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Ypestis26

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The Consulship of Lucius Aemilius Barbula (473-477)
"One more such victory and we are undone" - Pyrrhus of Epirus

The tenure of Lucius Aemilius Barbula as head of the republic is best remembered as the Consulship when Rome, before this a regional power which dominated central and northern Italy, would assert itself as a major power in the Mediterranean world. The Roman Republic, through Barbula's leadership and that of his successor, would acquire the rich cities of Croton and Tarentum, and would take for the first time land outside of Italy itself, with the annexation of the eastern half of Sicily. Still, such an outcome was not inevitable, and Pyrrhus of Epirus, the man who, for a time, was hailed as the greatest commander of men since Alexander the Great, would come close to halting Rome’s absorption of the cities of Magna Graecia. Perhaps more notably for this history, Barbula’s term was the first where records show the existence of just one Consul, who’s term now had quadrupled to four years, a sign of the need for stable, long term leadership in the growing republic [1].

The exact details leading up to the outbreak of what would become known as the Pyrrhic War are lost to the mists of time, but it is known that in 468 AUC, the Tarentines launched an assault on the Roman aligned city of Thurii, which they looted. Shortly thereafter in 470, a Roman fleet led by the hapless Lucius Valerius fell under Tarentine attack and many Roman sailors were captured. By the time that Barbula ascended to the Consulship in 473, war was inevitable and broke out officially a short time later. The Tarentines, realizing their mistake, quickly reached out to Pyrrhus, then ruler of the Greek kingdom of Epirus, and an alliance was quickly established. The arrival of Pyrrhus led to several Sicilian cities, notably Syracuse, to join the Epirote cause, and by 474, Rome found itself facing a coalition which stretched from the hinterlands of central Sicily to the borders of Macedonia.


Planned Campaigns of Pyrrhus. He likely would have reached Rome, but for Q.A Papus checking his advance at the Battle of Capua in 475.

Barbula, ostensibly the head of the Republic, would not truly lead the war effort. Instead, this task fell on Quintus Aemilius Papus, the newly appointed general of the freshly raised Legio I Italica. Papus was better equipped from his base in Lucania to react with the speed which was necessary, and would earn great renown from the war. Papus knew that if the Greek armies were allowed to mass, Rome would not be able to withstand them. Deducing that the Tarentine army posed a much greater threat than that of either Croton, or the now Tarentine aligned Thurii, Papus decided to face Thurii and Croton before their full strength could be brought to bear, and by the spring of 474, both Thurii and Croton's armies were scattered and their capitals under siege.

In the meantime, both Pyrrhus and the Tarentines were ravaging southern Italy. Lucania had been pillaged and Potentia put under siege [2]. Barium had likewise been cut off by a Tarentine army numbering some 11,000 men. As such, Barbula ordered a new legion raised, the Legio II Sabina. Placed under the command of a certain Caeso Quinctius Claudius, this new legion had a standing force of 10,000 men, and was tasked with relieving the siege of Barium. At this, Claudius, who initially seemed a promising military mind, failed, and with heavy losses was repulsed. This began a long line of bad luck for poor Claudius, who by the end of the war, was relegated to lead a much reduced force in starving out enemy settlements.

Still, despite the setbacks in Apulia, by September, both Croton and Thurii had capitulated, and were incorporated into the Republic. Pyrrhus had managed to occupy Potentia and with it much of Lucania, but Barium still held out. Claudius, recovering from a new defeat inflicted upon him and his unlucky force by the Epirotes was licking his wounds up the coast from Barium. As such, with 475 dawning, it fell to Papus again to salvage the war effort. He, reaching the Adriatic shore, sped up the coast, and reinforced by Claudius’s army, met the Tarentines in pitched battle in early January 475, and smashed them. Giving chase, the whole army was forced to surrender outside the walls of Tarentum, and the city was invested. Papus, leaving Claudius to end Tarentine resistance, something he would in fact be capable of doing, prepared to deal with Pyrrhus who was now at the walls of Capua. On April 25th, Papus and Pyrrhus, the two most able generals of the war began battle. In an engagement that lasted the better part of two weeks, Papus, with the help of superior numbers forced Pyrrhus from the field. It is a testament to Pyrrhus’s leadership that he was able to withdraw in good order, and it would take nearly a year for his force to be decisively defeated. As Papus began his chase of Pyrrhus across the boot of Italy, Claudius achieved his first real military success when in August, Tarentum surrendered. As punishment for their role in starting the war, Barbula decreed that the territory would not be annexed, and instead would remain under military administration [3].



The results of the decisive Battles of Barium and Capua.

The war had now turned decisively in Rome’s favor, and on the 18th of April 476, the Epirote army which had burned their way across Italy for two years, surrendered; Pyrrhus only just escaped back to Epirus. Still, Epirote naval supremacy, or perhaps to be more accurate naval dominance put the war on a standstill. Claudius, following his display of competency was delegated the task of retaking Potentia. Papus cooled his heels in Croton, waiting until he was able to cross into Sicily. Rome’s naval presence had never been noteworthy, and so a new navy had to be constructed from the ground up. The time it took to ensure this meant that the remainder of Barbula’s Consulship was uneventful. 476 passed without incident, and the only noteworth event of the first part of 477 was the appointment of Manlius Valerius Maximus, then Tribune of the Treasury, as the admiral of the newly constituted Classis I Apollinaris. The arrival of April 477 brought with it the need for new Consular elections, and the choice was clear to everyone. On May 1st, Quintus Aemelius Papus became Consul of the Roman Republic.


The extent of Roman rule in 477. Not shown is the remaining Epirote garrison at Potentia.

[1] Unrealistic, I know. Though for the sake of this AAR, I figured it was best to do this for simplicity’s sake. It should also be noted that the major offices, i.e Quaestor, Aedile etc, will also be on this four year term, and will show just one or two holders of the office at any given time. RoA incorporates minor offices as well, which may be mentioned from time to time.

[2] Pyrrhus didn’t actually land in Italy, instead the Epirote force was commanded by a Martial 9 general, so I decided to take some liberties here and name Pyrrhus as the main general.

[3]. I didn't annex Tarentum right away as I didn't want the "Conquer Sicily" mission to trigger too early and cause a rush for the island before I was ready.

Below is an index of the various officials, governors, and military leaders for this chapter. I know there was never such a thing as Censor Prima and Censor Seconda, but I included it to keep track of who was in the two Censor positions. The armies and navies include the year in which they were organized as well as the year their specific commander took control.

State Officials:
Consul: Lucius Aemilius Barbula (473-477)
Army Quaestor: Gaius Fabius Licinus (474-)
Navy Quaestor: Publius Sempronius Sophus (474-)
Aedile: Gnaeus Cornelius Blasio (474-)
Praetor: Gaius Atilius Regulus (474-)
Pontifex Maximus: Quintus Caedicius (474-)
Censor Prima: Quintus Fabius Gurges (474-)
Censor Seconda: Tiberius Coruncanius (474-)

Governors:
Apulia: Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (474-)
Campania: Manius Curius Dentatus (474-)
Etruria: Marcus Atilius Regulus (474-)

Generals and Admirals:

Legio I Italica (474-):
Quintus Aemilius Papus (474-)
Legio II Sabina (474-):
Caeso Quinctius Claudius (474-)
Classis I Apollinaris (476-):
Manlius Valerius Maximus (476-)

Hope you all enjoyed the first chapter of this AAR! I've been a long time lurker here as you can see by my post count, but with the announcement of Rome: Imperator, I figured I'd try my hand at writing an AAR for one of my favorite paradox games. I am playing with the Reign of the Ancients mod on version 2.36b for Vae Victus with the hegemony victory condition, hence the title.
 
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Idhrendur

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A timely AAR, and I'm enjoying the writing style you've chosen.
 

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A well written AAR. Please include gameplay reasons for changing Generals and such because I always get overrun by Populists when I play. Where/How do you get Cavalry in your Legions?

Also I just found the mod Imperium Universalis for EUIV and I recommend for Antiquity lovers.
 

Ypestis26

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A timely AAR, and I'm enjoying the writing style you've chosen.
Thanks for the kind words, I hope to have an update out tonight!

A well written AAR. Please include gameplay reasons for changing Generals and such because I always get overrun by Populists when I play. Where/How do you get Cavalry in your Legions?

Also I just found the mod Imperium Universalis for EUIV and I recommend for Antiquity lovers.
Thank you! Sure, I don't mind including that. Thankfully, I believe Reign of the Ancients helps temper the populists power so that they don't dominate republics as easily. In fact in the last Roman game I played, which I stuck with into the 560s, the military faction dominated, and had an absolute majority in the Senate from time to time.

As far as cavalry go, you first need to acquire the horse trade good, once that's done you can build cavalry in any province that either produces horses, or is trading for them. In RoA, there is a province just north of Rome's starting borders (called Mutina I think?) which produces horses and can be pretty easily taken.

I've actually just downloaded Imperium Universalis, and am definitely looking forward to sinking some time into it.
 

Ypestis26

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The Consulship of Quintus Aemilius Papus (477-481)
“...the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all…” - Cicero on Syracuse


The ascension of Quintus Aemilius Papus, the hero of the Pyrrhic War, to the Consulship came as a surprise to no one, least of all Papus, who did not even bother to be in Rome at the time of his election. Instead, Papus received the expected news of his election while in Rhegium on the tip of Italy. He had acquired extensive estates in the region, which without a doubt did no harm to his chances of victory. Papus, however, had more pressing matters on his mind other than reveling in the comforts of a south Italian villa; his eyes were on Sicily.

The Legio I Italica had swelled to over 20,000 men by the middle of 477, and if the crossing to Sicily could be secured, Messana and more enticingly Syracuse would be ripe for the taking. Securing the Straits of Messana would take time, and it would only be in the autumn of 477 that Papus was finally able to march. In the meantime, Claudius continued to repair his reputation and on the 23rd of October, Potentia surrendered to his small force, restoring Roman control to the whole of mainland Italy. By December, Papus became the first Roman general to set foot in Sicily, and scattered the small Epirote garrison tasked with holding the island outside of Messana. Both Messana and Syracuse were placed under siege, where they would remain until 479. Papus personally led the siege of Syracuse, while an unknown subordinate took charge of operations in Messana.


The results of the Battle of Messana, which opened the door to the Roman occupation of western Sicily.

As 478 dawned, the time had come for new appointments and elections to the various offices of state. Three new governors, and four new state officials were appointed or elected respectively, with both familiar names and new names in the mix. Notably, Gaius Atilius Regulus, Praetor for the previous term, was tasked with governing the province of Etruria, becoming the second member of the gens Atilia to take the post [1]. 478 passed without much more fuss, and the sieges in Sicily continued. The Roman navy under Manlius Maximus continued to grow, and was proving itself instrumental in the siege of Syracuse, but was still unable to effectively blockade numerous ports at once and as such the siege of Messana was conducted without large scale naval support until its final months.


A dramatic rendering of the Siege of Syracuse.

With the new year came new developments in the war. February 479 witnessed the surrender of the jewel of Sicily, Syracuse, into Roman hands, and in September, the stubborn garrison at Messana at last opened the city gates. In November, Tarentum was officially annexed, much to the acclaim of the Senate, and Papus began planning his final campaign. Papus, ever ambitious, foreshadowed the future archetype for a Roman general. Papus resolved that, if he was to be the first Roman commander in Sicily, he would also be the first Roman general in Greece, and therefore called on Admiral Maximus to secure the Adriatic between Apulia and Epirus. By this point, the Epirote navy was dwarfed by the Classis I Apollinaris, and Maximus was able to secure a crossing for Papus without much trouble. Papus landed in Epirus proper in late November, smashed the small force that Pyrrhus had raised to protect his country, and placed Ambracia under siege. The Epirotes, their spirit broken and their morale shot, held out for less than half a year, and Ambracia capitulated on May 12th. Pyrrhus, flushed out of his capital, was forced to agree to all Roman demands, and while still left an independent ruler in Greece, he was forced to cede all of Epirote Sicily to Rome, which organized the land into a new province: Sicilia[2]. Epirus was finished as a major power.


The Senate's ecstatic reaction to Tarentum's annexation.


The Siege of Ambracia.


The Roman terms to Pyrrhus.

Papus returned to Italy a hero. His popularity had never been higher, and on his arrival in Rome, he was granted a triumph. Papus retired shortly thereafter as head of the Legio I Italica, and contented himself with the tedium of actually governing for the last year of his Consulship [3]. In the meantime, the former governor of Apulia and soon to be Consul, Gaius Fabricius Luscinus took command of the Legio I Italica, and marched it north into Etruria, where he would bide his time, waiting for his chance for glory. When 481 at last arrived, Papus was reportedly tired and ready for retirement, and in May Gaius Fabricius Luscinus would take the reigns of power.


The Extent of the republic in 481 AUC

[1]: A new governor of Campania was also appointed, who funnily enough was named Quintus Aemilius Papus as well. Unlike his Consular counterpart however, this Papus was a populist rabble-rouser with no real talent for accomplishing anything.

[2]: This new province would become a hotbed of unrest and discontent, and even before a governor had been appointed, the citizens of Sicilia had applied for independence.

[3]: Papus was removed for command for both gameplay and roleplaying reasons. On the gameplay front, he had the loyalty of 14 units, or about half of my military! I figured once his term had ended loyalty would become a problem, so I had him step down. As for as roleplaying, I figured a man who had been on the road for six years and had just achieved a triumph wouldn’t mind some time off.


State Officials for this Chapter:
Consul: Quintus Aemilius Papus (477-481)
Army Quaestor: Gaius Fabius Licinus (474- )
Navy Quaestor: Publius Sempronius Sophus (474-478), Marcus Otacilius Crassus (478- )
Aedile: Gnaeus Cornelius Blasio (474-478), Lucius Julius Libo (478- )
Praetor: Gaius Atilius Regulus (474-478), Gaius Genucius Clepsina (478- )
Pontifex Maximus: Quintus Caedicius (474-478), Appius Claudius Caecus (478- )
Censor Prima: Quintus Fabius Gurges (474- )
Censor Seconda: Tiberius Coruncanius (474- )

Governors:
Apulia: Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (474-478), Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, (478- )
Campania: Manius Curius Dentatus (474-478), Quintus Aemilius Papus (478- )
Etruria: Marcus Atilius Regulus (474-478), Gaius Atilius Regulus (478- )
Sicilia: Lucius Manlius Vulso (480- )

Generals and Admirals:
Legio I Italica (474-):
Quintus Aemilius Papus (474-480)
Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (480- )
Legio II Sabina (474-):
Caeso Quinctius Claudius (474- )
Classis I Apollinaris (476-):
Manlius Valerius Maximus (476- )
 
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Ypestis26

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Glad to see some life yet remains in the EU:Rome forums :) It's been a while since I've dusted off my copy, but I have fond memories of that game. I'll certainly be keeping an eye on this one!
Thanks, I was worried that I would only be posting for my own viewing pleasure at first
!
 

Ypestis26

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The Consulships of Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (481-485) and Lucius Caecius Metellus (485-489)
“By gold all good faith has been banished; by gold our rights are abused; the law itself is influenced by gold, and soon there will be an end of every modest restraint.” - Propertius

Gaius Fabricius Luscinus, unlike the previous Consul, did not feature prominently in this history before his election, but that is not for lack of clout. Luscinus had served since 474 as the de facto leader of the military wing in the Senate, and this afforded him immense influence. When his governorship in Apulia expired and he risked not holding office, his position allowed him to secure a spot as Plebeian Aedile. In 480 he found himself placed at the head of the Legio I Italica, and the path to the Consulship was clear.


A modern, fictitious depiction of Luscinus.

Vexingly for Luscinus, Rome found itself at peace, and the Senate, despite being home to a military minded plurality, was reluctant to launch another war so soon. Notwithstanding the Republic’s success against Pyrrhus, the country needed time to recover, notably in southern Italy and Sicily where the new territories were on the cusp of a full blown insurrection. Luscinus was forced to wait for two years before taking any action. 482 brought with it another election year and saw an old face return to the halls of power. Lucius Aemilius Barbula, now in his sixties, pulled what strings he had left in the Senate, and procured for himself the lucrative governorship of Sicilia. Gaius Atilius Regulus also continued his rise as he acquired another governorship for himself in Apulia.

Eventually though, the political capital which Luscinus had accrued in the Senate was brought to bear, and the Senate granted him the authority to march north into the Po Valley. Since the annexation of Tarentum, Luscinus had longed to bring the troublesome Boii tribe to heel, going so far as to pass a resolution in the Senate expressing that wish, and now was his chance. In May of 483 Luscinus and the Legio I Italica marched into Mutina. Following him, Gaius Dullius, now commander of the Legio II Sabina, cleared the way into Bononia proper, and would engage the Boii army off and on for the better part of a year [1]. Thankfully for Luscinus, he was able to meet the Boii and their allies the Insubres in battle shortly before the war ended, and sated his thirst for victory.


Luscinus's Senate resolution calling for war with Boii.


Luscinus finds his glory.

The war was over by 484 and Mutina, a region just upriver from Bononia was annexed into the Republic. Too separate from Etruria to be simply incorporated into that province, it was decreed that Mutina would become the foundation stone of the new province of Gallia Cisalpina. While initially a backwater, the new province would become the launching pad for any new Roman forays north of Italy proper, or even further afield into Gallia Transalpina.


Boii had no choice but to accept Roman terms.

Still, events of more import were happening back in Italy. Southern Italy had been hovering on the edge of disaster for a few years, and in October of 483, famine struck. Any attempts to distribute grain from the still unaffected areas of central italy and Sicily failed, and the whole region hovered on the brink. Into the chaos stepped Lucius Caecius Metellus, one of the richest men in Rome. Metellus, ambitious, young, and with an eye towards to the future, purchased grain at his own expense and dispensed it to the starving people of southern Italy free of charge. Metellus earned their love and admiration, and took to heart the lesson that if money could buy you love, it could buy you power [2].

In Luscinus’s absence, Metellus began to make himself and his heavy purse known in Rome. Once Luscinus was finally able to return to Rome, his Consulship was nearly over, and the conventional wisdom in the city was that Lucius Julius Libo, head of a powerful mercantile group of senators, would be Consul. Metellus had other plans. In an extensive bribery campaign, which would become all too familiar in later elections, Metellus bought his way into office. Of course payments to voters and other such forms of minor corruption were fairly common, but the way in which Metellus flouted his practices was outrageous even by Roman standards. But, patrician outrage could not stop Metellus’s rise, and in 485 he was duly elected Consul of the Roman Republic [3].

The scale and scope of Metellus’s corruption rocked the political class of Rome and destroyed what stability had returned in the wake of the famine. Metellus would, however, prove to be a capable peacetime Consul, one which Rome needed as it moved inexorably towards the First Punic War. Yet, despite the peace and prosperity he brought Rome, or perhaps because of it, there is little left to us regarding Metellus’s tenure.

For four years, Rome was at peace. It’s people were free to farm and trade and marry. Its manpower recovered, and its population grew. But, Metellus did not let the peace dull Rome's ability to make war. He undertook a general reform of the Roman military's equipment, and ensured that when the next conflict came, no Roman soldier would be ill-equipped.


The Metellan Reforms.
It was prudent that Metellus acted to reform the army when he did, for the clouds of war were gathering again; Carthage and Rome were on a collision course.


Republican territory at the end of Metellus's Consulship.

[1] Poor Claudius died in 482 at the age of 52. His successor Appius Claudius Cadex held the command for just a short time before he too died. Gaius Dullius was the third commander in a year for the army.

[2] In October of 483 I had an event describing a food shortage and 1 stability loss and chose to embellish it. Of course, that Metellus would become Consul after an event detailing a stolen election helped.

[3] At first I got the notification that Libo was elected, and then the stolen election event where Metellus took power at the cost of 5000 of his own gold and the loss of stability.


State Officials for this Chapter:
Consul: Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (481-485), Lucius Caecius Metellus (485-489)
Army Quaestor: Gaius Fabius Licinus (474-487), Publius Sempronius Sophus (487- )
Navy Quaestor: Marcus Otacilius Crassus (478-482), Publius Sempronius Sophus (482-487), Aulus Manlius Torquatus (487- )
Aedile: Lucius Julius Libo (478-482), Gnaeus Cornelius Blaso (482-486), Appius Claudius Rufus (486- )
Praetor: Gaius Genucius Clepsina (478-482), Gaius Sempronius Blasus (482-486), Tiberius Coruncanius (486- )
Pontifex Maximus:Appius Claudius Caecus (478-482), Gaius Furius Pacilus (482-486), Marcus Fabius Licinus (486- )
Censor Prima: Quintus Fabius Gurges (474-482), Publius Cornelius Rufinus (482- )
Censor Seconda: Tiberius Coruncanius (474-482), Publius Decius Mus (482- )

Governors:
Apulia: Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, (478-482), Gaius Atilius Regulus (482-487), Marcus Fabius Buteo (487- )
Campania: Quintus Aemilius Papus (478-482), Gaius Lutatius Catulus (482-486), Quintus Valerius Falto (486- )
Etruria: Gaius Atilius Regulus (478-482), Gaius Claudius Canina (482-486), Quintus Caedicus (486- )
Gallia Cisalpina: Quintus Lutatius Catulus (484-488), Gaius Aquillius Florus (488- )
Sicilia: Lucius Manlius Vulso (480-484), Lucius Aemilius Barbula (484-488), Manius Pomporius Matho (488- )

Generals and Admirals:
Legio I Italica (474-):
Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (480-)
Legio II Sabina (474-):
Caeso Quinctius Claudius (474-482)
Appius Claudius Cadex (482)
Gaius Dulius (482- )
Classis I Apollinaris (476- )
Manlius Valerius Maximus (476- )


Hope you all enjoyed the update. The next one will give a brief overview of the various provinces and the state of the Republic. Then I’ll do an overview of the international situation before the war with Carthage.
 

Specialist290

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Metellus is certainly a colorful and controversial figure. I can't help but wonder if the paucity of records regarding his tenure as consul was caused by deliberate obfuscation by an embarrassed patrician class -- particularly by Libo and his allies, whom I can't imagine were too happy about having an election stolen out from under them.

Rome is making the transition from citizen militia to the professional fighting force that would forge its later reputation. Hopefully the legions in this timeline will live up to the precedent set by their real-world counterparts.
 

Ypestis26

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Metellus is certainly a colorful and controversial figure. I can't help but wonder if the paucity of records regarding his tenure as consul was caused by deliberate obfuscation by an embarrassed patrician class -- particularly by Libo and his allies, whom I can't imagine were too happy about having an election stolen out from under them.

Rome is making the transition from citizen militia to the professional fighting force that would forge its later reputation. Hopefully the legions in this timeline will live up to the precedent set by their real-world counterparts.
That is certainly possible, Libo would not want to give any credit to his political opponent. Metellus is still quite young, so we will likely see more of him in the future.

I'll elaborate on this more in the next update, but Carthage has been busy consolidating its own position as Rome was fighting Pyrrhus and the Boii, so that transition of the army will be critical in the next few years.
 

Bullfilter

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Just letting you know I’m signing up. I will catch up in the next day or two. Nice job so far from the quick scan I’ve made. Mine may not be quite so handsome looking, as I plan on it being ‘quick and dirty’ (having two other AARs to run simultaneously).

I used to play this quite a lot after it came out (just the original version, on disk!). When I saw the new Imperator game advertised/coming out, I thought I’d give it another go for old times sake! I lashed out and spent $2.50 for Rome Gold + Vae Victus (which I’ve never played).

I’ll be keeping you company soon, as I am going to do an AAR on my nostalgia game too! Perhaps we can attract a few viewers over who yearn for the old days! :)
 

stnylan

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Nice to see another Rome AAR, sorry I missed the start of it.
 

Ypestis26

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Just letting you know I’m signing up. I will catch up in the next day or two. Nice job so far from the quick scan I’ve made. Mine may not be quite so handsome looking, as I plan on it being ‘quick and dirty’ (having two other AARs to run simultaneously).

I used to play this quite a lot after it came out (just the original version, on disk!). When I saw the new Imperator game advertised/coming out, I thought I’d give it another go for old times sake! I lashed out and spent $2.50 for Rome Gold + Vae Victus (which I’ve never played).

I’ll be keeping you company soon, as I am going to do an AAR on my nostalgia game too! Perhaps we can attract a few viewers over who yearn for the old days! :)
Glad to have you on board, and I'll definitely be following your Rome AAR! This along with EU2 were my first Paradox games, so the nostalgia is always strong when I play it. While not a commentator on it, I've been quite a fan of your Talking Turkey AAR.

Nice to see another Rome AAR, sorry I missed the start of it.
Happy to have another reader! I hope to have an update up tonight or tomorrow.
 

Bullfilter

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Idhrendur

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Oh, hey another of your AARs. I'll be watching (and remembering my misadventures with this game).
 

Bullfilter

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Ok, up to date now. You being some years ahead of me will be broadly useful, I’m sure. Also, I haven’t played in years, so am still trying to remember the mechanics. :confused:

So, the big showdown with Carthage looms: will follow with interest!
 

Ypestis26

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Oh, hey another of your AARs. I'll be watching (and remembering my misadventures with this game).
Glad to see you're following!

Ok, up to date now. You being some years ahead of me will be broadly useful, I’m sure. Also, I haven’t played in years, so am still trying to remember the mechanics. :confused:

So, the big showdown with Carthage looms: will follow with interest!
My knowledge of the mechanics is quite rudimentary, so something tells me I may get more info out of your AAR than you will out of mine! I'm glad you are enjoying it! The new update tonight will mainly be about the state of the Republic and the world in 489 and then onto the war with the next chapter!
 

Ypestis26

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The Roman World and its Neighbors in 489
"We do not say that a man who takes no interest in politics is a man who minds his own business; we say that he has no business here at all.” - Pericles

This history would be remiss if some attention was not paid to the actual governing of the Republic, and the events which were taking place elsewhere in the Mediterranean world. By 489, on the cusp of the First Punic War, the Republic had grown into the 4th largest economy in the Mediterranean basin, only behind the Seleucids, Egyptians and Carthaginians. Its economy, while still heavily based in agriculture as all ancient economies were, was fairly well diversified, with notable products including cloth, pottery and salt.


Modern approximation of the state of the Mediterranean economies in the mid-3rd century B.C.E.


Information on the Roman economy was largely derived from archaeological research.
Moreover, even at this early date, Rome was acquiring what would become one of the largest multicultural empires in history. Italy was populated with diverse peoples, and from the Greeks in the south to the Etruscans in the north, a large, heterogeneous population lived and died under Roman rule. This plethora of cultures and customs would only grow as Rome’s power expanded across the Mediterranean. Estimates place the total Roman population at close to 2.5 million, with the city of Rome and its suburbs boasting nearly 300,000 residents [1].


Demographic estimates are always tricky, especially when dealing with the population of distinct cultural groups.

And now to focus on the actual provinces themselves. By this point, Roman territory was divided into five separate provinces, six if one includes the land directly around the city of Rome.


Roman provinces in 489. Much of Gallia Cisalpina and Sicilia were yet to be incorporated into the Republic.
Starting in the south was the province of Apulia. Centered at Barium, this province provided close to ⅕ of the state income for the Republic, and held a similar share of the population of the state. Between the Pyrrhic War and the outbreak of the first war with Carthage, the province had grown increasingly wealthy, driven not least by the lucrative dye trade in Tarentum.

West of Apulia was Campania, which was quite similar to its neighboring province. Marginally richer than Apulia, Campania was nearly its equal in population. Campania also was tasked with the important duty of protecting the passage to Sicilia and had over the years become a major center of military recruitment owing to its location.

In the south, the yet disunited province of Sicilia was governed from Syracuse. This province owing to its still divided nature between Carthage and Rome, and its native Greek population and the Roman governors who oversaw them, was not be nearly as lucrative as one would have expected. Still Sicilia, once fully under Roman control, would prove to be a wealthy province, one which would serve as a base for Rome’s ever growing influence around the waters of the Mediterranean.

Turning to Rome, we find the richest portion of the Republic and its heart. This area included the city of Rome and the districts of Corfinium and Praeneste. This portion of the Republic provided fully ¼ of the state revenues and despite its small geographical size held ⅕ of the population of the whole state. This region was also the only political construction directly under the control of the Consul, with the other areas being under the control of largely autonomous governors.

Finally we can turn our attention to Etruria. Etruria encompassed all of Italy between Rome and Cisalpine Gaul. Behind the Consular administered district, this region was perhaps the most important province of the Early Republic. Nearly 28% of state taxes and nearly a quarter of the population could be found in Etruria. Importantly for Republican military production, Etruria was also home to the iron mines of Tarquinia, whose bounty could be in nearly every legion from the Po River to Syracuse.

Rounding out the list, and for now a footnote is Cisalpine Gaul. In 489 it was undoubtedly the poorest and least populated province. The Roman slice of the region was home to less than 70,000 souls according to surviving records, and its contribution to state income was insignificant. Still, even this backwater had some uses, and was home to the best war horses in Italy.

Turning outward, the world had not simply stayed the same since the outbreak of the Pyrrhic War, and this was most obvious when examining Africa. Carthage in 474 was a republic, with very similar institutions to that of Rome. That all changed in 481 when an ambitious admiral, Carthalo Amirid was elected to the position of Suffet, an office which had power and prestige similar to that of the Roman Consul. The aptly named Carthalo had higher ambitions than a single term in power and rapidly consolidated control once elected. Before the year was out Carthage had been transformed into a despotic tyranny. Carthalo, though, was not finished and turned his rapacious gaze towards the small north African kingdom of Numidia [2].


Surviving deceptions, rare as they are, have allowed modern scholars to piece together an idea on what Carthalo might looked like.
Already Carthage had waged war with Numidia before Carthalo’s ascension, and had managed to seize several valuable regions. Carthalo was intent on solidifying the Carthaginian position in North Africa, a goal perhaps driven by a fearful gaze at Carthage's powerful Italian neighbor. In 489 Cathalo struck, and rapidly occupied the isolated Numidian territories in Mauretania, while in Libya he faced stiffer resistance. When war finally broke out with Rome in 490, Carthage would find its military far removed from its vulnerable Mediterranean possessions, a critical mistake.

Elsewhere, the balance of power had not markedly shifted since the Pyrrhic War. Macedonia had managed to subdue the moribund Epirote kingdom and had annexed the territories of the helpless Achaean League. Macedonia's ambitions for a united Greece were, however, thwarted by a resurgent Sparta and a meddlesome Pontus who had partitioned the Aetolian League between them.

In the East, the situation was as complex as ever, but the Seleucid Kingdom of Antiochus II, who had succeeded his father in the early 480s, was without a doubt the strongest power. It was joined by Ptolemaic Egypt, its long time rival, who it had cowed in a recent war, though Ptolemaic power remained largely intact.

Finally, the barbarian tribes of Gaul, Hispania and Germania were as divided as ever, and no one tribe had yet established a dominant position. Unity amongst the tribes would be critical should Carthage or Rome ever turn their attention north.


The Mediterranean world and its neighbors in 489. Tribal borders are largely conjecture.

It was in this environment that the Senate at last made its intentions towards Carthage clear, and assigned the new Consul for 489 the task which would lead to the largest war the Western Mediterranean had yet seen.


The Senate's decree made war a foregone conclusion.
[1] For population estimates I simply took the actual number of pops displayed in game, multiplied that by 1,000 and then by 4. I am taking the shown population as just the military age male population. This formula seems to give a reasonable population.

[2] I'm hoping that Carthalo will be able to serve as a recurring villain for the next few chapters.

Alrighty, next chapter the fun begins! I hope this wasn't too dry. I'm trying to add some life into this AAR to make it seem like a more natural history book or something like that. Any suggestions for the future would be welcome!
 

stnylan

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Read very well. Sometimes it is a good idea to have a "taking stock" update like this.
 

Specialist290

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Always nice to see the big-picture view, especially to put things in context right before something major stirs things up. It looks like Rome and Carthage are about to begin their inevitable contest for hegemony over the Mediterranean world.

The map looks a lot more populated than I remember from when I played. I'm guessing Reign of the Ancients adds a lot more factions to fill out the "uncivilized" regions?