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As you can see in this LibrAARy, the poor nation of Armenia, not available in the vanilla game but as a releasable nation, didn't had many AARs. If we search a HoI2 mod where Armenia is available, there is only All the Russias and his successor Kaiserreich, which give us the perspective of a weak fascist Armenia, under control of either Italians or Ottomans. The new Anatolian Wars mod, developed by Mehmet12 and Miihkali, soon in its 1.03 version, proposes a totally different setup for Anatolia, in an alternate history where Greece won the Turkish War of Independance. And one of the concerned nations is Armenia. This AAR will turn around the nation of Armenia according to Anatolian Wars mod, struggling to survive and claiming a place in the terrible world.

In order to respect both Paradox Forums rules and the French law about the denial of the Armenian Genocide, there will be absolutely no references made to the Armenian Genocide in this After Action Report. Therefore, I forbid any debate or message about this one within the posts of this AAR; if this declaration offends somebody or is in violation of the rules, please PM me.

This AAR is dedicated to my friend Gabriel, of Armenian origin, who helped me to find some documentation for this AAR.
And also to my best friend, Odile, of Iranian Armenian origin.

Settings:
Hearts of Iron II - Armageddon; with Anatolian Wars mod 1.03
Difficulty: Normal
IA: Normal
Timeframe: 1936-1956


Table of contents:

 
Last edited:
Nov 2, 2006
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Prologue: Some parts of Armenian history

0.1 - Armenian Antiquity and Middle Age​

Created on 9th Century BC, the kingdom of Urartu, centered on the Lake Van, stretched from the Northern Euphrates as far as the Lake Sevan and Lake Urmia. As much as we can judge it, Urarteans were speaking a Caucasic language. Their kingdom disappears around 600 BC, invaded by Indo-Europeans coming from Anatolia, the Armenians, which, at their turn, fall under the yoke of the Medes, then the Persians. Armenian elite iranized. Alexander the Great doesn't occupy Armenia. Some satraps found various dynasties. To the Artaxiads belonged Tigranes, who has established himself at 95 BC, dominates the whole region and finally surrendered to the Romans. More or less controlled by Rome, Armenia soon falls into anarchy. Members from the Parthian dynasty of Arsacids settle in the middle valley of Aras, emphasizing the iranization of the country.

200px-TigranStatue.jpg

Statue of Tigranes II, called the Great

From the Christianization to the Bagratids

At the beginning of the 4th Century, Arsacid king Tiridates III establishes Christianism as state religion of Armenia, under the influence of the Parthian Grigor (later Saint Gregory the Illuminator) who, refugeed at Caesarea in Cappadocia, had converted to the Christian faith. Grigor, consacrated as Patriarch (catholicos) of Armenia, founds the Armenian Church (also called Gregorian Church).

180px-Tiridates_III_of_Armenia-Baptism.jpg

Baptism of Tiridates III of Armenia by Saint Gregory the Illuminator

In 390, Roman empire and Sassanid Persian empire divide up Armenia between them. From their gains, Sassanids form the vassal kingdom of Persarmenia, adminstrated from 428 by a governor. In the middle of the Vth Century, they try to impose Mazdaism, sparking an Armenian insurrection. Their religious freedom would be acknowledged in 484. Armenians relations with the Eastern Roman empire are not easier. In 555, the regional Council of Dvin rejected the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon (451) - to which the Armenians had not participated - and stood with monophysitism. This decision marks the split of the Armenian Church from the Greek Orthodox Church.

In 661, Armenians accept the Arab trusteeship which, on their own, respect their freedom of cult. A province of Armenia is created around 700, with a direct and constant Arab adminsitration. Despite some revolts and reorganizations, it perpetuates until the second half of the IXth Century.

Bagrotuniflagx.jpg

Flag of the Bagratunis of Armenia

In 884, the head of the Armenian family of the Bagratunis, powerful since the IVth Century, is recognized as king of Armenia (under the name of Ashot I) by both the caliph and Byzantium. If his successors (the Bagratids) doesn't share the same talent, the authority of Armenian Church catholicoi compensates for their weaknesses. The heart of Bagratid kingdom lays in Northern Armenia, between Kars and Lake Sevan. Further in the South, in the region of Van, stands another Armenian kingdom, the Vaspurakan one. Armenia experiences a true economic and cultural rapid expansion until the arrival of the Turks.

Armenians at Byzantion

Polyeuctus.jpg

Saint Polyeuctus of Metilene, Armenian martyr

On Western Euphrates, Lesser Armenia belongs since a long time to the Byzantine Empire (formerly Eastern Roman), where it recruits soldiers. Saint Polyeuctus, immortalized by French tragedian Pierre Corneille, was an Armenian centurion from the region. Byzantine authorities move to west the Lesser Armenia populations, but new Armenian contingents, fleeing the Muslims, arrive. From the middle of the IXth cetury to the beginning of the XIth, ten emperors of Armenian origin rules at Byzantion, such as Basil I (867-886), called the Macedonian because he was born at Adrianople. The "Macedonian" emperors rely on the Armenians but their successors, in the 1020s, attack them, vainquish and deport them in Cilicia.

Freely translated from Atlas des peuples d'Orient, by Jean Sellier et André Sellier, éditions La Découverte, Paris, 1993
 

Kurt_Steiner

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* Plants the flag

Here I suscribe! :D
 

Miihkali

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Nice to see that someone is interested in our modification. I'm really touched :eek:o . Armenia is very interesting and also difficult to play (tried once when I tested event storyline). I wish you best of luck.
 

likk9922

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Very good start! I have an Armenian friend as well, I hope to learn something here. :D
 

General_Grant

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Another Masked Pickle AAR!

Since the others where excellent and Armenia is an interesting country I wish you best of luck and await the first *real* update with great interest.
 

Onni_Manni

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An Armenia AAR! Great! :) I will follow this!

(My celloteacher was Armenian, and he got me interested in their culture.)
 
Jan 22, 2007
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Good stuff! I really am pleased someone's doing an AAR on my and Miihkali's mod!
Yep, Armenia sure is a tricky nation to play as... just watch out for those Kurds and Azeris, my friend ;)
 

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A Anatolian wars AAR! Will follow this one just to see if there are similarities with my Assyria game (which ended badly, for some reason USSR went on a rampage and annexed everything)
 
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Prologue: Some parts of Armenian history

0.2 - Invasions and migrations​

Led by the Seljuks, the Turks devastate Armenia in the middle of the XIth Century and settle there as masters. At the beginning of the 1220s, they fall themselves under the Mongolian yoke. The rapid expansion of nomadism, way of life of these conquerors, is a major setback for agriculture, to the advantage of Turks and Kurds. Numerous Armenians emigrate towards Cilicia, Crimea, etc...Timur's campaigns in the area (1387-1402) bring more and more devastations. The whole Armenia passes under the authority of the Kara Koyunlu Turkomans and then the Ak Koyunlu.

Armenians in Cilicia

300px-Bust_Leon_V_of_Armenia.jpg

Tomb of Levon V of Armenia, last Latin King of Armenian Cilicia, at Basilique Saint-Denis, near Paris

After crossing Anatolia, Crusaders settle in 1097 at Antioch and Edessa. Cilician Armenians, with their support, soon resist against Byzantines. Thus the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia is created. The ruling class adopts the customs of the Frankish nobility, to which they conclude marital alliances. Negotiations are opened with Rome so that in the XIIIth century, Armenian Church finally recognizes, with a lot of reticence, the Papal primacy. The Catholicos is then sheltered near Edessa, later at Sis. Conquered by the Mameluks of Egypt, Armenian kingdom of Cilicia falls in 1375. At the XVth century, the middle valley of Aras becomes again the Armenain center of gravity. A new Catholicos lies at Edjmiadzin from 1441, with primacy over the Sis one. Links with Rome totally distend.

Between Safavids and Ottomans

250px-ArmPatrLogo.gif

Official standard of the Patriarchate of the Armenian Apostolic Church

At the XVIth century, wars between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persian Empire devastates Armenia again. The Amasya Treaty in 1555 attributes a large part of the country to the Ottomans. As these latters bring back war, Shah Abbas counter-attacks in 1603, seizes Eastern Armenia and deports numerous Armenians in Ispahan's surroundings. They will found there a city, Nor Jugha (New Jugha, as many of them were coming from Jugha, on the Aras). Armenia soon enjoys a relative calm. In the Karabakh, Armenian princes claim their autonomy and resist against the Ottomans, again at war in the 1720s-1730s. Anyway, it's generally the clergy (led by the Edjmiadzin Catholicos) who, with the non-emigrated Armenians, plays as ruling class. Within the Ottoman Empire, Armenians forms a millet, under the authority of the Armenian patriarch of Constantinople.

Freely translated from Atlas des peuples d'Orient, by Jean Sellier et André Sellier, éditions La Découverte, Paris, 1993
 
Nov 2, 2006
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OnwardsHayastan.png
Prologue: Some parts of Armenian history

0.3 - Armenian revival​

Emigration

180px-Lw%C3%B3w_-_Katedra_Ormia%C5%84ska_01.JPG

Armenian cathedral in Lvov

At the XVth and XVIth centuries, Armenian merchants had overtaken the trade of Iranian silk, relying on the web of the Armenian colonies. The Turco-Mongol invasions had, indeed, forced the Armenians to emigrate. They joined the communities created in the Byzantine times and constituted new ones. We can find them at Constantinople, in Thrace, in Macedon, in Bulgaria, but also in Transylvania, in Poland (Lvov), in Crimea (also called "Maritime Armenia"), in italy (Venice, Rome, Livorno, Genoa), in France (Marseilles). The Jughans (from Nor Jugha) play a significant part in the intternational trade. By the same way, some Armenians are actives in India (Madras, Calcutta).

This emigrated Armenian upper class, often flourishing, stays in contant with Armenian craftsmen, numerous at Constantinople and Western Anatolia. But she ignores the extreme poverty of Armenian peasants who stayed in the country. Thus a gap is established between emigration (benifiting of Armenian "revival") and the reality of proper Armenia.

Armenians at the XIXth century

266px-Akhaltsikhe_1828.jpg

Siege of Akhaltsikhe 1828, by Jan Suchodolski

They are, at the beginning of the century, nearly three millions in totality, mostly subjects of Ottoman Empire (for the majority) or Persian empire. Ten to fifteen percent of Armenians are living outside Armenia. The crowd of the rural population lays in a large area stretching from Diyarbakir and Erzurum in the west and Gandja in the east, in addition to Cilicia. Armenians, however, are only in majority in Van region. Everywhere they are mixed with Kurds, Turks, Georgians, Azeris, etc. It's the language and religion community, more than a territory, which then perpetuates the unity of the Armenians.

At the beginning of the XIXth century, Russians conquer on Persia the territories north of Aras, with the support of the Armenian inhabitants. In application of the Russo-Persian treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), 50.000 Persian Armenians move in the Yerevan, Nakhchivan and Karabakh provinces. Russo-Ottoman treaty of Adrianople (1829), which attributes to Russia Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki districts, also triggers the migration of nearly 100.000 Armenians from Eastern Antolia. During the whole XIXth century, the movement from the Ottoman Empire continues. Thus an Armenian Russia is constituted, more and more different from the Ottoman Armenia.

Into the Ottoman Empire, Armenian peasents' situation continues to deteriorate in the Yerkir ("The country", historical Armenia). A vicious circle is established: Armenians tend towars emigrating while the Ottoman authorities are installing in the region Muslim refugees from the Caucasus (Circassians, etc...) or the Balkans. The soft traditionnal balances are broken, Kurdish nomads return to the north. Insecurity establishes. At Constantinople, with the arrival of migrants, the Armenian population grows but, like in Smyrna, it's time to occidentalization and reforms. At the beginning of the 1860's, liberals obtain that the millet gets a "national constitution". The patriarch becomes some sort of constitutional monarch, with an elected assembly.

Freely translated from Atlas des peuples d'Orient, by Jean Sellier et André Sellier, éditions La Découverte, Paris, 1993
 
Jan 22, 2007
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I think Masked Pickle is waiting until AWM 1.03 is released- I had to send Miihkali all the updates to the minister files and techteams I added.
Good news- the new update has loads of high quality techteams for Armenia, Georgia, Nejd, Syria, Azerbajian, Assyria, and Kurdistan. Armenian nuclear scientists, anyone? :D
 

wilegfass

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Interesting. In 7th grade I made a very far fetched Historical Fiction essay featuring an Armenian who fled during WWI, helped Greek troops before they eventually lost the war, travelled to America, joined the army, being in Patton's armed forces, than dieing in the Korean War, firmly entreched in the Ideas of Liberty and Freedom.

I've always liked Armenia, maybe because they suffered under the same oppressor as my heritage.

Not to debate about the banned subject, but wasn't the French Law saying it was Illegal to deny the Armenian Genocide, or was that American legislation?

Can't wait for update.
 
Jan 22, 2007
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've always liked Armenia, maybe because they suffered under the same oppressor as my heritage.
I don't like Armenia because they suffered, I like Armenia because they have an incredible culture, wonderful history, and delicious cuisine :D

Seriously though wilegfass- I wouldn't debate the Armenian/Assyrian/Greek/Pontine/Turkish/Kurdish issue too much... I've managed to get through making the Anatolian Wars Mod without one heated argument on the subject and I'm not keen to see this thread full of nationalist fervour.
Lokum and Turkish Delight are equal in my estimation.

And no, I'm not Turkish, just for the record.
 

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mehmet12 said:
I don't like Armenia because they suffered, I like Armenia because they have an incredible culture, wonderful history, and delicious cuisine :D

Seriously though wilegfass- I wouldn't debate the Armenian/Assyrian/Greek/Pontine/Turkish/Kurdish issue too much... I've managed to get through making the Anatolian Wars Mod without one heated argument on the subject and I'm not keen to see this thread full of nationalist fervour.
Lokum and Turkish Delight are equal in my estimation.

And no, I'm not Turkish, just for the record.
Sorry, didn't mean to put it like that. Pretend it was never said, no offence meant to anyone.

Also, I've always thought a mod about greece winning that war would be cool. Would like to try it some day.
 
Nov 2, 2006
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OnwardsHayastan.png
Prologue: Some parts of Armenian history

0.4 - Rise of nationalism​

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, Russian armies led by Armenian generals took Kars. In 1878, with the treaty of Berlin (1878), Ottoman Empire had to secede Kars, Ardahan and Batum to Russia. The population of these territories is composed for a third of Armenians. In addition, the treaty stipulates reforms for the Ottoman provinces populated by Armenians, particulary in order to "guarantee their safety against Circassians and Kurds". These measures are not applicated but entertain, for the Armenians, the illusion that the European powers would intervene in their right. Ottomans, on their side, then felt the Armenian question as a threat hanging over the Empire's eastern border. In february 1914, Russia obtains that the provinces where Ottomans must accomplish reforms had to be united into two administrative regions (Erzurum and Van) placed under the supervizion of European inspector generals.

Khrimian_Hayrik.jpg

Catholicos Mkrtich Khrimian, representative of the Armenian people at the 1878 Berlin Coneference

Politicization of Armenians

Sedahoka.gif
Arf_logo.jpg

Left to right: the Hunchakian Party's logo and the Dashnak Party flag

Two revolutionnary organizations were born due to the initiative of Caucasian Armenian intelligentsia membes: the Hunchakian Party (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party), founded in Geneva in 1887, and the Dashnaktsutiun (Dashnak Party, Armenian Revolutionary Federation), founded in Tiflis in 1890. Their ideologies stretch between two ways (class struggle and national struggle) with a preference for revolutionnary direct action. During the 1890s, the Hunchaks provoke uprisings in eastern Anatolia. Sultan Abdul Hamid calls for army, in particular the Hamidieh, Kurdish cavalry organized after the Russian Cossacks. It's followed by two years of massacres (1894-1896). Armenians speak of 300.000 deads, while 100.000 Armenians find shelter in Transcaucasia. In 1896, the Dashnaks lead a takeover against the headquarters of the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople. The Armenian community of the city subsequently suffers reprisals. Sultan holds the national constitution of the millet.

180px-Pastermajian-Karekin.JPG

Karekin Bastermadjian, one of the chief planners of the takeover

Armenian upper class looks hostile to revolutonnary parties, in Ottoman Empire as in Russian Empire. On this side, they make their fortune in trade and industry. Armenians are the pioneers of oil exploitation in Baku, thus developing an Armenian working class. Dashnak Party radicalizes. In 1905-1906, confrontations between Armenians and Azeris, in Baku and elsewhere, turns to civil war. Calm comes back in 1908. The same year, Ottoman Armenians gives great expectations towards the Young Turks movement but, after the Armenians' slaughter at Adana in 1909 (30.000 deads), climate deteriorates again. Young Turks, in the other hand, prove to be preocupated about the integrity of the Empire like their predecessors.

Freely translated from Atlas des peuples d'Orient, by Jean Sellier et André Sellier, éditions La Découverte, Paris, 1993