keraunos, would overthrow and kill Keraunos after a year-long siege of Pella in 263 BC. Even after this, it wouldn't be until 260 that Antigonus would reassert control over Greece, and by then the Romans had successfully established relations with every city-state in the region. With the loss of the First Makedonian War, Makedonian power had been shattered.

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 9.30.19 AM.png


A new power had arisen.
 
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stnylan

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Greece is now Rome's playround.
 

Nikolai

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Greece is a mess. It needs Roman order.;)
 

Osterreich Will Rule

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Sorry to everyone since I haven't been able to update this recently. I got very sick and had to take a short break in order to get my stuff in order before playing more EU4. Hopefully this weekend I will have the time to put out another update or too. Thank you for your patience!
 
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