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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

Razgriz 2K9

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Dear readers, and all who stumble across here. Welcome to my first AAR I've done for Europa Universalis IV. The reason I say first AAR here and not first AAR altogether, was that I have written AAR's here before. This is actually my fourth AAR I've done, but the first I have done in five years.

Now, I know what you're thinking, Five years? How did you manage to not make an AAR in five years? Well to sum up...

Just came out of college, looking for a job. My laptop, with which I used to play Hearts of Iron II on, has all but bricked. It still runs, don't get me wrong. But don't expect it to run Windows properly, that coupled with the fact that the power supply has been borked. So, as recently as about a year ago, I've been spending my time on trying to get a new one, which had only just been achieved as recently as a month ago.

I got Steam, I downloaded EU4 and it's expansions among other things, and I sat down to play. To try it out. And frankly, I got my behind beat up, pretty badly. But not without getting a few achievements along the way. One of which was Not so Sad a State. Pretty simple, even though it took getting warred on by England in the end...don't ask, I'm not that smart a player.

But it got me thinking...perhaps I could use this achievement as a basis for a new AAR, to start practicing to write again. This AAR will be a history book style, hitting closer to the style I did when I written my previous works all those years ago. I also have some objectives I wish to fulfill, because I'm an ambitious sot. They are as follows:

Main Objectives:
- Establish a Colonial State in Brazil
- Have at least one colonial territory in Continental Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Conquer Morocco
- Prove that I can still write AAR's good

Side Objectives:
- Establish Other Colonial States in the Following:
- Canada
- Caribbean
- La Plata
- Mexico
- Conquer Japan
- Have a Province on at least every single continent.

So, without further ado, I present to you:

Table of Contents:
Prologue:
Part 1: Portugalia: The County of Portugal
Part 2: The Afonsine Dynasty: The Portuguese House of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Portugal in the Middle Ages
Part 3: The Joanine Dynasty: The Rise of the House of Aviz & the Birth of the Age of Discovery

Afonso V "the African" de Aviz (1438-1484):
Chapter 1: From Regency to Rule: The Duke of Coimbra and the Rise of Afonso V
Chapter 2: The War of the Holy Prince's Legacy: The Conquest of Tangiers and Other Military Matters
Chapter 3: The Twilight Years of Afonso o Africano: Quest for a New World

João II de Aviz (1484- ):
Chapter 4: Brave New World: Colonization of the New World and the Castilian Collapse
Chapter 5:

Interludes:
Part 1: The Infante of the Seven Parts of the World: Pedro, 1st Duke of Coimbra
 
Last edited:

Razgriz 2K9

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Prologue Part 1: Portugalia: The County of Portugal


The County of Portugal

Before we talk about the Kingdom of Portugal, we should start with the County of Portugal, known as Portucale or Portugalia. The history of this county begins in 868, when Vímara Peres, an Asturian nobleman and vassal to King Alfonso III of Asturias, captured the city of Portus Cale (Latin for Port of Cale, in modern Porto). His success in securing this port city from the Muslim Emirate of Cordoba brought Peres to the rank of count.

Ten years later, a second county, formed South of the Douro River, was formed with Coimbra as its capital, and it’s local conqueror, Hermeneguildo Guterres, becoming its first count. These two counties served as the frontier zone between the Asturian heartland the Umayyad rulers of Al-Andalus. The Counts of Portugal were initially Asturian, both Vímara Peres (r. 868-873) and his son and successor, Lucídio Vimaranes (r. 873-~922). But succeeding Counts were nobles from Galicia, and the Galician language (Which we now call Galician-Portuguese, or Medieval Portuguese), became more and more prevalent.


Family Tree of the House of Peres

The leaders of the County of Portugal would reach the height of their power in the tenth century, when count Gonçalo Mendes (r. 950-997), has been recorded to have used the title Magnus Dux Portucalensium, or Grand Duke of the Portuguese, thus beginning what would be steps towards a break between Portugal and Asturias, now renamed the Kingdom of León. His reign would see some rumors that he was responsible for the assassination of Sancho I of León in 966, although the rumors were unfounded. A further break occurred when Sancho’s successor, Ramiro III, refused to help Gonçalo in fighting off the Vikings who were attacking Portugal.

Gonçalo’s son, Mendo Gonçalves (r. 997-1008), also took the title of Grand Duke of Portugal, and had much better relations with Ramiro’s successor, Bermudo II, ultimately becoming Bermudo’s alferes [1] and tutor to Bermudo’s successor, Alfonso V. Mendo served as regent for him, even as far as having him marry one of his daughters. However, Mendo would die a violent death, the cause of which has not been fully known.

The county continued its existence with varying degrees of autonomy for the better part of the eleventh century, as vassals to the Kingdom of León, and when the kingdom began to splinter off, to the Kingdom of Galicia. This changed in 1071, when Nuno Mendes, seeking even greater autonomy for his county, waged war with Galicia, and its king, García II. The two would fight in the fields of Pedroso, near the Portuguese capital of Braga.

This battle ended in defeat for the Portuguese and the death of their leader. García II would inherit the title as King of Galicia and Portugal, the first, but not the last time that Portugal would receive a royal title. But Galicia would later in turn be taken by García’s brothers, at first, Sancho II of Castile, and later by Alfonso VI, the self-proclaimed Emperor of all of Spain.

Galicia was demoted to a county, and both it and Portugal would be split. To be given to Alfonso’s son-in-laws, the Burgundians. Raimundo would receive Galicia, while Henrique, who was wedded to Alfonso VI’s illegitimate daughter Tareja [2], would receive Portugal.


Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile appointing Henri to the County of Portugal

Henrique, from his base in Braga, continued the Reconquista, expanding his domains in Western Iberia against the fragmenting Caliphate of Córdoba, while involving himself in the intrigues of the Leónese court. When Henrique died in 1112, the majority of the nobles favored independence. Tareja, acting as regent for Henrique’s successor, Afonso Henriques, challenged her sister, Queen Urraca of Castile, for dominance in Iberian affairs, but was ultimately defeated by 1121.

When Afonso took the reins of government in 1128 from her mother (after defeating her armies in battle at São Mamede that same year), he began to show signs of independence from the Leonese King, even though the Count only focused on the Moors, now led by the Almoravids. Victory in the Battle of Ourique on Saint James Day (25 July 1139), saw his troops proclaim him King of Portugal. Thus, once again, Portugal and León were set to battle once more.

After four years of war, culminating in defeat by the Leónese at Valdevez. The Treaty of Zamora was signed between Afonso Henrique, now Afonso I of Portugal, and Alfonso VII of León. The treaty recognized the independence of Portugal as an independent, and sovereign Kingdom, thus beginning a new phase in Portuguese history.


Afonso I at the Battle of Ourique

[1]: Alferes, (Castilian Spanish, alférez: means horseman or cavalier.
[2]: A Galician-Portuguese version of the name, in modern Portuguese, it is known as Teresa
 

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Prologue Part 2: The Alfonsine Dynasty: The Portuguese House of Burgundy and the History of Portugal in the High Middle Ages


The Iberian Peninsula, circa 1157.

The Kingdom of Portugal, despite being confirmed independence by León, was still under threat by both Leónese attempts at reconquest, and the Almoravids, the Moorish dynasty that replaced the Umayyad Caliphate and the various Andalusian principalities when the Caliphate fell. Using diplomatic acumen, Afonso married Mafalda, a daughter of the Count of Savoy (Amadeo III), and using the Savoyard’s support, sought diplomatic recognition from the Pope, even writing a famous letter to Pope Innocentius III proclaim himself and his kingdom servants of the Roman Catholic Church, and swore to drive the Moors out of the Iberian Peninsula.


Afonso I at the Siege of Lisbon.

This would be followed through with the capture of the cities of Santarém and Lisbon in 1147, thus beginning Portugal’s reconquista, Reconquest of their natural territories from Muslim control. But it wasn’t the end of Afonso’s military exploits, in fact the majority of his forty-six year reign was spent either fighting the Moors, or fighting back Leónese reconquest attempts, even managing to conquer Leónese Galicia before his capture in 1169 forced Afonso to relinquish his gains. These deeds, would help secure Portugal’s right as an independent kingdom, under fealty to the pope as confirmed by the Manifestus Probatum Papal Bull, accorded by Pope Alexander III in 1179.

Even in old age, Afonso continued to fight, rescuing his son and heir, Sancho from the Almohads at Santarém in 1184, before dying a year and a half later, passing the throne to his son, Sancho. Afonso’s legacy as the first King gave him the epitaph “O Fundador.”[1]

His son, Sancho I, would continue the war with the Moors, to a limited extent, temporarily gaining Silves, but ultimately losing it, as well as most of the Alentejo to the Almohads. His reign saw reforms, the building of new cities, and attempted to force the clergy to bow to his will, the latter being the only failure, if but a minor one, as Sancho was in ill health, ultimately succumbing to disease in 1211. The quest for religious supremacy in Portugal came to a head by Sancho’s son, Afonso II, styled “the Fat.” But it led to Afonso’s excommunication and Portugal placed on interdict until Afonso’s death twelve years later.


A 17th century depiction of Sancho II, styled "o Piedoso" or "The Pious"

But the conflict between the Church and Crown did not subside. Sancho II, whilst fighting and succeeding in pushing the Moors out of the Alentejo, also had to deal with the crisis in the Church, leading once more to Portugal being placed on interdict. A rebellion in 1245, sponsored by Pope Innocentus IV, and using the marriage of an already married Castillian noblewoman as a casus belli, saw Sancho II deposed in favor of his brother, Afonso, the Count of Boulogne. [2]

It was under Afonso III’s reign that Portugal began to mark the changes in Portugal to a national monarchy and centralized government, marked with the importance of the title of King (even abandoning semi-ecclesiastical title such as Visitador e Curador (Visitor and Defender) of the realm. This change was further bolstered by their conquest of the Algarve. Which drew the ire, and declaration of war, by Alfonso X of Castile. This conflict ended with Afonso confirmed to hold Algarve as a fief of Castile, in return to the marriage of Afonso to the Castilian King’s illegitimate daughter Beatriz de Guzmán, despite being already married to Matilda, Countess of Boulogne. Once again, Portugal was placed in interdict.


Dom Afonso III

In response, Afonso III summoned the Portuguese Cortes in Leira in 1254, and bolstered by the support of the nobles and local clergy, Afonso refused to submit to Rome. This support was further bolstered by the cities’ burghers in the subsequent Cortes in Coimbra in 1261. The Papacy, seeing the clergy suffer more by the interdict than the laity, relented, recognizing the marriage of Afonso III to Guzmán, and recognizing their eldest child, Dinis as the heir to the Portuguese throne. Alfonso, no longer able to count on the Church, was forced to recognize Portuguese sovereignty to the Kingdom of the Algarve. It was also during Afonso’s rule that Lisbon became the Capital of Portugal in 1255, replacing the original capital of Coimbra (which replaced Braga upon elevation to the status of Kingdom in 1139).

The successes of Afonso III, would ultimately be cut short by his successors, Dinis I, Afonso IV & Pedro I. Despite peace being maintained with the other Iberian Kingdoms, each ruler had to deal with internal issues stemming from social, economic and constitutional problems precipitated during the reign of Afonso III. Many reforms, were initiated by Dinis which included agricultural reforms [3], the establishment of Portugal’s first royal navy, proclaiming Portuguese to be the language of the state, and nationalized the military orders, even giving the Templar remnants a home under a new name.


The Tragedy of Inês de Castro. While evidently the claim of Pedro I of Portugal's disinterrment of his dead wife to be made queen seemed suspect. It served its role as a point signalling the weakness of the royal family as a whole at the time.

But family troubles plagued Portugal for some time, which weakened the Kingdom’s stability. This would come to a head during the reign of Fernando I, who claimed himself to the thrones of Castile & Leon, left vacant after the death of Pedro I of Castile. Despite an effort, with the support of the Marinids in Morocco and the Aragonese Crownlands, Pope Gregorius XI forced Fernando to stand down, and marry the daughter of the new Castilian King, Enrique II.

But Fernando had preferred his Portuguese mistress, and married her instead, causing Enrique to invade Portugal to avenge this slight. Fernando appealed to John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III of England and another pretender to the disputed Castilian throne. An alliance was made, despite Fernando making peace in 1374. But the Portuguese King refused to drop his claim to the throne, and upon the death of Enrique II. He renewed the English alliance, and received support from Edward’s grandson and successor, Richard II. He also betrothed his cousin, the Prince Edward to Fernando’s only child, Beatrice, recognized as heir to the Portuguese throne.


Fernando I, the last King from the Portuguese House of Burgundy

By 1383, the war over the right to succeed to the thrones of Castile and León were over. Despite the English ravaging part of the country as a response to the peace, the Treaty of Salvaterra made Beatrice marry Juan I of Castile. Six months later, Fernando died, the last of the Burgundian Kings of Portugal.
----
Notes:
[1]: The Portuguese name for “The Founder” Although Afonso has also been given the title of “the Great.”
[2]: Hence why Afonso’s epitaph is o Bolonhês, “the Bolognian”
[3]: Said reforms gave Dinis the epitaph of o rei Lavrador, “The Farmer King”

----
There's Part 2, the final Part of the Prologue will be coming at the end of the week, and then we'll start actual gameplay.
 

Razgriz 2K9

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Thanks for all the comments! I hope that this one will be just as much a fun ride as my playing will be.
----
Prologue Part 3: The Joanine Dynasty: The Rise of the House of Aviz & the Birth of the Age of Discovery

The death of Fernando I meant that Beatrice would become Queen Regnant of Portugal, and with it, Juan I’s chance to integrate Portugal into the Castilian domain, with the hopes of reuniting the Peninsula under the hegemony of the Trastámara. But popular sentiment was against annexation into Castile. These events led directly to the Crisis of the Portuguese Interregnum, which lasted for the next two years.


João de Aviz, Grandmaster of the Military Order of Aviz

One of the potential candidates to champion Portuguese Independence, was João de Aviz. João was the illegitimate son of Pedro I of Portugal with a woman by the name of Teresa Lourenço, a commoner from Lisboa who at the time was implied to have been a noblewoman from Galicia. He gained the surname Aviz as a request by Nuno Freire de Andrade, Grand Master of the Order of Christ (the aforementioned successor to the Knights Templar). It was through Andrade’s patronage that, in 1364, his father made João Grand Master of the Order of Aviz.


João de Borgonha, Duke of Valencia de Campos

The other candidate to the throne was another João, who served as Duke of Valencia de Campos. This João was another illegitimate son of Pedro I, but with a different mother, this one being Pedro’s beloved Inês de Castro. The Duke was the best of friends with his half-brother, and both served the Kingdom well. But the machinations of another half-brother, the King Fernando I, and his wife, Leonor led to the death of the Duke’s wife, and his flight from Court to the Court of Castile. João supported Enrique II’s invasion of Portugal, but when Fernando died, was thrown into prison because his position threatened Juan’s chance of claiming Portugal for himself.

Initially the Portuguese nobility was torn over who should receive the crown, but upon Fernando’s death, it was clear that drastic measures had to be taken, and it was Aviz who took the first measure. In December of 1383, the Dowager queen Leonor’s detested lover, the Count of Ourém, was murdered by Aviz and his supporters. It was through this victory that the Portuguese merchants acclaimed him rector and defender of the Realm, making him the uncontested leader of the opposition against Juan I.

The Crisis continued to escalate in the new year, where, despite a victory against the Castilians at Atoleiros, the Portuguese capital of Lisboa was put under siege for much of the summer of 1384. Aviz and his top general, Nuno Álvares Pereira, attacked Portuguese cities loyal to the Castilian cause, largely because the Aviz Army was too small to challenge the siege. A daring attack by the Portuguese Navy in the Tejo ended with the Portuguese delivering much needed supplies to Lisboa, It was bubonic plague that led to Juan I pulling out of the siege and returning to Castile.


The Siege of Lisboa (1384) as depicted in Froissart's Chronicles

Meanwhile, João of Aviz sent an embassy to the court of Richard II of England, requesting support against Castile, a feat that took some prodding (partly because England was at the time embroiled in war with France, Castile’s ally at the time), but ultimately got off the ground, with raising levies to support Portuguese independence. 600 men came to Portugal on Easter Day of 1385, among with some were longbowmen, all of them were veterans of battles in France, and the longbowmen had their worth proven in Battles such as Crécy and Poitiers.

By April of 1385, João was officially proclaimed King of Portugal by the Cortes in Coimbra. In response to this transgression, Juan assembled the largest army he ever put to the field, about thirty-two thousand men, supported with a contingent of French heavy cavalry. This army fought a 6500-man Portuguese force at Aljubarrota, near the city of Leiria, on 14 August.


The Battle of Aljubarrota

This battle was decisive for the Portuguese & English forces, which in the style of Crécy and Poitiers, saw the use of caltrops in the front and longbowmen on the flanks to neutralize the cavalry. All in all, a third of the Castilian-French force was lost in the battle and the aftermath, and Juan would never be able to challenge for the Portuguese throne again, although recognition of the Aviz as King would not be made formal under the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411 by João I and Juan II (Juan I’s grandson [1]).


The wedding of João I of Portugal with Philippa of Lancaster in 11 February 1387

João I was able to secure a continued alliance with England with the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, further strengthened with the marriage to Filipa de Lencastre, the eldest daughter of the Duke of Lancaster. Through her, João fathered six boys and three girls (of which five boys and one girl survived to adulthood), these six children, along with one illegitimate son would make up the Illustrious Generation, known for their love for culture and knowledge, a fact shared with their father. These seven were:

  • Duarte, Prince of Portugal, who would succeed his father as King after the latter’s death in 1433, and was an accomplished writer and poet in his own right.
  • Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, known as one of the most learned princes of his time, and would serve as chief regent for his nephew, Afonso V.
  • Henrique, Duke of Viseu and Grandmaster of the Order of Christ, who pioneered Portugal’s road to discoveries.
  • João, Constable of Portugal and Grandmaster of the Portuguese Branch of the Order of Santiago
  • Fernando, Grandmaster of the Order of Aviz
  • Isabela, who married Philippe III, Duke of Burgundy, and influenced court culture there
  • Afonso, Duke of Bragança, and illegitimate son of João I through his mistress, Inês Peres [2]


Prince Henrique during the Conquest of Ceuta

These seven shaped the court of Portugal and served it well, Duarte, Pedro & Henrique fought alongside the King in the Conquest of Ceuta from Morocco in 1415. The capture of a city held by the Moors before the Muslim conquest of Hispania was often considered by historians to be the start of the Portuguese Colonial Empire, and Henrique’s further successes which pioneered the Age of Discovery, saw the discovery and colonization of Madeira in 1417 and the Azorean Islands in 1427.

João would die from the plague in 1433, and the crown passed on to Duarte, who continued to sponsor his brother’s exploits in discoveries. But he was rapidly losing money, largely from the maintenance of the Portuguese colony of Ceuta. Duarte was convinced by his brothers, Henrique and Fernando to attack Tangiers, which replaced Ceuta as a major port of interest for Morocco. However this invasion was carried out against the wishes of Pedro and João, who were against the initiative and wanted to avoid conflict with Morocco.


Duarte of Portugal

This would prove justified when in 1437, the Battle of Tangiers ended in failure. After a failure in assaulting the city multiple times, the siege camp itself was surrounded and starved into submission. A peace would be signed by Henrique, promising the Portuguese army returns home unmolested in exchange for Ceuta. To ensure this would be achieved, Fernando would be offered up as a prisoner for the final handover of the city.


Fernando depicted in his time of captivity and death. Post-mortem he would be known as the Holy Prince

The debacle plagued Duarte’s final year as King. Both Pedro and João wanted him to fulfill the treaty, but Henrique wanted him to renege. Taking the matter to the Portuguese Cortes, met in Leiria in 1438, they sided with Henrique. It was unclear what Duarte’s decision would be, as he would die of the plague that summer [3], leaving the Kingdom to his six-year old son Afonso.

With Afonso in minority, power would be given to his mother, Leonor of Aragon, but her unpopularity led to her being replaced by Afonso’s uncle, Pedro. It is with Pedro’s regency that our story finally begins...


The Kingdom of Portugal, 11 November in the year of our lord 1444.

----
[1]: Juan I’s grandson, Enrique III’s son.
[2]: He is the first Braganza. Historically, it was his family who would replace the Spanish Habsburgs (the Philippine Dynasty) who in turn replaced the extinct Aviz. True to form, like all other ruling houses of Portugal, they are given a dynastic name, in this case, the Brigantine Dynasty.
[3]: Stories say that Duarte died of a broken heart over the Cortes’ decision. Fernando would die in prison in 1443.
 

Razgriz 2K9

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Chapter 1: From Regency to Rule: The Duke of Coimbra and the Rise of Afonso V


Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra
Pedro’s accession to the regency of Afonso V in December 1439, was far better received than the regency under the latter’s mother Leonor of Aragon. Leonor continued to conspire against the regency for much of the following year but the Cortes forced the Dowager Queen into exile by December of 1440.

Pedro's regency was marked with much support for the commoners and the bourgeoisie, who fast-growing within Portugal’s borders. However, there were still those who preferred Leonor of Aragon, primarily within the aristocracy. This faction revolved around Coimbra’s half-brother, the Count of Barcelos, Afonso. Thus, for much of the regency period, it was marked by a war of influence between the Coimbra faction of Pedro, and the Barcelos (later the Bragança) faction.


Dom Afonso, Count of Barcelos & Duke of Bragança
In a gesture of reconciliation, in 1443, Pedro created for his half-brother, the title of Duke of Bragança, and at first relations seemed to normalize. But by 1445, Afonso felt slighted when Pedro chose to marry Afonso V to one of Pedro’s daughters, Isabela of Coimbra. While the plan fell through due to Isabela dying of natural causes, widely believed to be poison [1]. It served as a break between the two factions that proved irrevocable.

Pedro instead would marry Afonso V to a daughter of King Juan II, named Maria. His younger brother João had already married a member of the House of York, and through the both of them, they hoped the Aviz line will continue on. [2]


As the competition between the Coimbra and Bragança continued, Portugal continued to prosper under its influence. One of its traders, operating from the Hafsid Kingdom of Tunis, was made to relocate from Tunis to the Castilian port city of Sevila, with the purpose of acquiring their portion of their trade money to fill Portugal’s coffers.


"Our duty to Christendom is clear, we must conquer Tangiers to defend Christendom from the Infidel Moors!"
It was a member of the Bragança faction who would provide his master the necessary claim to get back at the Moroccans, laying claim once more to the port city of Tangiers. It was many Bragança leaders who sponsored an expansion of the Portuguese Army and Navy, and managed to acquire the necessary funds to achieve this task. In addition, an explorer trained by the Duke of Viseu, Henrique the Navigator, had successfully charted more of the West African Coast, exploring deep into lands of the Ivory and Gold Coast.


These successes continued until at last, on the 17 of January 1447, Afonso came of age and took the reigns of power from his uncle. His younger brother, João would assume the title of Prince of Portugal until the death of his elder brother.


Afonso had a knack for administrative skill, not to the excellence of some of his contemporaries, but it was enough to make a change for the better for Portugal. This acumen was put to test that March. When Afonso became King, the Duke of Coimbra was sent away after members of the Bragança faction cast doubts upon the young king. The Duke of Bragança was already seen as a favorite uncle to the King, and it seemed that the Duke’s days were numbered.

The King decided to have him return by his side and help rule the country. Coimbra not wanting to leave anything to chance, and in fear of his conspiring enemies at the Portuguese court, made the decision to return to the court with his own retinue.

Bragança and his conspirators sought to convince the King that Coimbra was rebelling against his authority. But they were not aware that the Earl of Avranches, Álvaro Vaz de Almada, a trusted friend of Pedro, still stationed his army in Lisboa at the time. The conspirators were jailed (though Bragança was able to absolve himself from any such crimes) and the Duke successfully return to the capital to assist the King in ruling Portugal. [3]


As part of the early reign of King Afonso, a portion of the newly expanded fleet was dispatched to patrol the seas and protect Portuguese trading routes in and around Seville, joining fellow ally Castile and rival, Aragon in this role. This proved to hurt relations further with the Berber nations who also did trade in the region, as the ships were willing to engage with Moroccan Barbary Pirates who had been continually raiding Portuguese coasts and shipping for years, this was further highlighted by border tensions, diplomatic insults and even rival nobles allying with varying Moroccan princes. Afonso V have had plans to deal with them, but he had to temporarily shelve them, as he could not expect to achieve this without the support of Castile.
On the domestic front, Afonso, again with the ear of the Duke of Coimbra, introduced a system of elaborate court life. This served to limit the power of the nobility to plot against the centralizing power of the King by keeping them from their power base. Despite the costs required to maintain this, it served to bring prestige to the crown and thus the country as a whole, as well as bring in necessary talent to the capital to serve as future advisors.


In addition, new technologies and ideas began to spread. While Churches were a common sight in Portugal, they now served to support the administrative governance of the country. In addition, the creation of local and regional infrastructure in the form of Marketplaces helped to promote trade, encouraging commerce and thus allowing the state to better tax it.
All of these steps were taken by the King to better handle the war with Morocco, and with promises of Castile getting some land in the bargain, Portugal was now ready to declare war on Morocco and their allies, utilizing past attacks on Portuguese trade and border attacks on Ceuta as a casus belli, Afonso V had effectively kicked off the War of the Holy Prince’s Legacy.

----

Meanwhile around the World:

  • England:
Henry VI went to war with Scotland, for dominance over the British Isles. But Henry’s sudden death in 1448 would kick off the Wars of the Roses, a war of succession between then Duke of Lancaster, and now King James I, and the Yorkist claimant, Richard, the Duke of York. A three way conflict between James I, York, and the Scots ended in total victory for James in 1451, who not only took undisputed control of the throne, but also secured Edinburgh and Ayershire, which was promptly annexed into England proper.


  • Castile:
Juan II too went to war, this time with the remnant Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and its erstwhile ally, the Hafsid Kingdom of Tunis. Unlike the English situation, the battle was a on-sided matter, with Granada’s lands occupied within months, and a massive invasion by Castile on Tunisian soil. While it failed to gain any lasting territory from Tunis, successive victories by the Castilians sealed the fate of Granada, which was promptly annexed.


  • The Holy Roman Empire
While Austria was not involved in any major conflicts, the Habsburg Emperors had to deal with a succession crisis early into their reign. On 31 July 1452, Friedrich III, Holy Roman Emperor was forced to pass the Pragmatic Sanction. The treaty assured the indivisibility of his lands, and changed the succession of Austria from Agnatic Primogeniture to Agnatic-Cognatic Primogeniture, thus securing the Archduchy for his daughter and heir, Maria Theresia. Whether this matter is a success or not is up to fate to decide.

----
[1]: Historically, IOTL, the plan went off without a hitch, and the two did get married in 1447. Afonso and Isabela would sire three children, including the future King João II. I also did it this way because unlike Crusader Kings, Europa Universalis does not simulate marriages between a monarch and nobility within Portugal.
[2]: Simulating the Royal Marriage with Castile and England. Interestingly enough in the files, there is an error stated that Portugal and England started a Royal Marriage in 1444 and ended in 1415 (which is stated to simulate the marriage between João I and Philippa of Lancaster, even though both of them had been six feet under for the better part of a decade or more)
[3]: Historically, as the event shows, this never happened. Afonso tricked the King into calling Coimbra a traitor, and his army, under Afonso and the Duke of Bragança destroyed the army of Coimbra, Avranches was also with Coimbra, and both men were killed.

----
Author’s Notes:
Well a lot of crazy stuff just happened, a lot of posturing, a lot of watching things go down. But it’s my first war in the AAR, which considering my track record, it’s probably going to kick my butt. Will that be the case? I hope not...

Also, I apologize for the crude photowork, I was trying to follow a schedule of how I would go about making the chapters, which was promptly ruined because of Sunday's all day work-fest, and even as I'm editing this I'm running on limited time anyway. Next chapter I hope will feature a little better quality.
 
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khanbalik

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Absolutely love it!
I wouldn't have chosen Europa Universalis IV to make a historically accurate AAR, though. In my opinion it is far less realistic and crazier than CK2 or Vic2. AI led countries conquer and annex other countries provinces way too easily (at least since the last updates), and change the conquered areas religion too fast. Just today I saw an AI led Morocco and Granada attack and succesfully invade an AI led Castile and Portugal, annexing and turning to Islam half of Castile (including Galicia and Asturias) and all of Portugal. Meanwhile in Asia Nepal had conquered and turned to hinduism half of the Tibet, with the other half being conquered by Dali. And somehow Ethiopia has managed to conquer southern Yemen, which is now christian. All that by the middle 16th century.
 

JCan

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Very nice opening to an AAR.
Subbed.
 

Razgriz 2K9

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Absolutely love it!
I wouldn't have chosen Europa Universalis IV to make a historically accurate AAR, though. In my opinion it is far less realistic and crazier than CK2 or Vic2. AI led countries conquer and annex other countries provinces way too easily (at least since the last updates), and change the conquered areas religion too fast. Just today I saw an AI led Morocco and Granada attack and succesfully invade an AI led Castile and Portugal, annexing and turning to Islam half of Castile (including Galicia and Asturias) and all of Portugal. Meanwhile in Asia Nepal had conquered and turned to hinduism half of the Tibet, with the other half being conquered by Dali. And somehow Ethiopia has managed to conquer southern Yemen, which is now christian. All that by the middle 16th century.
To be fair, none of the Paradox games would qualify for historically accurate, and I'm not actually going for historically accurate either. In fact I've played up to the 1490's and let me tell you, it has to be seen to be believed.

Thanks for the subscriptions, though there will be a delay in the update due to real life complications. I hope to have the next update ready by Tuesday hopefully.
 

Razgriz 2K9

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Chapter 2: The War of the Holy Prince’s Legacy: The Conquest of Tangiers, and other Military Matters

The First act of the War was a naval engagement, launched at the end of the month of February, 1455, a Portuguese fleet, under the flagship São João de Deus attacked a Moroccan fleet near the coast of Tangiers, at the foot of the Straits of Gibraltar. The battle saw an entire Moroccan fleet utterly annihilated.


On the ground, a Portuguese Army under the command of the Earl of Avranches began to besiege Tangiers. Over the course of the conflict, a Moroccan-Tlemcenien force under the Zayyanid Sultan, Ahmad II, attacked the besieging forces. Despite being outnumbered nearly two-to-one, the Portuguese triumphed, albeit only barely so, both sides losing 10,000 men each.

As a result, for the remainder of the siege, the Portuguese had to rely on a steady supply of food and reinforcements, which pushed Portugal largely out of the early stages of the conflict. A follow-up victory in sea, again along the Straights of Gibraltar, saw a combined Barbary fleet fight against the Portuguese navy. Outnumbered three-to-one and with a trained Tunisian admiral in Rasul Alami, the Portuguese once more triumphed, sinking 13 of the enemies’ ships to four of their own.


Another advantage of keeping the Straits open was the allowance of the Castilian army into North Africa, which was used to great effect in keeping away the Berber armies from Tangiers, and protecting Ceuta. After a year of sieging, and struggle. Tangiers, the city that resisted a previous siege and led to the capture and death of one of Portugal’s beloved Infantes was now in Portugal’s hands.

From Tangier’s conquest came the capture of the city of Melilla, another port city in Morocco, but one that’s not as heavily defended as Ceuta or Tangier was. Supported by the Castilians, Mellilla was seized, and another Berber Army, led by the Tunisian Hafez Bassir was repulsed with heavy casualties, ending the final battle of the year.


For the remainder of the following year, Portugal and Castile continued to wage war in the Maghreb. Castile mostly focused on Tlemcen, where they achieved success there, while Portugal forged on in Morocco, to less success, as a more powerful Moroccan force arrived to negate many of the gains they had made. It was only a final battle, fought between the Iberians under André Rodrigues, and the Berbers under Ahmad II at the open desert of Oujda that Castile and Portugal was able to secure a favorable peace.

The treaty of Ceuta, signed on 8 May 1458 saw Morocco surrendering Tangiers and Melilla to Portugal, and Oujda, a minor backwater desert Oasis became Castile’s new base in North Africa. This victory was prolific in that it cemented Portugal’s hold over the trade in the Western Mediterranean, all the while near completely removing Morocco from the trade node in Sevilla.


It can be said that the Portuguese success had made both the King and the army drunk on victory. That with Castile’s help they could achieve great things, and with English support, they were unstoppable. This would come to bite them when the Crown of Aragon declared on Castile on a mid-autumn’s day in October of 1459.


At first it seemed as if Aragon would stand little chance in the face of the other two Iberian Powers. However Alfons VI, King of Aragon proved to be a wily opponent, outmaneuvering larger Castilian Armies and destroying smaller armies to enter direct Castilian territory. The only thing standing between Alfons and total annihilation of the Castilian and Portuguese countryside was the Portuguese Army that was stationed in North Africa at the time. As the army was to march to Portugal to defend the homeland however, they came under attack by the Aragonese, and was nearly annihilated as a fighting force, and forced to retreat into Portugal itself.

The months that followed saw Aragon, with the support of the Neapolitans run roughshod throughout the Castilian countryside, yet Castile continued to foolishly underestimate the Aragonese Army. Portugal would be the one to pay for this, as an Aragonese Army under the command of Joan Vilamarí attacked the Portuguese near the city of Èvora, completely and utterly destroying it, and leaving the Kingdom at the mercy of the Aragonese invaders.


Yet ultimately they did not do so. The Treaty of Albacete, signed in March of 1463, saw the severance of the Castilian-Portuguese alliance as well as the annexation of some border territories. The war was seen as a humiliation for the Portuguese, yet there were still many in the war party who sought now to rebuild their military in the event of an even greater danger occurring.

Afonso V’s popularity took a hit by the war, but was still particularly popular among the peoples of Portugal. He sponsored the construction of Churches in Lisbon and Porto, as well as sponsored Colonial Ventures around Africa. The first such colonist was a man by the name of Nicolau de Azevado, who began to attract settlers to a lonely chain of islands further south from the isle of Madiera, these islands became known as the Cabo Verde Islands [1].



In addition, the Burgher faction has finally recieved some support from the King, offering them Estates in the South of the country, though this may have been done with support by the elderly Duke of Coimbra, Pedro, who saw it as a counterbalance to the nobility who dominated the north of the country. However it was the Clergy who showed more clout, with the King siding with them in a matter involving funds. These funds would go towards the ordering of standardizing pike weaponry for the infantry, as well as shifting the style of infantry to the Longbow Infantry, to replicate the successes of the English.

It was also around this time, that João, Prince of Portugal began to openly sponsor the Renaissance in Portugal, alongside wealthy burghers and even some nobles. This brought some much needed prestige to the Portuguese crown. One of these sponsor was Afonso V himself, who hired the services of a Genoese explorer by the name of Cristoforo Colombo [2] to explore the uncharted territories of the Atlantic, and secure for him a route to the Orient via the Atlantic. What would become of this would ultimately lead to one of history's greatest discoveries.


But as Cristoforo began to set sail, a new issue arose in England, who called upon Portugal to deal with an attempted Burgundian conquest of Calais. Afonso, not wanting to lose another ally at such a crucial moment, answered England’s call to arms.

----
[1]: Cape Verde, though I don’t change the name as such until much later.
[2]: Historically, Christopher Columbus (Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo) was rebuffed twice in 1485 and 1488 by OTL’s King João II, as it states in the event description. Here with Castile weakened (and as we will soon see, in little position to colonize anyway), Portugal will be getting the head start in the new world game.

----
Again, apologizing for the delay. Things are starting to get a bit weird, but England should be able to handle itself in the war...right?
 
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JCan

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Any particular targets for future alliances given your moving away from Castille?
 

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Portugal is always a great and fun country to play with many opportunities afforded to it. Can't wait to see where you go. Best of luck!

Cheers!
 

Razgriz 2K9

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@JCan I will be alternating between Castile, France or England depending on what my current objective in the short term is.

@volksmarschall Hahaha, considering how crappy I've been playing thus far, I'm more impressed I haven't actually lost any provinces...or you know...suddenly blew up.

----
Chapter 3: The Twilight Years of Afonso o Africano: Quest for a New World


Afonso V, of whom despite his divisive legacy, still gained the sobiquet of "o Africano" or "the African"

Despite the official support for England in the war against Burgundy, Portugal wanted little to involve itself in the war, as the nation was still trying to recover its manpower reserves from the two subsequent wars, the declaration was a symbolic gesture to England, to preserve its alliance.

But like much of history’s up’s and down’s, it did not work out for Portugal in the long run. A Breton fleet, under the command of a second cousin of the Breton Duke, named Primel de Montfort, caught the Portuguese fleet by complete surprise, and dealt it a crippling blow. This was followed by swift occupations of Porto and Braganza. Because the transport fleet was serving Cristóvão Colombo in discoveries in uncharted lands, Afonso V was forced to sign piece. The terms were lenient, termination of the alliance with England and War Reparation to Burgundy and its allies.


Portugal, once more defeated in the field of battle turned instead towards the seas and to internal matters. Once more, Afonso took the side of the Clergy, and kept various Church Functions going, improving stability throughout the realm. It was through the clergy that Afonso passed the Act “Do Herético Comburendo.” [1] With which owning or purchasing a translation of the Holy Bible outside of Latin is punishable by burning on the stake. This was helped with the bringing of a Cardinal to the administration of Afonso’s court.

News of Columbo’s discoveries brought prestige to Portugal, being the first nation to discover a brave new world between Europe and the Orient. While Afonso felt Portugal was not ready yet to take advantage of such a landmass. In the meanwhile, Cabo Verde, had grown a great deal over the past few years, and finally, has grown to become a city of its own [2]. Nicolau de Azevado, using this experience in city planning and colonial management was now called upon to establish a new colony on the West African coast, named Arguim [3].The threat of hostile natives however saw Afonso send five thousand of his men to protect the colony and Portuguese investments in the region. [4]


In the Winter of 1477-1478, there was a great deal of conflict between the Burghers and Clergy in Faro, in the Algarve, over whom had the dominant authority in the cities of the Algarve. Since the Algarve was meant to be dominated by the Burghers, it was Afonso who chose to side with them in this matter, one of few slights against the Clergy’s loyalty and influence during the man’s reign.

New ideas during the late period of Afonso V continued to flourish, with the concept of workshops being made to bypass and make obsolete the concept of many industrial guilds and their rigid restrictions. Shipyards were being constructed to better supply the coastal provinces (inland provinces having to remain tied to land transport and are thus much poorer as a result in the interim.)




Another new set of ideas was more a propaganda of the Portuguese monarchy in response to convince people to travel to these distant provinces in search of potential riches, using the legacy of the Navigator Prince, Henrique, Duke of Viseu [5]. This move was further propagated by the Duke of Viseu at the time, Afonso’s nephew, Diogo [6].




During this period as well was a new conflict emerging once more. Castile, now calling upon support for the Portuguese wished to further their own ambitions in North Africa, calling for their support in the conflict with Tlemcen, who was supported by Morocco, and the almighty Ottomans. Afonso V, ever so eager to take more land from the Moroccans eagerly went to war, kicking off the North African War of 1479.

Portugal gained many a financial backer for this escapade, including Poland, Venice and Genoa in their conflict, partly because they themselves were fighting the rival Ottoman Empire. Both Iberian Kingdoms took a cautious route as the new year started, easily taking the Gharb in April of 1480, and repulsing continuous Berber attacks throughout the year.


But as 1481 began, it appeared that Castile was now fully committing themselves to the war, by the start of the new year, Castile had already taken the Moroccan capital of Fez, and by the end of next year and into the new year, much of Tlemcen and the interior of Morocco was occupied. Portugal however, fared poorly, and despite its control of the coast, saw its army systematically destroyed in the end by a Berber army under Adalhaqq II of Morocco.

But the utter humiliation came with the treaty of Cadiz, signed on 4 March 1483. The peace heavily favored Castile, who gained the environs of Wehran [7], Figuig and Kasdir from Tlemcen. Portugal only received 2 pounds of gold, but nothing tangable out of it. It was perhaps for this reason why, when Aragon, who was at the time in a personal union with Castile, rebelled against Castilian rule, Portugal chose to terminate its alliance with the Castilians, leaving them, to their just desserts.


The final year of Afonso’s reign was marked with switching friendships from Castile to England, the approval of what would become the last jousting tournament to be held in Portugal, and the encouragement of the Encomienda System in Arguim. But ultimately Afonso V would face his mortality, dying on 26 June 1484, at the age of 52 [8]. He would come to be succeeded by brother, João II as King of Portugal [9].


----
[1]: De Heretico Comburendo Act, from
[2]: The city was named Ribeira Grande, historically, while Ribeira Grande was not the first settlement in Cape Verde (that distinction goes to Praia, founded in 1615 and now serves as capital of the independent Republic of Cape Verde), it did serve as the island chain’s colonial capital until it was transferred to Praia in 1770 in OTL.
[3]: OTL this was a site of a Portuguese Trading post in 1445. Arguin by the way is located in modern Mauritania.
[4]: Also, I’m colonizing these two provinces in Africa partly to lock Castile out of the region.
[5]: We will talk more on Henrique in an upcoming chapter
[6]: OTL, as well as TTL, Diogo is the Fourth Duke of Viseu and Third Duke of Beja, inheriting both titles from his eldest brother João. It should be noted that both Beja siblings are the sons of Afonso V’s younger brother Fernando, who inherited the title of Duke of Viseu from Henrique, who died without an heir.
[7]: Oran, the original Arabic name depicted here meaning “the two lions.”
[8]: OTL, he died on 28 August 1481, so TTL’s Afonso came close to living three years longer than OTL, hooray!
[9]: EU4 is still pretty awkward about the system with heirs. Joao was stated as brother and not son because he became heir starting at age 6...while the king started at 15...that is weird as all heck.
 

Niethar

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Subbed. Hope to see you monoplizing all the colonies! Que Deus Nosso Senhor vos guie em sua jornada.
 

Razgriz 2K9

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Subbed. Hope to see you monoplizing all the colonies! Que Deus Nosso Senhor vos guie em sua jornada.
I'm no Portuguese speaker but, to run it through, Eu não sou um falante do Português, mas obrigado por os desejos. (I'm not a Portuguese speaker, but thank you for the well wishes.)

Now, before I put up Chapter 4 and start up into João's reign, I'll go ahead and do an interlude. Now how I do interludes is, that I cover the history of various people in this timeline, as well as earlier into its history. I intend to do so after the death of a monarch (or every 50 years if Portugal for some reason ends up being a Republic. Not saying that I'm going to make it a monarch, because I really don't, but stranger things have happened.)

So without further ado, let me introduce you to:
----
Interlude 1: The Infante of the Seven Parts of the World: Pedro, 1st Duke of Coimbra

Infante Pedro, the first to be styled Duke of Coimbra, was regarded by historians as a champion of the role of nobility and monarchy as a united force, rather than the nobility acting against the monarchy. Having dealt with intrigues and threats against him, Pedro stood strong as one of the prominent icons of the early reign of Afonso V. Such was the case of his epitaph of “the Seven Parts of the World.”


Pedro, Infante of Portugal, First Duke of Coimbra

Pedro was born to King João I and Filipa de Lancastre on 9 December 1392 in Lisboa. He was the fourth child and second surviving son of their family [1] and considered to be the King’s favorite son. Along with his senior and junior siblings, he received an exceptional education rarely seen for the times. During his childhood, he was close to his elder brother Duarte, as well as his younger brother João, Constable of Portugal, thus allowing Pedro to grow up in an environment free of intrigue.

His first claim to fame would not be until 14 August of 1415, where Pedro accompanied his father, the King, and his brothers, Duarte and Henrique, serving valiantly in the conquest of Ceuta from the Marinids of Morocco. There was a story in that, his mother, on her deathbed the month before, gave him and his brothers an arming sword, and promised his mother that he will not be knighted until he showed valor in battle. In any case, Pedro would be knighted the day after his battle on Coimbra and received the title of Duke of Coimbra.


The Conquest of Ceuta

Between 1415 and 1418, Pedro began work on translating De Beneficiis, a work written by Roman Senator Lucius Annaeus Seneca [2] from Latin to Portuguese. Upon its completion, Pedro began to travel, spending the next ten years away from Portugal. His first stop was at the Castilian court of Valladolid where he met with Juan II. Afterwards, he went to Hungary, where he met with Sigismund, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary-Croatia. He would serve in the army of the Emperor, fighting against the Hussites in Bohemia, and against the Ottoman Turks in the Balkan frontier. His service was rewarded by being granted the duchy of Treviso in 1422.

In 1424, Pedro left the domains of the HRE and met first with Murad II, Sultan of the Ottomans at Patmos, an island not far from the Ottoman’s main domains in Anatolia. After this meeting, Pedro travelled to Constantinople, the capital of the remnant Byzantine Empire. His brief layover there did not fail to impress him. After this stay, he went onto the lands of the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo, traveling first to Alexandria and Cairo before making an informal pilgrimage to the Holy Land.


In 1425, he left for France and England, visiting the Universities of Paris and Oxford. During his time in England, he was knighted a member of the English Order of the Garter By 1426, he arrived at Flanders, and for the next two years, Pedro spent his time in the court of the Burgundian Duke Philippe le Bon. [3] During this time, Philippe second wife, Bonne d’Artois had passed. It was Pedro who recommended to Philippe the hand of his sister Isabela. Philippe took the advice and over the course of a period between 1428 and 1430, there were delegations made, culminating in marriage between the two on 7 January 1430. It was around his time in Burgundy that the Duke of Coimbra wrote a letter to his older brother Duarte on “the proper administration of the kingdoms.”


From Left to Right: Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor; Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Turks and Philippe III, Duke of Burgundy

His last year abroad (1428) would be spent in Italy, first touring the lands of Treviso before making for the city of Venice. There the Doge, Francesco Foscari would give the Infante a book written by Marco Polo, detailing maps a later explorer would believe to be the Cape of Good Hope and the Strait of the Dragon’s Tail. [4] This book would later be given to his brother Henrique. From Venice he travelled to Rome, where he was well received by Pope Martinus V.

From there he would travel to Barcelona, where Pedro would negotiate a double marriage with the Aragonese King, Ferran I, his brother Duarte would wed his daughter, Leonor, while for Pedro, he would take as his bride, Isabela, eldest daughter of Jaume II, Count of Urgell of whom was imprisoned at the time. [5] Together the couple would have six children:


  • Pedro, Constable of Portugal and (later 2nd Duke of Coimbra) [6]
  • João, Count of Miranda do Corvo [7]
  • Isabela, Infanta of Coimbra
  • Infante Jaime of Coimbra, Cardinal and Archbishop of Lisboa
  • Infanta Beatriz, Lady of Ravenstein
  • Infanta Filipa, a nun

The next ten years after his return to Portugal was largely quiet, the only noteworthy achievement being in 1433 when he completed the Tratado da Virtuosa Benfeitoria, a six-volume work.

When his brother, then King Duarte I, died in 1438, his son, Afonso V became King, but he was only six years old at the time, and a regency had to be formed. Initially, the regency was led by the Queen-Mother Leonor of Aragon, but because Leonor was Aragonese, she was made unpopular, especially with Aragon becoming more antagonistic towards Portugal. So in a Cortes meeting, Leonor was replaced by the Duke of Coimbra, who’s role helped please the people and the bourgeois.


From Left to Right: Leonor of Aragon, and Afonso, Count of Barcelos and First Duke of Bragança

However, there were still those who preferred Leonor of Aragon, primarily within aristocratic circles. This faction revolved around Afonso, the Count of Barcelos and Pedro’s half brother.. Thus, for much of the regency period, it was marked by a war of influence over Afonso V.

In a gesture of reconciliation. Pedro created for his half-brother the title of Duke of Bragança on 1443. It seemed that relations were to normalize, but by 1445, Afonso felt slighted when Pedro chose to marry Afonso V to one of Pedro’s daughters, Isabela of Coimbra. This plan fell through due to Isabela’s untimely death, but the prospect forever shattered any further attempt at reconciliation, and the two men would continue to remain bitter rivals until Afonso’s death in 1461.

In a noteworthy example of this rivalry, Afonso’s supporters conspired to eliminate Coimbra, but the timely intervention of the Earl of Avranches, who was at Lisboa at the time of the conspiracy diffused these threats and executed those closest to the matter, although the Duke of Bragança managed to escape such persecution.

The Duke served well as an advisor during the early reign of Afonso, It was his idea to institute an elaborate Levee system, to better control the nobility, although that policy would later be abolished long after the Duke’s retirement and death. In addition, the support of the clergy helped to tie church life into the administration of state, and the support of the burghers helped to establish new marketplaces to better manage trade, all these steps taken for when Afonso waged a successful war with Morocco.

Pedro retired from state duties in 1459, and spent the rest of his years in a small palace on the outskirts of Lisbon, where he passed away on 30 June 1466 at the age of 73. He would be succeeded in his title by his eldest son, also named Pedro.

----
[1]: His eldest siblings were: Infanta Branca, born 13 July 1388, but died four months shy of her first birthday; Infante Afonso, who was the original Prince of Portugal, born 30 July 1390, but died ten years later; and Infante Duarte, who succeeded his father as Duarte I.
[2]: History refers to him as Seneca the Younger, the man who served as the tutor, and later advisor to the Roman Emperor Nero.
[3]: Philip the Good, or Philippe III of Burgundy.
[4]: Strait of Magellan
[5]: Something involving a revolt by Jaume against Ferran because Jaume was the rightful heir to the throne.
[6]: IOTL, Pedro, after his father was killed, went into exile in Castile, only coming back at the behest of his cousin and step-uncle. Claiming the Aragonese Crown (as Pere V) he took to adventuring there, where he took ill and died. (Also, Poison could be involved.)
[7]: OTL, he was styled Prince of Antioch after marrying Charlotte de Lusignan in 1456, and subsequently poisoned by orders of his mother-in-law, Helena Palaiologena. Here he actually marries a local Portuguese noble in Brianda de Melo, the youngest daughter of Rodrigo Afonso de Melo, the Count of Olivença. Also, bringing out this title earlier than OTL, as in OTL the title was not created until 1611 by Filipe II of Portugal/Felipe III of Spain.

----
So tell me what you think of this, and if you like it, I'll do more of these in the future. Chapter 4 will come out sometime this week hopefully.
 

Niethar

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I'm no Portuguese speaker but, to run it through, Eu não sou um falante do Português, mas obrigado por os desejos. (I'm not a Portuguese speaker, but thank you for the well wishes.)
I thought you were Portuguese, since you have a flag in your profile, wrote stuff in Portuguese in the AAR and show a great knowledge of Portuguese history. Well sir, you've just earned my admiration with all that research in this rich AAR of yours.
 

Razgriz 2K9

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Chapter 4: Brave New World: Colonization of the New World and the Castilian Collapse


Dom João II
The accession of João to the Portuguese throne in 1484 initially meant business as usual, a continuation of Afonso V’s domestic policies, albeit being more focused on affairs away from Europe, to focus on Colombo’s discoveries of America.

The first major event of João’s reign was the birth of his heir apparent, named Sebastião [1]. Born on 5 July 1484, the boy showed much promise growing up, becoming skilled in the art of diplomacy and warfare, ensuring that the boy was taught well in the art of politics.


Over the course of the subsequent ten years into João’s reign, saw the continued explorations of Christovão Colombo. Among his explorations, it took him all around the Atlantic, discovering lands from islands in the Caribbean Sea, to the lands of the West African coastline, to the lands of Brazil in what would become known as the Continent of Columbia [2].

When news of these discoveries reached the court of Lisboa, it soon became clear to the King that he, unlike his brother will reap the benefits from this brave new world. But before this could be achieved, the primary objective in the colonial front was the securing of the outpost in Arguim. This would not be completed until the 1st of May 1492, opening up the gateway to moving their colonization efforts to the new World. Nicolau de Azevado, now 55 years of age and nearly three decades of experience under his belt, was sent to set up a base for what would become the first major colonialist effort. This outpost would be called São Salvador da Bahia. [3]


In the mainland, new technologies were being discovered, more so coming in from neighboring countries in Western Europe. New ideas and strategies were being made to boost morale to the sailors of the Portuguese Navy as well as to the colonists to expand their reach beyond their original boundaries.

Meanwhile, the introduction of the Arquebus in the Portuguese Army had steadily but surely displaced the bow and arrow as the ranged weapon of choice due to it’s better armor penetration, it’s ease of use and because unlike a bow, it did not depend on a user’s strength to utilize it effectively.

Finally, a resurgence of ideas arose in Portugal, the concept that a noble oligarchy ruling over society had been around since Roman times, and to a lesser extent was what developed into the early stages of feudalism. But now this thought was gaining resurgence in Portugal, as part of the growing ideas developed by the age of the Renaissance.


The early reign of Joao II was also noted for two notable monuments that had begun construction. They were the Torre de São Vincente, also known as the Torre de Belém [4] and the Mosteiros da Santa Maria de Belém, also known as Monsteiros dos Jerónimos [5]. Sponsored as a joint project by King João II and his nephew, Manuel, Duke of Beja and Viseu [6], these monuments were constructed in a style that historians would later call Joanine-Manueline Architecture. [7]


It was also at this time that Portugal’s economy, devastated as a result of multiple wars fought at the behest of Castile, began to recover, a testament that Afonso V’s trust of the Castilians was ultimately poisonous to Portugal. João II, even during his time as Prince of Portugal, favored an alliance with the French over the Castilians, and this was a matter that was achieved on 19 October 1492.

For Castile however, Portugal’s refusal to help in the conflict with Aragon ultimately doomed them, left to fend off, not only Aragon, but also Naples, who chose to follow in its union with Aragon over Castile, and England, who saw the Castilians as a threat. The situation grew even more complicated with the introduction of the French into the Castilian crisis.

The Iberian War as historians would call it, was nothing short of an unmitigated disaster for the Castilians. Completely crushed and left at the mercy of both the French and the Aragonese, the Castilians were forced to comply to two treaties.

The first, with the Aragonese alliance, not only confirmed the termination of the personal union between the two in favor of a local Aragonese monarch. It also saw Aragon expand their territorial holdings to include the Biscay region, Central Castile and Northern Extremadura, providing Aragon a direct border with its hated rival Portugal.

From the French, although they did not gain any extra territory (partly due to their claims being taken by Aragon), it was equally as devastating, as Castile was forced to restore both the Kingdom of Galicia and the Kingdom of León to independence for the first time since the 14th century. Portugal immediately took advantage of this situation by securing marriage alliances with the newly crowned monarchs.


The Post-Iberian War Situation

For León, they chose Alfonso, now styled Alfonso XII, who was a member of the House of Ruspoli from Florence. João would secure a marriage alliance with him, and Alfonso would marry the Duke of Viseu’s sister, Catarina. For Galicia, they secured a minor Castillian-Aragonese nobleman from Villahermosa who would be styled as Ordoño III. João also secured with him a marriage alliance, marrying him to another Catarina, this one being the sister to the Duke of Bragança.

Despite the balance of power on the peninsula now having a more Aragonese flavor, it seems now the alliance with León, Galicia and France should help keep Portugal’s continental adversaries off its back.
----
[1]: Took the chance to roll a different name, he was originally rolled as Manuel, frankly, I didn't want that to happen.
[2]: South America, no Amerigo’s allowed.
[3]: For those of you familiar with Portugal’s colonial history or the history of Brazil, Salvador was Portugal’s first colonial city in the New World. Officially the name is São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos (Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints), but because that alone is a mouthful to say, and I have absolutely no idea if the full title would even fit within the character limits if I tried, I think calling it Salvador would just simple. Also as a kudos, colonized Salvador more than 50 years before it happened historically.
[4]: In English, the Tower of Saint Vincent and the Tower of Belém, respectively. IOTL, it was ordered by OTL’s Manuel I in 1513 as a military fortification at the mouth of the Targus River, construction would begin in 1515, and would not be completed until 1519. Which means, by that logic, we have just ordered the construction by the event (19 July 1490), construction would be built in 1492 and would not be completed until 1496 if my math is correct.
[5]: The Monastery of Saint Mary of Belém and Jerónimos Monastery, of which another name is the Hieronymites Monastery, after the order of the same name. IOTL, it was ordered to be constructed by OTL’s Manuel I in 1495 (1493 ITTL), and construction began in 1501. However the project was delayed intermittently with the death of Manuel I in 1521, It was restarted twice more (in 1550 and in 1571 respectively) and was stopped twice (the most infamous being in 1580, when Philip II became King of Portugal as Philip I, and all of the funds were diverted to the El Escorial Palace in San Lorenzo, Spain. It would be completed in 1601 however during the reign of Philip II of Portugal (Philip III of Spain). ITTL, with much in the way of funding, hopefully no such personal unions, I can imagine construction starting in 1499 and probably finishing around the 1530’s, with the additions coming in later on.
[6]: OTL’s Manuel I of Portugal, since TTL’s João II now has an heir as far as this point of the game is concerned, would be known ITTL as the 5th Duke of Viseu and 4th Duke of Beja.
[7]: TTL’s Manueline Style of Architecture

----
Okay, so at least we know there will not be a united Spain this playthrough...I believe. Wasn't expecting a Florentine to sit on a Royal throne either, but then I didn't expect Aragon to actually win, so all's relative. Let's hope I can keep my head down long enough to see more success in the long haul against Aragon.