Revolution and Reaction - A (very) French Victoria II Interactive AAR

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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

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etranger01

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Arrival of the Prince Louis-Napoleon
22 February 1863

Portsmouth was the scene yesterday of the return to British shores by the Prince Louis-Napoleon, and his reunion with his wife Princess Marie Amelie, his son Napoleon Eugene, and his daughter Josephine Amelie, as the princely family came together on the pier to notable approval by the gathered crowd. Several Members of Parliament were on hand to welcome the Prince Imperial following his much-reported American adventure, and impromptu remarks on the significance of the occasion were made before the audience.

The Prince, looking energetic and tanned from his time in the American South, rested only lightly on an eagle-head cane as he spoke extemporaneously on his efforts to liberate the enslaved black workers from their plantations. He received numerous gifts from his assembled well-wishers, including a red rosette that he promptly pinned on his lapel, and was seen to effusively thank the captain of the Trent for his safe journey. With the ceremonies complete, the princely family thus departed for their estate at Chislehurst, where they are expected to stay for at least a month prior to their return to their Carlton Gardens home in London.

Given the fraught nature of the Prince Imperial's status and the importance of relations with France, it is unclear what official notice will be given of the Prince's return, if any...
 

Dadarian

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Internal Memo
Droite National - Les Hommes Caucus

Following successful negotiations with up-and-coming political writer M. Passereau, he will be joining us as a brother. He will specialize in social reform and pamphletting, whilst doing well to subvert and convert Le Siecle. Please refer to him in the future as appropriate, when necessary.

Welcome B. Passereau.
 

naxhi24

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A Day in the Abattoir
In Paris, five slaughterhouses exist within the city. These institutes provide meat for many citizens of all classes within the city and across France. Yet, for as important a task they provide, the abattoirs have little oversight, even if the tasks accomplished in them are grizzly and unsanitary.

The butchers of Paris slaughter the livestock they are given at the designated abattoirs. This makes the abattoirs unsanitary and unhygienic. New abattoirs cannot be opened without authorization from the municipality the abattoir is in. The municipality's are supposed to investigate the conditions of the slaughterhouse and give instructions to ensure the butchers operate in the most hygienic manner possible to avoid tainting the meat. Yet, in my research and investigations, the municipalities have taken a very passive approach to this. They seem to put more trust in the butchers than to the medical experts who would make the abattoir's more hygienic and sanitary. This is not the fault of dishonest butchers, no quite the contrary, many butchers feel as if they understand their business more than a bureaucrat. Yet, the tendency to follow the butcher instead of promoting sanitary conditions and hygiene in the abattoir has exposed the risk of tainted meat being sold on the market, or possibly allow the spread of disease among the cattle, depleting meat supplies.

It is such imperative that the abattoir system be reworked to ensure the complete sanitary handling of animals and their meat upon death. Inspections should be enforced to ensure hygiene and sanitation in the meat, and to prevent disease from spreading across livestock and the meat. That the butchers be better paid for their task of the daily killing of animals, and that the animals are killed in a humane way, without suffering. It is one humble suggestion that a central abattoir be made to ensure that these ideals are kept in the processing of the pork and beef that many across France graciously enjoy on a regular bases.

-Damian Passereau
 

TJDS

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((Private - @99KingHigh ))

To the Office of Monsigneur Theodore Alexis Joseph de Montpellier, Bishop of Liège

Monsigneur Évêque,

As your office requested, I hereby provide my report of the conditions of the alms parish.

The conditions of the poorest in the parish is nothing short of a social disgrace. Labouring in godless conditions, these men, women and children turn to the bottle and are led astray from the path of God. I, therefore, request your blessing and sponsorship for the establishment of an assocation working to ban the use of spirits from the lifes of the faithful working poor, who would otherwise be led to sin by the Devil's drink.

Your most obedient servant,

Laurentius Mouton
 

99KingHigh

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Supplement 4: Colonization and Colonial Governance in Restoration Algeria


During the bloody Algerian decade of the 1840s, when the June Princes subdued the fertile plains of the Tell, the European population of Algeria exploded from 27,000 to 126,000 as avaricious colons gained 115,000 hectares of land. By 1861, the European population had grown to 200,000 souls and 340,000 hectares. Who comprised this burgeoning colonial constituency? Traditional French historiography divides them into two components, the first demographic and the latter financial. The overwhelming majority of settlers were impoverished Spanish, Italian, and southern French migrants, sent in waves into Algeria by desperation and displacement. The government added numerous deportations from the proletarian revolutionaries of the 1850 June Days and the dissidents of the 1854-9 purges. Capital provided the decisive influence by pursuing profitable investments in the expanding infrastructural needs of the Algerian colony, and fueled an agricultural sector outfitted with virtually free land and cheap native labor. At a period when relatively low interest rates made French bonds less attractive, investments in Algeria offered an irresistible chance for financial adventure.


Though a majority of the colonists settled in the coastal cities and towns, it was rural colonization that transformed agrarian Algerian society. Exploitation of Algerian pastoralists and farmers deconstructed the countryside as the French state practiced a systematic transferring of Algerian land to Europeans. The issue to overcome for Europeans was that the most attractive rural properties were not transferable from individual to individual; the only assured way to acquire property was an application to the state. Indeed, state holdings continued to increase in the June Monarchy, the Second Republic, and the Third Restoration as the conquest advanced and governments limited space afforded to the local tribes. At the center of the state’s rural public domain was the beylik and its 158,000 hectares of land, which was turned over to the settlers between 1854 and 1858. The second largest source of lands was confiscation for assisting the rebellious foe. In practice this meant that the state annexed the land of populations who had fled before the advance of the French army. Judicial tactics were also employed by royal officials to confiscate land for ‘the public interest,’ which in this case was the urgent need to settle Europeans.


The Third Restoration was even more supportive of private enterprise than the June Monarchy, and the role of large enterprise rapidly grew in the 1850s and 1860s under the Duc de Nemours. In 1853, a corporation called the Compagnie genevoise contracted 14,000 hectares for 550 families with the right to exploit another 10,000 hectares. Eventually, it became the largest enterprise in the region, exploiting the entirety of the 20,000 hectare estate by mass employment of underpaid Arab laborers. Investors hurried to emulate the genevoise model; in the early 1860s, 160,000 hectares of forest was turned over to thirty entrepreneurs. The Société générale algérienne, dominated by the haute banque, [1] were in negotiations for a huge land grant of 100,000 hectares in 1863 for mining and plantation operations. In general, if there were a few European pioneers on the land, the typical European became a small businessmen, a merchant, or a government clerk, perhaps involved in the construction trade or the growing cotton sector. Thus the agricultural development of the countryside was mostly the achievement of the large corporate and individual landholders thrust into the cause of modernization.


As the settler population swelled, the European population in Algeria became convinced that the dominating French military and their bureaux arabes were impeding proper exploitation and prosperity. It was this cause that made many European Algerians welcome the 1850 revolution as a means to terminate arbitrary military rule. Their reputation for radicalism as descendants of lower-class migrants was conditioned, however, by a common goal of dominating the Muslim majority. Metropolitan politics therefore had little role in the trajectory of Algerian development outside the construction of its administration. The Second Republic had declared Algeria as integral French territory and transformed the provinces into departments. European citizens were assured an elected two-thirds majority on municipal councils, while Algerians were given the remaining third and were prohibited from serving as mayors or assistant mayors. Nevertheless, the critical functions of governance remained with the War Ministry, and when the Third Restoration was achieved the steps towards civilianizing the government were halted. Power was centralized in the hands of Henri’s Orléanist favorite, the Duc de Nemours, and his military government became a favorite center of promotion for Orléanist sons in the military and civil service.

[1] In contrast to OTL, where the company was dominated by the imperial-created banks, such as Credit Foncier and the Compagnie des Chemins de Fer de Paris a la mediterranee et de l'algerie.
 
Last edited:

99KingHigh

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((Private - @99KingHigh ))

To the Office of Monsigneur Theodore Alexis Joseph de Montpellier, Bishop of Liège

Monsigneur Évêque,

As your office requested, I hereby provide my report of the conditions of the alms parish.

The conditions of the poorest in the parish is nothing short of a social disgrace. Labouring in godless conditions, these men, women and children turn to the bottle and are led astray from the path of God. I, therefore, request your blessing and sponsorship for the establishment of an assocation working to ban the use of spirits from the lifes of the faithful working poor, who would otherwise be led to sin by the Devil's drink.

Your most obedient servant,

Laurentius Mouton


Monsieur Mouton,

We are most gracious for your invitation to assist in the prosecution of the Drink, and eager to assist; if it would please you to pursue this matter, we shall extend our greetings to Monsieur le Prefect and request an authorization for such an association.

Sincerely yours in Christ,
Mst. Reverend Theodore Alexis Joseph de Montpellier
 

Vals

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Outside of Saint-Brieuc
Vallée Estate

"Damn you woman, I did not brave the New World and American cannon fire only to retire upon my return. Besides, we need the money. The estate is in a ruinous condition, I do not understand how you could allow this to happen in my absence... and what of my sons? much good it did me to pay for their education when they will not even return the favour and pay towards the upkeep of their ancestral home, their inheritance."

Vallée glared at his wife with evil eyes, she had been crying, all the tenderness and affection with which they had received each other upon his return from Mexico now gone.

"Oh Jean you stupid, stupid man... This place has always been a ruin, nothing I may have or may not have done could change that. But if only you would give up that useless commission and stay here, be a father and a husband for once, we could make this into a home again. You've been gone for five years you can't leave already."

"Marie this is Paris not America nor the Atlantic, I can make friends there... Connections, powerful people. People who will help me rise above this petty existence, help us both, this is unbecoming of you. I will not tolerate that you argue with me on this, the matter is settled I have made my decision and as my wife you will respect it."

Snapping at his wife Vallée motioned his aide to carry his trunk onto the carriage which had just arrived outside to take him to Paris. Then looked at his wife, she was sobbing again.

"Just promise me you will come home soon. And stay away from the card games, please. We can't afford more debt."

Embraching her he ran a hand along her cheek. Behind her tears a small smile formed. He returned it.

"Ofcourse mon cherie, I'll control myself. This time will be different... Je promet."

Everytime it was going to be different.
 

ThaHoward

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Young America and Echoes of History
America was on many a man's lips a dream of freedom , a government by the people and a beacon of liberty across the once endless Atlantic that would inspire the old and new world alike to usher into a era of peace and tranquility. The dream, however, soon proved to be that; a mere dream. The long sought oasis at the end of the long trek in the desert were nothing but a mirage.

In less than a century the dream of responsible government have fallen into the abyss of perpetual war, no less than three major wars with Albion and the other nations of Columbia. The recent blatant assault on the Empire of Mexico was driven by Young America's never ending hunger for expansion of slavery and the north's gospel of the golden calf. This author gave his first leg against Ceasarists and radical forces in Paris, and almost gave the other to the very same and sinister forces when the blue collared men crossed into the Empire of Mexico.

And here is where we arrive on the echoes of history, and a terrible one at that, one of needless violence. We may only look to our own history to know see that violence is at the very fabric of republicanism. Europe were ushered into countless revolutionary wars, leaving behind many good christians to lie down forever in the blood stenched fields of central Europe and hills of Iberia, many a widow to forever mourn their loss. The United States of America stand now as the new epicenter of republican dread. Driven on by the need for expansion of the morally corrupt institution that is slavery, and as we have witnessed this New World folly risk to drag the Old World marked by ordered liberalism into the abyss.

Indeed there is echoes throughout history, the dream of America was overtaken by Ceasarists by their own sinister accord and ambition, as it happened in France. It have proven to become the very evil they claimed to fight against, and the Empire of Mexico fell victim to Young America for no other reason than being an obstacle in their pursuit of continental domination, and for being good catholics. And for being a monarchy.

So insecure is this "people's" governance they need to get rid of all that resembles the Old World. The people of Mexico were assaulted on the very basis of having a different set of governance than their northern neighbour and of following a different creed. Indeed the Americans profess to have a secularized state, however one do not need to be a keen observer to see that Young America is rooted in Puritan values and other reactionary protestant creeds. In their own folly and delusion they believe God have ordained a Manifest Destiny for the United States of America. No man can claim to be the very will and instrument of our Father and Saviour, but in their grandiose delusions Young America claim just that. In France a man who preached of Manifest Destiny would be sent to where he belongs; the sanatorium.

However this is a dangerous fusion of ideas, the destructive Republicanism have fused itself with the equally radical evangelicalism and threaten to plunge the continent into needless wars as it is their, as they see it, mission to expand and eradicate the continent of stable monarchies and good catholics. In France the Second Republic fell victim to the same Ceasarists and the same lust for blood. Legal governments and politics was overturned by the very republicans and socialists who could not tolerate the people that elected the government did not support their policies. As it was there was nothing ordered by their radicalism and socialism, it became evident they were not content with a responsible government truly representing the people, they merely sought to empower themself. When they no longer could reach their policies by legal methods they riled up the populace and started an unnecessary slaughter. The Second Republic as it became to be known fell, not by sinister forces, but because the people through their representatives elected to restore a stable form of governance, one of ordered liberalism. The fusion of the Charters of 1815 and 1830 are one elected by the people following the unsuccessful coup by Radicals and Socialists who lost the people's support - a greater irony may be difficult to find.

This author digress, back to Young America. It have become evident as with every other historical presedence that this group that now lead what was once a dream is one driven by self interest and the exploitation of mankind. The United States of America claim that all men are created equal, however it is evident that all men are equal, but some more than others. The wicked practise of slavery still dominate American politics. If one profess liberty, equality and fraternity you can't at the same time advocate for the bondage of your fellow man. Yet it do not stop there, for a nation that claim to be secularized the radical and contrary protestant sects they hold their creed to orders prosecution of good christians and catholics. And yet in the north where you may find the occasional man opposed to slavery, but where most in reality are apathic, their innate greed have created a deplorable situation for the urban worker. Gone are a feeling of social responsibility among the upper class in their worship of the golden calf.

In conclusion America was once seen as a dream, instead it is a mirage. History echoes as we can see, the republican and democratic ideals across the ocean have been couped by Ceasarists, and the United States government claim to be one for all people, yet it have become clear it is only for the slaver in the south and one for the modern slavers in the north. Ordered liberalism and social responsibility across all stratas and cooperation between a fraternity of nationals are required, not the nightmare Young America have become.
 

TJDS

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Sobrietas Poster, reading: "Woman, what are you doing against alcohol?"

Sobrietas
Temprance in France

In 1863, the priest Laurentius Mouton founded the first Catholic temperance association in the French industrial town of Liège. Mouton was confronted with the daily reality of workers drinking their wages away at the pubs built around the factories. Furthermore, some factories even forewent wages by directly providing labourers with spirits. The health consequences of alcohol abuse in the poorest working-class districts were evident, but Mouton's call to act came after a parishoner committed suicide due to alcohol abuse. Mouton would later write:

"I have seen drinking abuse in all its forms. I have seen it with a thoughtful 27-year-old man, consumed by delirium for a few hours, and a 50-year-old father, who ended his life in desperation. I have seen it with 20-year-olds who had to go to a sanatorium and old women who went to the insane asylum. On Monday morning I stood with a housewife, who sat in dumb grief in front of her broken home, because the man had cut everything short with an ax the night before. ... The Drink did its normal job with all. "

These observations led Mouton to write Monsigneur de Montpellier, Bishop of Liège, asking for his blessing and the Diocese's sponsership to found an association to combat alcohol abuse. Sobrietas, the first association of its kind, was the result. After the foundation of the Liege department, more departments quickly emerged and in 1867 a national board was founded, with Mouton as chairman. In 1875, the Association de Salut was founded, it was to be the "rescue brigade" of Sobrietas and treated the very worst alcoholics.

Sobrietas was subdivided into a men's and women's department. The men's department was called the "Cross Covenant"; women could become members of the "St. Maria Association". The aim of Sobrietas was to found one Cross Covenant and St. Maria Association per diocese. Male members were to attend lectures and meetings, women were to stay at home and raise their children morally and without alocohol. As Mounton would write: "The woman is morality itself, she is the mighty Parliament of the man and the all-powerful queen, yes, the sole ruler in the nursery. If the women want to change the drinking habits, they will change, otherwise they will not." Children up to 12 years old could go to the St Anna Association, young people from twelve to sixteen years old were allowed to enter Boys' and Girls' Unions. From sixteen they too could join the Cross Covenant or the St. Maria Association.


Proof of Membership of the Dutch language chapter of the St. Anna Association in Dunkirk.
The signator promises to "[r]aise their children, to their first Communion, subject to the doctor's prescription,
in complete abstinence and to not let them get alcoholic drinks."

The purpose of Sobrietas was to combat alcohol and to propagate the Christian virtue of moderation. The connection between alcohol abuse and immorality was considered to be unbreakable. Although the ideal of Sobrietas was total abstinence, in practice,
only a fraction of the members of Sobrietas really abstained from alcohol. Because the national board
relied on the charity and moral support of the largely still-alcohol consuming industrialists, three categories were allowed: abstainers, abolitionists and half-day abolitionists (the so-called "Paulists"). The board members were most actively engaged in active prohibition and propaganda. These people, often the local notables, - the priest, the doctor and the pharmasist - visited families and organized meetings and lectures. The aim of these visits was to insure that: "there was such a pleasant atmosphere at home that family members felt no need to go to the pub; that children were not given alcohol; to abolish the practice of giving drinks to bakers, workomen after the jobs or maids; to not give (drink)money to the beggars at the door, but to give them a cup of coffee, a cigar or a fruit."

Furthermore, through the financial support of local notables, Sobrietas employed propaganda unions, which issued leaflets and postcards.
Through education, Sobriëtas informed young people about the dangers of alcohol. Courses were given and teachers were encouraged to read from booklets warning against alcohol abuse. In addition, both men and women organized "home crafts exhibitions" and Catholic workers were able to gather for relaxation in specially organised alcohol-free rooms. Saint Anna Associations further organised drama, music, singing and parades and processions for its members.

Members:
Laurentius Pater Mouton

((To all Players whom it may Concern))

Monsieur,

It has come to my attention that you too see the perils of
the abuse of alcohol and accompanying sin of the poor souls of France. I have become convinced of the neccesity of action against drinking abuse, for I have seen it in all forms.

I have seen it with a thoughtful 27-year-old man, consumed by delirium for a few hours, and a 50-year-old father, who ended his life in desperation. I have seen it with 20-year-olds who had to go to a sanatorium and old women who went to the insane asylum. On Monday morning I stood with a housewife, who sat in dumb grief in front of her broken home, because the man had cut everything short with an ax the night before. The Drink did its normal job with all.

The poor man loves his beer and sees little harm in consuming it. He is often too amiable and often too light-hearted to be concerned with many serious social issues. So there will be a lot of passive resistance to overcome to liberate the poor man from the clutches of the Drink. I therefore ask you to support or join the temprance organisation Sobrietas in your diocese, in our continuing struggle against the Devil's Drink.

Sincerely yours in Chirst,

Laurentius Pater Mouton, O. Carm.
 
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m.equitum

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ON THE PIERCING OF THE ISTHMUS
The matter of piercing the Isthmus of Suez remained at the forefront of Polignac’s mind as he reviewed engineering reports from the surveyors in the Sinai Peninsula. The construction of a canal through the Isthmus was a monumental undertaking, and the Prince was determined to see it through. To be sure, the considerable risks associated with the project were paired with the enormous cost of the undertaking, estimated at the staggering sum of two-hundred-million francs.

To finance the project, Descombes had encouraged the Prince de Polignac to seek credit facilities from the banking institution headed by Nathaniel de Rothschild. But with Descombes resignation and the anticipated appointment of a new Cabinet, it may be the case that the Ministry advice had altered.


To M De Wendel, Minister of Finance

(@99KingHigh)
M. DE WENDEL – The great undertaking of adjoining the Mediterranean and Red Seas by means of piercing the Isthmus of Suez, has, I am given to understand, been the subject of keen deliberation by the Ministry.

The prospect of opening navigation through such a channel is of enormous significance to the imperial enterprise and to the national interest. A shorter route to the East, with its rich markets of raw-materials would provide French manufactories with the resources of which they stand greatly in need, and would in like measure give much stimulus to French exports.

It had been the position of M. Descombes, then First Minister, that the company founded for the task of piercing the isthmus should finance its project through credit supplied by M. Nathaniel de Rothschild.

Whereas the Compagnie du canal maritime de Suez may entertain the prospect of borrowing the principal, estimated at some two-hundred-million francs, I write to ascertain whether the Treasury would entertain a proposal to bear all or a portion of the interest on such a loan, presently levied at a rate of five percent, noting that the benefits of piercing the isthmus accrue, in broad terms, to the economy and to the state.

Prior to taking a decision to the financial instrument by which the project is to be financed (to wit, by means of credit or equity), the Compagnie would be glad to understand whether the national government is prepared to make a strategic investment in the construction of the canal.

Though it may appear, prima facie, that the enterprise of cutting through the isthmus is a purely commercial matter. To be sure, it is expected that the piercing of the isthmus will occasion significant maritime commerce through the canal.

The facility of intercourse between West and East creates commerce, and commerce carries with it civilization. Indeed, by means of a canal, let us bring the distant populations of Polynesia, of Australia and China, of the Indies and Africa, nearer to Europe. Let us accord to them the blessing of Christian civilization. Je vous prie de recevoir, monsieur, mes respectueuses salutations.


 
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m.equitum

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ON THE FINANCING OF A CANAL

While Polignac awaited a response from the Minister of Finance in relation to a request for the state to bear a portion of the interest payments on potential loans from the Family Rothschild, the Prince turned his mind to an alternative funding mechanism: equity.

The Prince had entertained private conversations with prospective investors, each expressing keen interest in the piercing of the isthmus. The scale of the colossal enterprise, however, exceeded the means of even the wealthiest capitalists. To raise the necessary funds by means of a stock offering would require mobilization of capital on an international scale.

Yet, if there ever was a project as worthy of international investment, and one as advantageous to the perpetuation of civilization, the piercing of the isthmus ranked in the chief.


If, the Prince mused, the Compagnie du canal maritime de Suez were to make a direct appeal to the public, by means of offering shares, and if the common man were to respond to such an appeal, it would allot to the ordinary citizen some part in that great and divine mandate to advance the light of Christian truth to distant realms.

The Prince turned these thoughts in his mind, giving each option careful consideration.
 

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(...) in other news La Presse now is under new ownership as a group investors led by notably Philippe Henri Comte de la Marche and Jérôme de Lécuyer. Jean-Jacques Weiss have been appointed as editor-in-chief and will soon be expected to step into position.

((Jointly with @Sneakyflaps ))
 
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99KingHigh

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Laws of the Third Restoration

Fundamental Law
The Constitutional Charter of 1853


Political Laws:
Law on Suffrage
Law on the Press
Law on Associations

Law on the Election of Deputies**
Law on Excluding Current Public Servants
Law on the Pensions of the Civil Service

Law on the Communes (universal suffrage for communes amended by electoral law)
Law on the Census
Law on the Disjonction
Law on the National Guard
Law on the Gendarmerie


**Please note that our collèges électoraux are arrondissement, per the voting style known as scrutin d’arrondissement.

Economic Laws
Law on the Suspension of Cereal Tariffs
Law on the Post Office
Law on the Development of Government Tenures ("Internal Development")
Law on Establishment of the Unions Agricoles
Law on the Stamp Duty (part of Press Law)
Law on Railroad Concessions
Law on the Reduction of Cereal Freight
Law on the Concessions for Portuary Investments

Law on the Subsidy for the Bureaux de Bienfaisance (1858 crisis legislation)
Law on Grants to the Institutes d’Agriculture:
Law on the Grants for the Land Programme (land-credit reform, now inoperative)
Law on the Standardisation of Credit Unions (credit reform, moderated by amendment)
Law on the Protection of French Industry (1858 crisis legislation)
Law on the Credits of the Royal Army and the Royal Navy
The Civil List
Law of the Thirty-Centimes (tax reduction)
Law on Municipal Canals
Illustrative complete budget of 1850s

Law on the Inheritance (*modified by Chamber of Peers)


Social Laws
Law on the Revocation of the Duval Amendments
Law on Catholic Matrimony

The Concordant of 1858 and the Supplementary Law on the Concordant of 1853
Law on the Safety of Mills and Factories

Law on the Licensing of Public Houses

 
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m.equitum

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To M. Lievremont
(@Lyonessian )

STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL

M. LIEVREMONT -- I have recently had occasion to write to your colleague, M. De Wendel, with respect to certain financial matters pertaining to the piercing of the isthmus of Suez, and feel it appropriate to relay to you the content of that correspondence.

Understanding that it was the express preference of M. Descombes, then First Minister, that the Compagnie du canal maritime de Suez should secure financing from the Rothschild bankers, I have conveyed to M. De Wendel that the Compagnie may well entertain such a prospect, but seeks first to ascertain whether the state would bear any portion of the interest that necessarily accompanies such borrowing.

Placing trust in your discretion, I would seek your advice on a further matter in relation to the important undertaking of adjoining the Mediterranean and Red Seas by means of a canal.

For individuals seeking to realize a project, capital is typically raised through debt or equity. M. Descombes has made known his preference for the first. However, M. Descombes is no longer First Minister.

In order to raise capital for so bold an enterprise as the linking of the West with realms far afield, for a purpose of no less merit than enabling the inhabitants of those distant parts to enter into the light of Christian truth, perhaps it may be worthwhile for the Ministry to consider an alternate mechanism: a combination of debt and equity.

Were the state to extend to the Compagnie credit for some portion of the total cost of the enterprise, perhaps one-hundred million francs, on an interest-free basis, the state would, in time, recuperate her expenditures through the economic growth that the canal would spur, and the attendant tax revenues that would be gained.

The remainder of the total cost of the project, another hundred million, could then be secured from investors by means of a stock offering. This would enable the common people not only to participate in the important task of financing a canal, but, by bringing the East yet closer to the West, to partake in the wholly more important enterprise of enabling the spread of civilization and Christ’s Gospel to the far reaches of the world. For it is from no less an authority than Christ Himself that we have been charged with the great commission: go therefore, and make disciples of all nations.

Trusting in your advice, I await your reply. Je vous prie d'agréer, Monsieur, l'expression de mes sentiments respectueux.


 

LordDuval

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Announcing,

The registration of a new S.A. involved in commercial banking in the French Colonies, Société Générale Colonial (SGC), the General Company to Support the Development of Commerce and Industry in the Colonies;
Mssr. Reuben V. Duval, President


The engagement of one Mssr. Reuben V. Duval to take on the role of company president

of Société Mokta El Hadid company in Algeria

The retirement of beloved company president Jean-Antoine-Philippe Dentend from
the board of Chemins de fer de l'Est.
Mssr. Reuben V. Duval to fill the vacancy.

A change in leadership in the Grand Ports Maritimes company,
Mssr. Reuben V. Duval to take over as company president
Grands Ports Maritimes SA is also happy to announce a signature partnership with the Messageries Maritimes company. The M.M. not only provides the best commercial shipping between the mainland and Algeria, but also is active in the greater Atlantic and Pacific.
 
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Announcing,

The registration of a new S.A. involved in commercial banking in the French Colonies, Société Générale Colonial (SGC), the General Company to Support the Development of Commerce and Industry in the Colonies;
Mssr. Reuben V. Duval, President


The engagement of one Mssr. Reuben V. Duval to take on the role of company president

of Société Mokta El Hadid company in Algeria

The retirement of beloved company president Jean-Antoine-Philippe Dentend from
the board of Chemins de fer de l'Est.
Mssr. Reuben V. Duval to fill the vacancy.

A change in leadership in the Grand Ports Maritimes company,
Mssr. Reuben V. Duval to take over as company president
Grands Ports Maritimes SA is also happy to announce a signature partnership with the Messageries Maritimes company. The M.M. not only provides the best commercial shipping between the mainland and Algeria, but also is active in the greater Atlantic and Pacific.
As was his morning habit, the Prince Royal began digesting the daily papers of which he maintained a broad readership, ranging from those more supportive of his station in life to those diametrically opposed to his very being. The announcement of M. Duval to replace the retiring M. Dentend was expected; Indeed, he made the final decision on the advancement, having been impressed with his engineering prowess in Algeria.


A Day in the Abattoir
In Paris, five slaughterhouses exist within the city. These institutes provide meat for many citizens of all classes within the city and across France. Yet, for as important a task they provide, the abattoirs have little oversight, even if the tasks accomplished in them are grizzly and unsanitary.

The butchers of Paris slaughter the livestock they are given at the designated abattoirs. This makes the abattoirs unsanitary and unhygienic. New abattoirs cannot be opened without authorization from the municipality the abattoir is in. The municipality's are supposed to investigate the conditions of the slaughterhouse and give instructions to ensure the butchers operate in the most hygienic manner possible to avoid tainting the meat. Yet, in my research and investigations, the municipalities have taken a very passive approach to this. They seem to put more trust in the butchers than to the medical experts who would make the abattoir's more hygienic and sanitary. This is not the fault of dishonest butchers, no quite the contrary, many butchers feel as if they understand their business more than a bureaucrat. Yet, the tendency to follow the butcher instead of promoting sanitary conditions and hygiene in the abattoir has exposed the risk of tainted meat being sold on the market, or possibly allow the spread of disease among the cattle, depleting meat supplies.

It is such imperative that the abattoir system be reworked to ensure the complete sanitary handling of animals and their meat upon death. Inspections should be enforced to ensure hygiene and sanitation in the meat, and to prevent disease from spreading across livestock and the meat. That the butchers be better paid for their task of the daily killing of animals, and that the animals are killed in a humane way, without suffering. It is one humble suggestion that a central abattoir be made to ensure that these ideals are kept in the processing of the pork and beef that many across France graciously enjoy on a regular bases.

-Damian Passereau

Turning to the muckraking, anti-monarchical Le Siecle, a piece by M. Passereau caught his attention; Something would have to be done if half his claims about the state of the abattoirs were true. The Prince Royal made a mental note to investigate the issue and verify the more outlandish claims M. Passereau had made.

Young America and Echoes of History
America was on many a man's lips a dream of freedom , a government by the people and a beacon of liberty across the once endless Atlantic that would inspire the old and new world alike to usher into a era of peace and tranquility. The dream, however, soon proved to be that; a mere dream. The long sought oasis at the end of the long trek in the desert were nothing but a mirage.

In less than a century the dream of responsible government have fallen into the abyss of perpetual war, no less than three major wars with Albion and the other nations of Columbia. The recent blatant assault on the Empire of Mexico was driven by Young America's never ending hunger for expansion of slavery and the north's gospel of the golden calf. This author gave his first leg against Ceasarists and radical forces in Paris, and almost gave the other to the very same and sinister forces when the blue collared men crossed into the Empire of Mexico.

And here is where we arrive on the echoes of history, and a terrible one at that, one of needless violence. We may only look to our own history to know see that violence is at the very fabric of republicanism. Europe were ushered into countless revolutionary wars, leaving behind many good christians to lie down forever in the blood stenched fields of central Europe and hills of Iberia, many a widow to forever mourn their loss. The United States of America stand now as the new epicenter of republican dread. Driven on by the need for expansion of the morally corrupt institution that is slavery, and as we have witnessed this New World folly risk to drag the Old World marked by ordered liberalism into the abyss.

Indeed there is echoes throughout history, the dream of America was overtaken by Ceasarists by their own sinister accord and ambition, as it happened in France. It have proven to become the very evil they claimed to fight against, and the Empire of Mexico fell victim to Young America for no other reason than being an obstacle in their pursuit of continental domination, and for being good catholics. And for being a monarchy.

So insecure is this "people's" governance they need to get rid of all that resembles the Old World. The people of Mexico were assaulted on the very basis of having a different set of governance than their northern neighbour and of following a different creed. Indeed the Americans profess to have a secularized state, however one do not need to be a keen observer to see that Young America is rooted in Puritan values and other reactionary protestant creeds. In their own folly and delusion they believe God have ordained a Manifest Destiny for the United States of America. No man can claim to be the very will and instrument of our Father and Saviour, but in their grandiose delusions Young America claim just that. In France a man who preached of Manifest Destiny would be sent to where he belongs; the sanatorium.

However this is a dangerous fusion of ideas, the destructive Republicanism have fused itself with the equally radical evangelicalism and threaten to plunge the continent into needless wars as it is their, as they see it, mission to expand and eradicate the continent of stable monarchies and good catholics. In France the Second Republic fell victim to the same Ceasarists and the same lust for blood. Legal governments and politics was overturned by the very republicans and socialists who could not tolerate the people that elected the government did not support their policies. As it was there was nothing ordered by their radicalism and socialism, it became evident they were not content with a responsible government truly representing the people, they merely sought to empower themself. When they no longer could reach their policies by legal methods they riled up the populace and started an unnecessary slaughter. The Second Republic as it became to be known fell, not by sinister forces, but because the people through their representatives elected to restore a stable form of governance, one of ordered liberalism. The fusion of the Charters of 1815 and 1830 are one elected by the people following the unsuccessful coup by Radicals and Socialists who lost the people's support - a greater irony may be difficult to find.

This author digress, back to Young America. It have become evident as with every other historical presedence that this group that now lead what was once a dream is one driven by self interest and the exploitation of mankind. The United States of America claim that all men are created equal, however it is evident that all men are equal, but some more than others. The wicked practise of slavery still dominate American politics. If one profess liberty, equality and fraternity you can't at the same time advocate for the bondage of your fellow man. Yet it do not stop there, for a nation that claim to be secularized the radical and contrary protestant sects they hold their creed to orders prosecution of good christians and catholics. And yet in the north where you may find the occasional man opposed to slavery, but where most in reality are apathic, their innate greed have created a deplorable situation for the urban worker. Gone are a feeling of social responsibility among the upper class in their worship of the golden calf.

In conclusion America was once seen as a dream, instead it is a mirage. History echoes as we can see, the republican and democratic ideals across the ocean have been couped by Ceasarists, and the United States government claim to be one for all people, yet it have become clear it is only for the slaver in the south and one for the modern slavers in the north. Ordered liberalism and social responsibility across all stratas and cooperation between a fraternity of nationals are required, not the nightmare Young America have become.


The Prince Royal next moved to more thoughts on the Mexican Empire. Thoughts which seemed a bit further from reality. Truly, if God had favored the cause of Agustin II then Providence would not have delivered a third of his country into the hands of the Americans. The vitality of the United States was undeniable. The Republican virtue cultivated in Columbia contrasted with excesses of popular sovereignty promoted in France.

Arrival of the Prince Louis-Napoleon
22 February 1863

Portsmouth was the scene yesterday of the return to British shores by the Prince Louis-Napoleon, and his reunion with his wife Princess Marie Amelie, his son Napoleon Eugene, and his daughter Josephine Amelie, as the princely family came together on the pier to notable approval by the gathered crowd. Several Members of Parliament were on hand to welcome the Prince Imperial following his much-reported American adventure, and impromptu remarks on the significance of the occasion were made before the audience.

The Prince, looking energetic and tanned from his time in the American South, rested only lightly on an eagle-head cane as he spoke extemporaneously on his efforts to liberate the enslaved black workers from their plantations. He received numerous gifts from his assembled well-wishers, including a red rosette that he promptly pinned on his lapel, and was seen to effusively thank the captain of the Trent for his safe journey. With the ceremonies complete, the princely family thus departed for their estate at Chislehurst, where they are expected to stay for at least a month prior to their return to their Carlton Gardens home in London.

Given the fraught nature of the Prince Imperial's status and the importance of relations with France, it is unclear what official notice will be given of the Prince's return, if any...

The coverage of the Bonapartist pretender interested the Prince Royal, especially regarding the British public's reaction to his arrival from the New World. The Orléans had maintained strong ties with Britain since the days of the June Monarchy and he could only but be somewhat concerned with the strong response the British public had given the "Prince Imperial."
(...) in other news La Presse now is under new ownership as a group investors led by notably Philippe Henri Comte de la Marche and Jérôme de Lécuyer. Jean-Jacques Weiss have been appointed as editor-in-chief and will soon be expected to step into position.

Working his way to the end of the pile of periodicals the Prince Royal was surprised that the comte de la Marche had bought himself a newspaper; He was under the strong impression the ex-President of the First Republic was only interested in land and hunting. Perhaps he had begun to entertain thoughts of returning to the political arena?
 
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Law on Commerce and Industry, 1863
((Co-authored by @Carol-Niko))
____________________________________________________________

Preamble – It is in any country’s best interests to pursue a course of affairs suited toward its growth and prosperity. In building its industrial capacities and guaranteeing that its public are given the ability to pursue commerce, a country can resist crises and build a persistent internal order of stability. The goal of any properly constituted government being the encouragement of a flourishing and tranquil body politic, it has become apparent that certain rights must be recognized on behalf of the commercial classes and that those rights ought to be supplemented through policies aimed at improving national prosperity through the encouragement of competition, the recognition of contract rights, and the revitalization of the French countryside. A stable and lasting society does not simply require these kinds of reforms; it demands them.

Article I – Of the rights to pursue commerce, industry, etc. – The following rights are enumerated and guaranteed by His Majesty’s Government, which assures its people that such rights will not be abridged except under provision of law and that all those who act in violation of these enumerated guarantees shall be punished under provisions of law laid out under Art. 405 C. pén:

1. The right to pursue the ownership of business, organize its assets, and engage in commercial activities with full guarantees of legal protection as guaranteed under the Code de commerce.

2. The right to compete in industry and against one’s peers, including all necessary protections against commercial monopolies endorsed by His Majesty’s Government and the right to contest such monopolies through the pursuit of business.

3. The right to one’s own labor and the ability to seek good employment.

4. The right to employ only those persons whom a business owner wishes to employ, without any imposed obligation to hire individuals of a specific group.

5. The right to negotiate, compose, and agree to legally binding contracts as well as other obligations.

6. The right to pursue one’s hereditary business without threat of sanctions or imposition of novel regulations.

7. The right to pursue the ownership of land.

8. The right to appeal the payment of taxes and regulations to the Ministries of Commerce and Finance where their imposition would be ruinous to the success of a sole proprietorship or partnership employing no more than ten persons.

9. The right to organize mutual-aid organizations able to aid their members in finding suitable employment and access to educational resources while ensuring the continued well-being of their families in the event of death or debilitating injury.

Article II – Of access to financial capital and the mechanisms thereof – That an acknowledgment be made, and plans be set, to answer the public demand for access to credit of lower interest rates and greater lengths to create an environment conducive towards good and vibrant industries the enactment of the following:

1. That a Department of Credit, under the oversight of the Minister of Finance and in close cooperation with the Bank of France, be established for the expressed purpose of carrying forth the provisions of the Law on Commerce and Industry, 1863 and to report upon its progress biannually (March 21 and September 22) to the Chamber of Deputies and that it be printed for public access, with provision made for the following:
a. That a Director, responsible as the administrative head of the Department of Credit, be put in place or removed following the judgement of the Minister of Finance.
b. That the Department of Credit assumes oversight of the National Credit Union Commission, with regard to which legal provision has already been made.

2. That the Post Offices within the Kingdom aid in the creation of local banking by the creation of bank offices where there do not already exist credit union branches, supervised by the Department of Credit through a Board of Control, to provide access to low interest rates of longer character to industries and consumers, which will operate under the following terms:

a. That one-third of all cash liabilities (deposits and circulating notes) and two-thirds be short-term (less than ninety days) commercial paper in these banks.
b. That these banks are not able to suspend payments permanently with a 25-day period of grace before legal action by local prefects for their charter.
c. That these banks write, in paper archived by the Post Offices, their acceptance of the law or else suffer legal action by local prefects for their charter.
d. That all such banks also make specific provision to make small-value loans, not totaling more than 75 francs, available to individuals.

. . .


Law on the Press, 1863
((Co-authored by @Luftwafer))
____________________________________________________________

Article I – Of regulations regarding the press – That the Law on the Press (1853) be amended to read as follows:

1. The punishment for publishing with clear malicious intent the following in a form of press shall be in accordance of Article 9 of the Law of May 17, 1819 [Law on the Repression of Crimes and Offenses committed by the Press, or by any Other Means of Publication.]:
a. Offenses against the King, intended to promote physical violence against his person.
b. Calls for violence among or between the social classes and their members.
c. Attacks against the concept of private ownership of land.

2. It is forbidden to publish the names of jurors, except in the transcript of the hearing, if the jury has been constituted, or to make account for the internal deliberations, either of the jurors, or of the courts and tribunals. The offense against these various prohibitions shall be prosecuted in the criminal courts, punishable by imprisonment from one month to one year, and a fine from five hundred to five thousand francs.

3. The provisions of Article 10 of the Act of June 9, 1819 shall apply to all cases provided for by this Law. In the case of a second or subsequent conviction against the same manager or against the same newspaper in the course of a year, the courts may order the suspension of the newspaper for a period not exceeding two months, according to the law of 18 July 1828. This suspension may be extended to four months, if the conviction has taken place for a crime.

Article II – Of taxes levied on paper goods – That the Law on the Stamp Duty 1853 be amended to the following:

1. The provisional stamp duty on bills of exchange, promissory notes, bearer notes, money orders, retirements and all other negotiable, commercial and printed effects, is fixed as follows:
a. One centime for the effects of 2 francs and below;
b. Ten centimes for those over two francs to two hundred francs;
c. Fifteen centimes for those over two hundred francs to three hundred francs;
d. Twenty centimes for those over three hundred francs to four hundred francs;
e. Twenty-five centimes for above four hundred francs up to five hundred francs
f. Fifty centimes for those over five hundred francs up to a thousand francs;
g. One franc for those over a thousand francs up to two thousand francs;
h. One franc fifty centimes for those over two thousand francs up to three thousand francs
i. Two francs for those over three thousand francs until four thousand francs
j. And so on, in following the same progression and without fraction.

2. A person who receives from the subscriber an effect not stamped in accordance with Article 1 shall be required to have it stamped within 15 days of its date, or before the maturity if that effect is less than fifteen days from date, and in all cases before any negotiation. This stamp visa shall be subject to a duty of fifteen centimes per hundred francs or an additional consistent fraction of one hundred francs, which shall be added to the amount of the effect, notwithstanding any stipulation to the contrary.

3. In the event of a contravention of the foregoing articles, the beneficiary or first endorser of the un-stamped or non-stamped effect, shall be liable to a fine of six per cent of the total effect, and in absence of the sender, the holder shall thus be liable to the same amount.

4. The societies and companies engaged in daily, weekly, quarterly, or any regular print must make a subscription at the registrar's office at the end of each year; where the requisite duties shall be determined by the fees in article 1.
 

Firehound15

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SUR LE COMMERCE
"On Commerce"
___________________________________________________________________________________________
It must be said with confidence that all governments should seek without pause a sublime and tranquil condition. In such a condition, the common boundaries of decency and respect will elevate our common dispositions. One must equally observe that any condition of interaction between persons will inevitably possess either a character supportive of such an end or one antagonistic toward it. This principle applies to commerce. The commercial sphere is a creation of men and its operations will always be under the jurisdiction of men. But it is also unique among nearly all systems in that it is a living thing, inhaling and exhaling according to lungs or bellows otherwise imperceptible to those who feel its forces. This unique character is its strength. It is also its detriment, particularly when its objectives have been rearranged in accordance with principles of self-interest at odds with those who would otherwise likely benefit from it. Matters of commerce should always be evaluated in these terms.

Ricardo observes that "The farmer and manufacturer can no more live without profit than the laborer without wages." He is correct. In matters of commerce there is always the recognition that the pursuit of profit, itself necessary for the expansion and payment of wages, is vital to the health and well-being of the system. The danger emerges when men do not possess those basic powers that would enable them to pursue wealth, to achieve their own betterment, and to employ those countless others best suited to cooperation with them. When the most basic rights to engage in commerce, to produce obligations, to employ others, to hold private property, are threatened, so too are threatened their lives. In such a set of circumstances, where only a select few are given the ability to be productive, disorder is guaranteed. Where disorder develops, the government's strength is weakened. Indeed, it has been a frequent observation that where squalor persists, so too persists instability and the inability of the government to administer its own territories.

It is in government's best interests to pursue a set of economic policies akin to those recently proposed from outside His Majesty's Government. The first of these policies must be the extension of rights pursuant to commercial interests, for the absence of such rights is in effect the absence of order. Where a select few possess nearly exclusive access to the market, there will be countless problems. Industrious individuals will be forbidden from engaging in those pursuits most suited to their dispositions, laborers will face a dearth of employment, and all manner of social institutions incumbent upon properly conducted social relations will collapse. To this end, the first objective of the government should be the creation and protection of commercial rights.

While many would contest the question of natural rights, it is important to specify that these commercial rights are intended not as affirmations of rights inherent to man in nature, but rights issued by a government in order to strengthen its community. Where commerce has been stifled by greed and the attempt to eliminate through course of law or intimidation competition, there must be a practical solution put in place. This practical solution is the guarantee of rights. Men should be guaranteed the right to open a business because it is good for all for them to do so. Men should be guaranteed protection from restrictions by government upon whom they may hire, for it is in the best interests of our social whole that they be allowed to exercise their own judgments. Men should possess certain commerce rights, powers, and privileges on account of their ability to promote the well-being of civic society through the exercise of those rights, powers, and privileges. That is the first policy which ought to be pursued regarding commerce.

The second policy must concern the employees themselves, who are also harmed by any commercial order which disguises its inaccessibility behind its opulence. Workers must be guaranteed the right to seek employment. Without such a right, there will always be the possibility that they are impaired to do so or will be in the future. If they cannot pursue labor, they will contribute nothing to society. They will wander the streets, riot, and come to resent the productive remainder of society. Beyond this point, they ought to possess the privilege to form organizations aimed at ensuring that their brief moments of weakness will not be allowed to become permanent. Such organizations are crucial because they allow the people to help themselves, rather than be reliant upon the interventions of government. Where men help men, there is community, and as community is good so too are those things that build community good. It might also be noted here that there is a case to be made for the notion of temperance along similar lines. Drunkenness is not only a public nuisance, it is debilitating to civic success. Ought there not be a common interest in relaxing such an obstacle to productivity and public serenity, particularly when it is the people themselves who improve their own condition?

The third policy must concern a direct approach that some will call a marker of intervention. Such critics are wrong. The pursuit of commerce requires access to capital, frequently in the form of loans. It has been an unfortunate circumstance of our past that such loans are quite often inaccessible to those men who most need them. Those craftsmen, artisans, sole proprietors, and small-businessmen upon whom a productive society rests are all frequently in need of access to investment in order to pursue their projects. But such funds are not forthcoming. This is not any person or group of people's fault, but it is a problem that government ought to solve. To address this, local banks must be established, credit unions must be expanded, and small loans at low interest must be made more available to those who are best suited to use them. The costs of such a project, properly implemented, will be negligible in comparison to its benefits. With commerce thriving under a condition of tranquility and fair competition, there will also be countless boons in other fields of social engagement. The community will flourish with a healthy commercial and productive life at its center. The mere prospect of such a positive resolution should immediately quell all doubts surrounding the implementation of such policies.

Thus, it is in fact in the interests of every facet of government to support the commerce resolution sought the recently proposed Law on Commerce and Industry. The public will benefit and assume a state of healthy commercial interaction to counter its persistent ailments. And by reducing conflicts endemic to society and providing an outlet for industrious and passionate person to pursue their desires in life, the government will only benefit. Yet even for those skeptical of its benefits, look to the alternative. Should nothing be done, men will continue to be denied their commercial rights. They will return to their wives and children each day empty-handed, knowing that had the government been willing to protect their pursuits from attack, the futures of their families would be all but secured. Is that the marker of a healthy commercial sphere, let alone a healthy society? Farmers and manufacturers of all types cannot survive without profit and laborers cannot receive wages except according to the profit produced by their employers. This fact must be recognized. The pursuit of commerce must be protected.

MONTVICQ.
 

naxhi24

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On the Commerce Law
The recently proposed commerce law in the legislature is indeed an interesting law from an economic standpoint. It guarantees men the right to do commerce and ensures a competitive market where one can start a business and employ who he wishes. Yet, this bill seems to only benefit those who have the means to procure the wealth necessary to start a business, and those who already have the wealth needed. The one aspect that I wish to contend against though heavily is the fourth section, which grants businesses freedom to employ who they want when they want. While on the surface, this aspect seems to be novel, upon further observation, it is simply granting a tool to allow for removal of employees for no reason other than "because I the owner no longer wish to employ this employee". This gives the employer broad powers to do what he wishes to his employees without fear of reprisal if the removal from employment was due to unjust reasons.

There should be limits on what constitutes a legitimate removal. Should the commerce law pass, an employer could fire an employee simply due to things such as his religion, his age, injuries suffered on the job, requesting better treatment, political ideology, personal reasons not related to the work (a dangerous prospect for women employees), etc. While it is just to remove a man who does not perform to the expected ability, I fear that this section will allow employees free reign to dangle employment to gain unjust leverage over his employees, which could be devastating to the freedoms of the employees in their actions and thoughts. The Law should address this, and ensure that no employee is unjustly removed from employment by his employer.

-Damien Passereau
 

Michaelangelo

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Beauty and the Beast: The Final Chapter


The past few years had not been kind to Louis de Rohan, Prince de Guémené. For a man who had lived through the French Revolution, the Bourbon Restoration, the June Monarchy, the Second Republic, and the Third Restoration, time had finally caught up to him. It was first noticeable as early as 1858. Perhaps worn out by his exhausting time in power during the Second Republic and subsequent dismissal from prominence during the Third Restoration, Rohan seemed to lose interest in politics, showing up less frequently in the Chamber of Peers. Those who saw him in passing couldn’t happen but notice that the man who once towered over them now walked with his shoulders hunched, his eyes glazed, and his breathing coming out in deep sighs, as if every ounce of energy and willpower had been siphoned out of him.

For those paying particular attention, they may have noticed this sudden melancholy taking hold shortly after the passing of the Law on Inheritance, nothing but a coincidence to all but the most observant. Anyone who knew Rohan knew though that his entire focus during his later years was on his legacy, on ensuring that everything he had created and built up over the years was not destroyed upon his death. With the passing of that law, he was given the tool to ensure the continuation of his legacy, and with that complete, he had nothing else to strive for. With his purpose lost, he wandered aimlessly, unsure where life would next take him.

For nearly two years he lived in near isolation in his little corner of Paris at the Hôtel de Rohan-Montbazon, only leaving to visit his family or dearest of friends. Politics had lost its allure for him and there seemed little else for him to do. Managing the Rohan-Descombes Manufacturing Company increasing fell onto the shoulders of his second son, Henri, as he even lost interest in that venture. His dear wife Belle, who even in her sixties retained much of her famed beauty, attempted to comfort and guide him, seeking to draw him out of this stupor. Even she could not save him.

It was in 1860 that the first signs of something far more sinister began to surface within Louis de Rohan. One morning he woke up and wandered the Hôtel with a confused expression on his face. When asked by his wife what he was doing, he asked how he had gotten to Paris from Guémené, despite not having visited his familial estates in months. A few weeks later he awoke and scurried around the Hôtel before waking up his wife in a panic, frantically explaining that he could not find their children, despite the fact that they were all adults and had not lived with them for years.

These episodes continued, growing more numerous and more severe as the months went on. Rohan would endure periods of forgetfulness, losing track of where he was or who the people around him were. Belle was forced to accompany him at all times, otherwise he would wander off and get lost. She forced him to withdraw from public life and kept him away from others who might spread the word of his condition, even some of his most trusted friends. It was a secret she could not bear the world to know.

Rohan’s condition reached a turning point when his twin sons, Louis and Philippe, came to visit him and he mistook them for servants. This was not a situation born solely by his youngest (and most forgettable) of children. A few times Henri would attempt to speak with his father about the manufacturing company, only for his father to either act as if his son was an associate sent by Descombes or even forget he had a company altogether, if he happened to remember who Descombes was at all. His daughters left his presence more than once crying as he forgot their names or mistook them as guests of his wife. Even his eldest son, Beau, could not escape this, with his father going so far as to shake his hand when he saw him in uniform and thank him for his service in the French Army as if he was being introduced to some random soldier.

This was just the beginning. Forgetting where he was or who people were, even his own children, was concerning, but it reached a new height when Rohan seemed to lose all perception of time and lose himself in his own memories. One evening Belle found him in front of a mirror with a straight razor attempting to hack off his beard. When questioned about what he was doing, he frantically explained that the June Monarchy was about to fall and he needed to shave his beard so the mob wouldn’t recognize him when he attempted to escape Paris. At this point it was decided that he needed to be taken away from Paris before he publicly embarrassed himself, or worse, hurt himself or the ones he loved. The family moved their father back to the ancestral home at Guémené, hoping that it would spark some recognition in his mind and allow for some form of recovery. Instead it became an isolated prison where Louis could carry out the re-enactment of his life as though he was reliving it all over again.

Belle became increasingly disparaged with each new episode. One moment she would find her husband trembling in the corner of a closet, crying and begging for her to hide him from the revolutionaries, as though he was a child during the French Revolution. The next she’d find him writing a letter to la Marche congratulating him on his presidential victory, which she fortunately confiscated before he managed to send it out. His mind became a muddled mess as he became lost in his own memories.

As Rohan’s mind faded, so did his body. He often refused to eat, and his body became thin and frail. During his episodes he was even prone to injure himself, and on a few occasions Belle’s intervention stopped him from doing something dangerous. All mirrors had to be removed from the estate for his was prone to break them, injuring his hands and then walking through the glass without even noticing the pain. On a few occasions, he would even faint or lose consciousness for a moment, not that he ever even seemed aware of it.

Throughout it all, there remained but one beacon of hope. No matter how lost and confused he became, he would always calm in the presence of his wife, and would always recognize her, even if her name escaped him at times. As long as she remained by his side, she could pull him back from the brink, allowing him to retain even the slightest form of sanity. Belle, ever the duteous wife, clung to her husband desperately, never leaving his side as he ventured into territory she could not follow or understand. She was always there to guide him back to reality when he faltered, his beacon of light to remind him of who he was.

The moment he finally lost sight of his one trusted beacon was the signal that Rohan’s end neared. In January of 1863, thoroughly caught up in one of his episodes, he mistook his wife for an intruder, yelling at her and demanding she get out of his house. Her attempts to coax him back to reality fell on deaf ears, and in a fit of rage he smacked her, knocking her to the floor. For a moment there seemed a glimpse of recognition, but it was faint and he soon became lost in the murky depths of his mind once more. In an act of great irony, he threw his wife in the tower he had locked her up in decades ago, although thankfully he did not trap her in there or hurt her further. The next morning, having lost the last shred of who he was, Rohan was found by Belle dead in his bed, having passed away in his sleep. With his passing, it would take time to see if his legacy would truly live on without him and how his family would handle the loss. The once great prince, the Beast, now reduced to a shell of his former self, was gone.