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Proposal for Religious change in Armenia, and bibliography

Samitte

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Feb 2, 2012
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  • Hello and welcome to what is the first in a series of posts to improve Armenia and its environs.

Before I get on with it, I'm aware that there are many ongoing debates as to the nature of the origins of Armenia, its peoples, and that its early history is quite cloudy. Because of that, if you feel I am misrepresenting something, lets talk about it. Furthermore, if you want to double check my work I'll keep an updated list of the more easily accessible sources at the end of this first post. Any name changes I propose will use the Latin alphabet phonetic system, with the modified Hubschmann-Meillet translation next to it in brackets.

1: Armenian religion

Armenian religion was neither Khaldic nor Zoroastrian. By the start date it has become its own complex thing, mixing Zoroastrian elements into the existing local polytheism, itself a mix of native, Near-Eastern, and increasing Hellenic elements. While Khaldic would have been fitting for the region centuries prior, the Armenian religion was already developing centuries before the game start as noted by Xenophon, together with the Armenian peoples themselves.

Proposal:

Change the name to Armenian. It should span a similar area to Khaldic in the current game. It should also spread a bit to Sophene, Commagene, and Armenia Minor. These areas will get their own in depth post later, though there certainly was an Armenian prescence in these region. Sacrifice button could be changed to a cow. (or back to pig)

Armenia should also start out as Armenian religion

Deities:

Aramazd:
War
deity, fourfold (Creator, father, thunder god, and ruler of heaven, earth and underworld.
Primary holy site: Ani-Kamakh (Ani-Kamax), important religious site and one of the royal necropoli of Armenia. Propose to create a separate province across from 7845 Tordan (T'ordan) as part of the larger Ekeghiats (Ekełeac') religious centre. Alternatively, place his holy site at 1570 Armaouira, to be renamed Armawir.
Omens: Passive: War Score reduction. Active: Ruler Popularity gain

Anahit:
Fertility
deity, associated with cattle sacrifice.
Primary holy site: 1767 Eriza.
Proposed name change to: Erez (Erēz) Eriza is a much later Greek version of the name.
Omens: Passive: Character wage reduction. Active: Citizen output

Vahagn:
War
deity. A solar deity also associated with thunder. Warrior god.
Primary holy site: 994 Ashtishat (Aštišat)
Omens: Passive: Reinforcement speed. Active: Morale recovery.

We beseech Vahagn the Dragon-Reaper with the flaming hair, to grant our warriors a measure of his bravery. Lend us your strength for for coming battles, so that our warriors may reign victorious on the field of battle.

Vahagn was the Armenian solar and warrior deity. He was the slayer of dragons, and known as the brave and of the firey locks. His main temple was at Ashtishat, an important temple-state. He was prayed to for courage, strength, valor, and his cult was second only to that of Aramazd himself.


Tir:
Culture
deity. Scribe of Aramazd, dreaming, priests, psychopomp, temples with libraries attached to them.
Primary holy site: 1571 Artaxata (Artašat) founded halfway into the game by Artašes I.
Omens: Passive: Research points. Active: Religious happiness.

We beseech Tir, the scribe of the gods, he who records all knowledge and guides the dead, to grant us his wisdom and mercy. Oh wise Tir, please make note of those who passed in your endless library, so that they may be forever remembered.

Tir is the scribe of Aramazd, who records the names of the dead and guides them to the underworld. His library-temples are bastions of knowledge where the krum, the Armenian priestly class, is educated. His most important temple was the Erazamoyn at Artashat, where his priesthood interpreted the meaning of dreams.


Astghik (Astłik):
Fertility deity. The little star. Beauty. Often paired with Vahagn.
Primary holy site: If we place Vahagn at Ashtishat, 1560 Andzevatsik
Proposed name change to: Kangawar Andzevatsik (Anjewac'ik) is the name of the principality, Kangawar is the primary locale.
Omens: Passive: Primary Culture Happiness. Active: Unrest reduction

Nane (Nanē):
Fertility deity.
Primary holy site: 1768 Til (T'il)
Omens: Passive: Manpower Recovery. Active: Reduced War Exhaustion.

Barshamin (Baršamin):
War deity. Another thunder god!
Primary holy site: 7845 Tordan (T'ordan) As Anahit and Nane had their holy sites on opposite sides of the river, so did Barshamin and Aramazd.
Omens: Passive: Army morale. Active: Discipline

Mihr:
Economy OR Culture deity.
Primary holy site: 1762 Elegeia
Proposed name change to: Bagayarich (Bagayaṙič) Elegeia is a Greek name, Bagayarich is the town where Mihr had his primary cultic site.
Omens: Passive: Freemen output. Active: Mil tech investment boost.

Spandaramet:
Fertility
OR Economic deity. Female earth deity. Associated with fruit, vines, burial, and fertility.
Primary holy site: None at game start.
Omens: Passive: Monthly food modifier. Active: Freeman happiness.

Tork-Anggh (Tork'-Angł):
Culture deity. Underworld deity
Primary holy site:
841 Arkathiokerta (Anggh)
Proposed name change to: Anggh, the current name is Greek.
Omens: Passive: Fort Defense. Active: Province loyalty

While Commagene should not be independent yet at game start (Most likely date of independence is around 163 BCE, while its present Commagene should start with a pantheon of 4 deities which are unique to them. Due to the mixture of Hellenic, Iranian and Armenian in its pantheon I'd place it under Armenian religion as well. Culturally it should remain a mix of cultures, primarily Aramaic and Armenian, with some Macedonian, Cappadocian, Syrian, and Arabic pops spread about.

Zeus-Oromasdes (Culture), Apollo-Mithras (Economy), Herakles-Artagnes (War), and Kommagene (Fertility) are the four deities the hierothesion at Nemrud is dedicated to.

The setup I propose is Native name as the base, followed by alternative localisations. So that when its not owned by Latins or Hellenes it defaults to a native name as opposed to a foreign alternative unless there is one. Hence if I have not added the specific localisation of the base name since the base name doesn't require cultural localisation, only alternative localisation does. All names marked with Arm./Pers./Lat./Gk,/Iber./etc are all alternate localisations. All names without it are base names. If no new base name is provided it just proposes an extra alternative localisation.

Areas:
Armenia Superior - Latinised: Carenitis, Native: Karin
Syracene - Latinised: Siracene, Native: Shirak
Ayrarat - Latinised: Cotaea, Native: Eraskhandzor
Tarawn - Latinised: Bagrauandene, Native: Bagrewand
Vaspurakan - Latinised: Thospitis, Native: Rshtunik
Parskahayk - Latinised: Sigriane, Native: Shirakan
Parsatunik - Latinised: Basporeda, Native: Zarawand-Her
Soducene - Latinised: Mardianum, Native: Mardpatakan
Syunik - Latinised: Saunitis, Native: Siwnik

483 Artales - Remove and reuse, update pending.
846 Cyzima - Baghaghesh, Lat./Gk. Balaleseia
978 Taraichiya - Datuan, Lat./Gk. Dauduana
987 Zoroanda - Artemid, Lat./Gk. Artemita
988 Thospia - Van, Lat./Gk. Bouana
989 Nymphaeum - Moks, Lat./Gk. Mox
990 Elegoana - Archesh Lat./Gk. Arsesa
992 Balales Pass - Gzeghkh, Lat./Gk. Selgia
993 Calata - Khlat, Lat./Gk. Calata
995 Molchia - Ererin
996 Alouaka - Hadamakert
997 Kotordz - Kotor
998 Artemita Vaspurakan - Hayk
999 Hayk - Parz
1500 Chauon - Chodha, Arm. Her, Gk. Kapouta, Lat. Capouta
1501 Naxouana - Nakhchawan, Lat./Gk. Naxouana, Iber. Nakhchevani
1503 Salamas - Zarehawan, Lat./Gk. Zerouana
1505 Arziyayad tepe - Tamber
1507 Sormanabad tepe - Surenapat
1508 Balajuk tepe - Ayli
1509 Siraganon - Mari
1511 Qalatgah - Shno, Arm. Shnawh
1518 Kuh-i Chorblach - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1519 Qalat - Shirakan, Lat. Zeracane, Gk. Siraganon
1527 Yanik tepe - Khvarakan
1528 Morounda - Marand, Lat./Gk. Morunda
1529 Darman - Bakran
1530 Halaqu Qal'eh - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1531 Malejin - Gargar
1533 Qara Zia Eddin tepe - Marakan
1535 Qiz Chakhlu - Giwghik
1536 Khezerlu Qal'eh - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1537 Nuarsak - Shawarshan
1538 Sanora - Goghtn
1539 Gavur Qal'eh - Jughay
1540 Parakan - Ernjak
1541 Oghlu Qal'eh - Vrachunik
1542 Arxata - Kruakk
1543 Siah Qal'eh - Kosteank
1544 Catispi - Ugheoy
1545 Barun Qal'eh - Maku, Lat./Gk. Magustana.
1546 Shawarshan - Nersehapat
1547 Keshmesh - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1548 Sangar Qal'eh - Erind
1549 Teroua - Daroynk Maseatsotn, Gk. Teroua
1550 Verahram Qal'eh - Marawan
1551 Hajestan Qal'eh - Varazkert
1559 Aladagh Qal'eh - Nuarsak
1560 Andzevatsik - Kangawar
1561 Mardastan - But
1562 Isumbo - Tsumb, Lat./Gk. Tsumbo
1563 Acachia - Tutakh
1564 Colchion - Malkhas, Lat./Gk. Molchia?
1566 Didima - Tsirav
1567 Bagauna - Bagawan, Lat./Gk. Bagaouna
1568 Hariza - Zarehawan Tsoghkotn, Lat./Gk. Zarouana Bagrauandene
1569 Paracata - Tsoghakert Lat./Gk. Zolakerta,
1570 Armaouira - Armawir, Lat./Gk. Armaouira
1571 Artaxata - Artashat, Lat./Gk. Artaxata
1572 Doubios - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1573 Gornae - Garni, Lat./Gk. Gorniae, Iber. Garni
1575 Erebuni - Erevan
1576 Kainepolis Syracene - Artemid Shirakats, Lat./Gk. Artemita Siracene
1577 Motene - Nigatun
1579 Ashnak - Bagaran
1580 Katnakhpyur - Talin Lat./Gk. Thalina
1581 Lat./Gk. Orontoxata
1582 Ani - Eruandakert (Orontokerta)
1583 Dzhrapi - Ani, Lat./Gk. Anion Syracene, Iber. Anisi
1585 Shirakavan - Kumayri
1588 Kamo - Gegharkunik
1589 Atarbegian - Portak
1590 Dzhrarat - Kecharoyk
1591 Karchakhpyur - Parnakan
1592 Akunk - Tsawdk, Iber. Sodk
1605 Gezlu - Drakhtik
1606 Berdatekh - Hovk
1613 Shalat - Shaghat
1615 Balaberd - Baghaberd
1623 Arevik - Meghri
1668 Vayots Dzor - Hrasekaberd
1698 Sinara - Khaghtoyarich, Lat./Gk. Calteorissa
1736 Iber. Valaskerti
1747 Gymnias - Daroynk, Lat./Gk. Daranissa
1751 Barantea - Basean, Lat.Gk./ Phasiane. Iber. Basiani
1760 Sinoria - Baytberd, Lat./Gk. Baiberdon
1761 Charton - Khart, Gk. Kharton, Lat. Charton
1762 Elegeia - Remove and reuse, see this post.
1763 Darucinte - Ishkhandzor, Lat./Gk. Salmalassus
1764 Bizana - Bagayarich, Lat./Gk. Basgoidariza
1765 Ioustiaine - Surenashen
4037 Kitharizon - Kitarich, Gk. Kitharizon, Lat. Citharizum
Areas:
Abasgoi - Latinised: Abasgai , Native: Apkhazeti
Bekhyria - Latinised: Chaldia, Native: Chaneti
Suaneti - Latinised: Suania, Native - Svaneti
Caucasian Iberia - Latinised: Iberia Interior, Native: Shida Kartli
Gogarene - Latinised: Gogarene, Native: Kvemo Kartli
Tayk - Latinised: Cholarzene, Native: Kgharjk

1586 Hokhmik - Abotsi, Arm. Ashots
1587 Vardbach – Erazgaworz
1610 Sary-tepe – Khunani, Arm. Khunarakert
1673 Iberian Gates – Kumlis-tsikhe, Lat./Gk. Cumania
1676 Metchistha-Harmozike – Mtskheta, Gk. Meskheta, Lat. Mescheta
1677 Algeti – Poga, Arm. Pogh, Lat./Gk. Pogas
1679 Kavtiskhevi - Zadrisi, Arm. Zadris
1680 Zalissa – Dzalisi, Lat./Gk. Zalissa
1681 Aragvispiri – Ananuri, Lat./Gk. Ananurion
1683 Aghaiani – Kaspi, Lat. Caspia, Gk. Kaspia, Arm. Koskh
1685 Uplistsikhe – Ateni
1689 Urbnisi – Gori
1690 Zghuderi – Tsromi
1691 Dedoplis - Urbnisi, Lat./Gk. Arbanissa
1694 Surium – Remove and resuse
1695 Borjomi – Durn
1696 Leukothea – Odzraqe, Arm. Odzrkhe
1697 Akhaltsikhe - Remove and reuse, see this post.
1699 Mzetamze – Tori, Arm. Tawr
1701 Goderdzi Pass - Qveli, Arm. Ghvelis-Tsikhe
1702 Javakheti - Tsunda, Arm. Kajatun
1703 Bori - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1704 Sarapanis - Shorapani, Lat./Gk. Sarapanis
1705 Skandis - Skanda, Lat./Gk. Skandeis
1706 Rhodopolis - Vardistsikhe, Lat./Gk. Rhodopolis, Arm. Rodiuwpawlis
1707 Kotais - Kutatisi, Lat. Kotais, Gk. Kytaia, Arm. Kota
1711 Telephis - Vani, Gk. Souris, Lat. Surium
1714 Onogouris - Igani, Lat./Gk. Siganeon
1715 Archaiopolis - Dzikhan-Kvidza, Iber. Tsikhe-Gudzi, Gk. Arkhaiopolis, Lat. Archaeopolis
1717 Chaladidi - Khobi
1720 Phasis, Arm. Pashd, maybe Iber. Poti
1722 Vashnari - Tolebi, Lat./Gk. Telephis
1723 Pichvnari - Ozurgeti
1724 Apasidam - Tsikhisdziri. Lat./Gk. Apasidam
1725 Bathys Limen, Lat. Bathys Portus
1726 Apsaros, Lat. Apsarus, Arm. Apsarunt
1727 Kissa, Lat. Cissa
1728 Morthoula - Borchka, Lat./Gk. Morthoula?
1729 Athenon Akron, Lat. Athenai, Arm. Atenas
1730 Rhizaion, Lat. Rhizus, Arm. Rizon
1731 Ophis, Lat. Ophius
1732 Hyssos, Lat. Hissus Portus
1735 Ergeta - Tsaishi
1737 Ziganne - Gyenos
1739 Tqvarcheli - Bedia
1738 Gyenos - Mokvi
1740 Tzibile - Tsebelda, Lat./Gk. Tzibile
1743 Pityous - Pityus
1746 Itkhvissi - Sairkhe, Lat./Gk. Sarake, with major border rework (see this post)
1748 Modinakhe - Tsikha, also with major border rework from above post.
1749 Brili - Gebi
1750 Klukhor Pass - Tsakhar
1752 Chorzene - Karutsberd, Iber. Kars, Lat./Gk. Chorsa
1753 Kola, Arm. Kogh
1754 Artahan - Huri, Arm. Hur
1755 Colit - Tsqarostavi
1756 Artanuji - Shatberdi, Arm. Shatberd
1757 Kaballa - Arsik
1758 Pharangion - Tukharisi, Arm. Tukhars
Areas:
Caucasian Albania - Latinised: Albania, Native: Arran
Kahetia - Latinised: Cambycene, Native: Kambechan
Arran - Latinised: Otene, Native: Utik
Artshak - Latinised: Orchistene, Native: Artsakh
Paytankert - Latinised: Caspiane, Native: Kazpk

1584 Utidorsi - Yunan
1607 Idzhevan - Khaghkhagh, Lat./Gk. Xilala
1608 Berd - Tavush
1609 Kariglukh - Tsob
1611 Sagarejo – Sagarezho
1612 Tbilisi – Tpilisi, Lat./Gk. Philade, Arm. Tpkhis
1614 Sigan - Brnakot
1618 Mish - Alewan
1619 Dish - Arminan
1630 Langarkanan - Astarab
1631 Spandaran - Barzend
1632 Balanrot - Baghan
1633 Bagawan - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1634 Kamachia - Gardman
1635 Nyundi - Kandak
1636 Chabala - Kabalaka, Arm. Kabaghak, Lat. Cabalaca
1637 Mingechaur - Yashu-Khosh
1638 Warthan - Vardanakert
1639 Amaras - Goroz.
1640 Tigranakert - Zarisht
1641 Gumbati - Hornabudzi
1642 Absheron - Khursan
1643 Samukh – Khoranta
1644 Paytakaran - Geilar
1645 Shaki - Gewgaw
1646 Gardman - Dzakem
1647 Salyan - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1648 Ghizil-Agaj - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1649 Masalas - Bagawan, Lat./Gk. Bagouana
1650 Sisakan Inferior - Tsri
1651 Shahargah - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1652 Talish - Paytakaran
1654 Mochi - Daran
1655 Kaladasht - Kaghaberd
1656 Zakatala - Bakhalat, Lat./Gk. Bakhia
1657 Telavi – Kuel-daba
1658 Shilda - Alvani
1660 Cambysene – Remove and reuse, update pending.
1661 Arash - Partaw
1662 Lupenia - Lpnats Kaghak, Gk. Loubion Kome, Lat. Lupenia
1664 Arank - Shoghvaga
1665 Parsakank - Khandak
1666 Koght - Dzrvshtik
1667 Aghahechk - Agarak
1670 Partaw - Horekan
1671 Southwest Arran - Gish
1672 Southeast Arran - Baylakan
1678 Seusamora – Samgora
1687 Jhinvali - Remove and reuse, update pending.
5435 Kurus – Vezhini
7603 Derbent - Shapotran, Pers. Shabaran
Areas:
Sophene - Latinised: Anzitene, Native: Andzit
Corduene - Latinised: Arzanene, Native: Aghdznik
Upper Mesopotamia - Latinised: Mygdonia
Assyria - Latinised: Calachene
Adiabene - Latinised: Arbelitis

818 Arm. Urha
819 Carrhae - Harran, Arm. Kharan, Gk. Karrhai, Lat. Carrhae
821 Arm. Rash Ayn
830 Arm. Mtsbin
831 Arm. Shngar
833 Arm. Pinik
834 Satalka - Tman
836 Samosata - Shamushat, Lat./Gk. Samosata
837 Tharsa - Tharse
839 Nymphaios - Arsham Nemrutotn, Gk. Arsameia pros to Nymphaios, Lat. Arsameia ad Nymphaeum
840 Arsameia - Arsham Gk. Arsameia pros to Euphrate. Lat. Arsameia ad Euphratem
841 Arkathiokerta - Anggh, Lat./Gk. Ingila
842 Tigranocerta - Kghimar, Lat./Gk. Chlomaron
843 Chlomaron - Arzan
845 Martyropolis - Nprkert, Lat./Gk. Maipherakta.
856 Sardeoua - Amid, Gk. Amida, Lat. Ad Tyrgem
857 Sitai - Remove and reuse, update pending.
858 Arsamosata - Horeberd, Lat. Charpert, Gk. Kharpert
859 Colchis - Arghni, Gk./Lat. Arsinia
860 Anzitene - Arshamashat. Lat./Gk. Arsamosata
862 Arm. Ninue
863 Arm. Bghat
870 Izala Mons - Remove and reuse, update pending.
877 Barsalion - Jermuk, Lat./Gk. Abarne
878 Arsinia - Remove and reuse, update pending.
884 Arrapha - Karkha de Beth Selok, Arm. Karkha
981 Kelonai - Hulwan, Lat./Gk. Chala
1578 - Orontes - Mahkard, Arm. Mahkert
1853 Sartona - Kiakka, Gk. Khiaka, Lat Chiaca
1855 Elegeia Sophene - Tmnis, Lat./Gk. Tomisa
1856 Anzita - Til, Lat./Gk. Tilion
1857 Chosomachon - Herapawlis, Lat./Gk. Hierapolis Sophene
1858 Lat. Dascusa
1866 Korne - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1867 Marqas - Arm. Marash, Gk. Germanikeia, Lat. Germanike city
1868 Tyba - Diba, Lat./Gk. Tyba
1869 Rhebaine - Urima, Arm. Urime, Lat./Gk. Ourima
Areas:
Armenia Maior - Latinised: Acilisene, Native, Ekegheats
Amenia Minor - Latinised: Armenia Minor, Native: Pokr Hayk

172 Arm. Komana Kapadovkioy
1766 Altintepe - Chermes, Lat./Gk. Tzoumina
1767 Eriza - Erez, Gk. Eriza, Lat. Eressus
1769 Salmalasso - Remove and reuse, see this post.
1770 Satala - Satagh, Lat./Gk. Satala
1771 Domana - Sinor, Lat./Gk. Sinora
1772 Longini Fossatom - Remove and reuse, update pending.
1773 Tzantzakon - Zigana
1778 Chorsabia - Kerchanis, Lat./Gk. Chorsabia
1779 Olotoedariza - Uleoberd, Lat./Gk. Oleoberda
1781 Koloneia - Aghadarits, Lat./Gk. Aladariza
1782 Megalossos - Dasteira, Arm. Dashtarak,, Lat./Gk. Nikopolis
1783 Anniaca - Koloneia, Arm. Koghonia, Lat. Colonia,
1787 Danae - Taularon
1789 Syderos - Hypsele
1790 Arm. Komana Pontosi
1796 Eusebeia - Mazaka, Arm. Mazhak, Gk. Eusebeia, Lat. Caesaraea
1799 Mazaka - Saccasena
1839 Sebastopolis - Karana, Lat./Gk. Sebastopolis
1843 Kamisa, Lat. Comassa
1844 Sebasteia - Sebaste
1847 Eudoixata - Godis, Lat./Gk. Gundusa
1850 Gundusa - Eudoxaita
1851 Euspena - Euspoina, Lat. Euspena
1854 Arm. Meltine
1861 Gk. Sozopetra
1994 Epesos
7845 Tordan - Ani-Kamakh, Gk. Anion, Lat. Anarium
Areas:
Amardoi - Latinised: Amardia
Kadousioi - Latinised: Cadusia
Kossioi - Latinised: Cossia

1515 Arm. Gandzak
1521 Akra-rudh - Afraza, Lat./Gk. Phraaspa, Arm. Afrazha
1525 Gurqal'eh - Ujan
1526
Arm. Tawrezh
1555 Arm. Gish
1574 Kelishin Pass - Median Gates, Lat. Mediae Portae, Gk. Midiai Portai, Arm. Drunk Marats
1620 Aharawan - Ahar, Arm. Aharawan
1621 Arvandaj - Varzakan, Arm. Varzhakan
1622 Seqindel - Dizmar
1625 Kuh-i Bolach - Pichan
1626 Mishkinshahr - Bahlakan
1627 Arm. Artewet
789 Arm. Selewkia Pierean
790 Arm. Agawn Antiok'
794 Arm. Kiwros
797 Arm. Khalkis
807 Arm. Herawpawlis
810 Arm. Zewgma
811 Dolike - Dolikhe, Lat. Doliche
893 Samarra - Sumra, Gk. Soumra, Lat. Sumere
911 Arm. Mets Selewkia
955 Kar Tukulti Ninurta - Sinn
1734 Arm. Trapizon
1791 Ibora - Eupatoreia, Lat. Magnopolis, Arm. Ewpatoria
1792 Gk. Diospolis
1795 Arm. Kotiora
1798 Arm. Kerasunt
1806 Arm. Temiskiwra
1870 Amanian Gates, Lat. Amaniae Portae, Gk. Amanikai Pylai, Arm. Drunk' Kilikioy
1871 Syrian Gates, Lat. Syriae Portae, Gk. Syriai Pylai, Arm. Drunk Asorwots
1879 Arm. Egea
1880 Arm. Mopsuestia
1893 Arm. Ariaratia
5210 Bamni - Vardenis
5212 Ararat - Masik
7604 Chol, Arm. Chogh, Pers. Sul, Lat./Gk. Tzur
7737 Qarqar - Aramazd


Primary sources:

  • Anonymous, The Georgian Chronicle, trans. Bedrosian, R., 1991.
  • Klaudios Ptolemaios, Geographia, esp. books 5, 6, and 7. (Not for the uninitiated, this work is very faulty.)
  • Movses Xorenac'i, History of Armenia, trans. Thomson, R. W., 1978.
  • Anasias of Širak, Ašxarhac'oyc', trans. Hewsen, R. H., 1992.
  • Strabo, Geographica, book 11 and 12 primarily, but 13 and 14 are important too.
  • Xenophon, Anabasis, books 3, 4, and 5 primarily

Secondary sources:

On Armenia (including Sophene, Commagene, and Lesser Armenia):
  • Adontz, N., Armenia in the Period of Justinian (Lisbon, 1970).
  • Bedoukian, P. Z., 'Coinage of the Armenian Kingdoms of Sophene and Commagene', Museam Notes (American Numismantic Society), 28 (1983), pp. 71-88.
  • Brijder, H. A. G., et al, Nemrut Dağı: Recent Archaeological Research and Conservation Activities in the Tomb Sanctuary on Mount Nemrud (Boston, 2014).
  • Diakonoff, I., The Pre-History of the Armenian People (1984, New York).
  • Garsoïan, N., 'The Emergence of Armenia' in Hovannissian, R. G. (ed.) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume 1, the Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century (2004, New York), pp. 37-62.
  • Garsoïan, N., 'The Arškuni Dynasty' in Hovannissian, R. G., (ed.) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume 1, the Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century (2004, New York), pp. 63-94.
  • Hewsen, R. H., Armenia: A Historical Atlas (2001, Chicago) (This is probably one of the most important resource for most of what I'll do here!)
  • Hewsen, R. H., 'The Geography of Armenia' in Hovannissian, R. G. (ed.) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume 1, the Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century (2004, New York), pp. 1-18.
  • Jones, A. H. M., The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces (Oxford, 1971).
  • King, L. W., 'On the Origin of the Province of Kommagene', The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 33 (1913), pp. 356-359.
  • Marchiak, M., Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene: Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West (2017, Leiden).
  • Petrosyan, A., Problems of Armenian Prehistory: Myth, Language and History (Yerevan, 2015).
  • Russell, J., 'The Formation of the Armenian Nation' in Hovannissian, R. G. (ed.) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume 1, the Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century (2004, New York), pp. 19-36.
  • Toumanoff, C., 'The Orontids of Armenia', Studies in Christian Caucasian History (Georgetown, 1963), pp. 277-354.
  • Versluys, J. M., Visual Style and Construsting Identity in the Hellenistic World: Nemrud Dağ and Commagene under Antiochos I (2017, Cambridge).

On Colchis and Iberia:
  • de Boer, J. G., 'Sinope and Colchis: colonisation, or a Greek population in 'poleis barbaron'?' in Tsetskhladze G. R., Avram, A., and Hargrave, J. (eds.) The Danubian Lands Between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas: (7th Century BC-10th Century AD) (2015, Oxford), pp. 73-80.
  • Braund, D., Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562 (Oxford, 1994).
  • Coene, F., The Caucasus - An Introduction (New York, 2009).
  • Gabella, A., 'The Greek colonisation of Abkhazia in the light of new archaeological discoveries: the palaeogeographic, ecological and demograpgic situation in Sukhum Bay' in Tsetskhladze G. R., Avram, A., and Hargrave, J. (eds.) The Danubian Lands Between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas: (7th Century BC-10th Century AD) (2015, Oxford), pp. 101-104.
  • Kacharava, D., 'Archaeology in Georgia 1980-1990 (Post-Prehistoric to Pre-Mediaeval)', Archaeological Reports (1991) Vol 37, pp. 79-86.
  • Knauß, F., 'Caucasus' in Briant. P., and Boucharlat, R., L' archéologie de l'empire achéménide: nouvelles recherches; actes du colloque organisé au Collège de France par le Reseau International d'Études et de Recherches Achéménides (Paris, 2005), pp. 197-220.
  • Lordkipanidze, O., 'Vani: An Ancient City of Colchis' Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (1991) Vol. 32, pp. 151-196.
  • Lüning, A. P., 'Lesale, an unknown centre in western Colchis' in Tsetskhladze G. R., Avram, A., and Hargrave, J. (eds.) The Danubian Lands Between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas: (7th Century BC-10th Century AD) (2015, Oxford), pp. 437-440.
  • Makharadze. G., and Saginashvili, M., 'An Achaemenian Glass Bowl from Sarikhe, Georgia' Journal of Glass Studies (1999), Vol 41, pp. 11-17.
  • Odisheli, M., 'Ancient Georgia at the Turn of the Eras and Khaishi 'Treasure'', Iberia-Colchis (2014) Vol 10, pp. 186-196.
  • Rayfield, D., Edge of Empires, A History of Georgia (2012, London).
  • Tsetskhladze, G. R., 'Ancient West and East: Mtskheta, Capital of Caucasian Iberia', Mediterranean Archaeology (2006/7), Vol 19/20, pp. 75-107.
  • Tsetskhladze, G. R., 'Greeks, locals and others around the Black Sea and its hinterland: recent developments' in Tsetskhladze G. R., Avram, A., and Hargrave, J. (eds.) The Danubian Lands Between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas: (7th Century BC-10th Century AD) (2015, Oxford), pp. 11-42.

On Albania:
  • Gadjiev, M. S. 'The Mission of Bishop Israyēl in the Context of the Historical Geography of Caucasian Albania' in Hoyland, R. G. (ed.) From Albania to Arrān: The East Caucasus between Antiquity and Medieval Islam (c. 300 BCE-1000 CE) (2020, Piscataway), pp. 99-117.
  • Hewsen, R. H., 'On the Location of the Lupenians', Aca Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae (1997), Vol 50, pp. 111-116.
  • Mouraviev, S., 'La population de la Caucasie centrale selon Pline l'Ancien', Geographia Antiqua (1996) Vol 5, pp. 45-52.
  • Schulze, W., 'Caucasian Albanian and the Question of Language and Ethnicity' in Mumm, P. (ed.) Sprachen, Völker und Phantome: Sprach- und kulturwissenschaftliche Studien zur Ethnizität (2018, Berlin), pp. 275-312.
  • Schulze, W., 'From Caucasian Albanian to Udi', Iran and the Caucasus, Vol 19/2, 2015, pp. 149-177.
  • Traina, G., 'Roman Representations of Caucasian Albania' in Alikberov, A. K., Gadjiev, M. S. (eds.) Albania Caucasica I (2015, Moscow), pp. 42-47.

On Pontos and Cappadocia:
  • Bennet, J., 'The Origins and Early History of the Pontic-Cappadocian Frontier: In Memoriam Charles Manser Daniels (10 August 1932-1 September 1996)' Anatolian Studies (2006) Vol. 56, pp. 77-93.
  • Dmitriev, S. 'Observations on the Historical Geography of Roman Lycaonia', Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies (2006), Vol 41, pp. 349-375.
  • Lindsay, H., Amasaya and Strabo's patria in Pontus', in Dueck, D. (ed.), Strabo's Cultural Geography, The Making of a Kolossourgia (2005, Cambridge), pp. 180-199.
  • Olbrycht, M. J., 'Iranians in the Diadochi Period', in Troncoso, V. A. and Anson, E. M., After Alexander: The Time of the Diadochi (323-281 BC), pp. 159-182.
  • Panichi, S., 'Cappadocia through Strabo's eyes', in Dueck, D. (ed.) Strabo's Cultural Geography, The Making of a Kolossourgia (2005, Cambridge), pp. 200-215.
  • Roller, D. W., Empire of the Black Sea: The Rise and Fall of the Mithradatic World (Oxford 2020).

On the Luwian Lands (Caria to Cilicia):
  • Broughton, T. R. S., 'Some Notes of the War with the Homonadeis' The American Journal of Philology (1933) Vol 54, pp. 134-144.
  • Bryce, T. R., 'Chapter Three: History: C: The Luwians in their Iron Age Context' in Melchert, H. C. (ed.) The Luwians (Leiden, 2003), pp. 93-124.
  • Chaniotis, A., 'New evidence from Aphrodisias concerning the Rhodian occupation of Karia in the early history of Aphrodisias' in van Bremen, R., and Carbon, J. (eds.) Hellenistic Caria: Proceedings of the First International Conferance on Hellenistic Caria, Oxford, 29-June-2 July 2006. (Pessac, 2010), pp. 456-466.
  • Hall, A. S., 'The Gorgoromeis' Anatolian Studies (1971) Vol 21, pp. 125-166.
  • Hall, A. S., 'R.E.C.A.M. Notes and Studies No. 9: The Milyadeis and Their Territory' Anatolian Studies (1986) Vol. 36, pp. 137-157.
  • Herda, A., 'Greek (and our) Views on the Karians' in Mouton, A., Rutherford, I., and Yakubovich, I. (eds.) Luwian Identities: Culture, Language and Religion Between Anatolia and the Aegean (Leiden, 2013), pp. 421-508.
  • Hutter, M., 'Chapter Six: Aspects of Luwian Religion' in Melchert, H. C. (ed.) The Luwians (Leiden, 2003), pp. 211-277.
  • LaBuff, J., Polis Expansion and Elite Power in Hellenistic Karia (Lanham, 2016).
  • Piras, D., 'Who were the Karians in Hellenistic times? Evidence from epichoric language and personal names' in van Bremen, R., and Carbon, J. (eds.) Hellenistic Caria: Proceedings of the First International Conferance on Hellenistic Caria, Oxford, 29-June-2 July 2006. (Pessac, 2010), pp. 217-233.
  • Ramsay, W. M., 'Res Anatolicae: Oranda: Ager Oroandicus: Tractus Oroandicus. A. -C.', Klio (1929) Vol 22, pp. 375-383.
  • Ratté, C., 'New research on the region around Aphrodisias' in van Bremen, R., and Carbon, J. (eds.) Hellenistic Caria: Proceedings of the First International Conferance on Hellenistic Caria, Oxford, 29-June-2 July 2006. (Pessac, 2010), pp. 253-267.
  • Reger, G., 'Mylasa and its territory' in van Bremen, R., and Carbon, J. (eds.) Hellenistic Caria: Proceedings of the First International Conferance on Hellenistic Caria, Oxford, 29-June-2 July 2006. (Pessac, 2010), pp. 43-57.
  • Schuler, C., 'Sympolitien im Lykien und Karien' in van Bremen, R., and Carbon, J. (eds.) Hellenistic Caria: Proceedings of the First International Conferance on Hellenistic Caria, Oxford, 29-June-2 July 2006. (Pessac, 2010), pp. 393-413.
  • Shaw, B. D, 'Bandit Highlands and Lowland Peace: The Mountains of Isauria-Cilicia' Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (1990) Vol 33, pp. 199-233.
  • Shaw, B. D, 'Bandit Highlands and Lowland Peace: The Mountains of Isauria-Cilicia (Continued)' Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (1990) Vol 33, pp. 237-270.
  • Unwin, N. C., Caria and Crete in Antiquity: Cultural Interaction between Anatolia and the Aegean (Cambridge, 2017)

Other:

  • Bregel, Y. Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Leiden, 2003).
  • Canepa, M. P., The Iranian Expanse: Transforming Royal Identity through Architecture, Landscape, and Built Environment, 550 BCE-642 CE (2018, Oakland).
  • Comfort, A. M., Roads on the frontier between Rome and Persia: Euphratesia, Osrhoene and Mesopotamia from AD 363 to 602 (2009) PhD thesis, University of Exeter.
  • Dusinberre, E. R. M., Empire, Authority, and Autonomy in Achaemenid Anatolia (Cambridge, 2013).
  • Gershevitch, I., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 2, The Median and Achaemenian Periods (1985, Cambridge).
  • Hansen, M. H. and Nielsen, T. H. et al, An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (Oxford, 2004).
  • Henkelman, W. F. M., 'Of Tapytoi and Tablets, States and Tribes: The Historical Geography of Pastoralism in the Achaemenid Heartland in Greek and Elamite Sources' Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (2011), Vol 54, pp. 1-16.
  • Intagliata, E. E., 'Rome and the Tzani in late antiquity: a historical and archaeological review' Anatolian Studies (2018), Vol 68, pp. 131-150.
  • Jones, A. H. M, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces (1971, Oxford).
  • Levick, B., 'In Phrygian mode: a region seen from without', in Thonemann, P. (ed.), Roman Phrygia, Culture and Society (Cambridge, 2013), pp. 41-54.
  • Magie, D., Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century After Christ, Volume 1: Text (1950, Princeton).
  • Magie, D., Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century After Christ, Volume 2: Notes (1950, Princeton).
  • Matthews, R., and Glatz, C. 'People and Place in Paphlagonia: Trends and Patterns in Settlement through Time' in Matthews, R., and Glatz, C. (eds.) At Empires' Edge: Project Paphlagonia: Regional Survey in North-Central Turkey (London, 2009), pp. 239-249.
  • van de Mieroop, M., A History of the Ancient Near East, c. 3000-323 BC (Chichester, 2016).
  • Morony, M. G., 'Continuity and Change in the Administrative Geography of the Late Sasanian and Early Islamic al-'Iraq', Iran (1982), Vol 20, pp. 1-49.
  • Potts, D. T. Nomadism in Iran: From Antiquity to the Modern Era (2014, Oxford).
  • Potts, D. T. 'Camel Hybridization and the Role of Camelus bactrianus in the Ancient Near East' Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (2004) Vol. 47, pp. 143-165.
  • Ramsay, W. M., 'Antiquities of Southern Phrygia and the Border Lands (III)' The American Journal of Archaeology and the History of the Fine Arts (1888), Vol 4, pp. 263-283.
  • Roller, D. W., The Geography of Strabo, an English Translation, with Introduction and Notes (Cambridge, 2020).
  • Shaked, S. 'De Khumli à Nikhšapaya : les données des nouveux documents araméens de Bactres sur la toponymie de la région (IVe siècke av. n. è.)' Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (2003) Vol. 147. pp. 1517-1535.
  • Thonemann, P., The Meander Valley, A Historical Geography from Antiquity to Byzantium (Cambridge, 2011).
  • Thonemann, P., 'Phrygia: an anarchist history, 950 BC-AD 100' in Thonemann, P. (ed.), Roman Phrygia, Culture and Society (Cambridge, 2013), pp. 1-40.
  • Yarshater, E., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanid Periods, Part 1 (1983, Cambridge).
  • Yarshater, E., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanid Periods, Part 2 (1983, Cambridge).
 
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Province names for Greater Armenia and Volcanoes

Samitte

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Next, I'd like to propose a large amount of changes to city and province names. The Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire is a great resource to look at the world from a Roman perspective, it is absolutely abysmal if one wants to represent the region of Armenia. So, I've gone through the excellent Armenia: A Historical Atlas, the combined effort of many experts in Armenian Studies based on textual and material evidence and compiled a long list of proposed name changes for the area.

Since the whole game uses the standard Latin alphabet, all names will use the standard phonetic translation for that, with the modified Hubschmann-Meillet transliteration in brackets. Where needed I will provide some context as to the change. In the case of a proposed Iberian name change, I will do my best to provide these as well. And of course where I can I will add any other versions of the name, most often Greek, Ibero or Persian.

In a few cases I propose a larger change, especially in the cities based on itineraries. These are quite problematic. For now I will just list these as 'Remove and reuse' - I've got a decent idea what to do with them but thats for a later post due to the labour heavy nature of this one.

EDIT; In generel all Qal'ehs and tepe's are modern names for ruins and archaeological sites, with some exceptions. Some of these are from the game period, some are not. When I dont explain why a site should be changed its usually because its an archaeological site with a modern name, when there is an easy alternative nearby. Usually these were larger and more important locales. Sometimes the name is also just plain wrong.

Also, in the case of rivers in later Hydrology posts, PLEASE check these out in a proper atlas as well, im not an artist and the actual Pdox mapmaker can probably do better with an atlas by their side.



The setup I propose is Native name as the base, followed by alternative localisations. So that when its not owned by Latins or Hellenes it defaults to a native name as opposed to a foreign alternative unless there is one. Hence I have not added the specific localisation of the base name since the base name doesn't require cultural localisation, only alternative localisation does. All names marked with Arm./Pers./Lat./Gk,/Iber./etc are all alternate localisations. All names without it are base names. If no new base name is provided it just proposes an extra alternative localisation.


While the northern part of this province was part of Lesser Armenia, the temple-state of Ekegheats made up most of the lower half. And thus might provide a better name for this region.


1766 Altintepe - Chermes (Č'ermēs) Lat./Gk. Tzoumina. Altintepe is an archaeological site.
1767 Eriza -Erez (Erēz) Gk. Eriza, Lat. Eressus
1769 Salmalasso - Remove and reuse, Salmalasso is another name for Ishkhandzor (see 1763 - Darucinte)
1770 Satala - Satagh (Satał) Lat./Gk. Satala
1771 Domana - Sinor (Sinoṙ) Lat./Gk. Sinora. Sinor and Domana fall into the same area here. Sinor is the older site here, Domana is Roman.
1772 Longini Fossatom - Remove and reuse, clearly a Roman fortress, but also this area can be better served with 1 large pass, Zigana pass. See also this discussion here.
1773 Tzantzakon - Gk. Zigana, which is older and what the pass is named after.
1778 Chorsabia - Kerchanis (Kerčanis), Lat./Gk.. Chorsabia.
7845 Tordan - Ani-Kamakh (Ani-Kamakh) Gk. Anion, Lat. Anarium

This province is made up of many smaller principalities and states. Karin is probably the foremost of these.


1698 Sinara - Khaghtoyarich (Xałtoyaṙič), Lat./Gk. Calteorissa
1747 Gymnias - Daroynk (Daroynk'), Lat./Gk. Teroua.
1751 Barantea - Salkora (Salk'ora)
1760 Sinoria - Baytberd, Lat./Gk. Baiberdon. Sinor lies further west, this is the later Paipert/Bayburt.
1761 Charton - Khart (Xart), Gk. Kharton, Lat. Charton
1762 Elegeia - Remove and reuse, this area is too densely provinced and they can be used better elsewhere.
1763 Darucinte - Ishkhandzor (Išxanjor) Lat./Gk. Salmalassus. Darucinte and Salmalasso are both stops on a later itinerary not too far from each other in this same area. But Salmalassus is on about the same spot as the Armenian town of Ishkhandzor.
1764 Bizana - Bagayarich (Bagayaṙič) Lat./Gk. Basgoidariza, include part of 1672 east of the river.
1765 Ioustiaine - Surenashen (Surēnašēn) Ioustiniane is a few centuries outside the scope of the game, and another name for Chermes. Surenashen actually lies in this area.

Vaspurakan is a medieval name for the region, Rstunik was the name of a large part of this region, and another name for Lake Van (Sea of Rshtunik/Bznunik)

846 Cyzima - Baghaghesh (Bałałeš), Lat./Gk. Balaleseia, Baghaghesh was a fort at one end of the pass, Cymiza is a name placed in this area by itineraries but this might be a mistake.
987 Zoroanda - Artemid, Lat./Gk. Artemita, this area in the itineraries is very, pardon my Swedish, börked, Artemid is a town here.
989 Nymphaeum - Moks, Lat./Gk. Mox, the town of Moks is the centre of Mokk', a set of tributaries and tiny states in this area., the Nympaeum implies a spring, not a town.
988 Thospia - Van, Lat./Gk. Bouana, Thospia relates to the lake more then the town.
992 Balales Pass - Gzeghkh (Gzełx), Lat./Gk. Selgia, the vllage of Gzeghkh lay at the other end of the pass
995 Molchia - Ererin, there are multiple options to what the itinerary stop Molchia might be. Ererin was a village on the lake shore.
996 Alouaka - Areban, Alouaka is the Greek name for the area (Albakk')
998 Artemita Vaspurakan - Hayk, Artemid is west of here.
999 Hayk - Parz, Hayk lay somewhere else.
1560 Andzevatsik - Kangawar, Andzevatsik (Anjewac'ik) was the name of the state
1561 Mardastan - But, is a place in this area, Mardastan is an area.

978 Taraichiya - Datuan, Lat./Gk. Dauduana, probably another börked itinerary station, Datuan is the town that is called Tatvan today.
990 Elegoana - Archesh (Arčēš) Lat./Gk. Arasesa, Elegoana is an itinerary site, Archesh is still an important city here (although old Archesh is under lake Van now)
993 Calata - Khlat (Xlat') Lat./Gk. Calata
483 Artales - Remove and reuse, this province is just wrong in all the right ways.
1562 Isumbo - Tsumb (Cumb) Lat./Gk. Tsumbo.
1563 Acachia - Tutakh (Tutax) Acachia is a Roman name for the larger area of Taron.
1564 Colchion - Malkhas (Malxas), Lat./Gk. Molchia?
1566 Didima - Tsirav (Cirav).
1567 Bagauna - Bagawan, Lat./Gk. Bagaouna.
4037 Kitharizon - Kitarich (Kitaṙič) Gk. Kitharizon, Lat. Citharizum.

Syracene is the Greek name for Shirak. Once again its hard to name these areas since they often contained many principalities. So lets at least take the Armenian name.


1549 Teroua - Daroynk Maseatsotn (Daroynk' Maseac'otn) Gk. Teroua
1568 Hariza - Zarehawan Tsoghkotn (Zarēhawan Cołkotn), Lat./Gk. Zarouana Bagrauandene
1569 Paracata - Tsoghakert (C'ołakert) Lat./Gk. Zolakerta, Tsoghakert was the larger locale in this area.
1570 Armaouira - Armawir, Lat./Gk. Armaouira
1576 Kainepolis Syracene - Artemid Shirakatsi (Artemid Širakac'i), Lat./Gk. Artemita Syracene it was called Artemid until the reign of Vałarš I, who founded Vałaršapat there, which the Armenians called Nor K'ałak' which is what the Greeks in turn called Kainepolis.
1579 Ashnak - Bagaran, an important city in Late Antiquity.
1580 Katnakhpyur - Talin (T'alin) Lat./Gk. Thalina.
1582 Ani - Eruandakert, one of the three Orontid-found cities.
1583 Dzhrapi - Ani, Lat./Gk. Anion Syracene, approximate site of the later glorious city of 1001 churches, for now just a minor fort at best.
1585 Shirakavan - Kumayri.

Ayrarat is a later, post-Christian name for this larger area. Eraskhandzor is a better alternative.


1571 Artaxata - Artashat (Artašat) Lat./Gk. Artaxata. Artashat lay almost exactly where 1572 is now (except on the other side of the river) Thus I propuse Artashat moves up there, and 1572 moves into the lower half of 1573. 1572 never lay on the river.
1572 Doubios - Remove and reuse, with its location off-river, and small space inbetween Garni and Artashat, Duin would be a tiny province. It was also very insignificant till made a new capital around 300 CE.
1573 Gornae - Garni, Lat./Gk. Gorniae.
1575 Erebuni - Erevan, based in the old Urartian fort
1577 Motene - Nigatun, Motene is mistake in the Digital Atlas, which should be located in Azerbaijan, they never got around to fixing it though. (If Nigatun is too problematic, Awshakan (Awšakan) is an alternative)
1588 Kamo - Gegharkunik (Gełark'unik), the next few entries are modern places and archaeological sites, and their proposed alternatives.
1589 Atarbegian - Portak
1590 Dzhrarat - Kecharoyk (Keč'aroyk')
1591 Karchakhpyur - Parnakan (P'aṙnakan)
1592 Akunk - Tsawdk (Cawdk')
1605 Gezlu - Drakhtik (Draxtik)
1606 Berdatekh - Hovk (Hovk')

Syunik is a later spelling, Siwnik is more correct for the period.


1501 Naxouana - Nakhchawan (Naxčawan) Gk. Naxouana
1538 Sanora - Goghtn (Gołt'n), no idea what Sanora is.
1540 Parakan - Ernjak (Ernǰak), modern village.
1542 Arxata - Kruakk (K'ṙuakk')
1550 Verahram Qal'eh - Marawan.
1613 Shalat - Shaghat (Shałat)
1615 Balaberd - Baghaberd (Bałaberd)
1623 Arevik - Meghri (Mełri), Arewik is the region
1668 Vayots Dzor - Hrasekaberd, Vayots Dzor is a region.

Artaz is the Armenian name for most of this area.


1533 Qara Zia Eddin tepe - Marakan.
1535 Qiz Chakhlu - Giwghik (Giwłik)
1536 Khezerlu Qal'eh - Remove and reuse (However, this province and the wasteland next to it should switch places.
1537 Nuarsak - Shawarshan (Šawaršan) Nuarsak lies further south, below Giwlik.
1541 Oghlu Qal'eh - Vrachunik (Vračunik').
1543 Siah Qal'eh - Kosteank (Kosteank').
1544 Catispi - Ugheoy (Ułeoy)
1545 Barun Qal'eh - Maku, Lat./Gk. Magustana.
1546 Shawarshan - Nersehapat (Nersēhapat), if the borders are adjusted.
1547 Keshmesh - Remove and reuse, same for Shawarshan.
1548 Sangar Qal'eh - Erind (Eṙind)
1551 Hajestan Qal'eh - Varazkert.

1614 Sigan - Brnakot (Bṙnakot'), Sigan is another name for Siwnik.
1639 Amaras - Goroz.
1640 Tigranakert - Zarisht (Zarišt).
1650 Sisakan Inferior - Tsri (C'ṙi).
1664 Arank - Shoghvaga (Šołvaga).
1665 Parsakank - Khandak (Xandak).
1666 Koght - Dzrvshtik (Jrvštik), Koght lay on the other side of the mountains, in Utik/Arran.
1667 Aghahechk - Agarak.

Slightly different spelling. Also have quite some ideas to make this better on a map level, including culture, stay tuned. Another name could be Zarewand-Her, which is the other half of this area.

1500 Chauon - Chodha, Arm. Her (Hēr) Gk. Kapouta, Lat. Capouta
1527 Yanik tepe - Khvarakan (Xvarakan), means something like lord's field in Old Persian.
1528 Morounda - Marand, Lat./Gk. Morunda
1529 Darman - Bakran (Bak'ran)
1530 Halaqu Qal'eh - Remove and reuse, mostly a mountain wasteland.
1531 Malejin - Remove and reuse, this area is basically a mountain wasteland like the previous entry.
1539 Gavur Qal'eh - Dzughay (Jułay)
1559 Aladagh Qal'eh - Nuarsak, Nuarsak lay east of Her.

Parskahayk is a later name, this was mostly Shirakan, with a bit of its north being part of as Zarawand-Her. While not originally part of Armenia at game start, it was part of it for centuries. Many of these names are Armenianised Persian names, not perfect but much better then these archaeological sites and Greek names. Also, advocating for some map changes in the southern part of this region, once again stay tuned.


997 Kotordz - Kotor.
1503 Salamas - Zarehawan (Zarēhawan), Lat./Gk. Zerouana Zarehawan was the more important town here in anqituity, later wiped out by the Sassanids, when Salmas became the important locale here.
1505 Arziyayad tepe - Tamber.
1507 Sormanabad tepe - Surenapat.
1508 Balajuk tepe - Ayli.
1509 Siraganon - Mari, possibly Mihr or Mehr related etymology.
1511 Qalatgah - Shno, Arm. Shnawh (Šnawh)
1518 Kuh-i Chorblach - Remove and reuse, most of this area would be covered by lake Urmia.
1519 Qalat - Shirakan (Širakan), Lat. Zeracane, Gk. Siraganon, should get border adjustments to cover the valley inbetween 1519 and 1509 - this is the location of Shirakan and it was situated on the main north-south road in the region.

But Samitte, where are Tayk, Gugark, Arran, Corduene, Commagene, Sophene, Paytankert, Armenia Minor, and those other border areas that have some kind of Armenian name that can be localised? Well dear reader, those will get their own post, where I can delve more into the complexities vs of those area. Instead, have these:

5210 Bamni - Vardenis
5212 Ararat - Masik, this is the traditional name for the mountain
7737 Qarqar - Aramazd
 
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Samitte

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Great thread, bookmarking this for the future.
Thanks, might I ask to what extend are you willing to make map changes? Because the city(province) density in some areas is rather high when barely anyone lived there, to the point we dont even know if there was even a village there. And other densely populated (by local standards) areas have a very low province density. I'm completely fine with making detailed proposals for map changes with in game images supported by academic maps, but thats a lot of effort if map changes are not considered.

The same goes for new provinces. Some wastelands in this region had fully functioning towns in them, with pasture or farmland to sustain themselves. Some examples include the area around Malazgirt/Manzikert/Manawazakert, the area around lake Kuyuchuk (the town of Zarishat), the large wasteland between Arran and lake Sevan which was decently populated, and most of the other large blocks of wasteland. (Of course I can back these up with images and maps as well if need be!)

While I see the need for strategic borders (and Armenia had a thing for fortified mountain passes!), the current set up is very a-historical. Its comparably to having the entire Alps as one big set of wastelands with 3-4 large passes through it. And in terms of popcount Armenia wont have to go up much (if at all), their cities are *way* to large already.

But more on that later in my next post.
 
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On Armenian Deities, Relics, Cities, Heritage, Office Titles, and Noble Family Names

Samitte

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A bit more on religion today, as I tried to find more deities that I can reasonably say could be included. Short answer - none. Longer answer - maybe Amanor and Vanatur but they are complicated. After that I will delve a bit into Relics, Cities, Heritage and Offices, and Noble families!


The one currently in the game that I didn't mention in my first post, Tsovinar, I can only find the same, copy-pasted sentence all over the internet about, and two references to modern poems. Add to that the Greeks never associating any Armenian deity with Poseidon (gender was not an issue as seen with Spandaramet being equated to Dionysus and Barshamin to Rhea) and so I'll go out on a limb and say she was not an ancient deity. Even in older, more nationalistic scholarship I cannot find a mention of her, so I'd remove her from the list.

Amanor and Vanatur are a lot more substantial (which is not saying a lot, with how substanceless Tsovinar is), but might just be aspects of Aramazd and Anahit related to Nawasard (the New Year celebrations). Then there are a bunch that sometimes show up but lack any academic weight.


The one other aspect I did not touch on were Relics. The Armenian temples had a bunch of statues that seemed quite important. Historians seem to agree that the main relics were statues. The game already has the Anahit statue and manages to avoid the trap of the "Aphrodite" found at Satagh/Satala, so thats great.

All bagins, shrines, housed a statue of the deity. I can only find a vague description of the statue of Barshamin which I put in bold down below. There seems to have been another set of statues which seemingly were associated with a form of ancestor worship mixed with the Zoroastrian fravashi, and worship of the gods by the royals. These statues moved with the royal necropolis. They were first at Arkatiakert, then moved to Ani-Kamakh, Bagawan, Armavir, Eruandashat, and then to Artashat.

Statue of Barshamin Spitakapar - This statue of Barshamin of the White Glory is made out of silver, ivory, and crystals in an attempt to capture his shining glory. It is housed at his temple at Tordan.
Modifier: Province loyalty

Tork-Angegh is the only deity we have no mention of a statue for, but those of Aramazd, Nane, Mihr, Spandaramet, Astghik, and Tir should probably have a similar discription to that of Anahit. The royal statues might be another thing that can be used as a relic.

Armenia was not a fan of urban centres, instead its population was spread out over many smaller towns and villages. Even the larger cities were large only by Armenian standards, and its not until Medieval Ani (the one in Shirak, not Ani-Kamakh) that we see a truly big city. In essence, I'm proposing a redistribution of cities. I will cover the cities of Lesser Armenia, Sophene, Commagene, Corduene and other border areas in their respective posts.

I propose Armenia start the game with the following cities, which existed at game start or very shortly afterwards:

988 Thospia (Van) - An old city, build around the cyclopean Urartian fortress.
1500 Chouon (Her) - An important town from the Achamaenid time, and before.
1501 Naxouana (Naxchawan) - An important city and trade center for the souther regions, on the road to Persia.
1570 Armaouira (Armawir) - Is already a city
1581 Eruandashat - One of the Orontid (Eruandid) towns, and for a while one of the capitals of Armenia.
1582 Eruandakert - Another Orontid towns, might have been the capital for a while as well, found on the other side of the river.
7845 Tordan - To represent Ani-Kamakh, the capital of Lesser Armenia (more on that later). While it was not big, the mountain terrain should take care of that. Alternatively creating a new province like I proposed earlier would see the city there of course.


These cities should be reverted back to settlements at game start:

1571 Artaxata (Artashat) - Founded over a century after game start.
1572 Doubios (Duin) - An important town yes, but not for another 600 years.
1576 Kainepolis Syracene (Vagharshapat) - This city was founded much later on in the game's timeframe.
1577 Motene - As mentioned earlier, Motene is a mistake on the Digital Atlas, meant to be placed in Azerbaijan. Motene still is not a city, since Motene is the Greek name for Utik, a region.
1760 Sinoria (Smbataberd) - A castle
1770 Satala (Satagh) - This was a large Roman fortress that doesn't exist during the game's timeframe.

The current Heritage is fine, but can be improved to be more fitting. I propose these alterations:

Positive modifier 1: Heavy Cavalry Maintenance Cost -5%
Why I propose it to be Heavy instead of the current Light Cavalry modifier, is because Armenian cavalry was generally heavy cavalry. They were also known for breeding fine horses and so the cost reduction seems fitting.
Positive modifier 2: Fortress Maintenance Cost -10%
Armenia had a lot of forts and castles dotting the mountain passes. And the nobles were responsible for maintaining them. Thus this seems more fitting then a Manpower boost. And it only amounts to 0.05 less cost per fort, so it shouldn't be too overpowered either
Negative modifier: -10% Population Capacity
Armenians lived spread out in many villages and smaller towns, spread out over the region, as opposed to urban centres. This modifier represents that, and mechanically should get the player to found a lot of smaller towns as opposed to focussing on building big cities.

Below are a few alternative office titles, hopefully they can add some flavour. They don't always 100% match the job role, but they are the closest thing and a better option then the Sasanian titles currently in place for Armenia.

Sparapetutiwn (Sparapetut'iwn)- Marshal, (lit. supreme command of the army)
Bardzr Kurm (Bardzr K'urm)- High Priest, k'urm were hereditary priests who ruled the temple-states of Ekegheats, Derjan, Daranali, and Ashtishat. They were different from the Zoroastrian Mog/Magi.
Mardpet - Steward, the Mardpet was the royal treasurer.
Dayeak (Dayeank') - Royal tutor
Tagadir - Bodyguard
, the coronator
Gregh (Greł) - Philosopher, a writer, probably the closest you get.
Gortsakalk (Gorcakalk') - Diplomat, an official for the ruler
Bzhishk (Bzhišk') - Physician (for generic Persian cultures, it would be Bizeshk I believe)

So, finally, here is a long list of Armenian family names and a few male names. The lack of female names I cannot help, these were not recorded in most cases. I might look up some medieval ones but since Christianity sweeps in at that point those can be tricky to use for ancient times.

Most of these are based on Movses Khorenatsi's work. Also, its never 100% sure these were around at game start, due to the lack of written sources, but they are likely.

Singular.Plural

Amatuni.Amatuni.Amatunis.Amatunid
Andzevatsi.Andzevatsi.Andzevatsis.Andzevatsid
Artsruni.Artsruni.Artsrunis.Artsrunid
Bagean.Bagean.Bageans.Bagid
Bagratuni.Bagratuni.Bagratids.Bagratid
Balahovit.Balahovit.Balahovits.Balahovit
Bznuni.Bznuni.Bznunis.Bznunid
Dashtakaran.Dashtakaran.Dashtakarids.Dashtakarid
Dimaksean.Dimaksean.Dimakseans.Dimakid
Eruanduni.Eruanduni.Eruandunis.Eruandunid
Orontid.Orontid.Orontids.Orontid (Greek version of the above)
Gargaratsi.Gargaratsi.Gargaratsis.Gargaratsikid
Gntuni.Gntuni.Gntunis.Gntunid
Gnuni.Gnuni.Gnunis.Gnunid
Habuzhean.Habuzhean.Habuzheans.Habuzhid
Dziwnakan.Dziwnakan.Dziwnakans.Dziwnakid
Kajberuni.Kajberuni.Kajberunis.Kajberunid
Mamikonean.Mamikonean.Mamikoneans.Mamikonid
Manawazean.Manawazean.Manawazeans.Manawazid
Mandakuni.Mandakuni.Mandakunis.Mandakunid
Oroduni.Oroduni.Orodunis.Orodunid
Paluni.Paluni.Palunis.Palunid
Ropsean.Ropsean.Ropseans.Ropsid
Rshtuni.Rshtuni.Rshtunis.Rshtunid
Sghkuni.Sghkuni.Sghkunis.Sghkunid
Sisakean.Sisakean.Sisakeans.Sisakid
Siwni.Siwni.Siwnids.Siwnid
Truni.Truni.Trunis.Trunid
Tsawdeatsi.Tsawdeatsi.Tsawdeatsis.Tsawdeatsid
Tsopeatsi.Tsopeatsi.Tsopeatsis.Tsopeatsid
Uteatsi.Uteatsi.Uteatsis.Uteatsid
Vahevuni.Vahevuni.Vahevunis.Vahevunid
Vahuni.Vahuni.Vahunis.Vahunid

Some male names, these are in addition to the existing Persian names:
Smbat, Khachik, Vasak, Ashot, Arsham, Hamazasp, Vardan, Artavazd, Mzez, Eruand, Mithranes, Kherkhes, Khozrid, Sames, Arshames, Trdat, Tigran, Zareh, Artashes, Arshak, Vagharsh, Khosrow, Varazdat, Vasak, Ashusha, Varazvaghan, Hmayeak, Vahan, Sahak, Zarmihr, Nikhor

Mushegh, Meruzhan,

EDIT: Added the proper spelling to the titles as well
 
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2 Armazi Relics and the Iberian province names + proposal for City changes and Civilisation level in Iberia

Samitte

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Now that I’ve dealt with most of Armenia, its time to take a look at the border regions. First up, and the easiest, is the border with Iberia. Iberia spans the regions of Tayk, Gugark, Caucasian Iberia, and parts of Kahetia, Arran, and Colchis. These last two I will cover at another time.

My recommendations will mainly focus on city(province) and region names, the cities and civilization level, and a tiny bit on religion which I will start with first. Before I do so, I want to make a quick reference to the Ashkharhatsoyts (AXS) on which most regions around Armenia seem based. The problem with the AXS is that while all those regions were once part of Armenia, at no time were all those regions part of Armenia at the same time. Some are centuries apart in when they were part of Armenia.



Another potential relic for the Armazic religion could be the golden statue of Gatsi, which together with the silver statue of Ga(im) and a statue of Armazi formed a triad at the temple in Mtskheta.

I would further propose creating a holy site for Gatsi to house this statue near Mtskheta, and moving the one for Ga near there.

Now, on to the meatier part of this post: City and region names. Like Armenia, the Arab and Mongol periods had a huge impact on the lands of Iberia/Georgia and especially on its towns and cities. Many former important cities were lost during the first half of the middle ages and most never recovered, hence many of them don't show up on modern maps anymore.


The setup I propose is Native name as the base, followed by alternative localisations. So that when its not owned by Latins or Hellenes it defaults to a native name as opposed to a foreign alternative unless there is one. Hence I have not added the specific localisation of the base name since the base name doesn't require cultural localisation, only alternative localisation does. All names marked with Arm./Pers./Lat./Gk,/Iber./etc are all alternate localisations. All names without it are base names. If no new base name is provided it just proposes an extra alternative localisation.

Gugark is a name that comes from outside the timeframe, and refers to the Iberian March, an area of varying size (depending on land grabs back and forth) spanning parts of the current Tayk, Gugark and Arran regions. Gugark is a very controversial designation. Samshvilde is another Iberian region, like Tsunda.

Most of these are Armenian and Iberian (Georgian) names, and where there is only one they are the same. As this is the borderland between the two, while I've listed the Armenian first, that doesn't imply it was held by Armenia at game start! Once my research is completed I will list proposed setup changes with regards to culture, religions, ownership and such.


1586 Hokhmik - Abotsi (Aboc’i) Arm. Ashots (Ašoc’)
1587 Vardbach – Azatan
1610 Sary-tepe – Khunani (Xunani), Arm. Khunarakert (Xunarakert)
1677 Algeti – Poga (P’oga) Arm. Pogh (Poł), Lat./Gk. Pogas
1695 Borjomi – Durn, Borjomi is the gorge
1696 Leukothea – Odzraqe (Ojraq’e) Arm. Odzrkhe (Ojrxē) Historians place Leukothea in Colchis, due to its Hellenic influence.
1699 Mzetamze – Tori (T’ori) Arm. Tawr (T’awr)
1700 Zekari Pass - should be made uninhabitable, no one can live here its a mountain pass.
1702 Javakheti
- Tsunda (Cunda), Arm. Kajatun (K'aǰatun) Javakheti is a region, Tsunda was a city and the summer residence of the Iberian kings.

Most of this region actually fits in the region of Tsunda, Tayk/Tao is much less significant and a smaller part (only 1-2 of the provinces). Tsunda itself lies outside this region, I am aware... So an alternative name can be Kgharjk (Kłarǰk'), which is the Armenian name for Klarjeti (Klarǰet'i). I propose the Armenian name be used since they spent the majority of the game's timespan and centuries afterwards in Armenian hands.

EDIT: 23/06/2020: Tayk/Tao, before the middle ages, only encompassed roughly 1757 and 1758.


1697 Akhaltsikhe - Remove and reuse, medieval site.
1701 Goderdzi Pass - Qveli, Arm. Ghvelis-Tsikhe (Łvelis-Cixe) the fort of Qveli stood at the entrance of the pass. (Well, one of them!)
1728 Morthoula - Borchka (Borč'ka), Lat./Gk. Morthoula?
1752 Chorzene - Karutsberd (Karuc'berd), Iber. Kars, Lat./Gk. Chorsa, Chorzene indicates a region
1753 Kola, Arm. Kogh (Koł)
1754 Artahan - Huri, Arm. Hur
1755 Colit - Tsqarostavi (C'qarostavi)
1756 Artanuji - Shatberdi (Šatberdi), Arm. Shatberd (Šatberd)
1757 Kaballa - Arsik (Arsik')
1758 Pharangion - Tukharisi (T'uxarisi), Arm. Tukhars (T'uxars)

Caucasian Iberia describes the whole country, while Shida Kartli, meaning Inner Kartli, best describes this area, sheltered inbetween mountain ranges. Another name could be Inner Iberia.


1673 Iberian Gates – Kumlis-tsikhe (Kumlis-c’ixe) Kumlis-tsikhe was the fortress guarding the entrance to the pass. Its gates would be opened multiple times to let loose the tribes and nomads living north of the Caucasus on the enemies of the Iberians. Cumania could perhaps be called Jaug or Maghas.
1676 Metchistha-Harmozike – Mtskheta (Mc’xet’a) Gk. Meskheta, Lat. Mescheta. Harmozike is the fortress of Armazitsikhe, south of the city, as does Seusamora/Tsitsamuri
1679 Kavtiskhevi - Zadrisi, Arm. Zadris
1680 Zalissa – Dzalisi, Lat./Gk. Zalissa
1681 Aragvispiri – Ananuri, Lat./Gk. Ananurion
1683 Aghaiani – Kaspi, Lat. Caspia, Gk. Kaspia, Arm. Koskh (Kosx)
1685 Uplistsikhe – Ateni, Uplistsikhe lay west of Kaspi. Kaspi as a town was probably more significant then the fort of Uplistsikhe.
1689 Urbnisi – Gori, Urbnisi lay further west. Alternatively change the borders with 1683 slightly and this can be Uplistsikhe
1690 Zghuderi – Tsromi (C’romi)
1691 Dedoplis - Urbnisi, Lat./Gk. Arbanissa
1694 Surium – Tashis-kari (Tašis-k’ari), Surium lies in Kolkhis

This region encompasses mostly the regions of Hereti and Kakheti. Since Kakheti is the more important and populous of two this is the best qualifier for the name.


1611 Sagarejo – Sagarezho (Sagarežo)
1612 Tbilisi – Tpilisi (Tp’ilisi) Lat./Gk. Philade, Arm. Tpkhis (T'p'xis). It was written with a B after the Soviet period.
1641 Gumbati - Hornabudzi
1643 Samukh – Khoranta (Xorant’a)
1657 Telavi – Kuel-daba (K’uel-daba)
1658 Shilda - Alvani
1660 Cambysene – Remove and reuse, this area is barely inhabitable even today, plus Cambysene (Kambechovani/Kambechan) is a region. Its a very old name for Heret'i.
1678 Seusamora – Samgora, Seusamora/Tsitsamuri is inside Mtshkheta.
1687 Jhinvali - Remove and reuse, can be used in the same area but not in this spot.
5435 Kurus – Vezhini (Vežini)


Finally, I’d like to touch on the civilization level and cities of Iberia. Currently, Iberia starts with only 1 city, at 1676 Metchistha-Harmozike. And they start with a measely 25 Civilisation in almost all their provinces.

Looking at textual and material evidence however, a different picture emerges. There were multiple cities in Inner Kartli and the surrounding lands, and was comparable to Armenia in terms of how civilized the people and country were.

Thus, I propose Iberia have its Civilization level raised to 40 to match Armenia, and have the following provinces given a city:


1683 Aghaiani (Kaspi) – Likely established as a city at game start as well.
1691 Dedoplis (Urbnisi) – The city of Urbnisi, an established city at game start.
1696 Leukothea (Odzrakhe) – An important city till well into the later middle ages, as noted by ancient authors.
1702 Javakheti (Tsunda) – The summer capital of the Iberian kings and the capital of Tsunda.

There are more possible candicates, but with game balance in mind I didn't want to create too large a list. But if Paradox thinks more can be added, these are the other ones:

1611 Sagarejo (Ujarma), the capital of Kakheti
1686 Samshvilde
1689 Urbnisi
(Gori)/Uplistsikhe

In other news, I've finally got my hands on some of the latest and hottest work regarding the regions south of Armenia (Sophene/Tsopk, Corduene/Gordyene, and Commagene). So those will be next.
 
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Province names for Sophene, Commagene and Corduene + history and bonus province names

Samitte

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Soooo, this proved to be a bit more work then I thought: Sophene, Gordyene, and Commagene. In this post I will first give a general bit of history which is important to understand the context for my proposed changes. Luckily, there have been two important recent publications on these areas, and I will be primarily working from these two:

Marchiak, M., Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene: Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West (2017, Leiden)
This is the first actual book on Sophene, Gordyene, AND Adiabene, ever. Whoohoo! It brings togather over a century of previous scholarship on these regions and while I am not looking at Adiabene in these posts, it might be interesting if you guys ever wanted to flesh that out in the future.

Versluys, J. M., Visual Style and Construsting Identity in the Hellenistic World: Nemrud Dağ and Commagene under Antiochos I (2017, Cambridge).
What a coincidence that in that same year, another important publication comes out looking at Commagen. It too brings together a century of research and comes with some very interesting conclusions to the nature of Commagene

As I said, first a quick history on these regions. I want to add this for context, but also because I wonder if some of this can be included as events or missions at some point in the future. Note that this spans most of the timeframe of the game.

At game start, Orontid Armenia seems to function as a Satrapy of the Seleucids under Orontes III.

At game start, Orontid Armenia spanned these ingame regions entirely:
Vaspurakan, Tarawn, Syracene, Ayrarat, Soducene, Syunik, Artshak, Commagene.

Most of these regions:
Corduene (Everything except for 870, 833, 834, though this area could really do with a major overhaul), Cappadocia Melitene (The five provinces south of 1852), Arran (Except for 1609, 1607, and 1672), Sophene (Except for 1853 and 1858)

And only bits of these regions:
Parsatunik (Only 1534, 1539, and 1559), Parkahayk (Only 997), Armenia Superior (Only 1747 and 1751), Tayk (Only 1752), Syria Cyrrestice (Only 811), Osroene (837)

The Kingdom of Sophene (which until about 163 BCE included Commagene as well) was formed around 260 BCE when it split off from Orontid Greater Armenia. It's first king was Sames, founder of Shamushat/Samosata. Why it split off we do not know, however we do know that it became or was a tributary of the Seleucids by the reign of Xerxes (the grandson of Sames). It expanded a little bit into the upper Euphrates valley, grabbig territory of Lesser Armenia.

The regions which split off to form the Kingdom of Sophene were:
All territories of Greater Armenia in Sophene and Commagene, and provinces 811, 837, 841, 845, 856, and 857.

During the reign of the Seleucid Antiokhos III, around 200 BCE, both the rulers of Sophene and Greater Armenia get killed on Antiokhos III's orders, and replaced by a different pair of Orontids, Zariadres in Sophene, and Artaxes (Zariadres' son) in Greater Armenia (marking the start of the Artaxiad/Artashesean dynasty). At this point both states seem to function mostly as Satrapies to the Seleucids.

The next major point is the treaty of Apamaea. Under the conditions of the treaty, the Seleucids lose their claims to everything above the Taurus mountains. For Greater Armenia this means independence without loss of territory. For Sophene this means the loss of Commagene which probably defaulted to the Seleucids. Following this, both Armenian realms become independent, and especially Greater Armenia sees a lot of expansion into its border regions.

This in turn leads to conflict with Antiokhos IV (Seleucids) when Armenia invades Media though. Around the same time Zariadres also becomes a client king to Antiokhos IV, and likely Artaxes too.

The territory of Commagene as lost by Sophene spans the region of Commagene, plus 1865, 1860, 811, and 837.

TECHNICALLY, 840, 877 and 1866 lay in Commagene too, but most of their territory is in Sophene. Once again this area could use a major overhaul.

Around 163 BCE, Commagene comes into play under what was probably another Orontid, as an independent realm on a major crossroad between east and west, its lowlands on the Tigris produce agricultural goods, and its highlands produces iron, dyes and lumber. It also seems to have aqcuired the city of Zeugma (810) and lost the areas north of Dolikhe, and around Malatia

All of Sophene (east of the Euphrates) would later be taken by Greater Armenia, but Commagene would only briefly be reunited as a vassal under Tigranes the Greats brief rampage in the region. The lands west of the Euphrates end up in Cappadocian and later Roman hands.

The region of Gordyene (Corduene is the later name) roughly spans the parts of provinces 833, 834 and 867 east of the Tigris, the northern half of 986 and the wasteland regions above them.

Gordyene was a tribal region, inhabited by the Karduchoi, a mountain people related to the other groups inhabiting the Zagros mountains such as the Cossians, Elymaeans, Uxians and Mards. They were pastoralists and famed archers. For most of the game they were under Seleucid rule but briefly enjoyed independence, possibly around the same time as when Commagene broke free from the Seleucids. It had a local dynasty, with its capital at Pinaka, which was said to be an impressively fortified city. Its likely independence lasted from around 164ish BCE at the earliest, to around 70-71 BCE. This includes a brief period as a vassal of Tigranes the Great as well.

With the current city(province) set up of the game I don't think its worth investing a lot of effort into fleshing out Gordyene, beyond perhaps a culture group added (I planned a large culture proposal later on). The 5222, 5223 and 5225 wastelands span most of Gordyene.

Now, on to province and region names. For these I've tried to take into account the highly diverse cultures inhabiting the regions, its political history, and the Hellenic and Iranian influence on it. Most of these are a bit text-heavier these have been in the past. This is because of both because of the complexity of the region which is not very well represented in game with most city(provinces) spanning both sides of the Tigris and Euphrates, where these rivers tended to be borders between lands and their crossings highy strategic places.


The setup I propose is Native name as the base, followed by alternative localisations. So that when its not owned by Latins or Hellenes it defaults to a native name as opposed to a foreign alternative unless there is one. Hence I have not added the specific localisation of the base name since the base name doesn't require cultural localisation, only alternative localisation does. All names marked with Arm./Pers./Lat./Gk,/Iber./etc are all alternate localisations. All names without it are base names. If no new base name is provided it just proposes an extra alternative localisation.

So for this I have two proposals which both represent the region better:

The first is Anjit, where the Greek name Anzitene comes from. This land/district/"pricipality" spans most of the region, whereas the land of Cop'k'/Tsopk proper only spans provinces 1856 and 1857. (and the mostly empty lands spanning the south of 878 and 877.

The other proposal is to change it to the Armenian name and likely local toponym for the region during the period of the game. Note that I do not propose to change the name of the kingdom of Sophene, just the region.

Allow me to explain: The name Sophene itself is Greek, based off the Armenian name for the region, Cop'k'. This in turn is based on the earlier name for the region, Suppani. The later Byzantine name for the region Tzophene, seems to be based of Tsopk as well, rather then Sophene. This indicates the local toponym (at least on the administrative level) remained Cop'k'/Tsopk rather then Sophene. While the land itself was very culturally diverse (especially at game start), the one defining trait that united all the lands Sophene was its Armenian ruling class. Furthermore, ancient authors consider Sophene as part of Armenia, after the split consisting of Greater Armenia and Sophene. (Note, this refers to the regions west of the Euphrates, not to Commagene and the lands around Malatia)

Regardless of that, here's a more accurate set of province names:

840 Arsameia - Arsham (Aršam) Gk. Arsameia pros to Euphrate. Lat. Arsameia ad Euphratem, This is Arsham/Arsameia on the Euphrates
858 Arsamosata - Horeberd (Horēberd), Lat. Charpert, Gk. Kharpert, Arsamosata lay further east, this is the site of modern Elazig.
859 Colchis - Arghni (Arłni), Gk./Lat. Arsinia
860 Anzitene - Arshamashat (Aršamašat) Lat./Gk. Arsamosata, the city was situated on the little dip in the river in this province, the rest of the province was mostly wasteland.
877 Barsalion - Jermuk, Lat./Gk. Abarne. Barsalium/Barsalion was a Roman fort.
878 Arsinia - Remove and reuse. This region is even today sparsely populated. However as it is now its basically wasteland.
1853 Sartona - Kiakka, Gk. Khiaka, Lat Chiaca, fort in this area, Sartona is a vague mention from Pliny.
1855 Elegeia Sophene - Tmnis (T'mnis), Lat./Gk. Tomisa. Tmnis/Tomisa was probably the most important site to cross the Euphrates until Samosata.
1856 Anzita - Til (T'il), Lat./Gk. Tilion, Handzit/Andzit lay on the other side of the river.
1857 Chosomachon - Herapawlis, Lat./Gk. Hierapolis Sophene, It would later be renamed to Chmshkatsag, after John I Tzimiskes - from which the medieval Greek name Chosomachon stems.
1858 Lat. Dascusa
1866 Korne - Remove and reuse. This area needs a rework, the river was a border, and crossings highly contested.

We know most toponyms of Commagene from those located near the river. I can't propose much on the provinces further away from the river here because its simply not known. And the area could do with a major overhaul.


836 Samosata - Shamushat (Šamušat), Lat./Gk. Samosata
839 Nymphaios - Arm. Arsham Nemrutotn (Aršam Nemrut-otn) Gk. Arsameia pros to Nymphaios, Lat. Arsameia ad Nymphaeum, the second city founded by Arsham in his own name. This is the one with the hierothesion at Mt Nemrud.
1867 Marqas - Arm. Marash (Maraš) Gk. Antiokheia, Lat. Germanike, An old city, Germanikeia is the Byantine name.
1868 Tyba - Diba, Lat./Gk. Tyba
1869 Rhebaine - Urima, Arm. Urimma, Lat./Gk. Ourima

This region spans the Armenian region of Aghdznik, Gk. Arzanene, centred on the most likely site for later Tigranakert - the city of Arzan. Note that Aghdznik remained a part of Greater Armenia until the middle ages.

Corduene (Which is the Roman name for Gordyene, which is what it was called in the period) only spans 834, and half of 833. The rest of this region is inside the wastelands and bits of bordering areas.

834 Satalka - Tman (T'man), Satalka lay somewhere else.
841 Arkathiokerta - Anggh (Angł), Lat./Gk. Ingila (Arkathiokerta is a mistake)
842 Tigranocerta - Kghimar (K'łimar), Lat./Gk. Chlomaron
843 Chlomaron - Arzan, the later site of the famous Tigranakert
845 Martyropolis - Nprkert (Np'rkert), Lat./Gk. Maipherakta. I KNOW, such a mouthbreaker to say. However, Martyropolis is a Christian name, so this name is about 700ish years off, and needs Christians to become martyrs first.
856 Sardeoua - Amid, Gk. Amida, Lat. Ad Tyrgem, A later important Roman town.
857 Sitai - Remove and reuse, Sitai is Riskephas.
870 Izala Mons - Remove and reuse, with a small border change it can become: Hah, Arm. Khakh (Xax), lay on the eastern side of the plateau, and is a very funny city. But now it might as well be wasteland.

811 Dolike - Dolikhe, Arm. (Dolixe), Lat Doliche
818 Arm. Urha
819 Harran, Arm. Kharan (Xaran), Gk. Karrhai, Lat. Carrhae
837 Tharsa - Tharse, Tharsa is a later change.
1854 Arm. Meltine (Meltinē)
1861 Gk. Sozopetra


Tomorrow I will look at rivers and Caucasian Albania. Another difficult topic, but hey, in for a penny, in for a pound!
 
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Cities of Sophene, Commagene and Corduene + Armenian and Lesser Armenian hydrology proposals

Samitte

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That region of the world is also just as exiting and eventful in that time period as well so any improvement is welcome.
Indeed! While often the narratives of the east focus on the big players, Macedonians and Persians, Romans and Parthians, the regna minora are often pushed to the sidelines, where in actuality they were often the axis around which many of these conflicts revolved. Heck, on quite a few occassions they themselves started the conflicts that drew in these superpowers.

-

So yeah, more proposed improvements for today! First of, something I forgot to add to the previous post - cities in the southern regions. After that I will take a look at those damn lakes still remaining, and propose some alternative lakes which are missing. Next I will take a look at rivers, which have quite a few big and a few smaller issues in the region.


Once again taking a look at the current set up, I propose these cities be added or removed (+4/-2):

To be added, because they were present or found shortly after game start:

811 Dolikhe, already a city, should remain so.
836 Samosata (Shamushat), while officially founded decades into the game, it was likely already a city before that.
838 Tille, an important city, probably from the 4th c. BCE onwards.
841 Arkathiokerta (Anggh), An important regional town, site of a royal necropolis, centre of the Anjit region, and capital of Sophene before it was moved to newer foundations.
842 Tigranocerta (Arzan) The centre of Aghjnik, and most likely site of later Tigranakert, was already an important city before that. This is likely one of the reasons why the Greeks referred to the region as Arzanene. (The other being that Aghjnik doesn't roll so well with a Koine pronounciation)
1854 Melitene (Malatia), already a city, should remain so.
1867 Marqas, already a city, should remain so.

To be removed, for various reasons:

843 Chlomaron (Shukaraba), Chlomaron was a smaller site situated somewhere else, certainly not a city.
858 Arsamosata (Horeberd), this was not the site of that city, which itself was found by Arsham who did not come to power til around 220 BCE.

So during the early dev diaries, quite a few of the dam lakes present were picked up, pointed out and subsequently removed by Paradox to make the map more accurate. However, there's a few that have not been removed around this part of the world. On the flip side, there are a bunch of lakes missing, a few of which are large enough they should probably be added, compared to the lakes currently present in game. Finally, there are some issues with rivers should probably be addressed, plus there are a few I'd like to propose be added due to their importantance.

aroundsophene.jpg



I - There is a massive gap in the Euphrates near Samosata (missing area marked in red)
II - The Western Tigris doesn't connect to its source - the lake (missing area marked in red)
III - The Karakaya Dam Lake (in 2 parts) is still present (the two encircled lakes, 6417 LAKE)
IV - The Western Tigrisjust needs to connect, but the Eastern Tigris is missing completely. I've also added a mountain pass to indicate how this area was not just a river valley but also a mountain pass, which I will come back to in the future.
V - The Other (Miws) Gayl, these days known as the Peri river, flows into the Murat, but starts just a bit west of the source of the Araxes. The valley it flowed through hosted towns such as Kghi (my proposed change to current Artales) and the capital of the Balahovit region, Palin. In a future post I will propose a more elaborate plan for this wasteland, as it was actually quite populated.

eastofvannorthofurmia.jpg


I - The Aras Dam Lake is still present. (6426 LAKE)
II - The Kotor river, flowing through the Kotor/Vaspurakan mts, both flows through the primary passage through here, and is an important source of water, together with its tributaries the Zibir (VII, the Marand) and Ak Chai (VIII, the Aghand-rot). This river system was and is crucial to agriculture and people in the area.
III - Lake Ercek (Archishak), is a large enough lake that it should be in the map, its source is in the mountains to the east of it.
IV - The Zangmar (the Arun), the main water source in northern Artaz.
V - The Murat (the Aracani) currently stops in the middle of Bagawan/Bagouana. However the river starts much further on, in the valley south of Zarehawan, east of mt. Tondrak. Visually, the river currently appears unfinished due to the large starting size. A nice flourish into the mountain range would look better and be more accurate.
VI - While not a river, I figured I'd fit this in here anyway. The volcano Mt Tondrak (Modern Tendurek) could perhaps be added. And referring back to my 2nd post, I propose the mountain range be moved around here, as that is where the wasteland actually lies. The current wasteland area is a hilly area with various villages.
VII & VIII - See II

zabandgordyene.jpg


I - The Great Zab, which starts all the way in the Kotor/Vaspurakan mts., is a really important river in this area (and the Great Zab valley is already carved out on the ingame map!) Like the Aracani in the previous section, it just starts out of nowhere, only slightly smaller then the Tigris.
II - The Botan (Jerm) formed the northern border of the lands of the Karduchoi, Gordyene.
III - The Balales river, which flows through the pass it is named after, and one of the most important routes for armies to get to the Armenian heartland.
IV - The Kara (Megh) which flows through the fertile Plane of Mus, originating a bit west of lake Van. This area is probably a good qualifier for a farmland province, but will look into possible terrain type changes later.
V - I propose to extend the Khabur to near Tella, the river that makes agriculture in this area possible.
VI - The Jaghjagh (left) and the Wadi Radd (right) probably the most important tributaries of the Khabur. Once again these rivers were very important in these areas, plus they would also break up the big empty plains that currently feature there in the game.
VII - The river Talkeh, flowing past Tabriz into Urmia, providing water in an arid area. I would also like to see Shahi island actually become an island, like it was before Urmia became as dessicated as it is now, marked with the sawtooth line.
VIII - Mosul Dam Lake (6422 LAKE)
IX - The Bitlis (Kaghirt) river, which is also the likely route of Xenophon with his army through the mountains.
X - The Buyuk (Ketsen) river, flowing from 989 down to the Botan river, through a pass connecting the two areas.
XI - (Top to bottom) The Nazlou, Shahar, and Baranduz (Eli, Trabi and Mari) rivers barely flow into Urmia anymore these days, but they still provide the many farms and towns in this area with water, like they did in antiquity.
XII - The Zola (Tarawn) river, which watered the plain around Zarehawan/1503, and still does, except it too has been dammed in.

central armenia.jpg


I - Arpacay/Akhuriean Dam Lake - another dam lake, being extra sneaky because it has no lake map object placed over it (6427 LAKE)
II - Lake Cildir (Tseli), a lake with a fertile countryside around it, which held the town of Zarishat just south of it. It flowed into the Kars river.
III - The Kars river, flowing past the city of Kars a tributary of the Apracay/Akhurian
IV - A proposed extension of the Kur, which starts a bit north-west of Kars. Artani (Artahan) lies on the river, as do three other town in this area.
V - The Arpacay/Akhurian proper. While the Araxes held many important cities on its bank, this river too gave life to many important towns and cities of Armenia, including the at one time capitals of Bagaran, Eruandashat, Shirakawan and many smaller towns.
VI - Like the Murat and Great Zab, the Euphrates also starts big and suddenly, and could do with a bit more of a swirl.

Furthermore, I have indicated the rivers through the mountain passes (which are visible in game!) which could possible be turned into a couple cities(provinces). These connected to Karin (and to Kola/Kogh), and held a bunch of towns. However I will go more in depth to those later.

armeniaminor.jpg


Just two things, really:

I - The Lycus/Gayl (this the why the one to the south is called Other Gayl), could end on a prettier note.
II - The Chorokh (Tsorokh/Voh) could do the same



Linking in to this is my proposed name changes for provinces of Albania, possible cities, and the dilemma of the Caspian shoreline. However, first I will continue with a bit more hydrology and orology proposals, because that central wasteland really got me fired up. Til soon!
 
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Province names for Albania and north Atropatene + local hydrology proposal

Samitte

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So, we're back. The province 483 Artales and its wastelands were bothering me a bit.

central wasteland.jpg



If you zoom in on this area in game, the wasteland has many passes through the higher mountains, which correlate to the actual mountain passes through this area via which one could travel (slowly, its Mountain provinces.) The Armenian highlands were not mountain bastion, but rather an oval obstacle crisscrossed with mountain ranges and valleys.

Hopefully you can see my problem with this area. To get through that area one can go many zig-zag routes through the mountains and highland plains. It is far from impenetrable, but it is also too easy to have just one mountain province to travel through. These areas should be filled with annoying little forts filling up the mountain passes, which are annoying to take but then grant easy access to the heartlands once breached. These heartlands are the fertile plains such as the Araxes valley, the plains of Mus, Manawazakert, Karin and Eriza, etc. Where the towns and cities are located.

Red = some of the more important rivers in this area:

I - The Araxes at its origin, which I think should be extended to around there.
II - The Other Gayl (the same one from the previous post), As you can see it starts south of Karin but its valley is crucial to traversing this mountain range.
III - The Munzur (Getik), flowing east leading to a valley inbetween the mountains.
IV - This tributary of the Aracani I only added to emphasise the landscape, I don't think it should be added.

Yellow = Localities in these areas, the bigger ones lying along the Aracani and Other Gayl. I added them to emphasise that these areas were not wastelands. I need to research these more to make a proper proposal down the line, however.

Yellow with a black dot = Town or city.

White = Some of the routes to the Karin plain or the valley to the east of it, from Sophene or the Aracani valley, though the current wastelands.

Blue line = A passage I don't think should be open, but it might be.

Black circles = Approximate actual wastelands, barren mountains mostly.


How that I got that out of my system, let us move to (Caucasian) Albania, or Aran. Aran is the red headed stepchild of the three main polities of the Southern Caucasus. Its vastly understudied, even in comparison to Armenia and Iberia/Georgia+Colchis. The language seemed to have linkes to its two main neighbours, and the looming Iranians to their south, and on a religious level they likely shared much with the Iberians.

In game, Aran/Albania consists of the province of Caucasian Albania, most of Arran, half of Kahetia and a little bit of Scythia Transmontem. Since I already covered Kahetia/Kakheti I will not do so here, however I will cover Paytankert for reasons which will become obvious later on in the post. I've relied heavily on academics focussing on Armenia, Georgia/Iberia and Iran to compile this information, primarily because there is just so very little published material focussed on the region comparatively.

Somewhere around the middle of the 2nd century BCE, the various Albanian tribes unite under one ruler. These tribes spanned an area roughly between provinces 1643 and 1641 till the Caspian Sea, on the north side of the Kura. (The south side, the ingame region Arran, was in Armenian hands until 364 CE, and the lands north of there probably belonged to the Lesgians, a mountain people. Another people whom we can identify reasonably well are the Lupenians (Arm. Lp'nik, Lat. Lupones) who lived in the east of Aran/Albania, and would enjoy a brief stint of independence from about the 4th til the 7th century AD. Finally, there were the Caspians who lived on the Caspian shore, probably in part of Paytankert as well.

From the 1st century BCE, the Albanians frequently find themselves in conflict with other powers, including Tigranes the Great and various Roman rulers. It is around this time we also start to get more writing on the region, with Strabo depicting them as simple tribal folk, in a wild land rich in natural resources. The archaeological record nuances this depiction a bit, however. Here we find traces of continous contact with the Iberians, Armenians, Seleucids, and Parthians and Romans. Iranian influence was the strongest in Albania, and there is significant proof that there were small towns and cities in the region, such as Kabala and possible Shemakha (the capital of the Lupenians).

However, we know most of the regions in the centuries outside of the game's timeframe, so this will have to do for now.

Now on to the city/province names. They are a mix of Georgian and Armenian names mostly, with some Iranian ones in there, because we lack the Albanian ones. Though it is likely they were quite similar.

The setup I propose is Native name as the base, followed by alternative localisations. So that when its not owned by Latins or Hellenes it defaults to a native name as opposed to a foreign alternative unless there is one. Hence I have not added the specific localisation of the base name since the base name doesn't require cultural localisation, only alternative localisation does. All names marked with Arm./Pers./Lat./Gk,/Iber./etc are all alternate localisations. All names without it are base names. If no new base name is provided it just proposes an extra alternative localisation.

The region of Utik was part of Orontid Armenia for the entire gamespan, and was only acquired by the Albanians around 364 CE. Furthermore, Ar(r)an lay across the river, which is the region currently called Caucasian Albania. Most of the current ingame names are modern or in wierd locations. Once again the wasteland is inaccurate, and a few small border changes can make this area stand out a lot more.


1584 Utidorsi - Yaktan - however, this lay a bit outside of this area, though some small border changes can help with this, the upper Kura area is only recent land at best and would be highly marshy and not permit much building.
1607 Idzhevan - Khaghkhagh (Xałxał), Lat./Gk. Xilala one of the summer residences of the Armenian royals.
1608 Berd - Tavush (Tavuš) Tavush was a berd, a castle and local centre of administration.
1609 Kariglukh - Tsob (Cob).
1637 Mingechaur - Yashu-Khosh (Yašu-Xoš), Yashu-Khosh might have had an important Albanian shrine, as the people living in this area were not Armenians. It also contains another town called Samukh, in the top-left corner on the riverside.
1646 Gardman - Jakem, Gardman lay in the wasteland south of here.
1651 Shahargah - Remove and reuse. This region was likely mostly swampy ground at game start (and end). Plus, Shahargah is a medieval site in the Mugan plain, on the other side of the river.
1661 Arash - Partaw, Partaw lay much closer to the river (close enough to get raided by Russian pirates in the Middle Ages!)
1670 Partaw - Horekan (Horēkan)
1671 Southwest Arran - Gish (Giš)
1672 Southeast Arran - Baylakan, only attested much later, but might have been a village already.

Aran, (Iber. Rani, Arm. Aghuank, Parth. Ardan, Pers. Aran, Arab. Arran/al-Ran) is the reconstructed local name for this region, which makes up about Albania proper.

1633 Bagawan - Remove and reuse. Baku is a(n early) medieval foundation, the land itself might have barely risen above the Caspian Sea during this time period. For further information please see the section on the Hydrology of Aran later on in this post.
1634 Kamachia - Geghawu (Geławu)
1635 Nyundi - Kandak
1636 Chabala - Kabala, Arm. Kabaghak (Kabałak), Lat. Cabalaca, going by Pliny's mention, which I believe is the earliest Greek/Latin name for the city. Kabala was the capital of the Albanians, however it might have been considered a town before then already.
1642 Absheron - Khursan (Xursan), Absheron is a later name for the peninsula.
1644 Paytakaran - Geilar, Paytakaran lay on the other side of the river.
1645 Shaki - Gewgaw (Gēwgaw), Shake lay far inland, but Gewgaw was likely the more important town. Together with Khoranta and Samukh it lay around the confluence of the three paralel rivers, the Kura (Kur), Iori (Kambech), and Alazani rivers.
1647 Salyan - Remove and reuse, much of this land was likely under the Caspian sea, similar to Baku.
1655 Kaladasht - Kaghaberd (K'ałaberd), Kaładasht was a region (-dasht implies a plain)
1656 Zakatala - Bakhalat (Baxalat), Lat./Gk. Bakhia
1662 Lupenia - Lpnats Kaghak (Lp'nac' K'ałak'), Gk. Loubion Kome, Lat. Lupenia, the capital of the Lupenians, this city later became a See before the Arab invasion devastated the region and ends all mention of the Lp'ink'/Lupenians.
7603 Derbent - Shapotran (Šapotran), Derbent (Pers. Darband) lay at 7605, the impressive fortifications probably started under Sassanian Khosrow I in the 6th c. CE. Actual Darband also lay further north, though there were fortifications here too.

The lands of Kaspk, later Paytakaran. Paytankert (Built by Paytan) is not a name I am known with, any of my sources.

1618 Mish - Alewan
1619 Dish - Arminan
1630 Langarkanan - Astarab (Astārāb), Astarab is actually mentioned much earlier before Lankaran ever was.
1631 Spandaran - Barzend
1632 Balanrot - Baghan (Bałan)
1638 Warthan - Vardanakert, Warthan is an Arabised version from about 700ish years after the game.
1648 Ghizil-Agaj - Remove and reuse, this area likely lay underwater.
1649 Masalas - Bagawan, Lat./Gk. Bagouana
1652 Talish - Paytakaran (P'aytakaran), however, the city probably was not built until very late or even after the gamespan.
1654 Mochi - Daran

7604 Chol (Č'ol), Arm. Chogh (Č'oł), Pers. Sul

Now, on to the last two hydrology sections, first the spiciest one, the Kura, Araxes and Caspian sea:

kuraraxes.jpg


So, allow me to explain. Many floodplains were changed before the game launched to accomodate for changes due to silt and meandering, like the Po, Guadalquivir, and Danube estuaries. The Low Countries and Mesopotamian Marshes saw a major overhaul, and Lake Urmia and the Aral sea look refilled. So what about the Kura-Araxes estuary?

Based on Mouraviev's 1996 and Hewsen 2001, I'd like to propose a drastic change to the Caspian shoreline, and the confluence of the Kura and Araxes. Water levels, as we all now know, are not static. The shoreline town of Archesh is now under lake Van, Urmia and the Aral Sea are receding ever faster, and the gist of Mouraviev's hypothesis is that the Caspian Sea was a lot higher. This in turn has implications for the flow of the rivers and the coastline.

Hewsen: 'Mouraviev attempts to explain (1) the incompatibility of Ptolemy's geographical description of Caucasian Albania with the present topography of northern Azerbaijan... ...(2) The difference of opinion amongst classical geographers as to whether the Kur and Arax rivers merged before entering the Caspian or entered by separate mouths, and (3) the location and identification of 29 toponyms Ptolemy lists in his chapter on Albania.'

On this map, the black line I roughly drew is based on the works of Hewsen, Mouraviev and a few Iranian historians, to come up with the most likely shoreline at the end of the game. I've linked Mouraviev's article in the sources, his proposal goes a bit further in terms of lost land but that in turn doesn't stroke with some towns in the region he believes must be under water which were clearly there before. If you have any further questions, I'd love to answer them, but I've gone through all their research I have access to and I agree that it is a likely scenario.

Furthermore, I'd like to propose the following riverrine changes:

I - There's a bit of the Mingechaur Dam Lake in that circle.
II - In line with my previous proposal, for the Kura to meander like mad, and enter the Caspian a bit north
III - The Araxes to not enter the Kura, and enter the Caspian a bit further south.
IV - To add the Tartar (Trtu) river.

paralelrivers.jpg


I - The Mingechaur Dam Lake, more visible then in the previous section, just to emphasise.
II - The middle of the three rivers, the Iori (Kambech), flowing through the Tianeti valley before running almost paralell to the other two. While the regions inbetween the rivers are quite empty, the upper Iori was rife with towns, villages and the city of Ujarma.
III - For the Alazan to meander some more, before it enters the Iori just before the Iori enters the Kura.
IV - For the Kura to meander a bit more. Aesthetics matter, and it is realistic as well
 
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Samitte

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Excellent suggestions, hopefully they'll make it into the game. This would make the region more interesting.

BTW, since it's related to Armenia, what do you think of the proposed Caucasian and Anatolian Culture Groups?
Thanks! Seeing some of the changes following your posts on the Greeks pushed me into finally comitting to my own. And with regards to the cultures topic; I hadn't seen it. I've got quite a few thoughts on cultural changes in the region, and I'll see what I can contribute there. But its a very tough nut to crack with the current culture system.
 

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Not sure where to post this... So I will write it here.
More or less, Colchis is drawn accurately, I really appreciate all the effort made by devs. B-but...
There is huge wasteland in mountainous part of Colchis, so I made some suggestions about it. By now, Argveti region, that is Colchian-Iberian marchland is represented as Svaneti, which is so wrong. Districts that are coloured in white is place where Svans dwelt. I really hope devs can do something about it.

I also changed name of Klukhori pass into more appropiate one, it should be named either as Chakhari (fortress) or Misimiani (tribes that dwelt there). Lastly I think Kutaisi or Kotais should be part of Colchis proper.
I think this should be here
 
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Thanks! Seeing some of the changes following your posts on the Greeks pushed me into finally comitting to my own. And with regards to the cultures topic; I hadn't seen it. I've got quite a few thoughts on cultural changes in the region, and I'll see what I can contribute there. But its a very tough nut to crack with the current culture system.
Thank you!
Although in case of the Anatolian cultures thread @pengoyo made it. Our input is very small.
 

Samitte

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I think this should be here
Yeah that is similar to what I was thinking about, though I am not ready to create a proper proposal myself yet. Do you have any knowledge of the region during antiquity? I'm struggling quite a bit getting good material in a language I can read and could use some help regarding esp. Colchis.
 
Province names and cities for Colchis and Lesser Armenia

Samitte

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Today I want to look at Colchis and Lesser Armenia.

Colchis in game consists of parts of the regions of Suaneti, Abasgoi, Colchis, and Bekhyria. It was a very interesting place, with Hellenic coastal cities, mountain tribes, a native elite Colchian that seems to have rapidly Hellenised, yet always ruled by different peoples but related peoples.

The setup I propose is Native name as the base, followed by alternative localisations. So that when its not owned by Latins or Hellenes it defaults to a native name as opposed to a foreign alternative unless there is one. Hence I have not added the specific localisation of the base name since the base name doesn't require cultural localisation, only alternative localisation does. All names marked with Arm./Pers./Lat./Gk,/Iber./etc are all alternate localisations. All names without it are base names. If no new base name is provided it just proposes an extra alternative localisation.

I think the Greek Kolkhis (as opposed to the Roman version) is best fitting for this region in this period.

1703 Bori - Remove and reuse, Bori is a site right next to, basically on top of Shorapani.
1704 Sarapanis - Shorapani (Šorap'ani), Lat./Gk. Sarapanis
1706 Rhodopolis - Vardistsikhe (Vardisc'ixe), Lat./Gk. Rhodopolis, Arm. Rodiuwpawlis
1711 Telephis - Vani, Gk. Souris, Lat. Surium, the site of the cult of Leukothea.
1714 Onogouris - Igani, Lat./Gk. Siganeon
1715 Archaiopolis - Dzikhan-Kvidza (Jixan-Kviǰa), Iber. Tsikhe-Gudzi (C'ixe-Guji), Gk. Arkhaiopolis, Lat. Archaeopolis
1717 Chaladidi - Khobi (Xob'i)
1720 Phasis, Arm. Pashd, maybe Iber. Poti, but it is uncertain whether this is accurate for the period. Armenian Pashd seems likely rooted in Greek Phasis, though.
1735 Ergeta - Tsaishi (C'aiši)
1737 Ziganne - Gyenos, which lay in the very north of this territory.

Suaneti, the land of the Suanians, modern Svans, is mostly located in the mountain range. The marchland known as Argueti, which passed from Iberia to Kolkhis on multiple occasions and encompasses most of this province.

This tiny province is a bit of a problem, but not unsolvable. Once again this will be part of a future post as well.

1705 Skandis - Skanda, Lat./Gk. Skandeis
1707 Kotais - Kutatisi (Kut'at'isi), Lat. Kotais, Gk. Kytaia, Arm. Kota
1746 Itkhvissi - Sairkhe, Lat/Gk, Sarake, with major border rework (see this post)
1748 Modinakhe - Tsikha (C'ixa), also with major border rework from above post.
1749 Brili - Gebi, however we only really know of this site being mentioned since the later middle ages, placenames in these kinds of areas are often ancient.

I have never heard of Bekhyria before, nor can I find anything credible on it. Doesn't mean its not a thing, but I'd like to have a credible source on my proposals. In the meantime I can offer two alternative names. Khaldia has my preference, because of the many Hellenic towns that have prominence here in the game. Chaneti can be a decent, Georgian alternative based on one of the tribes there.


1722 Vashnari - Tolebi (T'olebi), Lat./Gk. Telephis - if borders are redrawn a bit.
1723 Pichvnari - Ozurgeti (Ozurget'i) If the borders are redrawn a bit further inland, probably the oldest mentioned site in this area.
1724 Apasidam - Tsikhisdziri (C'ixisjiri). Lat./Gk. Apasidam
1725 Bathys Limen, Lat. Bathys Portus.
1726 Apsaros, Lat. Apsarus, Arm. Apsarunt (Ap'sarunt)
1727 Kissa, Lat. Cissa
1729 Athenon Akron, Lat. Athenai, Arm. Atenas (At'enas)
1730 Rhizaion, Lat. Rhizus, Arm. Rizon
1731 Ophis, Lat. Ophius
1732 Hyssos, Lat. Hissus Portus

The Abasgoi were a tribe, probably related to the modern Abkhaz. Some of the oldest designations I can find are Apshileti, Apkhazeti, (and Saroeti (Saroet'i)). Abasgia to the Byzantines, but all of these only apply to the lower halfof the region, up to Then there are the Heniokhians and Circassians further north. Now you can't please everyone with this name, especially with the tensions surrounding this entire area. But this could be a decent alternative.

1739 Tqvarcheli
- Bedia
1738 Gyenos - Mokvi (Mok'vi), Gyenos lay at further south.
1740 Tzibile - Tsebelda (C'ebelda), Lat./Gk. Tzibile, possibly.
1743 Pityous - Pityus, the ou is later.
1750 Klukhor Pass - Tsakhar (C'axar), a fort we can later attest at the south end of this area.

Next up, the cities:

Kolkhis seemed decently developed, with a few cities present at game start:

1706 Rhodopolis (Vardistsikhe), a city south of Kutatisi
1707 Kotais (Kutatisi), already a city.
1711 Telephis (Vani), likely the place where Leukothea was worshipped, Gk. Souris/Sourion
1715 Arkhaiopolis (Tsikheguji), already a city
1720 Phasis, already a city
1741 Dioskourias, an important merchantile center

In turn, I'd remove city status from:

1704 Sarapanis (Shorapani), important site but not a city
1725 Bathys Limen, not a city at this time, a small greek colony
1730 Rhizaion, not a city at this time either, small colony

On to the final region then, that of Lesser Armenia!

Next, lets look at Lesser Armenia (P'ok'r Hayk'). I'd give you a detailed history of the place, but we don't know a lot on the matter. At game start, Lesser Armenia controls the ingame regions of Armenia Maior and Armenia Minor, most of Armenia Superior, and large parts of Machelonia and Pontus Colopene, plus a little bit of Cappadocia Melitene and Sophene. Lesser Armenia shows up a couple times in history seemingly related in many ways to Armenia, and depending on which historian you find more convincing it either first expands or then becomes a local punching bag, or it is just a punching bag.

Based on Adontz and Harut'yunyan, one a minimalist the other a maximalist on the topic of the size of Lesser Armenia, I've tried to strike a middle ground between the two. In this proposal I've nearly exhausted all I have access to digitally at the moment regarding Lesser Armenia. Note that this is the approximate size of Lesser Armenia without any map changes as it is in Patch 1.42.

Armenia Maior
in its entirety.
Armenia Minor in its entirety.
Armenia Superior, all except 1751.
Pontus Colopene, 1788, 1789, 1845, 1846,
Machelonia, 1775, 1786, 1801.
Cappadocia Melitene, 1852, 1929.
Sophene, 1858.

Taking an intermediate stance between the two men, Lesser Armenia likely conquered part of the Pontic Coast in the 100 years of the game. It also lost its holdings on the Euphrates and beyond Satala to Sophene and Greater Armenia, and then its Black Sea coast and western lands to Pontus. After this they were annexed by Pontus and then by the Romans. Unlike how it is represented in the game, most of Lesser Armenia was never a part of Greater Armenia, not even during Tigranes the Great's brief rampage.

Now, on to the localisation proposal. I've already covered a lot of the eastern regions of Lesser Armenia in a previous post, so I will focus on its core, the western lands, here.

Armenia Minor is the Roman name for this region, Rome would not capture it until about 63 BCE. Instead, I propose either the Armenian name, Pokr Hayk, (Little/Lesser Armenia), or the neutral Lesser Armenia.

1779 Olotoedariza - Uleoberd (Ułeoberd), Lat./Gk. Oleoberda
1781 Koloneia - Aghadarits (Aładaric), Lat./Gk. Aladariza
1782 Megalossos - Dasteira, Arm. Dashtarak,, Lat./Gk. Nikopolis Dasteira is the locale where Pompey found Nikopolis at the end of the Mithradatic wars.
1783 Anniaca - Koloneia, Arm. Koghonia (Kołonia) Lat. Colonia, Koloneia lay in the top-left corner of this area.
1787 Danae - Taularon, Danae is an itinerary station that lay south of the Lykos, but we can actually the village of Hypsele there. (Note, this is a different site then Taulara, which lay south of Komana)
1843 Kamisa, Lat. Comassa
1844 Sebasteia - Sebaste
1847 Eudoixata - Godis, Lat./Gk. Gundusa
1850 Gundusa - Eudoxaita, these two likely lay the other way around from where they are placed now.
1851 Euspena - Euspoina, Lat. Euspena

1775 Magnana - Remove and reuse. Mostly wasteland that can be reused to represent the northern side of Zigana pass.
1791 Ibora - Eupatoreia, Lat. Magnopolis, Ibora is just some itinerary station with uncertain placement, Eupatoreia was a city found by Mithradates VI in the fertile Phanaroea plain. (Will include a slight border change proposal for this later on as well.)
1789 Syderos - Hypsele, Syderos lay in/above province 1790
1792 Kabeira, Gk. Diospolis
1796 Eusebeia - Mazaka, Arm. Mazak (Mažak), Gk. Eusebeia, Lat. Caesaraea, these are the same cities
1799 Mazaka - Saccasena, as per Ketchup&friends's reference.
1839 Sebastopolis - Karana, Lat./Gk. Sebastopolis. Karana is the earlier name.

Finally, some ideas for cities:

These cities should be added, due to their prescense at game start or shortly afterwards:

1792 Kabeira, a large town, small city in Pontus
1843 Kamisa, possibly at one point the capital of Lesser Armenia, before Sebasteia eclipsed it.

These cities should be removed, they were not present at or close to gamestart:

1782 Megalossos (Dasteira)- future Nikopolis, but not a city yet
1799 Mazaka - due to Mazaka and Eusebeia being the same place, and that place being in 1796. There was no city in 1799.

That is all localisation and cities for now. I will update things if I think its needed and add any changes to future posts from now on. I next plan to look at the hydrology for the regions I just looked at. After this, I have a list of stuff I want to tackle though I have not decided on any particular order (if there's any requests for what I do first, let me know.)

I'd like to do:

  • Make a proposal regarding trade goods in general which goods are missing from certain regions that were known for them, and any cities that are specifically missing something they were known for. Half done.
  • Make a list of places that became cities during the game's timeframe. Perhaps these can be taken into account with any trade good changes, to have a non-food good. At least, I am under the impression that this is something that is done due to the way trade goods are allocated in more fleshed out areas. Not started.
  • Propose some sweeping and some minor cultural changes, including minority groups, and possibly a few added cultures. Started.
  • Finally go over those places I recommended to "Remove and reuse", with the least work as possible. Started.
  • Compile a short list of cities/provinces that I think really have to be added because them missing makes no sense. Started
  • Do a larger set of changes I'd like to propose regarding small border changes to fit more with the local geography, and some more provinces/cities I think could be added in the region, especially those darned wastelands. Started.
  • Compile some ideas for more flavour. This is a harder one since I am not a game designer, but I'll probably end up listing some interesting historical things with a few ideas on how to implement them. Started.
  • Go over the terrain setup and propose changes in the region.
  • Add Arabic names for locales in the region.
  • Try to come up with Armenian localisation for Republic offices.
 
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Proposed changes to hydrology: Colchis and Pontus

Samitte

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Two short proposals related to the hydrologies of Kolkhis and Pontus:

20200414113148_1.jpg



I - The Rioni meanders like mad, what is displayed in game is the canal they dug in modern times alongside it.
II - To continue the Rioni past Kotais, the current end of the river is the Qvirila.
III - To add the Enguri river

20200414122425_1.jpg


I - The Lykos does a little bend around this mountain here.
II - The Almus Dam Lake, yes, the region is riddled with them so its not surprising some of them still made it into the game.
 
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Trade good and terrain change proposal

Samitte

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A short proposal regarding changes to the trade good and terrain setup:

Like in the past, the Armenian highlands had a very split system of agriculture. While the land is very fertile, it lacks rainfall to grow crops outside of the river plains (areas such as the Araxes valley beyond Armawir till around Nakhchewan, the plain of Mush, the 'golden' plain at Horeberd, the lands north of Yerevan, the plain around Erez, Karin, etc)

Other areas where crops were grown were generally around the lakes. The highlands and mountain areas were generally used for livestock. In terms of wildlife (for Wild Game and Furs) Armenia had many different species to hunt, including wild sheep, wild goats, antelopes, boars, wild geese, wild ducks, grouse, deer, pidgeons, and more. Amongst its fur bearing animals: lions, lynxes, bears, wolves, stoats, and foxes.

In general, Armenia could use some improvements with regards to trade goods. At game start it produces no Wild Game and 1 Furs, even though Armenia was very rich in various types of wildlife. It also sorely lacks some Wine, while it has had a long tradition of wine growing (and drinking!) Currently it only has 2 wine provinces, with another found closeby.

Finally, Armenia seems to entirely lack any sources of Earthenware and Cloth (1 in Lesser Armenia). Furthermore I have a set of changes specifically aimed at a series of provinces down below.

I propose these mountain passes and highlands change to something more appropriate, mostly Livestock. Most of them currently contain things that are hard or impossible to produce there in large enough qualities to warrant a trade good. (Wild Game, Furs, Honey, Wood, Base Metals, Iron, Stone, and Horses are also decent alternatives.)

These cities/provinces: 846, 992, 1668, 1757, 1765, 1855, 1865, 7845

184 to Marble
, this region produced Marble, mainly traded via Synnada to the south and known as Synnadic marble.
858 to Grain, this is the "Golden Plain", though a large area of it is flooded these days by the dam.
991 to Fish, this area held the royal fisheries
1766 to Wild Game, lots of swamps to hunt in
1781 to Salt, this area was a likely source of salt in antiquity
1789 to Gold, ancient authors mention there was a gold mine here
1885 to Incense, Selge was famous for its Styrax incense. Not as valued as that of the Arabians, but valued nontheless.
1941 to Olives, the area around Synnada was a good olive growing region.

With regards to terrain, I propose the following changes, with a small section at the end for provinces I think ought to be removed, but if they stay can have better terrain:

1728, 1756, 1757, 1758, 1759 to Mountain, a narrow river valley

841 to Hills, this area is hills and a river valley.
846, 989 to Mountain, the northern end of the mountain range
993 to Hills, this area is quite hilley
1538, 1615, 1619, 1622, 1623 to Mountain, a bunch of mountains with a river valley through it.
1564, 1736 to Plain, a wide, well watered plain.
1569 to Plain, a plain watered by the Araxes.
1577 to Plain, this is one of the flanks of Aragats, its a flat land (especially compared to a few other nearby Plain provinces)
1606 to Mountain, while it has a few passes, it would still fit mountain better
1612 to Hills, this area is a tiny plain surrounded by hills and mountains.
1636 to Forest, this area is a flat shelf, the mountain/hilly area starts east from here. Kabala is situated in a mostly flat plain with a few ridges nearby. The mountains start behind the city, so making it a forest is a nice middle-ground.
1656, 1657, 1658, 1659 to Plain, these areas are a very flat lowland
1663 to Mountain, this area has only one real way through it, a valley, its quite mountain-y.
1673 to Mountain, this area is mostly mountain, Garni itself is located in a valley.
1676 to Mountain, Mtskheta is nestled in a small valley and should not be able to grow very large.
1678 to Hills, its inbetween Hills and Plain, but probably more Hills
1680 to Plain, this is a wierd area, the south side of this province in a wide open plain, while the north if mountain. I'd change it to plain and change the area to the north of it.
1695, 1696, 1699, 1701 to Mountain, this is the narrow Borjomi gorge and a mountain valley and passes leading to the Black Sea.
1698 to Mountain, this area is dominated by two large mountains to the north and south, and is mostly a narrow pass.
1744, 1747 to Plain, these two areas are mostly river plains surrounded by mountain.
1753 to Hills, quite a hilly area.
1763 to Forest, would likely have been quite forested.
1766 to Marsh, the eastern end of this plain was very swampy.
1767 to Plain, while it is surrounded by highlands the plain where Erez sits is flat and watered by the Euphrates
1772, 1773, 1775 to Mountain, part of the mountain range with a pass through it
1776, 1779, 1781, 1783 to Forest, the slopes here used to be forested
1778 to Forest, the slopes were probably still quite forested
5435 to Plains

1633, 1644, 1647, 1648, 1651, 1652 to Marsh, if this area is kept as is, at least make it marshland for it likely was mostly that.
1697 to Hills, a foothill of the nearby mountains.

Edit: Also did some formatting in earlier posts, and changed my proposal for a few provinces: 1564, 1572, 1763, 1772, 1778
 
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Culture change proposal

Samitte

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Aaaand I'm back. Had to shift my focus a bit to finish off some university work. However, I'm far from done!

So next up, the culture map, using the method done by pengoyo which makes things quite easy. I've also included his proposed cultural changes for Anatolia and the Caucasus which can be found here.


Legend:

Red - Armenian
Green - Pontic
Yellow - Kappadokian
Light Brown - Assyrian
Dark Brown - Aramaic
Teal - Qedarite

Light Blue - Persian culture group
Purple - Caucasian culture group
Dark blue - Hellenic culture group
Pale Green - Scythian culture group

culture map.png

The above is based on the works of Hewsen et al, Marchiak, Adontz, Versluys, Diakonoff, and various other authors.

Some context: Sophene and Kommagene were highly diverse regions, which somewhat shows in game but it has some of the wrong cultures in the wrong places. The Armenian element in Lesser Armenia is also entirely missing, which I propose to add back in. This severely reduces the range of the Pontic culture, but this was too large in the first place as the Pontic culture just represents the northern Kappadokians. The Medes should also have a larger range, as much of the area east of Van and north of Urmia was noted for being mostly Medes even in later centuries.

Let me go through some of the larger changes one by one:
The range of the Armenian culture should extend further west, both into parts of Sophene, Lesser Armenia and Cappadocia Melitene. It is from this western nucleus the Armenians likely spread eastward and south to Sopene, lake Van, and the Araxes valley and beyond. Their range should be severely reduced west of Van and north of Urmia, and in Kommagene and southern Sophene. However minorities should probably still be present.

In a similar vein, as also discussed in the linked thread below, their range in the Pontic mountains should be severly reduced, as this was inhabited by peoples linked to the Caucasian culture group.
This proposal sees a large reduction in the Pontic cultural area. However, what is Pontic culture even? The peoples in Pontus were Kappadokians, with Armenians in the east, Caucasian tribes in the mountains, Anatolian peoples to their east, and some Hellenes on the coast. There also seems to have been a strong Persian presence remaining in Pontus. So while it would probably weaken Pontus, was spread way too far already in game, for being essentially slightly different Kappadokians.

However, I do think some Pontic minorities in the border areas should be present.
The Kappadokian culture should be the majority in the Kommagenean highlands, with a reduced range in Sophene. In Kommagene this is to represent the differences between the high and lowlands of the region, which were significant even after it became independent around 163 BCE.
The Aramaic majority regions should shift upwards a bit, as the Armenians were not the likely majority in either Kommagene or southern Sophene. Central Sophene and the Kommagenian highlands should still have some Aramaic minorities, and so should the central Araxes valley. I also added a few to the Aramaic/Assyrian border regions because it is hard to determine where one ends and the other starts.
I propose some Assyrian minorities are added to the Aramaic/Assyrian borderlands as well, and to the Armenian majority regions in the Corduene region.
I propose more tribal Qedarite pops be added, to represent the nomads that moved around in this area.


The Persian group should see two big changes.

First a larger range into what the Armenians called Mardpetakan, which included the east of lake Van and the lands of Artaz west of the Araxes and north of Urmia. These should be Medes, though some extension of the Cadusian culture is also a possibility. Significant Medes minorities should also be present in the adjacent areas across the river and on the shore of lake Van.

Next are the representation of the Karduchoi in Gordyene (which is only represented by two provinces on the current map). These were a Persian mountain people whose eastern city of Pinaka was an impressive series of fortifications. They should not be independent, however.

Finally, the Persian minorities in the Axares valley and Pontic area should represent the remaining Persian peoples present there. These might have been present in other areas as well, like Iberia, but I could not find enough clear info to warrant representing them.
In conjunction with pengoyo's thread, I have indicated a further spread of the Caucasian culture group here as well. Please refer to that thread for more information. I recommend that these areas do retain Hellenic pops as well, with the non-Tribal pops being Hellenic and the Tribal pops of Khaldian culture.
There seems to have been a remant of past Scythian invasions in two areas of Armenia at game start. This is in Syunik and Arran regions Like the Qedarites, they are a minor change but add some historical depth to the area. I'm not sure what specific culture they should be, as the scholarship only ever refers to Scythians.
 

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Province setup change proposal

Samitte

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In a previous post I talked about the history of Armenia, this is a follow up to show my proposed setup changes at game start, using the current map. Ive attached the list of provinces to be changed as well.


Legend:

Dark Blue - Armenia
Green dots - Sophene
Purple - Lesser Armenia
Red dots - Area it might not have controlled at game start

wip.png


The above is based primarily on the works of Hewsen et al, Marchiak, Harut'yunyan, and Adontz, and various other authors.

Orontid Armenia stretched into the Arran region, currently in Albanian hands. This region was in Armenian hands until around 384 CE. It also includes the entirety of Sophene and Kommagene. The current ingame setup has an independant Kommagene and Sophene under the Seleukids. However, historians* of the region mostly agree that Orontid Armenia extended all the way to Kommagene at game start. Sophene+Kommagene would split off later, around 260 BCE under Samos. Why this is the case we do not know precisely. Kommagene is lost later by Sophene, before reappearing as an independent realm under a branch of the Orontids around 163 BCE. I have marked the approximate area of the later kingdom of Sophene that split off with Green dots.

On the flip side, Armenia should lose some lands bordering Atropatene around Urmia, they conquered these later under the Artaxiad branch of the Orontids. They should also lose all lands east of 1747, which was part of Lesser Armenia.


To Armenia
842 843 845 857 869 870 #Corduene
871 855 #Mesopotamia Superior
837 844 #Osroene
1752 #Tayk
836 838 839 1862 1863 1864 1867 1868 1869 1895 #Comagene
840 858 859 860 877 878 1855 1856 1857 1866 #Sophene
1854 1859 1860 1861 1865 #Cappadocia Melitene
1584 1607 1608 1637 1646 1651 1661 1670 1671 1672 #Arran

To Atropatene:
1500 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1559 #Parsatunik
1502 1503 1504 #Parskahayk
I propose the tag of Lesser Armenia be added, situated in the area marked in purple. We don't know who ruled Lesser Armenia at game start, but it was likely someone related to the Orontids of Greater Armenia. Lesser Armenia would lose its districts on the upper Euphrates and west of Satala to Armenia and Sophene later on, but at game start this is their approximate range. I've added province 1853 to them for gameplay reasons, so they can circle around a bit easier.

Lesser Armenia would lose its eastern and northern regions to Pontus under its expantionism during the reign of Mithradates IV, who eventually absorbed it as well.

Lesser Armenia should be Armenian religion and culture, with an Orontid ruler being likely. Their capital should be at 7845.

EDIT: Added some emphasis on the aforementioned disputed extent of Lesser Armenia at game start, via the red dots.

1698 17441769 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 #Armenia Superior
1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1776 1778 7844 7845 #Armenia Maior
1779 1781 1782 1783 1787 1842 1843 1844 1847 1848 1850 1851 #Armenia Minor
1788 1789 1845 1846 #Pontus Colopene
1729 1730 1731 1732 #Bekhyria
1733 1775 1786 1793 1797 1801 1806 #Machelonia
1852 1929 #Cappadocia Melitene
1853 1858 #Sophene

For a flag they could perhaps use something based on this horseman motif. While these are from coins from Sophene, there is another motif that can be used for Sophene instead.

1589484822558.png
arsamescoin.png


Ive also attached an idea for a flag/emblem for Sophene, and a better one for an independent Kommagene.
An independent Sophene released via to-be-proposed event could perhaps use a flag based on this motif, or the above one:

mountains.png
As for a flag for an independent Kommagene, why not put Kommagene personified on there:

This is her from the Nemrud hierothesion:

1589485122206.png
though she also had a little hat:
kommagene.png

*Some of these historians include: Marchiak, Hewsen, Adontz, Harut'yunyan, Facella, Garsoian, Toumanoff, Hovannisian, list is not exhaustive.
 
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