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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning
Title and Table of Contents

Chris Taylor

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_________________________

TABLE of CONTENTS



Henry IV Lancaster (1399-1420)
Bolingbroke

Capitulum I. Thoughts tending to ambition, they do plot unlikely wonders: A Modest Beginning
Capitulum II. Let thy tongue tang with arguments of state: War with Granada ~ Befriending the Irish Lords ~ Return of the Jews
Capitulum III. Bear me hence from forth the noise and rumour of the field: Italian Squabbles ~ Turkish Expansion ~ Trading Patterns

Henry V Lancaster (1420-1421)
Capitulum IV. For now sits Expectation in the air: Early Life of Henry of Monmouth ~ Military Colleges ~ Saints Gervase and Prothasius Flood

Henry VI Lancaster (1421-1428)
Capitulum V. Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: Andalusian Revolt ~ Welsh Rebellion ~ Opportunity and Loss

The Lords Regent (1428-1431)
Capitulum VI. 'T has been a turbulent and stormy night: Noble Opposition ~ Integrating Ireland ~ The Invincible Turk

Jane Lancaster (1431-1477)
Capitulum VII. Bring me my Bow of burning gold: The Staple Port ~ The Invasion of Gascony ~ The Defence of Lübeck
Capitulum VIII. Bring me my Arrows of desire: Orkney and Holstein ~ Papal Business ~ Disaster in the Desert
Capitulum IX. Bring me my Spear: O clouds unfold!: The English-Burgundian Border War ~ The Defence of Navarre ~ East meets West
Capitulum X. Bring me my Chariot of fire!: Bloodying France ~ Eastern Allies ~ The Lordship of Ireland

Capitulum XI. I will not cease from Mental Fight: The Defense of Holstein ~ Constantine XIII ~ Provençal Miscalculation
Capitulum XII. Nor shall my Sword sleep in my hand: The English Crusade ~ Denmark Ascendant ~ Sovereign Hopes Dashed
Capitulum XIII. Till we have built Jerusalem: The Reconquest of Normandy ~ Regina et Imperatrix ~ The Subjugation of Scotland
Capitulum XIV. In England's green and pleasant land: War of the League of Cambray ~ The French and Castilian Wars ~ Gascony Lost

Mary Lancaster (1477-1483)
Capitulum XV. Repair those violent harms that my two sisters Have in thy reverence made!: Early Life of Mary of Peterborough ~ Queen of Scots ~ Prince Regent

William III Lancaster (1483-1497)
The Crusader
Capitulum XVI. In cities, mutinies; in countries, discord: Early life of William of Raglan ~ The New World ~ An Emperor Deposed
Capitulum XVII. It is most meet we arm us 'gainst the foe; For peace itself should not so dull a kingdom: A Princely Dalliance ~ The Danish Crusade ~ The Grand Crusade
Capitulum XVIII. Galling the gleaned land with hot assays, Girding with grievous siege castles and towns: The Celâli Revolt ~ The Battle of Varna ~ The Kingdom of Scandinavia
Capitulum XIX. These that survive let Rome reward with love: Barbary Pirates raid Malta ~ Lord Aberdour's Rebellion ~ New Spain and Brazil

Henry VII Lancaster (1497-1501)
Capitulum XX. O fortune, fortune! All men call thee fickle: Character of Henry VII ~ Victory and Ingratitude ~ The Union Sundered

The Lords Regent (1501- )
Capitulum XXI. Then will I raise aloft the milk-white rose, With whose sweet smell the air shall be perfumed: Key Figures of the Regency ~ Corruption and Violence ~ York's Rebellion

_________________________​

Historical Vignettes
Vignette I. I did pluck allegiance from men's hearts, 1501 (Capitulum XXI)
Vignette II. Leicestrie, Leicestrie, redde mihi legiones meas!, 1502 (Capitulum XXI)

_________________________

Nota auctoris/Author's Note :

Welcome, readers, to my first EU3 History Book AAR; I hope you enjoy reading it as much as we all enjoy playing the game.

I am using the Magna Mundi Ultimate 1.26 mod, with a few customisations of my own. First, I have restored the vanilla EU3 England missions, as I tend to use the France/Scotland/Ireland missions (and the random order in which they appear) as a rough determinant of intent—the voice of my virtual Parliament, as it were. Second, I have restored the North American First Nations tribes that were eliminated in MMP2, using their stats, territories and attributes as they last appeared in Magna Mundi Platinum 1.5. Third, I have changed the MMU map graphics from Strannik's terrific Hand-Drawn Map to Pishtaco & Hambut_bulge's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum map.

I understand why these items were eliminated from previous Magna Mundi versions, and I have nothing but respect for the MM team members and all of the hard work they have put into their excellent mod. I've added these features back in solely because I prefer the flavour of the games with them.

UPDATE: Other mods that were incorporated midway through the game include CJL78's SubUltimate - The Firenze Submod for MMU 1.26, Minefield's Coats of Arms for EU3, and Knuckey's Colony Ingame Name Change Mod. These all provide terrific enhancements to the game's graphics, gameplay and flavour.

Finally, I have chosen 1399 as the start date—not as a cynical move to avoid the difficult and terrifically realised MMU Wars of the Roses, but because the start (rather than end) of the Lancaster dynasty is a more interesting time to me.

My goal for this venture is to acquire the territories held by the real-life British Empire in 1815 (see map); to try and retain former English/British territories whose loss may have been reasonably avoided; to refrain from military annexation of any territory within the British Isles—charity beginning at home, and so forth (Orkney being the sole exception, it can not be reasonably acquired any other way); to forswear long-waiting, reloads and game edits unless a game mechanic breaks.

UPDATE: This AAR will be semi-interactive (approved April 22nd, 2012 by Mr. Capiatlist, Qorten and Saithis). Readers who cast a ballot in the ACAs and vote in all four game types (EU, CK, Vicky, HoI), or correctly answer periodic trivia questions relating to real history and the AAR, will have the opportunity to design a character which will appear in the story.

_________________________

Inspiration
I also owe debts of gratitude to dharper's Honor of Lancaster AAR and axzhang's Repubblica di Genova AAR, both incredible efforts in their own right. The astute reader will note that I have cribbed some formatting and stylistic flourishes from each.

The end-of-post summaries are an elaboration of dharper's creation; the formatting of titles and spacers, and use of orange colour for gameplay notes came from axzhang. To these I have added footnotes and historical notations in light blue.

_________________________

Awards

I have been blessed with a wonderful group of readers, who have seen to it that this AAR has been recognised with the following awards:

~ WritAAR of the week: 21 November 2010
~ AARland Choice AwAARds (EU History-Book): Q4 2010, Q2 and Q3 2011, Q1 2012
~ Knight of the Order of the Large and Intimidating Robert (OLIR)
~ Lord Strange Cookie of British Awesomeness
 
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Eber

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Wow, I'm excited for this. Who doesn't love an England AAR? Plus you have pretty pictures. :p

I'm tagging along for this one.
 

Ashantai

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I'm intrigued! I think I shall follow this eagerly! :)
 

Davisx3m

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Many pictures please :)
 
I. Henry IV Lancaster - 1399-1401: A Modest Beginning

Chris Taylor

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_________________________

Capitulum I.
Thoughts tending to ambition, they do plot unlikely wonders

_________________________


When John of Gaunt died in February of 1399, King Richard II cancelled the documents allowing his exiled cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, to inherit his father's estates. The lands and title would instead revert to the crown, and Bolingbroke would be required to make obeisance and request the properties directly from Richard.

It was meant to be a reprimand for Bolingbroke's participation with the Lords Appellant in 1387; a sharp reminder to an upstart relative of who wielded the real power in these isles. No mere nobleman—even of the royal blood—ought dare challenge a king regnant.

Now Richard and Bolingbroke alike know—perhaps all too well—that power and fortune are fickle, transient masters.

It is October 14th, 1399. Richard resigned his crown two weeks ago, and in a mere four months time, the former king will also be deprived of his life—starved to death at Pontefract Castle, with Bolingbroke's connivance.



Abdication of Richard II, Jean Froissart, Chronicles, late 15th c. (left); Coronation of Henry IV, Jean Froissart, Chronicles, late 15th c. (centre); The death of Richard II, Richard Dadd, 1852 (right).

For now, Henry is king—the fourth of that name, and first of the Lancaster dynasty. Eldest surviving son of John of Gaunt, Bolingbroke is more capable than his predecessor, but only just; happily, his new advisors at court are men of quality, although their policies (+1 centralisation) have created some unhappiness at home and abroad.


Henry's key advisors, and the post-deposition budget.


National Ideas, and the effects of Henry's consolidation of power.

The largest problems confronting the new king, however, are the limits of his own ability. A great nation demands men of great skill to manage it, and he is a man possessed of only middling skills. Although Henry IV is marginally better than his predecessor, he is clearly not the able administrator that the times demand.


_________________________

Even so, Henry's usurpation has not been entirely disastrous to the country. London is still a reasonably wealthy centre of trade, fuelling Europe's second-largest economy. English merchants trade favourably under the auspieces of Lübeck in the Hanseatic League. One of Henry's first instructions is to focus on local trade in London, then in the wealthy "Queen of the Hanse"; eschewing the nearer—but far less lucrative—markets of Antwerp and Paris. England must replenish her coffers after the profligate reign of Richard.



London and Lübeck, the prime focii for English merchants.


The five largest economies in the known world.

_________________________
Militarily, the Navy Royal is the largest and most powerful in all of Europe, able to take on any other opponent with ease, and with more than enough vessels to move entire armies to English continental holdings.


The five largest navies in the known world.

Despite the navy's impressive appearance, however, piracy is a problem that perennially afflicts many English ports.


Piracy is a problem that never entirely goes away. (Right) Miniature of notorious 14th century pirate Jeanne de Clisson (née Belleville), known as the Lioness of Brittany.

The real weak spot in England's martial splendour is her army, a mere 5,000 souls, and less than half as many as her eternal nemesis beyond the Channel.


Army sizes of selected European powers.

_________________________
By some incredible good fortune, the English cardinals in Rome's curia have acceded to Henry's rule, and thus far avoided serious agitation in favour of the deposed Richard. But guiding the church during this time of extremes requires exquisite political manoeuvring. Pope Boniface IX sits in Rome, backed by England, the Holy Roman Empire, northern Italty, and the Scandinavian countries; Antipope Benedict XIII resides in Avignon, backed by France, Aragon, Castile, Burgundy, and Scotland.


Roman curia c. 1399.


The mixed blessing of papal sponsorship during the Western Schism.

_________________________
Domestically, the lords pursue their own agendas energetically. Just as it did under Richard's reign, Parliament wants to crush the Irish and reinforce the struggling Anglo-Irish lords trying, and failing, to maintain a semblance of proper feudal government.


Parliament is anxious to increase England's suzerainty over Ireland.

The lords agree to a temporary tax increase and additional minting of coinage for three months so that the army can be expanded hastily and dispatched to Ireland. Or so they believe.

Bolingbroke is not indifferent to their wishes, but at heart he is still fond of the old chivalric ideal of crusading, which is now starting to fall out of favour with a nobility less willing to go abroad to make a name for themselves. The king is one of a dying breed, having campaigned with Teutonic Knights in Lithuania in 1390 and again in 1392. By 1393 he had made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, vowing to free Jerusalem in the future.

But above all else, Henry IV is canny enough to know that without a larger force, France will leap to devour Guyenne and Calais the very instant his army is engaged somewhere. Before any expeditions depart England's shores, he needs the most robust and capable allies.



Aragon and Austria join Portugal in an alliance with England.

It is hoped that the rapacious Valois will think twice about tangling with the powerful Habsburg dynasty, who are scheming to regain the Emperor's title. But as with all things, few plans survive contact with the chaos of reality.

When Emperor Rupert III dies in early November, the prince-electors choose the King of Bohemia, Václav IV von Luxemburg, to succeed him.



Sadly, the reign of the Emperor is cut short by fate.

_________________________
Fortunately for the merchantmen of the realm, by early 1400 the appointment of Guy Byron, 1st Baron Byron of Rochdale, as Lord High Admiral is paying dividends; a combination of increased littoral patrols and localised restrictions on suspicious maritime activities effectively bring the piracy problem under control.


(right) The summary execution of Germany's most infamous pirate, Victual Brother Hans Störtebeker, 1401; tinted woodcut by Nicolaus Sauer, Hamburg, 1701

In the summer of that same year, Byron's anti-piracy measures spark an unnecessary trade war with Castile and Leon. King Enrique III stages an elaborate proclamation barring English merchants from Seville. The tiny handful of English traders that do try to eke out a living in Seville's marketplace are unceremoniously drummed out of town and told to leave Castile on pain of death. Economically, it means nothing. Politically, it is a slap in the face from an old foe, recently turned friend.


(right) Marketplace in miniature from Iupiter, De Sphaera, c. 1470.


Henry and the Privy Council discuss options, but there are few. Although the English army's expansion is virtually complete, it would be foolhardy to try and take on their Castilian counterparts. Castile is home to Europe's largest economy, after all, and can call upon many more reserve levies than England. There's also the disturbing possibility that allied Portugal and Aragon would decline to fight, given their generally amicable relations with their larger neighbour.

For King Henry, the incident calls up one of his father's oft-told tales of Castilian perfidy.

In 1366, the King of Castile—Pedro the Cruel—took refuge in Anglo-Gascon France with one Edward of Woodstock (also known to us today as Edward, the Black Prince). Pedro and his half brother Enrique II Trastámara were engaged in a vicious and prolonged civil war, fighting for control of the kingdom. King Pedro pleaded for English assistance, promising Edward money and a grant of land in Iberia.

Thus enticed, the Black Prince took up Pedro's cause, enlisted the help of John of Gaunt, and marched into Iberia with 24,000 Anglo-Gascon troops. There Edward and John met Enrique's 60,000 Franco-Castilian troops in 1367 at the Battle of Navarrete (Nájera). In that combat, despite inferior numbers, the English longbowmen decisively out-shot their French counterparts—allowing the Anglo-Gascon cavalry to splinter and rout the enemy.



Battle of Navarrete, Jean Froissart, Chronicles, 15th c.

Restored to his throne, Pedro then declined to pay the Black Prince for his service, and was subsequently killed by his half-brother, leaving the debt unpaid. Edward had to recoup costs of the campaign from his own purse. Henry's father, John of Gaunt, eventually married Pedro's daughter, the Infanta Constance of Castile. Through that union, John would pursue—albeit unsuccessfully—a claim to the throne of Castile.

The houses of Lancaster and Trastámara had ostensibly reconciled with the marriage of Henry's half-sister Catherine to the current king, Enrique III—but might this latest outrage be a thinly-veiled Trastámaran insult, re-igniting a dormant feud by something short of war?

The Privy Council offers no grand solutions, but in late 1400 when the Sultan of Granada breaks free of the Castilian yoke, Henry begins to form a plan. One that will satisfy both the political imperative to protect English merchants, and Henry's personal desire to crusade in a just cause.

The Trastámaran will regret his insolence. England does not have the strength to make Castile pay in blood, but she will pay in mammon, in tears and in a dream deferred.



In early 1401, the Navy Royal departs for Iberia, with the bulk of the English Army aboard. Detail of medieval ships with the royal arms of England, Jean Froissart, Chronicles, 15th c.

_________________________


ENGLAND c. 1401

Henry IV Lancaster (ADM 4/DIP 4/MIL 3)
By the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland

Treasury: £6.8 million (68m ducats)
GDP (estimated): £41.75 million (417.5m ducats)
Domestic CoTs: London £36.50 million (365.05m ducats)

Army: 4,000 Knights (Chevauchée), 8,000 Footsoldiers
Reserves (potential levies): 17,279
Navy: 13 Carracks, 13 Pinnaces, 17 Cogs
Discipline: 113.80%
Tradition: Army 0.00% Navy 0.00%

Prestige: First (28.00)
Reputation: Honourable (0.00/21.00)
Legitimacy: 100
 
Last edited:

Ashantai

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I am very impressed with this! The way you have blended history with the game, and mixed in pictures is remarkable!

Well done, I shall follow this for certain.
 

Dewirix

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This looks fun, I'm in.

Never really got too much out of England in vanilla as I always feel compelled to crush France in the Hundred Years' War, but once that's achieved the drama just drains out of the game.

That shouldn't happen to you though as the goals you've set yourself look interesting. I'd probably allow the French holdings to be lost just so you'll have a decent amount of competition, but from an RP perspective keeping them should be a priority.

Treasury: 68 million ducats
GDP (estimated): 417.5 million ducats
It seems unlikely that Henry IV would have had a treasury reserve equivalent to 16 per cent of GDP, but that's just nit-picking on my part. It has sent me off on a tangent to find out what would be in pounds, but I haven't really got anywhere on that.
 

Hastu Neon

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Impressive. Short sentences, very good mix of pictures from game and other sources, light and pleasant reading. Keep on! And watch over France...
 

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Ashantai: Thanks! One of the fun things about this is that I, too, am learning a lot of history by way of research for these posts.

Dewirix: I know what you mean. An England without a France to face off against is a lesser creature, even though territorially she may be greater. If there is one thing the EU3 AI is good at, though, it is pouncing on you when your attention is distracted, or you think you have the campaign in hand.

You'll enjoy the tussles with France. They seemed a lot like... the real Lancastrian war.

Concur about the reserve. Converting it to pounds, with centuries of inflation and so on to account for, sounds like an afternoon's worth of math though. :eek:

Hastu Neon: Glad you enjoy it. I was worried the expository bits might be too wordy, but they are outweighed by the sheer number of screenshots. And I have my eye on France; her day of reckoning is approaching.

DjMangus: Thanks and welcome aboard!

Gabor: You have divined part of my plan! It has backfired on me in the past though. Once I had Gibraltar hold out for nigh on five years, and defender uprisings wreak havoc with my manpower and war exhaustion.

Wanted to say that I enjoyed your Danzig MM AAR; very enjoyable read.
 

Eber

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The first update is a great read. I also agree with Ashantai on how you perfectly blend gameplay with history. Great job! Looking forward to more.
 

Urza

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This looks promising, I am liking the style too. Good balance of focus on and detachment from gameplay. Curiously awaiting what the 'deferred dream' will be about.
 
II. Henry IV Lancaster - 1401-1419: War with Granada ~ Befriending the Irish Lords ~ Return of the Jews

Chris Taylor

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_________________________

Capitulum II.
Let thy tongue tang with arguments of state

_________________________

Henry's force has temporarily ported in Lisbon to seek the assistance of England's Portuguese ally, João I.

Since the revolt of Granada, Enrique III has been massing his forces ominously on the border. It is clear the King of Castile and Leon plans to return his former vassal to submission, if not annex the territory outright. Henry merely plans to capture Granada before Enrique can get to it, and then sell it piecemeal—for exorbitant sums—back to its former Castilian overlord. It would be like France capturing Ireland and selling it to England, county by county. In this way will Castile pay threefold for her shameful treatment of English merchants.

João I agrees to a joint effort, and so in March of 1401, the English invasion fleet arrives off Gibraltar. A messenger is sent inland under flag of truce, declaring that England and Granada are now in a state of war.



Henry's gamble creates some opprobrium at home (-2 stability, -20 legitimacy), and muttering in foreign courts (+2 infamy); but the Anglo-Portuguese force has many advantages.

The Austrians are merely uninterested, while the Aragonese are suitably shocked and dismayed; both countries terminate their alliance with England.

After landing its contingent of cavalry and men, the English squadron of carracks, pinnaces and cogs proceed into the Gulf of Almería to begin covering the sieges. A small flotilla of Algerian corsairs—allies of Granada—blunders into them.



English cogs engage Barbary corsairs off the Granadan coast.

Henry's force is split into two main groups. The king commands a royal contingent, while a second army is led by the 14-year-old Prince Hal and Sir Robert Knolles, a 76-year-old disgraced knight. England lacks capable commanders, and Knolles is the best of a bad lot. The king hopes Knolles will impart some of his considerable martial knowledge to the impetuous young prince.

Knolles is a man of common birth who has spent his entire adult life fighting wars on behalf of the crown, winning fame in Brittany, Normandy and Gascony. He fought alongside Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt at the Battle of Navarrete; and at one point Knolles was even Captain of Knights and Squires for Edward's personal household. But his glory days came to an abrupt end in the winter of 1370. While conducting a chevauchée raid deep in northwest France, Knolles got word that much larger French armies were closing in on his 6,000-man force. He and 2,000 men wisely retreated to safe territory in Brittany, but his glory-seeking younger subordinates refused. They and their 4,000 men were butchered or captured at the Battle of Pontvallain. In 1372, Richard II held Knolles personally responsible for the disaster, and stripped the knight of his lands.

Now the old warhorse has been compelled to embark on one last campaign with another 6,000 men—and the heir to the throne among them.






Through the lens of hindsight, modern historians often credit Prince Hal's superior generalship for the early successes of the invasion. But medieval chroniclers were irresistibly drawn to the story of the humiliated old chevalier, Robert Knolles, setting out one last time to meet either death or redemption.

The English easily push back the Granadan defenders; by March of 1402, Knolles and Hal have captured Sultan Muhammad VII, and the Portuguese army has taken possession of Almería. But now the French, too, have gotten wind of the Iberian invasion, and they rightly suspect that there are no English troops across the Channel; nor even a navy patrolling it.


France seizes an opportunity.

Messages from London to the invasion force are frantic; France has smelled weakness, and any day now, she will strike. When Hal and Knolles capture Gibraltar the following month, they are immediately ordered back to England and told to prepare for the worst. The Privy Council panics, and their fear infects the king; there is no time to crush the Algerians; England must conclude a quick peace and get her forces home at once.




The lacklustre peace, which grants England Gibraltar and precious little else. Conceding defeat to the Algerians severely damages Henry's reputation amongst the nobility (-20 legitimacy; currently 61).

Over the next few months, frantic negotiations with the Duke of Austria manage to avert looming disaster by restoring the Anglo-Austrian alliance. But Henry's scheme now lies in ruins; England does not have the territories that she wanted. Ultimately, the gulf between England's price and Castile's willingness to pay cannot be bridged, so the rocky peninsula of Gibraltar remains an English possession.
_________________________


The new English possession of Gibraltar.

The local population of Jews is understandably in turmoil over the conquest; England was one of the very first Christian feudal states to expel its Jewish residents in 1290, via Edward I's Act of Expulsion. Gibraltar's Jews are worried enough to interupt their observance of the Sabbath in order to divine the intentions of the king.


Henry lets the Hebrews live in peace; life in Gibraltar is hardship enough.

Full of Moors not particularly amenable to English rule, and surrounded by unfriendly Castilians and Granadans, Gibraltar requires a small but capable constabulary force. Henry IV tends to abuse this necessity by sending his most rebellious and tactically gifted noblemen there. In 1403, the Earl of Northumberland (Henry Percy) and Archbishop of York (Richard le Scrope) are appointed to the governorship and bishopric of Gibraltar, respectively. Once there, the would-be rebels find no time to plot against the Crown, they must fend off heathens and heretics intent on overthrowing them.


In Gibraltar, one's energies must be focused on saving one's own skin.

Percy's son (also Henry, known as "Hotspur") describes Gibraltar as "this Hell of sedition and revolt and Egypt's plagues"; he will die quelling a religious revolt there in the summer of 1403. Fractious nobles who survive their governorships and manage to avoid being killed by Gibraltar's riot-prone civil population, often return home with a renewed appreciation for tranquility, order and sound government.

But if Gibraltar is hell on earth for its civil government, it is something of a paradise for the navy; sailors actually look forward to serving there. Mediterranean anti-piracy patrols usually bring combat experience and bounty from captured vessels. And the shrewdest of captains also take part in commerce; carrying cargoes for English merchants trading in Genoa or Venice, in exchange for a share of the profits. Gibraltar is where the navy first learns to supply itself and fight at long distances from home.

_________________________
A mere six months after Henry concludes his peace, Enrique III invades Granada, intent on expansion. Once again the Aragonese refuse to back Castile in its attempt, as does Portugal. But despite the lack of allied assistance, the Castilians manage to take Almería two years later.


Spanish depictions of the conquest of Granada typically fail to acknowledge that the Castilians encountered little organised, armed opposition—most of it having been wiped out during the Anglo-Portuguese invasion three years earlier.
_________________________
In Parliament, the voices calling for the forceful subjugation of Ireland grow louder, but the king sees such a project as inherently wasteful. No Irish chieftain even thought about invading the Pale while the entire army was in Granada. The Irish may stray from proper conduct on occasion (not unlike his own Prince Hal) but under Laudabiliter they are subjects, not the enemy. If Irish blood must be spilled, better that their martial disposition be inclined toward fighting a common foe across the Channel.

A dispute between Connacht and Tyrone (Connacht gains core on Ulster) forces the titular Lord of Ireland to intervene and try to enfold the Irish polity in vassalage—or at least a military alliance—to prevent bloody fratricide. Granada's lesson is that spending money on small wars of little consequence wastes the lifeblood of the kingdom, and Henry is determined not to repeat it.


Henry is enough of a pragmatist to realise that even as England's power grows, so does that of France—and at an equal, if not greater rate. England's primary advantage is economic; if shepherded diligently, the nation can in time amass enough wealth to fund a great crusade—either to the Holy Land, or to reclaim the ancient rights of the Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine.
_________________________

The Roman church still grapples with the intractable problem of the Western Schism.

When the curia queries the Archbishop of Canterbury about establishing regular church councils, the proposal is rejected out of hand.


But the archbishop is forced to relent when Rome issues an identical request two months later.
In 1406, England agrees to host a general church council in Nottingham, which makes additional progress.


The Holy Roman Emperor is delighted at the prospect of influencing papal selection.
_________________________
In the spring of 1400, Henry IV had extended an invitation to receive Manuel II Palaiologos (Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire) at Eltham Palace. Piracy in local and North African waters had, however, forced both sovereigns to reconsider the visit. Now—with its new port in Gibraltar—the Navy Royal can range further into the Mediterranean and assure safe conduct.

The Emperor's 1410 visit to England is the only one of its kind from a Greek-born Emperor, and a joust is held in his honour. Henry sends what money he can spare to assist the Greeks in resisting the powerful Turks, but not everyone is happy with the prospect.

[

Sultan Mehmet I takes a dim view of Anglo-Greek amity. (left) Emperor Manuel II Paleologus, from theodori despotae laudatio funebris (Manuel’s funeral oration for his brother Theodore), 15th c.; (right) Sultan Mehmet I.

_________________________
Henry's continuing policy reforms (+1 centralisation) meet with popular approval; he decides to take advantage of this upswing in goodwill by concurrently repealing Edward I's Act of Expulsion.


Gibraltar's Jews now have the freedom to reside in England proper.

_________________________
Despite the King's best efforts, a long-term solution to the Western Schism does not, in the end, come from England. The English lords cannot bear the idea of losing influence in Rome, and so every nation clings to their chosen Pope, demanding that the other give in.


Intransigence plagues any even-handed attempt at resolving the schism.

On the advice of Archbishop Thomas Arundel, the Roman curia excommunicates Lollard heretics. In England, this is followed by Henry IV and Parliament enacting the De haeretico comburendo; an act which specifies that anyone owning a translation of the Bible (other than the Latin Vulgate) is liable to be burnt.

The Roman church in England suppresses John Wycliffe's doctrine of predestination, apostolic poverty, and consubstantiation. (right) Wycliffe giving the ‘poor priests’ copies of his Bible, William Frederick Yeames, 19th c.
Despite England's position as patron or sponsor of the Pope, there are certain forms of ecclesiastical corruption that are still very hard to eradicate.



_________________________
Guilds (or self-regulating associations of artisans, craftsmen and professionals) have long been a staple of medieval economic and social life. Since people tend to congregate where the prospects of employment are greatest, certain trades become highly concentrated in specific counties. Often the concentration would be so great that a guild could monopolise the parliamentary representation in a local borough—giving itself a voice in Parliament. These guild- or landowner-controlled parliamentary boroughs would later become known as "pocket boroughs".

Early in Henry's reign, several pocket boroughs formed, advancing the interests of:
  • The Admiralty, in Wessex (est. January 1400)
  • The Lords Spiritual (or clergy), in Northumberland (est. August 1400)
  • Merchants and moneylenders, in some boroughs of London (est. May 1401)
  • The Lords Temporal (titled peers and aristocrats), in the Welsh Marches (est. March 1402)
  • Lesser courtiers and monarchists, in Oxfordshire (est. April 1402)
While the guilds and their pocket boroughs would earn public opprobrium many centuries later, in Henry's day they are a necessity, allowing the medieval economy to develop highly skilled tradesmen. Tradesmen such as shipwrights, who built England's preeminent navy.


Lord High Admiral Guy Byron (in conjunction with the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights) makes improvements to naval tactics, equipment and organisation.

_________________________
In 1414, Burgundy became home to a cadet branch of the Lancaster dynasty through the offspring of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence. In the span of a few short years, however, the Burgundian Lancasters forgot their true allegiance and began to regard themselves as contenders for the French throne. By 1419 they were involved in serious border disputes with the English governor of Calais, prompting London to wonder whether they might need to be reined in.

[

Fortunately for the Burgundian Lancasters, their list of allies is impressive enough to forestall aggressive action. For now.
_________________________


ENGLAND c. 1419

Henry IV Lancaster (ADM 4/DIP 4/MIL 3)
By the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland

Treasury: £13.2 million (132m ducats)
GDP (estimated): £37.79 million (377.9m ducats)
Domestic CoTs: London £30.42 million (304.20m ducats)

Army: 4,000 Knights (Chevauchée), 8,000 Footsoldiers
Reserves (potential levies): 15,412
Navy: 13 Carracks, 13 Pinnaces, 18 Cogs
Discipline: 121.00%
Tradition: Army 14.90% Navy 14.00%

Prestige: Sixth (40.10)
Reputation: Honourable (0.00/20.50)
Legitimacy: 95
_________________________

Nota auctoris: A briefer review of major international events, 1399-1419 will follow in the next update.
 
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Davisx3m

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Awesome! The map is so cool!
 

Dewirix

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Your GDP seems to have fallen quite sharply. Should we be worried?

I like the Falstaffian Robert Knolles and hope we see more of him. I think grabbing Gibraltar was a decent outcome under the circumstances, and Henry IV shouldn't have high legitimacy anyway.

Would be an interesting outcome if you formed a personal union with Burgundy.
 

Chris Taylor

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Davisx3m: Thanks! Took me the better part of an afternoon, reading through tutorials at the Cartographer's Guild, and hunting down period maps, but in the end it was worth it.

Dewirix: It did fall sharply, although I didn't realize anything was going on at the time. It's almost entirely due to a loss of value in the London CoT, which was tied to some major destabilising effects from the Hansa. I'll cover that in the foreign relations update later today.

Knolles was a real-life guy and did have a pretty heroic career, followed by one catastrophic disgrace. He's the only general England starts with in 1399. I know John Oldcastle is the model for Falstaff but the post-disgrace Knolles might have worked out equally well.
 
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