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SirCliveWolfe

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Res Publica: Senatus Populusque Romanus




Good afternoon Ladies and Gentlemen this first post shall act as an explanation of this AAR and later as an index for ease of reading.

Primarily this is an alternative Italy AAR which will see a 'Romanised' state lookeing to hopefuly reclaim it's lost Empire.

This is part of a larger project that shall be started here but will later be suplimented by a prequel in Victoria, maybe even EUII, CK and Rome Universalis (the user made mod) explaining the story.

My truely British AAR is at an end, I shall continue posting the updates either daily or every other day. I think it was quite good, but the AI (1.2) let me down which was probably my own fault as I altered it. I was also disapointed by the style that I finaly settlem upon, it was good but not what I had planned.

I hope you enjoy this as much as I enjoyed writing my last AAR, now grab a cup of Tea and relax. :)

 
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Sir Humphrey

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Sounds like a top idea. :)
 
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This looks interesting. Wery interestink.
 

SirCliveWolfe

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cthulhu:Thank you sir I hope that this will be another step towards my magnum opus I hope I can improve the quality of my writing, your support as ever is apreicated.

Sir Humphrey: and thank you Sir Humphrey.... I will see if I can get you a cammeo again ;)

Vincent Julien: and my thanks to yourself, I hope you dont mind what has happened to Germany as it draws upon your great work as well as Chengar Qordath's :)
 

SirCliveWolfe

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I. Ex Milano ut Italia : From Milano to Italia

In 1936 the fledgling nation state of Italy was still not even a century old but the 'eternal city' was once more a vibrant capital at the heart of a dynamic and expansionist society. Their had been many victories and defeats in it's short history as it battled against foreign 'barbarus' or barbarians from France, Austria and even as far at the Ottoman Empire who sought to destroy Rome and Italy before it could consolidate it's hold upon the peninsular.

Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598​

The small city state of Milano had grown from it's humble origins as an Austrian ploy to create a buffer between it's self and France into the dominant power upon the Italian peninsular. This was in no small part to the work of the 'bellum concilium' which had founded the city state in 1836 after it's bloodless revolution against Austrian rule (in fact the revolution was a trick by the Austrians to give the city state credence so as not to look like it's stooge) and was made up by a diverse constituents.


The first was Marcus Julius Caesar Maximinus a proud and young man of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, who could reputably trace his roots back to Gaius Julius Caesar the supreme ruler of Rome himself. The second was an English gentleman adventurer and professional solider by the name of Sir Clive Wolfe, he had served in India, China and many European conflicts. Wolfe was heavily influenced by Thucydides, Carl von Clausewitz and Sun Tzu and used his own ideas of mobile warfare to great effect along with the third member of the triumvirate. Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian patriot and soldier who served Milano well in it's times of need along with Wolfe, he saw Maximinus as being chosen by Providence to liberate Italy and usher in a new age of enlightened rule. Unlike Wolfe who was often unfairly derided because he was foreign, Garibaldi caused many to flock to the banner of a new Italy and caused some astounding victories due to his fanaticism and competence.


In the one hundred years since the triumvirate had come to power all Milanese and Italian gains were eked out over time in an exhaustive struggle to become a 'Great Power'. It is in stark contract as to what would happen over the next ten. The rule of the three men had been benevolent but above all else autocratic. When Italy had finally become a nation and it's capital moved from Milano to Roma it was decided that such a rule of law was beyond the means of such a small elite and that some balance would need to be struck. So a new building was erected in Roma a new Forum was constructed in the design of it's ancient predecessor and on it's very location. A new 'Republican' system was formed with a mixture of the patricians and people of Italy. From that day until now two Consul's had held office at the same time in the Senate for only one year to balance out the forces of conservatism and liberalism.


Ans so as the new year drew in a new Extrarius Consul looked over the paperwork in his new office, Niccolo Lanza was imbued with the belief in the cause of Italia for he was to take the first steps along the long and hard road to Empire. Events in Germany and Austria had taken an unexpected but by no means drastic course in the last years and as these powers looked to rejuvenate so Lanza looked for a way for his mother country to benefit. With him in the new 'triumvirate' for the year were Domus Consul Benito Mussolini a man to inspire loyalty and the virtues of Italy above those of the patricians and people. The last of the three was Imperator Rodolfo Graziani a decorated soldier from the Great War and a man who looked to safeguard his beloved Italy from the 'barbarus' who encircled his country on all sides.


 
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unmerged(47162)

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oooo. uh... whats the Q on the coat of arms stand for?

nvm. i get it. i think...
 

SirCliveWolfe

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Half-Rusty: Thank you and yes it certainly will be interesting. :D

Lifeless: Just in cas you didn't it stands for the enboldened Senatus Populusque Romanus which makes it Senate PeopleAND Romans. :)

Burke: Thank you. :)
 

SirCliveWolfe

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II Germania Superior: From Weimar to Prussian Imperium

When Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire signed armistices with the Allies within a day of each other on the 29th and 30th of September 1918 respectively the Obersts Heeresleitung (OHL or German military command) that had been effectively running the German Empire's affairs since 1916 requested that a civilian government should be set up to negotiate at peace talks with the Allies. This led to the new Reichskanzler Prince Max von Baden offering a ceasefire to Woodrow Wilson on the 3rd of October and twenty five days later the 1871 constitution was finally amended to make Germany a parliamentary democracy with a Chancellor responsible to the Reichstag and no longer the Kaiser. The Reich quickly plummeted into bloodshed and violence as political groups looked to push others aside for primacy on the new political stage. Only one day after the constitution had been amended the OHL ordered the Hochseeflotte to sortie out of Wilhemshaven on what can only be seen as a 'suicide mission' without the agreement or even consultation of the new government. When the crews of two of the ships mutinied around one thousand seamen were arrested and transported to Kiel. The rebellion quickly spread throughout Germany with solders, seamen and workers standing in solidarity with the arrested men, they quickly formed into elected worker and soldier councils that were loosely modelled upon the soviets of the Russian Revolution. On November 9th Reichskanzler Prince von Baden fearing the creation of a socialist republic transferred his powers to Friedrich Ebert in a legally questionable act. It was quickly apparent that the people would not be satisfied by this and so a revolutionary government called the Rat der Volksbeauftragten (Council of People's Deputies ) was created with three members from the MSPD (Majority Social Democrats ) led by Ebert and three from the USPD (Independent Social Democrats). Although the new government was confirmed by the Berlin worker and soldier council it was opposed by the Spartacist League, the left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement that preferred a Bolshevik like revolution. Ebert called for a National Congress of Councils, which took place from December 16 to 20, 1918, and in which the MSPD had the majority. Ebert thus managed to enforce quick elections for a National Assembly to produce a constitution for a parliamentary system, marginalizing the movement that called for a socialist republic.

Schiller House in Weimar​

To ensure that his fledgling government was able to maintain control over the country, Ebert made a pact with the OHL, now led by Ludendorff's successor General Wilhelm Groener. This Ebert-Groener pact stipulated that the government would not attempt to reform the Army so long as the army swore to protect the government. This action caused many left wing groups to become disenchanted with the new government and the USPD split off as well as causing the Spartacist League to create the and KPD (German Communist Party). In the elections of January 19th 1919 the new left-wing parties had little time to organise and, therefore, there was a solid majority for the moderates in Germany. To avoid the anarchy and violence of Berlin the new assembly sat at Weimar which would give its name unofficially to the Republic. The new 'Weimar constitution' created a semi-presidential system with proportional representation for the Reichstag. There was sporadic fighting around the country with the Freikorps (units consisting of volunteer soldiers) and regular army units putting down revolts. In the east forces loyal to the Kaiser fought against the Republic and the Polish population fought for independence.

Wilhelm Groener​

The Republic was always going to suffer for taking the moderate route from both the right who wanted a return to a 1871 style authoritarian constitution and the left who believed they had betrayed the workers revolution. On March the 13th 1920 a group of Freikorps initiated a coup called the Kapp Putsch which put the right wing journalist Wolfgang Kapp into power, the Republican government fled to Stuttgart and called for a general strike that halted the economy and caused the collapse of the Putsch on the 17th. Inspired by this 50,000 people in the Ruhr region formed a 'Red Army' to bring about a communist state this was put down by the Freikorps as were several other attempts in Saxony and Hamburg. The reparations ordered by the Versailles treaty were no longer payable by 1923 and the Republic defaulted causing an 'occupation' by the French and Belgium armies. Strikes were called lasting eight months damaging the chaotic German economy further. The striking workers were paid state benefits causing a lot of additional currency to be minted helping to cause a period of hyperinflation where the Mark declined from 4.2 US Dollars to 4,200,000,000,000 in November 1923. Also in November the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party) and its paramilitary wing the SA (Sturmabteilung) tried a new Putsch remembered as the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. The rebels were thwarted by the police and it's leader Adolf Hitler was imprisoned for five years only serving nine months. In this time hie wrote a book called Mein Kampf which sold slowly and is still languishing in obscurity.

Gustav Stressmann served as Reichskanzler and foreign minister from 1923 to 1929 and helped see the fledgling Republic through a period of relative stability with fewer rebellions and the beginnings of an economic recovery. To reduce the pressure a new currency was produced the Rentenmark being valued at 1 per 1,000,000,000,000 old Marks and reparations were resumed leading to the Allies leaving the Ruhr region and he steadfastly refused to issue more while reducing spending and bureaucracy and increasing taxation. He also helped create the Dawes Plan tying reparations to Germany's ability to pay, signed a neutrality pact with Russia and brought disarmament to a halt. This was achieved by higher international borrowing while trade decreased and unemployment rose, therefore, not relieving the underlying weakness of the Republic but merely giving the appearance of economic stability. His death in 1929 along with the Wall Street Crash signalled the end of the 'Golden Period'.

Gustav Stressmann​

March 29th 1930 saw the presidential appointment by Paul von Hindenburg of the finance expert Heinrich Brüning after lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher. In effect the appointment created a dictatorship which veered towards conservatism being based primarily on emergency powers as he had no majority in the Reichstag. The 'make or break' moment came in July 1930 when Brüning attempt to reform the Reich's finances was left without support in the Reichstag. Hindenburg established the bill as an emergency decree based upon article 48 of the constitution. On the 18th the bill was finally passed by the Reichstag after von Schleicher organised a Querfront or "cross-front” unifying the Social democrats SPD and more left wing of the NSDAP led by Gregor Strasser. Strasser was slowly loosing the internal power struggle with Hitler inside the NSDAP and so broke away his left-wingers (the SDAP) to avoid loosing all his power. From 1930 to 1932 Brüning sought to reform the devastated economy and nation in line with liberal economic theory that a balanced budget would spur economic growth. With the help of the majority Querfront in parliament he was able to steer the Reich through the darkest days of the Great Depression and by the second half of 1932 the first signs of recovery were beginning.

In early May Hindenburg stepped aside to let von Schleicher stand for Reichskanzler against the increasingly unpopular Hitler who had been steadily loosing ground after attacking Brüning's economic programme that eventually turned the country around. Von Schleicher was successfully elected to the position and by the end of the month has dissolved the Reichstag hoping to build more support for his broad based moderate coalition. The SDP and SDAP lost some of its ground to the communist KPD as the workers shifted away from the conservatism of Brüning, the Chancellor lost more credibility in early January 1933 as he rejected demands from the collation to increase workers unemployment benefits. Reichskanzler von Schleicher saw that all his good work was being undone and looked for a change. Otto Meißner was the head of the Office of the Reichskanzler and was a man von Schleicher new he could control and so Meißner was appointed Chancellor on the 30th January 1933, his appointment was controversial and caused dissent amongst the Querfront that the President had created. It was therefore fortuitous and some would say overly convenient, that the communists plotted to burn down the Reichstag on February 27th 1933 three days before a vote could be held on Meißner's appointment.

Franz von Papen and Otto Meißner​

The day after the fire Meißner partitioned von Schleicher for a emergency act named the 'Reichstag Fire Decree' which among other things suspended the right of Habeas Corpus, freedom of the press and the right to assemble for any reason. The Fire Decree can be seen as the first step that Germany took towards totalitarianism. The decree was quickly followed by the outlawing of the KPD and the arrest of its leaders for the fire plot. A general election was called and on the 5th of March a majority for the newly formed ULDP (Umsonst Leute über Deutschland Party) of which Meißner was the head. Historians still argue to the validity of the election result but it can be put down the the SDAP and many of the SDP joining it's ranks. The new majority voted the Enabling Act that transferring all legislative powers to the Peoples Party, in effect abolishing what was left of the Weimar constitution. The same powers were given to the state governments and created a Reichsstatthalter, or president in each state. When units of the army occupied the offices of the trade union ADGB and arrested it's leaders the day after Labour day the last power bloc opposed to the new regime were eliminated. This was followed by Gesetz gegen die Neubildung von Parteien (Law against the establishment of political parties) which forbade the creation of new political parties in July 1933.

Over the next three years von Schleicher and Meißner worked to embed the new system into Germany and to intertwine it so deeply that one without the other could not stand. In December the Party voted to institute the Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reiches (Law concerning the reconstruction of the Reich) which gave all effective power to the Chancellor dissolving the post of Reichskanzler to be superseded by a new monarch. So on the 1st January 1936 Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor August Ernst Kronprinz von Preussen took up the post of Kaiser and appointed von Schleicher Chancellor. The new Chancellor immediately went about appointing his cabinet with Meißner rewarded with the post of foreign minister and Vice-Chancellor, General Ludwig Beck acting as chief of Staff with Admiral Raeder, von Manstein and Karl Koller running the Navy, Army and Air Force respectively. He also chose Albert Speer as his economics minister with Wilhelm von Gayl as minister for security and Hans Oster a carer soldier as intelligence minister.

Franz von Papen and von Schleicher​

Over the next three years von Schleicher would look to secure Germany's position and build a strong coalition of central powers with which to dominate central Europe. His manoeuvring would look to bring Europe to the brink of a war more terrible than the last.
 
Last edited:

Lord E

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Great start Sir Clive, really good idea and it is cool to se that you have started a new AAR this fast after just having ended your last one, good work :) Looking forward to read more.
 

SirCliveWolfe

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Mettermrck: Wow a comment from Mettermrck in my AAR... *faints dramaticaly* :D It was your EUII AAR The Eagles of Avalon [sp?] and Sean B's on Byzantium that helped inspire me.

I want to keep as much of the Ancient stuff in the modern equivilemt, however, I need it to be 'realistic' in a modern world.... please feel free to suggest anything or to point out obvious flaws in my history :D

Lord E: Thank you Lord E for your continuing support... although my other AAR's finished I've yet to post all the updates so keep reading :D
 
Jul 29, 2002
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This is good! Keep going, I'm looking forward to what happens next.
 

unmerged(47162)

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Aug 4, 2005
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simply amazing... i wish i could do that...
 

SirCliveWolfe

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Vincent Julien: Thank you good sir, I hope you enjoy. :D

lifeless: *blushes* my thanks to you sir, I'm sure you could btw... :)
 

SirCliveWolfe

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III Germania Inferior: Austria an Empire Reborn

In November of 1916 Franz Joseph passed away and left the throne to this grand Nephew Karl I who became Emperor of Austria at the empire's lowest point in history. Franz Joseph had ruled over a declining empire that had seen concession after concession made to the minority groups especially the Hungarian population. There was not much that Karl could do to change the position and as Gereralfeldmarschall in 1917 he entered secret talks with France to begin peace negations through his brother-in-law Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma an officer in the Belgium army. When news of the overture leaked in 1918 it became apparent that he had been willing to make a separate peace. Karl denied such rumours until the French prime minister Georges Clemenceau published the letters he had signed. This left the empire into an even more dependent position with respect to its seemingly wronged German ally. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was wracked by inner turmoil in the final years of the war, with much tension between ethnic groups. US President Woodrow Wilson demanded that the Empire allow for the self-determination of its peoples as part of his Fourteen Points. In response, Karl agreed to reconvene the Imperial parliament and allow for the creation of a confederation with each national group exercising self-governance. However, the reforms quickly spiralled out of control, with each national government declaring complete independence. Karl's political future quickly became uncertain. For a while it appeared as though he might reign as monarch of a newly independent Austria, but Austria's new republican government ultimately vetoed this idea.


Karl I of Austria​

Twice in 1921 Karl looked to reclaim the throne of Hungary but was thwarted by numerous factors including the lack of support of the Hungarian Regent Miklós Horthy. This soured relations between the two and would lead to grave consequences in the 1930's. Karl also never forgave the Americans for, as he saw it, causing the collapse of the empire. 1920's politics in the new Austria were characterised by violence in the same way that they were in Germany, with the left and right forming paramilitaries to try and gain power. In July of 1927 there were violent clashes between the far-right Heimwehr and left-wing Schutzbund paramilitaries, things were quickly deteriorating and spiralling towards civil war. The Austrian army refused to be involved in the continuing conflict and left the paramilitaries to sort it out themselves. The near civil war steadily gained momentum for the next six years and in March 1933 the Christian Social Chancellor Englebert Dolfuss dissolved parliament sending the situation over the edge into civil war. The war itself was short an uneventful as the Italians over the border grew worried by the extremists and decided to help Karl to return to his country to set up the monarchy. Karl arrived in Vienna and quickly announced that he had returned only to help his people and to bring peace to Austria. In a carefully staged event the army of Austria came out and pledged support for Peace and therefore, Karl. Regular units of the army quickly overpowered and disarmed the paramilitaries and Karl used his emergency powers to outlaw those parties with paramilitary wings, of course as the country had been in a state of civil war all the parties has paramilitaries and so all the major parties were outlawed. Over the next two years Karl brought relative peace and security to the nation as money from his Italian benefactors poured over the border encouraging economic growth and prosperity as well as a mass re-armament programme of the army.


The Austrian Coat of Arms​

On December 1st 1935 Karl was proclaimed Emperor of Austria a move that was welcomed by the people. He had been growing evermore popular thanks to the rejuvenation of the economy and his public efforts to help the poor and suffering. When he stood in parliament in front of the monarchistic deputies to give his Christmas speech, he talked of the betrayal of the Hungarian and of his benevolence toward the Slavs who were suffering much from the quasi-terrorist groups that the Hungarian government were using to de-stabilise the country. The groups had actualy been set up by Karl and his friends in Italy to win popular support in Yugoslavia for a 'liberation' from the 'weak and corrupt' regime in Belgrade. The seen was set therefore for Austria to win many of it's terrorities back and for the newly reborn empire to be great again. The western powers looked on unhappily but while Karl had popular support in Austria, Yugoslavia and even some in Hungary they were loathed to intervene. The worrying aspect was Karl's mistrust of the USA which would lead to consequences later in the decade.


Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern-Essling who Karl stiled himself after.​
 

SirCliveWolfe

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Mettermrck: No Adolf is nowhere near power... the Kaiser is happy to see a Hapsburg back on the throne and von Schleicher is happy to see a strengthening Austria again by her side.