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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

roverS3

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Taking a direct Latinization of the Russian name for Sappers would give us "Sapërnaja" (or "Sapërnaya" much in the same way "Army" (армия) is often Latinized as "Armiya" in HoI-verse instead of "Armija"). For the purposes of this example, I choose to use the Latin spelling "Sapernaya" for ease of spelling and consistency re:HoI, where the spellings with y are used instead of j, and omitting the ¨ of the ë for ease of writing. So if you want to call them "Motorized Sappers", I would say "Motosapernaya", but this might also break just about every grammar rule there is. The same for mechanized, as the Soviets just called both motorized and mechanized rifle divisions "Motostrelki". Of course, figuring out a more creative name might also be appropriate, but again, I lack the Russian skills to be very useful for that.
Another interesting concept for the Far East - these dapper formations. At a tactical level (sub unit) I’d probably call them ‘assault pioneers’, who would perform a similar role for an infantry battalion (but are made up of infantrymen trained in battlefield obstacle breaching and defensive preparation and such like, but also fight). Different at the formation level - sappers sounds a good term for actual engineer brigades. Though assault pioneer has an exciting ring to it ;)
All the info I could find on Red Army Assault Pioneer/engineer type units is that they were seemingly all called Sappers, this seems plausible as most nations have only one term for their combat Engineers, some go with 'Sapper', others with 'Pioneer' and/or 'Assault Pioneer'. Reasonably the most that can be done here is calling them Assault Sappers...but this might sill be disingenuous and grammatically fraught. Sapper is the name I'm giving all of the as of yet unconvincingly named Engineer Regiments. (Shorthand SaP for 'Sapernyy Polk')

Maybe going with something entirely different might be interesting, as this is a new type of formation in an alternative timeline, it can be justified. How about something fun like 'Amur Tiger Cavalry', they move quickly through the terrain, they are versatile and carry plenty of bite...it's rarity also makes it an unexpected sight. (only 30-40 of these Tigers were left in the 1940s, which was pretty much their low point in population numbers, preservation efforts and a hunting ban have managed to get that to approximately 530-540 in 2015, Tiger preservation is one of the things no one can fault Putin for doing well)
This should translate to 'Amurskaya tigrovaya kavaleriya'... The final decision on the Division name will be made when the Division is deployed, so this isn't set in stone, yet.
 

Eurasia

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This should translate to 'Amurskaya tigrovaya kavaleriya'... The final decision on the Division name will be made when the Division is deployed, so this isn't set in stone, yet.
Nice name but would it fit the tiny Division name window? :)
 
30th of January 1941, 'Tri' & 'Shest': Foreign Government Report #3, France

roverS3

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The 30th of January 1941, near Vologda, -10,5, 10pm Moscow Time

Shest just called me to say that a 4-man GRU team in the UK hasn't made contact in a couple of days, rather worrying...

Coincidentally, five minutes later, I finally got my hands on the finished report 'Tri', 'Shest' and 'Mother' have been compiling ever since the latter reached Lisbon.


First some context. The third Republic was founded in 1870, after it replaced the Second Empire in the aftermath of the defeat of Sedan to Prussia. The republic is based on a system of two chambers: The Senate, and the chamber of representatives. It's a complex system of checks and balances, elections and appointments.

Every 4 years, the Chamber of Representatives' 500-600 members are elected by the public.
Every 9 years, 300 of the Senate's members are elected by an electoral college made up of local government members, who were in turn elected by the public.
Another 75 members of the Senate are appointed for life and are replaced by the senate itself.
Together, Chamber of Representatives and Senate often form the National Assembly to vote on constitutional changes, to elect the President (every 7 years), and to vote on legislation in general.
The Senate appoints the members of the Supreme Court, and exerts oversight on the Government.
The President, elected every 7 years, is responsible for appointing his cabinet of Ministers and for proposing legislation to be voted on by Parliament. He can also dissolve the Chamber of Representatives, but only with the Senate's authorisation. Anything the President proposes has to be supported by at least one Minister
The real result of this is that the President has limited executive power, he has to rely on the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate to pass his legislation and accept his cabinet.


After the 1936 legislative election, Albert Lebrun, President since 1932, and member of the Socially Liberal 'Alliance Démocratique', had a problem. The left had gained a lot in popularity, which made it necessary for him to go outside his Social Liberal comfort zone and look to the left for a coalition in the Chamber of Representatives and by extension, the National Assembly. The centre-left coalition that emerged from the negotiations included a wide array of parties:

The Social Conservative 'Union Républicaine' (FR in game)

The President's own Social Liberal 'Alliance Démocratique' (ARV in game)

The Social Democratic 'Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière' (SFIO in game)

The Socialist 'Gauche Démocratique', a coalition of radical socialists including the 'Gauche Radicale' and the 'Parti Radical Socialiste' (RAD in game)

Despite not being officially part of the government, the Party Communiste Français gave tacit support to the 'Gauche Démocratique' whenever a measure would be rejected by the 'Union Républicaine' for being too pacifist or too left wing.
This lurch to the left was called 'the Popular Front'.

FrontPopulaire-min.jpg

A poster criticising the Popular Front Government. Although some of them had Communist leanings, they really weren't our puppets...

The Government was a mix of members from these various parties with Prime Minister Sarraut and Minister of Security Chautemps from the 'Parti Radical', Foreign Minister Blum from the SFIO, Armament Minister Fabry from the 'Union Républicaine, and the head of intelligence from the President's own Alliance Démocratique. (This wasn't entirely reflected in game, with both 'Parti Radical' Ministers being indicated as members of ARV)

The onset of war, despite the government's pacifist ideals, especially on the left, led to widespread disillusionment, which in turn lead the public to look further to the right.
The replacement of Armament Minister Fabry (UR) by Vincent Auriol (SFIO), several steps to the left, made matters worse. This change, probably made simply because Auriol was more competent and could better inspire factory workers, was contrary to public opinion, which was shifting towards the right. To ad insult to injury, President Lebrun pushed a bill through the National Assembly that would postpone the 1939 Presidential Election indefinitely, until peace was reached. The public outcry following this decision lead to the Assemblée Nationale, and especially the Senate insisting that the 1940 legislative elections had to be held, no matter what.


People where looking for strong leadership, and military strength. The long marginalised 'Action Française', a Monarchist party, saw an opportunity. They went directly to the Generals, most notably Général Henri-Honoré Giraud a veteran of the Great War and several colonial ones, who positively despised the sitting government for skimping on defence before the war broke out. (specifically the decision not to actually motorise his 'Division d'Infanterie Motorisé' annoyed him, the 50 armoured cars he got instead were scant comfort)

The 'Union Républicaine' being tainted by it's participation in the initial coalition, the only acceptable right wing option that wasn't fascist was the monarchists. Quite a few of the Generals were staunch republicans however, and after some discussion, a compromise was reached.
The platform the 'Action Française' ran on in the 1940 elections was one of national pride and strong leadership, within the republican framework. The reformed party promised to put (ex-)Generals in most cabinet positions and enjoyed widespread support amongst the officers of the French Armed Forces. To placate the original Monarchist base, a promise was made to install a member of the Bourbon dynasty as President, but only after the presidency had been reformed to a more symbolic position with even less executive power.


The 'Action Française' won the 4th of May 1940 election by a landslide with a whopping 33% of the population voting for them, which, considering relatively low turnout due to the ongoing war, gave them a majority in the National Assembly. It should be noted that the installation of voting booths in every single HQ and base of the French Armed Forces must have significantly helped the turnout of the largely pro-'Action Française' armed forces.

This is what the 'Action Française' Government looks like:

Head of State (President): Prince Jean de Bourbon (Action Française)

JuanDeBourbon-min.jpg

The third son to king Alphonso XIII of Spain and Queen Victoire Eugénie von Battenberg (a British-Hessian Princess), Juan de Borbon y Battenberg (Jean de Bourbon in french) was born in 1913, in a Spanish Royal Palace. Like all the members of the Bourbon family's Spanish branch he was immediately given the double Spanish-French Nationality upon birth and educated in both languages. Not expecting to be successor to the throne, he studied in Madrid, before joining the Navy.

The declaration of the now defunct Second Spanish Republic in 1931 would send the entire Royal family into exile, first to Paris, and then to Rome and Lisbon. Prince Juan, having fled in the middle of his Naval training, obtained permission to continue his training within the British Royal Navy. (His mother is half a British Royal after all)
In 1933, both his elder brothers gave up their claim to the Spanish, and French throne. It should be noted that both his brothers were born with serious health issues. Alphonso has haemophilia, and Jacques is deaf and dumb. Jean suddenly became crown prince and 'Prince of Asturias'. He left the Royal Navy to join his father in his monarchist endeavours.

After the 1940 election in France, Albert Lebrun resigned his Presidency when it became clear that the 'Action Française' wasn't willing to work with him in the National Assembly. Soon thereafter, the National Assembly changed the constitution, the 1884 Law that stipulates that all princes (and kings) are unelectable as president of the republic was revoked and the process of reviewing princes for the position began. At the same time the presidency was reformed as to give the president less power over Military matters, to the benefit of the Ministry of War.
The search for a royal, suitable to all parties began. The Monarchists's first choice based on the line of succession was Jean d'Orléans. However, he was not only old, but also unwilling to take the job, therefor the 'Action Française' turned it's attention to the Spanish branch of the house of Bourbon. The king of Spain in exile was never going to work as the Generals wanted someone of some military experience. His son, Juan, having served in both the Spanish and British Royal Navies, was the perfect candidate. His wife being the daughter of Louise of Orléans (and his cousin), was an added bonus. With little prospect of getting into Spanish power, the Prince gracefully accepted the French Presidency.


Jean de Bourbon is widely regarded as a Benevolent Gentleman, he is well meaning, polite and elegant in his ways. This makes him less susceptible to external pressure (except that from his father), his presence also inspires the French Armed Forces to behave more elegantly and to strive towards better organisation.(Susceptibility to external pressure: -5%, Org. Regain Rate: +5%)

Head of Government (1ier Ministre) and Chief of Staff (Minister of War and National Defence): Général de Division Henri-Honoré Giraud (Action Française)

Henri_Giraud_1943Jan19-min.jpg

Born in Paris in 1879, to a coal merchant from the Alsace region, Henri-Honoré Giraud had a brilliant scholarly career, before entering in the Ecole Militaire de Saint-Cyr in 1898. Two years later, his Military studies completed, he was deployed to French Northern Africa.


At the start of the Great War, he was called back to Metropolitan France and commanded the 4ième régiment de zouaves, a unit of northern African Soldiers serving under French officers. In the Regiment's second battle of the war, at Ribemont (Battle of Guise), then Colonel Giraud was heavily wounded and captured by the hun. A mere two months after his capture, he managed to escape to the Netherlands, from where he went to England before returning to France on board the Cruiser that was transporting then Foreign Minister Théophile Delcassé as well as the Tsar's Finance Minister Piotr Bark. U
pon his return he became part of Général Franchet d'Espèrey's General Staff (5ième Armée). He returned tot the front in 1917, just in time to have another year of war under his belt.


After the war he followed General Franchet d'Espèrey to a posting in Istanbul, before being called back to serve in the War Ministry under Minister Clémenceau to help reform the Organisational and command structure of the French Army. In 1920, after Clemenceau left the government, now Lieutenant-Colonel Giraud was sent to french Morocco on the explicit demand of Maréchal Lyautey. There, he participated in the 'War of the Rif', with great succes, he even personally accepted the surrender of rebel leader Abd el-Krim in 1926


After the insurrection (or revolt) was dealt with, he returned to France to teach at the 'Ecole de Guerre' (The highest school for French Army Officers) from 1927 to 1929. In March 1930, he was put in command of the brand new 'région Militaire' that includes both Morocco and Algeria. For this task, he was promoted to 'Général de Brigade' and told to pacify the region... He continued leading the fight against Berber rebels until, in 1934 high command considered Northern Africa pacified and rewarded Giraud with the rank of Général de Division.(Maj. General). He remained in Oran until 1936, when he was ordered back to France to take command of the '12ième Division d'Infanterie Motorisée' which was exactly as motorised as the '1ière Division d'Infanterie'...

When the latest war started, Général Giraud's Division was posted in Sélestat on the Maginot Line, initially, the front remained quiet. Once Germany declared war on the Netherlands, and later Belgium in April of last year, things started to heat up, and go wrong, for the french Army. His discontent with the current government's handling of the war soon became an open secret, and it is whispered that this blocked his advancement to higher ranks.

This was not missed by the ambitious leader of the Monarchist 'Action Française', Charles Maurras, who tried to convince the Général to support his movement, thereby legitimising it beyond a monarchist fringe. Giraud, seems to have understood the possibilities of this offer, and set out a list of public, and secret conditions to be met for him to support Maurras. Chief amongst these provisions were the fact that the republic was to be maintained and that the President had to be someone with some Military education and/or experience, conceding that he may be a Royal.

While he was facing down the Germans, the infamous 4th of May election happened, with the overwhelming 'Action Française' victory. The brand new coalition of Monarchist and (ex-)Military commanders thus named the Général de Division, veteran of many battles, to the offices of Prime Minister (replacing Albert Sarraut), and Minister of War (replacing Général Paul Le Gentilhomme, who remained commander of his own '1ière Division d'Infanterie Motorisée', then based in Haguenau). Once the lines caved in, Général Giraud made sure that his predecessor's was the first Division sent to Northern Africa. (Where he was encountered by our spies: l
21st of December, 'Odinatsat' #5, Générals and the full french Army retreat)
When Metropolitan France fell, Giraud's Division was captured while he himself made his escape to Hanoi, where he vowed to continue to fight for France's overseas empire.

Général de Division and now Ministre Giraud is an old, and respected Général, and the fact that he is 'Premier Ministre' inspires the troops to strive towards the highest levels of organisation, when they are supplied that is... He is a big proponent of the 'School of Fire Support'. This has focused military minds on reinforcing units already on the offensive for the largest possible punch. (Land Organisation: +5%, Attack Reinforce Chance: +10%)

Foreign Minister: Maurice Bourges-Maunoroy (Action Française)

BourgesdeMaunoury-min.jpg

Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury, born in 1914, to a naval engineer. He studied law and Political Sciences, but also to be a 'Missaire' (some kind of emissary with engineering training), at the Ecole Polytechnique (a school for Military engineers). In 1935, he joined the Artillery as an officer. He has no clear party affiliation but comes from a political family (his grandfather was Minister and his great-grandfather representative to the Chamber), he is very much a republican at heart, and his competence as a military officer as well as his education made him ideally suited for the role of foreign minister within this government.

He is a born General Staffer, as several Artillery officers will attest, and this translates in scrupulous organisation and subtle intelligence gathering. (Intel during peace: +10%)

Armament Minister: Jacques de Guillebon (Action Française)

DeGuillebon-min.jpg

de Guillebon was born in 1909,. Like Maurice Bourges-Maunoroy, he also studied at the Ecole Polytechnique to become a 'Missaire' in the Artillery. Fnishing his studies in 1930, an officer in the Colonial Artillery, de Guillebon is sent to French Somalia in 1935, then to french equatorial Africa and back to France to command the 'Régiment de Tirrailleurs Sénégalais du Tchad' in 1939.

A technocrat without clear political affiliation, just like Maurice Bourges-Maunoroy, with experience in Africa, he knows a thing or two about resources and mines.Through his efficient guidance more resources are extracted and fewer are wasted. (Resources +5%, Chemical Engineering Decay -25%)


Minister of Security: Eugene Charles Dunoyer (de Segonzac) (Action Française) None


We don't know much about this man, we don't even have a picture. He was born in 1882, he studied at the Ecole Militaire de St-Cyr and finished his studies in 1905. He participated in the Great War, during which he was Lieutenant, and then Capitaine from 1915 until 1926, when he was promoted to Chef de Bataillon (Commander), then Lieutenant-Colonel in 1931, and Colonel in 1935. He was then promoted Général de Brigade in 1939. In 1938 he was commander of the infantry within the '5ème Division d'Infanterie Motorisée', an Actual Motorised Division on the Spanish border. On several occasions he took interim command of the Division, before he was pulled to become Minister of Security.

He must have been well-liked by some of his fellow generals to get this post. And being well-liked is easy, when you are a compassionate gentleman of a Général, this does mean that Security isn't always as tight as it should be, especially on the propaganda front. This means that National Unity is more susceptible to events and situations. (NU Changes +10%)

Head of Intelligence: Paul Repiton-Preneuf (Action Française) None
Repiton-Preneuf-min.jpg

Born in 1904, Paul Repiton-Preneuf also studied the Ecole Polytechnique, but then went on to study at the 'Ecole Nationale Supériuere du Pétrole in Strasbourg. In 1931, he takes a job at the 'Asiatic Petroleum Company in London as an Engineer. He travels a lot for his job and otherwise, and in 1936, he becomes Director of Shell in Syria until late 1938. He is mobilised at the rank of Lieutenant in March 1939.

He must have impressed to be selected by Giraud as Head of Intelligence. Despite his short stint in the Army after the Mobilisation, he isn't really a Military man, he is an anti-conformist and open to other cultures. As a former petroleum engineer, he is a research specialist, and he has travelled far and wide. This is clearly to the benefit of intelligence gathering, a more creative and non-conformist endeavour than warfare, and probably better suited to the man. (Land Intel +20%)

Chief of the Army: Maurice Gamelin (ARV / Action Démocratique) None

Gamelin-min.jpg

Born in 1972, Maurice Gamelin grew up across the street from the Ministry of War building. His father Zéhpyrin, 'Contoleur Général des Armées' had distinguished himself under Napoéon 3 of the Second Empire. After a brilliant scholarly career, Gamelin joined the Ecole Minitaire de Saint-Cyr, graduating as first of his class in 1893.

His career started off as a Major in Northern Africa in the 3ième Rgt. De Tirailleurs Algériens, then with the Topographic Brigade of Tunisia, where he could best utilise his skills for observation and drawing. At his return in Metropolitan France, he took part in the admission test for the Ecole Supérieure de la Guerre, he came 8th on the test, and went on to graduate second of his class in 1897. He was spotted for his intellectual ability by future Général Lanrezac while at the school. Following an internship with the General staff of the 15th Corps, he becames company commander in the 15ième Bataillon de Chasseurs. He was admired by his superiors for his intelligence and efficiency. In 1906, he published 'Etude philosohpique sur l'Art de la Guerre', a book that gained him international recognition as one of the best Military thinkers of the period.


Following a recommendation by Lieutenant-Colonel Foch of the school, he was named Ordnance Officer to Général Joffre, commander of the 6ième Division d'Infanterie, and promoted to Capitaine. Gamelin would go on to follow Général Joffre to the 2ième Corps d'Armée, then, in 1910, at the War Council.

In 1911, he was separated from his mentor and superior, to lead the 11e Bataillon de chasseurs, after being promoted to Chef de Battalion. At the start of the Great War, Gamelin was called back to the staff of his former master, now Chief of the Army Joffre. He quit the 'Grand Quartier Général' in November that same year, and promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, he took command of the '2e Demi-brigade de chasseurs à pied'. With this unit he went on to fight in Alsace and at the Somme, impressing many Generals along the way. December 1916 sees him become Général de Brigade. After another short stint in the 'GQG', he was named Chief of Staff of the Reserves Army Group, commanded by Général Micheler. In may 1917, he got his first Divisional command with the 9e Division d'Infanterie, where he showed both a serious effort to preserve the lives of his men, and a great tactical ability until the end of the war.

From 1919 to 1924, Général Gamelin lead the french military mission in Brasil, then from 1924 to 1929, he commanded the French forces in the Levant, pacifying the territory. Upon his return home, he Commanded the 20e Région Militaire around Nancy before succeeding Général Weygand as Chief of the Army and in 1935 he cumulated the job with the job of Army inspector General, something only Joffre had done before him. In 1936 he was Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces under President Lebrun, but after the outbreak of war, he was replaced by Paul Le Gentilhomme. It's not clear exactly why, another unpopular move by an unpopular government.

Nevertheless, he retained the Command of Paris HQ, presiding over military matters in an Area stretching eastward along the Belgian border up to the edges of the
Maginot Line, south along the coast until La Rochelle, and including the City and Air BaseTroyes, and everything North-West of it, including Paris and the Channel ports. Respected as an intellectual and a great tactician by Generals and Field Marshalls across Europe, it was not very surprising that the newly elected government around Général Giraud would select the previously demoted Maréchal Gamelin to be Chief of the Army once again.


Gamelin is a staunch proponent of the Static Defence Doctrine that won France the Great War, he loves dug in Infantry, making sure that the Infantry is well trained and equipped is his main priority. (Infantry and Militia Practical Decay -25%)
Chief of the Navy: Jules Evenou (aka.Richard, or Pierre Richard in game) (Action Française)
Evenou-min.jpg

He was born 1908 to a skipper turned administrative agent for the department of Maritime Affairs. After obtaining his baccalauréat, Jules Evenou moved to Rouen to study 'specialist Mathematics' in order to prepare himself for the Naval Academy, which he entered in 1927. After his graduation he quickly rose through the ranks, staring out as Enseigne de Vaissau 2nd Class in 1929, then promoted to 1st Class in 1931, and to Lieutenant de Vaisseau (Captain of a small vessel or subordinate commander on a large one) in 1937.During this time, he cycled through many different vessels, including the Adroit-Class Destroyer Boulonnais, the ancient Cruiser Edgar Quinet, the Battleship Provence, as well as the submarines Nautilus and Phoque.

At the start of the war, Evenou was posted to the Contre-Torpilleur(Destroyer) Tigre of the Jaguar Class. After only a few months he was transferred to the Submarine Cruiser Surcouf, the largest submarine in the world, raiding convoys out of Guadeloupe. He continued his rise to the rank to Capitaine de Frégate, commanding the Surcouf.


In Early 1940, Amiral François Darlan, too critical of his own government, was sacked as Chief of the Navy, but he was happy to retain command of the '1ière Flotte de France', the flagship fleet of the Marine Nationale. Darlan was replaced by Etienne Schlumberger, a young Naval Engineer who studied in the Ecole Polytechnique, with brains, but little combat or command experience.

Schlumberger had always been a strange choice, and shortly before the election, Evenou made it into the papers by decimating a German Convoy bound for Boston to pick up american rare materials off the coast of St. John. The Americans were mad, but as the sinking happened in British waters, they couldn't really justify anything more than a stern letter. No Americans were harmed, and it was a great propaganda victory, especially the part where 'Richard' showed mercy by picking survivors from the Wreckage and delivering them to St. John. On top of his giant submarine no less. Sadly, we didn't get a picture of this, but you can imagine the scoop.


Evenou was loved by the public and he was thus soon promoted to Amiral and given the Chief of the Navy job. Evenou is a fan of big ships and submarines, he wants to preserve and expand the French Battleship fleets in order to be ready for the inevitable (in his mind) Decisive Naval Battle. Out of protest against the fact that the government refused to start building a series of 12 super-battleships, he has rejoined the Surcouf in Guadeloupe and is leading convoy raiding operations in and around the Caribbean, he is said to receive his briefings via coded radio transmission every week or so. (Capital Ship Practical Decay -25%)

Chief of the Air Force (Ministre de l'Air): Victor Denain (ARV)
Denain-min.jpg

Born in 1880, Victor Léon Ernest Denain studied at the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr , graduating in 1903 as a Cavalryman. He served in the 6ème Régiment de Chasseurs à Cheval (Cavalry) before switching to aviation. To that effect, he studied at the 'Ecole Supérieure de Guerre', graduating in 1914 as an Aeroplane-based observer, and an staffer. In August 1915 he gets his pilot's license at the Ecole d'Aviation Militaire in Chartres. Commissioned as a Commander, Denain became chief of the Aeronautical Service of the French Army of the Orient.


After the Great War, Commander Denain served in the Levant under Général Weygand until 1923, when he joined the Military House of the President (a military advisory board to the president). Then, in 1928, he was named chief of the French Military Mission in Poland. Between March 1933 and February 1934, he served as interim-Chief of the Air Force, replacing Général Joseph, then he became Ministre de l'Air (Air (force) Minister). Denain stayed on as Minister of the Air until mid 1938, when he was replaced by a political appointee from the Socialist SFIO who had never flown a plane in his life, probably to placate the socialists in the governing coalition and especially the Communists who were still tacitly supporting the coalition, while the Social Conservatives were having trouble with the direction the government had taken.

Denain returned to the Army with the rank of Général d'Armée Aérienne (full Air General), with the job of Inspector General of French Overseas Aerial Forces. A brilliant Pilot, Denain tended to fly himself everywhere, even when he was Minister of the Air. A much told story is that of Minister Denain flying his own Bréguet 27, accompagnied by two squadrons of Bréguet 27's and a Dewoitine, to the funeral of king Alexader of Yugoslavia in 1934. As an inspector he personally flew daring long-range flights into remote Colonial Air Fields to do his inspecting.

The new government likes people with a Military backgroung, not to mention a good reputation within the higher ranks of the French Army (Denain is Général Weygand's protégé). Denain makes even more sense as France, right now, only consists of those territories Général Denain used to inspect. During his first term as Air Minister Denain was already a strong proponent of Bomber production and Carpet Bombing, but the Spanish Civil war is said to have turned his mind more towards close Air Support. However considering the ranges involved in managing the French overseas empire, it's probable that Denain has reverted to a new type of Heavy Aircraft thinking, prioritising range over size and bomb load. (Heavy Aircraft Practical Decay -25%)

'Mother' and our Hanoi spy cell have provided a good amount of information on the remaining french Industry, armed forces, and research. It should be noted that this:

Industry:

A total of 18 Industrial complexes, or 29 effective IC if we take laws and efficiency into account.
Current production is devoted to the construction of convoy Escort ships and expanding the Air Base in
Edd along the Suez Canal. Considering France doesn't seem to have any land-based planes left, this seems pretty pointless. Maybe they have a deal with the RAF?
As for Resources, they are using up more metal and Energy than they are producing, and will run out Metal in a few days, and out of Energy in a month. They do have a stockpile of more than 6.000 tons of Rare Materials. Money is also running low.
Most of the Industry is producing new weapons and supplies for existing units.
Armed Forces:
In northern Africa 8 Divisions were present at the end of December. Of these there is one light Cavalry Division with a mix of trucks and horses, one Mountaineer Division, and 6 Infantry Divisions, of which one is a Belgian expeditionary Division. Some Armoured Cars, Artillery, Anti-Tank Guns, and Anti-Air Guns are present as well.
All this is organised within the two Corps of the 'Armée de Tunésie', which reports to Weygand's Armée de l'Afrique, and finally to Tunis HQ, based in Oran.
Moreover, there are two Garrison Units dug in in Casablanca, and all of the french Surface ships are based in north Africa:
In Oran Naval Base, there are 4 Battleships, the Carrier Béarn, 6 Heavy Cruisers, 3 Light Cruisers, 32 Destroyers, and a badly Damaged troop transport ship
In Casablanca Naval Base, Fast Battleship Dunkerque, 3 Light Cruisers, 15 Destroyers and 30 troop transport ships.
All of these units are out of Supply, but they have plenty of fuel, and enough transports to carry all of them, minus some equipment. Which means that they might be able to embark and sail to Lebanon, or even Indochina when they run out of land to retreat on.

It is believed a further three light Mountaineer Divisions are located across Eastern Africa near Ethiopia, and a single Infantry Division is based in Hanoi, another in Brazzaville, and another on the Pacific island of Nouméa.

A number of Submarines are based across the Atlantic, and commanded from Dakar HQ, we believe most of them are raiding in the Caribbean region. There number is estimated to be somewhere between 60 and 90 submarines, including the Surcouf.

Only the French forces in North and West Africa are believed to experience a lack of supplies, all the other theatres are well supplied and ready to fight.

There is a serious lack of trained officers with barely more than half the needed number. Without a homeland, the French are also badly divided, and National unity is at about 20%

Research and technology:

We believe that french scientists in Hanoi are currently working on better Medium Tank Armour, while theorists seem to be working on better mobile warfare. Both perfectly logical pursuits in their current situation, with an infantry-based army and very limited industry.
Despite this, the French Army did set up large Military Academies in Hanoi to attempt to make up for the Officer shortage, which is taking up a majority of french intellectuals in Indochina. Considering the small number of units, officer ratios could reach acceptable levels in about 3 months.
Technology and Doctrines of French units are acceptable, but there are serious doubts on the ability of the government in exile to keep it that way for years to come.

In conclusion, France is still alive. Their fleet is still a force to be reckoned with, if they ever manage to supply or rebase it. Their remaining Army could still cause some damage in smaller theatres, again, if they are well supplied... If the French manage to evacuate out of North Africa, their troops, and especially their navy, can still make a bit of a difference, although all depends on the new Government's handling of it's, now meagre, troops, resources and industry.

There is no need to pay serious attention to what France is doing anymore.

The next report will be on the United Kingdom, hoping that some of our spies survive long enough to be of some help,
Until the next time,

'Tri', 'Shest', and 'Mother',

There you go, a comprehensive report on what we know about France right now.

'Shest' has sent another coded message to confirm that all our agents in the UK will be laying low until they get some more reinforcements.

That'll be all for now, I'm off to lunch,


Greetings,

'Odin'

Notes from your WritAAR:

It should be mentioned that the in game 'popular front' is slightly different from the historical one, as the government make-up in 1937 would suggest. Party affiliations are often incorrect, and several party name abbreviations in game seem strange... Then again, with so many parties changing names and coalitions, not to mention all the flip-flopping politicians of the period, this was probably inevitable, considering paradox has gotten much simpler details wrong... Anyway, I love how the game threw a Monarchist curve-ball, and how it bunched monarchists and Generals together... maybe this was a happy accident, but it makes some sense... I didn't have too hard a time explaining it anyway.


Interestingly, in OTL Henri Giraud was captured by von Kleist in 1940, he repeated the trick of escaping German Captivity in 1942. He wasn't well received by the Vichy government once he turned up in Northern Africa, they pressured him to return voluntarily into German Captivity. Giraud then said he would only return to captivity if the Germans released all married French POWs., especially the fathers amongst them.. The Germans even wrote out a hit on him during this period, which made Giraud a hero of the resistance despite himself. (He had expressed mild support for the Pétain régime while in captivity). De Gaulle, a long standing rival of his, actually asked the British to try to get Giraud to London. In the end Giraud left North Africa on board a plane that Admiral Darlan (then chief of the Vichy Armed Forces) lent him. He actually returned to France and re-iterated his demands. The Pétain government then forcibly retired Giraud from the military. Giraud continued to stay on the fence, pledging his loyalty to Pétain, but explicitly not endorsing the Vichy Government's wish that Germany win the war, and not returning into captivity despite mounting pressure. He was against the idea of collaborating with Germany which made his situation inside the 'Zone Libre' and his relation with the Vichy Government ever more tense.


His reputation made it unlikely that the regime would detain him and send him to the Germans, instead they kept Giraud under close watch, and let him live in a friend's house near Lyon. He was approached several times by resistance movements but refused all of their proposals. However, he did go on to contact Free French and American actors in the context of possible Allied landings, and the possibility of French regulars fighting against the Germans. Giraud remained in contact with many French officers who were in the resistance.

When the Americans started looking for an alternative to de Gaulle to rally french troops to their cause. Giraud became the figurehead for an Anti-Vichy, anti-de Gaulle movement of officers, disillusioned with Pétain and resentful of collaboration. He was approached by representatives of the US government in 1942, hoping that he would be part of Operation Torch in order to rally as many local French Troops to the Allied Cause. Giraud insisted on a landing in Southern France, but in the end, he was extracted from Southern France by the British submarine HMS Seraph. One of his most famous quotes is:

We don't want the Americans to liberate us, we want them to help us liberate ourselves”

In the end his political participation to operation Torch was minimal,because when the Americans discovered that Darlan was in Alger, and willing to negotiate, they concluded that Darlan would have more weight in persuading French troops to join the Allies. But Giraud's presence did have one significant effect: De Gaulle was excluded from all operations in French North Africa. And Darlan quickly named Giraud Maréchal and Chief of Ground and Air Forces in the newly liberated French North Africa. Only after the assassination of Darlan, Giraud replaced him as leader of French North Africa. Giraud managed to regroup many ex-Vichy units in support of the Allied cause, and liberation of Metropolitan France. In 1943, his command was significantly larger than the Free French Army. He wasn't a good with politics though and had to be pressured by the Americans to start modifying some of the restrictive Vichy laws in place.

In August 1943, an arrangement was finally reached with de Gaulle, and the two take joint command of all French forces fighting on the Allied side under the banner of Armée française de la Libération. De Gaulle manages to isolate Giraud, however, and despite Giraud signing everything along with De Gaulle, the latter is actually in power. He continued to regain influence throughout the end on the war and the writing of the 4th Republic's constitution, being elected to the Chamber of Representatives, but he fails, and De Gaulle is remembered the hero of the liberation. Somehow, Giraud seems like a good choice as leader of a France that keeps fighting, even in exile. In this ATL, Giraud is the hero, and de Gaulle is marginalised...



Maurice Bourges-Maunoroy was a celebrated resistance fighter throughout the war and was awarded the cross of 'Compagnon de la Libération' by Charles de Gaulle for his heroic efforts within the resistance. In OTL he was very politically active I, the 50's being president of the Minister's Council, Interior Minister, Minister of National Defense, Minister of the Armed Forces, Armaments Minister, Minister of transport, tourism, and public works, Minister of Commerce and Industry, and Finance Minister, some for several stints, all for very short periods of time ranging from two days to a year and 15 days, between 1950 and 1958.

An ace in the hole for a government that keeps fighting...


de Guillebon was in Africa when Pétain made his deal, and he immediately rallied to de Gaule with his unit. He received the same award of 'Compagnong de la Libération'. He rose quickly through the ranks of the Armée France Libre, he fought in Africa, until april 1944, then on the 1st of August his unit (2e Division Blindée of which he was the chief of Staff by this point) was deployed to Normandy. He continued to rise through the ranks during the liberation, fighting and leading with distinction . He finished the war as a Lieutenant-Colonel and continues his rise through the ranks after the war. Going through Indochina, Bern (as a Military Attaché), the Centre for Military Higher Studies (CHEM), the Subdivision de Gabes in Tunisia (as Commander), the Ecole Polytechnique (as overall commander), the Vième Région Militarie ( commander), and he finished his career as a 'Général de Corps d'Armée' (Lt. General)

Not sure why exactly he's a 'Resource Industrialist' but otherwise a nice pick.


Répiton-Preneuf fled to Palestine when the Armistice was signed and joins the Free French. He would prove to be a deft negotiator between pro and anti-vichy forces in Syria and Libanon, assisting Général Catroux. In 1943, he becomes part of the General Staff of Général Leclerc and his 2ième Division Blindée. His role within the Division is to run the 2ème Bureau, the intelligence bureau of the Division. He was one of the key players of Leclerc's general staff. After the war he followed Leclerc to Idochina, taking part in negotiations with the Viet Nam. In 1946, he quit the Army at the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and returns tot the petroleum industry with Shell Indochina, Shell Morocco, and postings in Iran and London. He comits suicide in 1962 and received a large state funeral.

Another great pick for this a-historical cabinet that keeps on fighting. Even his role in intelligence makes sense, as Général Leclerc himself selected him for a role in intelligence in OTL.


In this alternate history Gamelin isn't tainted nearly as much by the defeat of France to the Germans, not only because it took longer than in OTL, but also because he wasn't in overall command when things started to go wrong, he only failed to right a sinking ship in TTL, instead of being part of the reason it was so easy to sink in the first place... in OTL, Gamelin was imprisoned in Germany, and after the war he wrote a book trying to justify his actions in the 1939-1940 period. When he died in 1958, the French government refused any elaborate ceremony including a guard of honour or a Mass at the famed St-Louis des Invalides. He was inhumated like any other 'Légion d'honneur' recipient. He had received the medal due to his performance in the First World War. He is actually a perfect example of an old guard General. He was a tactical genius in WW1, and he failed to adapt for WW2, which is part, if not all, off the reason for the swift French defeat.


This is a very plausible choice, and his Static Defense Doctrine is spot on, although in hindsight it might not have been very wise for ATL France, in game it makes sense though, as all their current units, except one, are Infantry-based...


Evenou is of those who refused to stop fighting. He was at least partially responsible for moving 4 submarines, the Surcouf Submarine Cruiser, and the Battleship Courbet into British hands shortly before the Armistice. He continued to serve on board the Free French Contre-Torpilleur Léopard, with which he escorted Arctic convoys. During one of the missions, his ship picked 39 British sailors from the wreckage of a cargo ship before chasing and successfully sinking a submarine that was part of the raid. From 1942, his ship relocated to seas around Madeira, where the Léopard, together with HMS Pelican, and HMS Spey, sunk U-136. He was also responsible for securing the island of Mauritius and the allegiance of Réunion to the Free French cause. After his ship was beached and wrecked in 1943, he commanded naval forces in Madagascar until the end of the war. After the war he remained in the Navy in various administrative functions. He commanded a ship for the last time, the Cruiser Georges Leygues, during bombardements in Indochina in the prelude to the Vietnam war. He retired from the Marine Nationale in 1969, a full Admiral and continued to teach a the French institute of Navigation until 1972. He died in 2002.


Denain was replaced by Déat in 1936, and Déat didn't last a year and was followed by two more politicians before the Armistice. He rejoined the Ministry of Defense as an advisor to Poland in March 1939. As a member of the reserves, he did not take part in the second world war, being 60 years old. He was officially retired from French Air Force Reserves in 1946, with more than 1600 flight hours under his belt. Victor Denain died in 1952 of natural causes
 

Eurasia

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A nice detailed report for a poor, poor, government-in-exile that will likely not take any part in the future of the Great War.

Do we have any plans for the liberation of Western Europe? :D
 

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Very meticulous and detailed. Interesting that in this game you also got Giraud - as I got in Talking Turkey's France, though strangely as both President and Prime Minister - as Premier. In my other France AAR de Gaulle became President. It shows how varied (and seemingly random) the results can be!

Alas, in this game France folded as it normally does, although at least after putting up a fight.
 
3rd of February 1941, 'Odin', 10-day report #149

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The 3rd of February 1941, Vologda, -10,5°C, 10am Moscow Time,

Report on the state of the Soviet Union for the ten day period between the 25th of January and the 3rd of February 1941,

by 'Odin'

Army:
2 new Eng Regiments have been deployed to 26. and 32. SD in the Far East.
Army numbers (Brigades/Personnel) Reserves included (these numbers don't include regiments being upgraded):
Front line troops: 601 / 1.803.000
Support troops: 224 / 224.000
Total fighting troops: 825 / 2.027.000
Headquarters: 58 / 58.000
Total Army Personnel: 883 / 2.085.000
Officers: 80.517 + / 88.160 needed / 91,331 %
Active Leaders: 243 / 180 more available
98. Strelkovaya Diviziya, a new Rifle Division (Infx3, AT, Art) has started training while weapons are produced.
Another Artillery Regiment's worth of Guns has started production, these will join a Rifle Division on the Western Front.
Two more Regiments of Engineers have started training, these will be added to Far Eastern Rifle Divisions.
Air Force:
No changes in the VVS or the Navy Air Fleet for the last 10 days
Navy:
No changes in the navy for the last 10 days
Politics / International:
The Norwegian Front
Norway (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 85,0
Germany (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 83,9
GNW03-02-41-min.jpeg

The noose around Oslo continues to tighten with the German capture of Honefoss to the North-West, and Dokka, 50km to the North.
British North Africa Front
United Kingdom (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 77,7
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
BNAF03-02-41-min.jpeg

The British are now fully on the offensive along the Mediterranean coast, they have reached Abu Haggag, with the front now about halfway between El Iskandarîya and Tobruch. Let us hope they can keep up the momentum.
French North Africa Front
France is a Government in exile.
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
The Italian March towards Oran seems to have stopped. There are several possible explanations for this: the likeliest one is that the Regio Esercito is moving most of their units here to Egypt to face the British. It would be wishful thinking to believe the French have suddenly started fighting back in a meaningful way...
East Africa & Ethiopia Front
Ethiopia (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 75,9
France is a Government in exile.
United Kingdom (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 77,7
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
EEAF03-02-41-min.jpeg

The 3 province Eastern Ethiopian pocket around Jimma has been reduced to just Jimma. Here too, the momentum is clearly in favour of the British. It's anyone's guess how long Ethiopia will continue to exist...
The Greek Front
Greece (Surrender Progress / NU): 26,40 / 87,2
Bulgaria (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 71,8
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
GRF03-02-41-min.jpeg

The Italians have taken Thesprotiko, widening their coastal advance more inland. Bulgaria has done the same by taking Kozani. The advance is slow, as both nations seem to have diverted most of their troops in the area to the invasion of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia (Surrender Progress / NU): 21.8 / 65,4 loss of Skopje.
Germany (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 83,9
Bulgaria (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 71,8
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5​
North-West Front
YNF03-02-41-min.jpeg

The Wehrmacht has made some inroads along the Hungarian border. Further advances out of Italy were made along the Adriatic coast by both Italian and German troops. The Germans are 80km from Zagreb, and 60km from Ljubljana. The Italians are also 60km from Ljubljana, no move has been made into Split.
South-East Front
YSF03-02-41-min.jpeg

The Italians have beaten the Bulgarians to Skopje, with the latter reaching Stip, to the north-East. The Yugoslav advance into Bulgaria along the Romanian border has been reversed. The only positive for the Yugoslavs is that they managed to reach the outskirts of Tirane. If they capture the main Italian port in the area, that could take away some of the pressure by making the Italian troops harder to supply. However, I doubt that will be enough to stabilise the front. Yugoslavia is slowly but surely being devoured from both sides.
Industry:
6 batteries of 5 fixed AA-Guns have been delivered to the Dubrouna fortifications, Homel, Berezan Air Base, Novomoskovosk Air Base, and Kryvyy Rih in the West, and Khabarovsk in the Far East.
No new batteries will be built, and production capacity has been allocated to the Army.

Working Industrial Capacity / available capacity: 238 / 321
IC Usage: ( Allocated IC / Need )
Upgrades: 16,40 / 16,44
Reinforcement: 2,80 / 2,82
Supplies: 45,15 / 37,11
Production: 227,76 / 229,70 (the Licensed MP remains unfunded)
Consumer Goods: 28,89 / 28,89​
Stockpiles:
Energy: Maximum tonnes =
Metal: 93.304 tonnes +
Rares: 33.149 tonnes +
Crude: 98.514 barrels -
Supplies: 20.118 tonnes +
Fuel: 98.228 barrels -
Money: 2.243 +
Intelligence:
Spy numbers, spies in (active / added / lost / caught by us)
France (Covert Operations / Counterespionage): 5 / 0 / 0 / 0
{ Germany (/): 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 }
{ Japan (/): 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 }​
UK (None) : 6 / 1 / 5 / 1
Other: 0 / 0 / 0 / 6
Total: 11 / 1 / 5 / 3
Reserves: 0
Spy training leadership expenditure: 0,20 (a new spy every 30 days)
We have so far recruited 16 like-minded Covert Operatives in our French sleeper cell.
4 of our agents were discovered on the 28th of January while they were planning to eliminate several Allied Spies, in the ensuing skirmish, all of them were killed, taking a single Scotland Yard Officer, and a South-African Spy Hunter with them.
The very next day, another agent was caught attempting to steal blueprints in the Rosyth shipyards.
The order to lay low for a while came too late for that last one. No spies have been lost since, and 'Odinatsat's cover in particular seems to remain intact.
Research:
A new Artillery Barrel & Ammunition (Level 6) Design has left the drawing table and entered our production lines.
152_mm_howitzer-gun_M1937-min.jpg

A 152mm ML-20 prototype during testing
This Gun is the spiritual successor of the old Imperial Russian Army 152mm obr. 1910 siege gun, which is still in use in some of our Artillery Regiments after receiving many updates. In 1937, the GAU (Main Artillery Directorate) suggested a serious redesign was needed, as the 1910 design was getting old, despite various updates. The lack of versatility of the old gun also had to be addressed.
The resulting 152mm GP obr. 1937 Howitzer was developed by the Research team led by F.F. Petrov, in the Research offices of the No.172 Plant near Perm. Initially two prototypes were proposed, the ML-15 and the ML-20. The former was lighter and somewhat more mobile, but it's more complicated design made it less reliable, and harder to produce in large numbers. The ML-20 is less complicated and production lines can quickly switch from the obr. 1910/34 to this design.

With a 7.3 ton weight, and a 4.5m long barrel this isn't a subtle Artillery piece. Despite it's size it is quite a versatile piece, unlike it's predecessor, able to serve both Howitzer and Gun roles. This is thanks to a wide range of possible elevations (from -2° to 65°), and a plethora of different propellant and Ammunition options.
In tests, the ML-20 prototype achieved a 17km firing range and a maximum fire rate of 4 152,4mm rounds per minute. There are still some issues with accuracy in heavy winds and the split-trail carrier could do with some improvements to allow for movement without retracting the barrel, and higher speed with it retracted.
Special care was taken to make the new barrel suitable for use within the existing Su-152 Self-Propelled Gun Design. All of our Artillery Regiments are now in the process of being equipped with the new 152mm obr. 1937, including swapping the barrels of our Su-152 Self-Propelled units.
Our Artillery Regiments will be getting 18 of the new guns each, as an addition to the latest versions of the 122mm guns already widely in use.
Now, our weapons designers are working on better Carriage and Sight (Level 6) designs for the new Artillery.
No changes to LS Distribution
Statistics:
National Unity: 83,113 (+0,01)
Neutrality: 0,00 =
Dissent: 0,00 =
Manpower:
Available: 2.090.000
Men To reinforce(need): 2.640
Men To mobilise(need): See above
Monthly gain: 48.200 Men (1 fully mobilised Infx3, AT Division every 7 days)​
Party Popularity:
- Communist Party: 54 (+3)
- Trotskyite: 9 (+5)
- Bukharinite: 1 =

- Octobrist: 10 =
- Social-Revolutionary: 0 (-3)
- Trudoviks: 0 =
- Kadets: 3 (-6)

- Tsarists: 6 (+2)
- NTS: 2 =
- POA: 15 (-1)
The Communist Party, and it's vaguely Leninist-Trotskyite wing have gained a significant amount of popularity. This increase in support comes entirely from the Capitalist-minded coming back into the fold. Support for Monarchists and National-Socialists remains relatively high, but it seems to have stopped growing, for now anyway. In any case, our government now has a comfortable 63% majority of the people supporting it.m
Party Organisation:
- Communist Party: 75,44 (+0,44)
- Trotskyite: 10,30 =
- Bukharinite: 5,40 =

- Octobrist: 5,90 =
- Trudoviks: 2,70 =
- Social-Revolutionary: 0,00 =
- Kadets: 0,00 =

- Tsarists: 0,00 =
- NTS: 0,20 =
- POA: 0,00 =
This Information is accurate on the morning of the 3rd of February 1941, I hope it serves you well in fine-tuning your possible suggestions.

'Odin'​
 
Last edited:

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Nice name but would it fit the tiny Division name window? :)
If I abbreviate Kavaleriyskaya to Kav. and Diviziya to Div., both things that are common in AI-generated names, there is plenty of space...

A nice detailed report for a poor, poor, government-in-exile that will likely not take any part in the future of the Great War.
Very meticulous and detailed. Interesting that in this game you also got Giraud - as I got in Talking Turkey's France, though strangely as both President and Prime Minister - as Premier. In my other France AAR de Gaulle became President. It shows how varied (and seemingly random) the results can be!
Thanks. I do my best to uphold the standards of nuance and detail we've all grown used to with these reports. They're fun to research and write, not to mention I have a running university project on the Parliamentary Democracy of the future where we propose (in group), our ideal future system for the Brussels Regional Parliament. Later on we will have to design infrastructure that embodies our proposal. A 'Parliament of the future' competition for Brussels Architecture students. The research done for these special reports is coming in handily...

As mentioned above, Giraud was de Gaulle's main rival in the politics of France's liberation, Giraud missed out because de Gaulle was more politically savvy, and also because the Americans dumped him on the sidelines during operation Torch. There is some logic to their prominent presence in politics within the context of the war. Which one wins out in game probably has to do with the popularity of the respective parties they are closest to.

Alas, in this game France folded as it normally does, although at least after putting up a fight.
France didn't fold in the same treacherous way they did historically, they evacuated to their empire only when the situation became untenable. They didn't give up too easily, and didn't form Vichy...

Do we have any plans for the liberation of Western Europe? :D
'Liberation' I'm sure we'll find a way to make real Communists out of them, either integrating them into the Soviet Union, or maybe a series of coups or something... if we ever get that far that is.
 

alhoward

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'Liberation' I'm sure we'll find a way to make real Communists out of them, either integrating them into the Soviet Union, or maybe a series of coups or something... if we ever get that far that is.
Whether you end up choosing to conquer or puppet them, make sure you add the "Install Communism" war goal, in case you decide to release them as puppets. It seems weird when you still have Adolf Hitler in charge of a "Communist" Germany, and frankly its just a lot easier than having to launch a coup in a nation that you just occupied. Then again, maybe you'll lose the war and your secret government will have to figure out how to run things from Irkutsk, or wherever the capitol ends up after Bitter Peace.
 

Finshades

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Oooh, shiny new artillery. Peace and freedom for the proletariat through superior firepower!

Yugoslavia is doing better than I expected, I have to admit. I was half expecting them to collapse within the week. Glad to see the heavy AA runs becoming ready; I still think the lines could do with more, but then again, can't have everything and the Army does need the investment. I forget, what's the airbase situation like in the Far East? If the Japanese do attack, a few Shturmovik squadrons re-deployed from the West (assuming the Western front is stable) could really ruin their day...
 
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roverS3

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Whether you end up choosing to conquer or puppet them, make sure you add the "Install Communism" war goal, in case you decide to release them as puppets. It seems weird when you still have Adolf Hitler in charge of a "Communist" Germany, and frankly its just a lot easier than having to launch a coup in a nation that you just occupied.
I don't think there would be much puppeting, if a country doesn't decide to go Communist and/or join the Comintern, we'll have to do it for them, by integrating them into the Soviet Union, or by organising a coup...

Then again, maybe you'll lose the war and your secret government will have to figure out how to run things from Irkutsk, or wherever the capitol ends up after Bitter Peace.
This could make for some interesting narrative... though success is still the goal... maybe we'll find the Secret Committee wasn't such a great idea after all... or maybe we'll just realise that we shouldn't have built those Carriers...

Oooh, shiny new artillery. Peace and freedom for the proletariat through superior firepower!
Who doesn't like a shiny great big gun to further one's political agenda, and we'll have thousands of them...

Yugoslavia is doing better than I expected, I have to admit. I was half expecting them to collapse within the week
I have a feeling that their luck won't last... I'd give them a month, two months tops.

Glad to see the heavy AA runs becoming ready; I still think the lines could do with more, but then again, can't have everything and the Army does need the investment.
The Army really needs that extra push... Even with the massive expanded industry of the Soviet Union, we can't fund everything...

I forget, what's the airbase situation like in the Far East? If the Japanese do attack, a few Shturmovik squadrons re-deployed from the West (assuming the Western front is stable) could really ruin their day...
I'd say that the shturmovik's too short a range to be very useful in the far east. We do have 4 wings of Yak-4 tactical bombers which would be very suited to these missions. As for Air Bases, we have built two Air Bases to cover the front, one in Tumnin, the other in Aksenovo Zilovskoye, they will soon be at level 4 and level 3 respectively. We should be able to use La-5s to make sure no carrier planes mess with our troops along the pacific coast, and consistently fly missions with 400 Yak-4's, all part of veteran wings from the Winter War, predictions are that they should be able to operate mostly unopposed as the only known Air Base in Manchukuoi is in Harbin, out of intercept range from most of the front. Our new bases, on the other hand, are close enough that we can cover much of it with interceptors, or all of it with Ftr if needed. As long as Vladivostok remains in our hands we'll have that huge base as well. I think we will be able to guarantee local Air superiority, even without Vladivostok Air Base.

Thank you for your input.
 
12th of February 1941, Inauguration of the Kyiv CV

roverS3

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The 12th of February 1941, Sevastopol Navy Docks, 5,9°C, 2pm Moscow Time,

The main Sevastopol Navy Dock was exceptionally open to the public, and despite the cold, there was a big crowd. Soldiers had been deployed to make sure no one came too close to the edge. In front of the assembled people and the international press, there was a long series of speeches. The last words were uttered by the Chief of the Navy:

"After years of research and hard work, the Soviet Union of Socialist Republics has just completed the first of a new generation of Aircraft Carriers. Ladies and Gentlemen of the proletariat, Comrade Secretary General, Comrade Commissar of Armaments, Comrade Marshall of the Soviet Union and Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army, members of the press, I give you, the Kyiv!"
The crowd cheered, looking in amazement at the new ship. Behind the podium, cranes were loading the last planes onto the shiny new Carrier. Comrade secretary General stood up and joined the stage, congratulating the Commander in Chief of the Red Navy and announcing his promotion to Rear-Admiral. Then, Commander in Chief Mikhail Vladimirovich Vikrorov, announced that he was taking personal command of the brand new 1. Avianosets Flote, joining the Kyiv on it's first training trip. He started walking, along his saluting naval officers, then up a gangplank that was running along the side of the ship. As he reached the top, sailors on board were throwing down the ropes and the engines came to life.

A minute later, the Kyiv was slowly pulled away from the dock by a series of tugboats, and soon she was sailing through the bay on her own power. Along the main bay, people stopped to look, some cheered, others just stared. In 15 minutes, the Kyiv was entering the Black sea, followed by a trail of 20 Sevastopol-Class Destroyers.

Moskva.jpg

An elevation of the Kyiv, all similarities to the French Carrier Béarn are entirely coincidental. The wide front island is loosely based on the Gangut's command tower, it is slightly narrower than Gangut's Command tower, but shorter, and wider than Béarn's Island.
Despite this triumphalism, many of the high ranking navy personnel weren't enjoying this as much as they would have. Many a captain was grumbling about cutbacks and the fact that the dockyard that built the Kyiv would be producing 152mm guns for the army now. When the Moskva was launched, there was optimism and the expectation of a grand naval programme, now there was deception, as said naval programme was now effectively halved in size, as if the Kyiv signalled the beginning of the end for 1940's Naval expansion. Many feared that the Kyiv's sister ship Minsk could be the last Capital ship to be built for some time. This is, of course, overly pessimistic, as at least one more Kyiv-Class Carrier will be built once the Minsk has been completed.

Piat' who had been looking on from a small inconspicuous barge in the bay, was overjoyed when he got back to our safe house along said bay.

Now we will go and have a lavish late lunch to celebrate this momentous occasion,
It is worthy of a small feast,

'Odin'​
 
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Eurasia

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Well, the Soviet Union has its Carrier. Which, to be honest, its CAG will be somewhat useful when war starts.
 

Finshades

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Great update, and picture!
 

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A big day for the Soviet Navy - always like a good naval picture/profile. Was amused by the talk of all the hard research that went into it. Very true - even if much of the research was by the French!
 

roverS3

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Well, the Soviet Union has its Carrier. Which, to be honest, its CAG will be somewhat useful when war starts.
Let"s hope so

Was amused by the talk of all the hard research that went into it. Very true - even if much of the research was by the French!
;):cool:Shhh... the French might hear us...

Great update, and picture!
A big day for the Soviet Navy - always like a good naval picture/profile.
I wanted to do a photograph, but I couldn't find pictures at the same angle, not even a straight side view, for both. In my search I did find these elevations which were similar enough for a decent mashup, so that's what you get, it turned out better than I thought it would. FYI, The bottom part of the hull, and the front island are from Gangut (ex-Sevastopol), most of the hull, including the flight deck is from Béarn, and the rear Island is a combination of the rear structure of the Gangut and the top part of the Command tower from the same ship...
 

Bullfilter

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I wanted to do a photograph, but I couldn't find pictures at the same angle, not even a straight side view, for both. In my search I did find these elevations which were similar enough for a decent mashup, so that's what you get, it turned out better than I thought it would. FYI, The bottom part of the hull, and the front island are from Gangut (ex-Sevastopol), most of the hull, including the flight deck is from Béarn, and the rear Island is a combination of the rear structure of the Gangut and the top part of the Command tower from the same ship...
Very well done - wouldn’t know it’s a mash up to look at it! :):cool:
 
13th of February 1941, 'Odin', 10-day report #150

roverS3

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The 13th of February 1941, Vologda, -10,5°C, 10am Moscow Time,

Report on the state of the Soviet Union for the ten day period between the 4th and the 13th of February 1941,

by 'Odin'

Army:
97 Strelkovaya Diviziya (Infx3, AT, Art) has been deployed to the newly created XXXII SK, 3ya Armiya, VVS West / Reserves AG, STAVKA. in Wilno.
185 MSD, a newly trained Motx3, SP-Art, Eng Division has been deployed to Lt. General Krasnopevtsev's XXX MSK, Armoured Army Group, STAVKA.
3 Vozdushno-Desantnaya Diviziya, our second Airborne Division (Parx3), has finished training, they are currently based out of Moskva Air Base.

Army numbers (Brigades/Personnel) Reserves included (these numbers don't include regiments being upgraded):
Front line troops: 610 / 1.830.000
Support troops: 228 / 228.000
Total fighting troops: 838 / 2.058.000
Headquarters: 59 / 59.000
Total Army Personnel: 897 / 2.117.000
Officers: 81.017 + / 89.710 needed / 90,310 %
Active Leaders: 246 / 177 more available
107. Strelkovaya Diviziya, another new Rifle Division (Infx3, AT, Art) has started training while weapons are produced.
Lorries and rifles for 202. Motostrelkovaya Diviziya (Motx3, SP-Art, Eng) have started rolling out of the factories, the men have started training.
Army Leadership:
New Lt. General Romanenko I.G., SK2, LW, DD was posted to XXXII SK, 3ya Armiya, VVS West / Reserves AG, STAVKA.
New Maj. General Cherokmanov, SK2, OD has been given command of the new 97 SD, XXXII SK, 3ya Armiya, VVS West / Reserves AG, STAVKA.
New Maj. General Korovnikov, SK3, Trck was put in charge of the new 185 MSD, XXX MSK, Armoured Army Group, STAVKA.
New Maj. General Rodmitsev, SK2, Cdo was assigned to command the brand new 3 VVD, STAVKA
Air Force:
100 Il-2M Shturmoviks Close Air Support Bombers have been delivered to the VVS, they will form 25. ShAD, and are to be part of III. ShAD.
Aeroplane Numbers (Wings/Planes):
Interceptors: 23 / 2.300
Multi-Role Fighters: 3 / 300
Close Air Support: 6 / 600
Carrier Air Groups: 6 / 600
Single Engined: 37 / 3.700
Tactical Bomber: 4 / 400
Total Bombers: 10 / 1.000
Transport Planes: 2 / 200
Total VVS: 38 / 3.800
Total Navy: 6 / 600
Total Airplanes: 44 / 4.400
Active Leaders: 14 / 28 Reserve
The production line was shifted to La-5 long range fighters (Ftr), of which the next 100 will form 57. IAD
VVS Leadership
New Air Maj. General Kutakhov SK3, TB has been assigned command of III. ShAK, consisting, right now, of 200 Il-2's.
Navy:
The first Kyiv-Class Fleet Carrier, Kyiv, has been delivered to 1. Avianosets Flote based out of Sevastopol.
Navy Numbers (Flotillas / Ships)
Transports: 2 / 10
AG-boat Class (I): 11 / 55
Series II Class(II): 9 / 45
Series V-bis Class(III): 3 / 15
Submarines: 23 / 115
Norvik-Class (I) : 3 / 15
Gnevnyi-Class (II): 2 / 10
Kiev-Class (IV): 1 / 5
Sevastopol-Class (IV+): 4 / 20
Destroyers: 10 / 50
Light Cruisers / Profitern-Class (I): 3
Escorts: 13 / 53
Heavy Cruiser / Krasnyi Kavkaz (I): 1
Battleships / Gangut-Class (I): 3
Escort Carriers / Moskva-Class (I): 2
Carriers / Kyiv-Class (I): 1
Capitals: 7
Total combat ships: 20 / 60
Total Navy: 45 / 185
Leaders: 13/ 21 Reserve
No follow-up project was started, workers and factories have been diverted to Artillery upgrades.​
Navy Leadership:
Chief of the Navy Viktorov SK2, Spt has taken command of the as of yet leaderless 1. Avianosets Flote (CV, DDx4), he was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral for the occasion.
New Commander Alafouzov SK3 has taken over from now Rear Admiral Viktorov as commander of IX. Flot Podlodok (SSx3) based out of Vladivostok.
Politics / International:
The Norwegian Front
Norway (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 85,0
Germany (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 83,7 Something is seriously affecting German NU for the second report in a row. Is that all from Strategic Bombing? Or are foreign spies involved?
GNW41-02-13-min.jpg

Oslo seems to be a tougher nut to crack than anticipated, the German advance has stalled, and the Norwegians even managed to push back, taking Honefoss. This low intensity war could last forever... or it could be over in a few days... with seemingly no reinforcements coming for either side, all depends on one side bleeding out or making a catastrophic mistake.
British North Africa Front
United Kingdom (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 77,7
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
BNAF41-02-13-min.jpg

Instead of pushing on along the coast, the British took back three provinces further inland: Matruh, Bi'r Abu al Hudum, and the Great Sand Sea.​
French North Africa Front
France is a Government in exile.
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
FNAF41-02-13-min.jpg

Our Analysts believe the Italians have moved all their units from this front to go and face the British in Egypt. They do seem to have left a single Division behind. It has taken Sidi Bel Abbes, to the South-East of Oran.
East Africa & Ethiopia Front
Ethiopia (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 76,0
France is a Government in exile.
United Kingdom (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 77,7
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5

Absolutely no changes here for the last 10 days
The Greek Front
Greece (Surrender Progress / NU): 28,60 / 87,2
Bulgaria (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 71,8
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5
GRF41-02-13-min.jpg

The Italians have taken Agrinio, crossing the river Acheloos, and again, widening their coastal advance more inland. They also took Sykia, closing in on potentially cutting off the Bulgarians. Bulgaria seems to have beaten the Italians to the resource-rich, Larisa, only just. They are at risk of being cut off by the Italians, who are now the clear frontrunners in the race for Athina.
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia (Surrender Progress / NU): 43,6 / 65,5 loss of Ljubiljana.
Germany (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,0 / 83,7
Bulgaria (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 71,8
Italy (Surrender Progress / NU): 0,00 / 79,5​
North-West Front
YNF41-02-13-min.jpg

German troops have reached Krsko, and the North-Western outskirts of Zagreb. Italians have beaten the Wehrmacht to the key city of Ljubiljana, the Regio Esercito joined up with the German troops to the south by taking Otocac, along the Adriatic. The Germans along the Adriatic have moved further inland towards the Save River, Zagreb, and their comrades to the north. They are about to join up and cut the Italians off from significant gains in the Western part of Yugoslavia.
South-East Front
YSF41-02-13-min.jpg

Here, the Italians seem to be prioritising Greece right now, all they did was take back Lezhe, to the North-West of Tirane, in Albania. The Bulgarians are fully concentrating on their Yugoslav front, making inroads to the north, reaching the Eastern bank of the Sitnica River and inching their way towards Beograd. They have taken three provinces in total.
Industry:
Working Industrial Capacity / available capacity: 238 / 321
IC Usage: ( Allocated IC / Need )
Upgrades: 40,56 / 41,22 A lot of barrels and Guns to replace...
Reinforcement: 2,85 / 2,91
Supplies: 40,00 / 38,11
Production: 208,71 / 210,67 (the Licensed MP remains unfunded)
Consumer Goods: 28,89 / 28,89​
Stockpiles:
Energy: Maximum tonnes =
Metal: 93.847 tonnes +
Rares: 33.513 tonnes +
Crude: 98.019 barrels -
Supplies: 22.422 tonnes +
Fuel: 98.636 barrels +
Money: 2.282 +
Intelligence:
Spy numbers, spies in (active / added / lost / caught by us)
France (Supporting our Party / Counterespionage): 5 / 0 / 0 / 0
{ Germany (/): 0 / 0 / 0 / 1 }
{ Japan (/): 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 }​
UK (None) : 7 / 1 / 0 / 0
Other: 0 / 0 / 0 / 2
Total: 12 / 1 / 0 / 3​
Reserves: 0
Spy training leadership expenditure: 0,20 (a new spy every 30 days)
We have so far recruited 16 like-minded Covert Operatives in our French sleeper cell.
Laying low seems to be working, and no more spies were caught in the last ten days, British Counter-Espionage has calmed down (down to 3), and orders have gone out to cautiously start looking for blueprints again.
Spies from Romania, Finland and Germany have been caught in the Soviet Union.
Research:
The VVS has finished it's designs for a Rocket Test site. They are confident that rocket-based engines are the future. For now, improving current planes has priority though. In any way there was no way the expenditure to build the needed infrastructure could be justified right now.
In that mindset, their Aeronautic Engineers have started working on a better Single Engine Airframe (Level 2) design.
Army Researchers have finished developing new Anti-Tank Ammunition designs and Muzzle Velocity (Level 4) improvements. To integrate these improvements a new overall Anti-Tank Gun Design has entered production.

Su-100-min.jpg

The Su-100, now with a proper 100mm Gun during firing tests.
In parallel to the new 152mm ML-20 development, another team, also lead by F.F. Petrov at the same Artillery Designing facility looked into a 100mm Anti-Tank Gun for our Su-100 Tank Destroyers. For this purpose the 100mm S-34 Naval gun design, an unfinished Navy Design for a secondary multi-purpose weapon to be placed on Destroyers and Carriers. The design was heavily modified and the resulting gun was essentially designed to be integrated into the Su-100 Tank-Destroyers.
The resulting D-10T gun has a muzzle velocity of 895 m/s and a maximum firing range of 14.000m. With a firing rate of 5-6 rounds per second, it has been able, in tests, to perforate 164 mm of steel armor plate at 1.000 m range. The downsides are a long 5,35m long barrel, and limited elevation options. The first is not that big a deal as it fits in the Su-100, and the second is mostly due to the constraints of the Su-100 design.
A Field Anti-Tank Gun with the same barrel was also developed, the 100mm BS-3 Anti-Tank Gun is mounted on a wheeled carriage, giving a total length of 9,37m and a total weight of 3.650 kgs. Freed from the constraints of the Su-100, it achieves, with the possibility of elevations up to 45°, a firing range of 20.000m. Experienced crews have been able to achieve 10 rounds per minute with it.
Several researchers already have suggested on what to do with all the relatively modern 85mm Guns we will be taking out of the Su-100's, they could be part of a new tank Design.
This is a 1944 Gun that was designed together with the Su-100, but also as a stand-alone. This gun was needed as the 85mm had migrated into the T-34, making the Su-85 pointless as a platform when the same gun was mounted on a more versatile tank. The solution was, of course, to go bigger and develop a larger dedicated AT-Gun. An improved version of the D-10T is still in use around the world as the main guns of the T-54 tanks.
The BS-3 stand-alone was sold to a smaller range of countries, including Israel, where it saw use in the Yom Kippur War. It is still in service in many countries around the world.
They are now looking into new Infantry Anti-Tank Weapon (Level 5) designs.
No changes to LS Distribution
Statistics:
National Unity: 83,123 (+0,01)
Neutrality: 0,00 =
Dissent: 0,00 =
Manpower:
Available: 2.082.000
Men To reinforce(need): 6.030
Men To mobilise(need): See above
Monthly gain: 48.200 Men (1 fully mobilised Infx3, AT Division every 7 days)​
No changes in Party Popularity:
Party Organisation:
- Communist Party: 75,92 (+0,47)
- Trotskyite: 10,20 (-0,1)
- Bukharinite: 5,30 (-0,1)

- Octobrist: 5,80 (-0,1)
- Trudoviks: 2,60 (-0,1)
- Social-Revolutionary: 0,00 =
- Kadets: 0,00 =

- Tsarists: 0,00 =
- NTS: 0,10 (-0,1)
- POA: 0,00 =
This Information is accurate on the morning of the 13th of February 1941, I hope it serves you well in fine-tuning your possible suggestions.

'Odin'​
 

Bullfilter

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Thanks for the interesting digression on the AT guns. So when you mention ranges of 14,000-20,000m, I’m presuming that is a theoretical range if it was being used akin to a field gun or howitzer. Is the 1,000m vs steel plate (164mm cited) considered its effective range vs an armoured target (ie a tank, its primary purpose)? Was there any info provided on the primary type of round it used? Some are dependent on range, others it’s immaterial (you just have to hit). I’m familiar with the modern main types of AT gun munitions, but have never investigated what types were in use back then (ie HE, shaped, kinetic etc). If all that’s too technical, don’t worry about it, I’ll research myself if I get the chance.

That of course discounts effectiveness against more heavily armoured targets (ie Tigers of various types) where hitting them may not do much unless in a vulnerable spot.
 

roverS3

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Thanks for the interesting digression on the AT guns. So when you mention ranges of 14,000-20,000m, I’m presuming that is a theoretical range if it was being used akin to a field gun or howitzer. Is the 1,000m vs steel plate (164mm cited) considered its effective range vs an armoured target (ie a tank, its primary purpose)? Was there any info provided on the primary type of round it used? Some are dependent on range, others it’s immaterial (you just have to hit). I’m familiar with the modern main types of AT gun munitions, but have never investigated what types were in use back then (ie HE, shaped, kinetic etc). If all that’s too technical, don’t worry about it, I’ll research myself if I get the chance.

That of course discounts effectiveness against more heavily armoured targets (ie Tigers of various types) where hitting them may not do much unless in a vulnerable spot.
That's correct, it's theoretical range, so optimal elevation, no wind, etc.
The shells used most with this weapon in WW2 seem to have been an HE fragmentation shell (F-412, 15.6kg), and an Armour Piercing High Explosive shell (BR-412). I guess the first was used against overwhelmingly soft targets, and the second, when tanks were expected. I don't know which one was the primary round, but both seem to have been widely used.
Later 1944 tests revealed that a Panther's Glacis could be breached from 1.500m. It's not clear which shell was used in either test.
Nowadays there are a lot of more powerful rounds in use, of course.
For the SB-3 variant, it seems that it could disable a TigerAusf. B with well aimed shots at no more than 1.600m, most other tanks could be neutralised at longer range.
I don't know how much sense this all makes, as I am by no means an expert when it comes to guns, I just know what I read on the internet...
All from second hand information, the cited sources for the bits I used were:
  • Enqvist, Ove (1998). Itsenäisen Suomen rannikkotykit 1918-1998/Coastal guns in Finland 1918-1998. Helsinki: Military Museum of Finland. ISBN 951-25-1033-2.
  • Shunkov V. N. - The Weapons of the Red Army, Mn. Harvest, 1999 (Шунков В. Н. - Оружие Красной Армии. — Мн.: Харвест, 1999.) ISBN 985-433-469-4
 

Finshades

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Great update, as always. From what I remember, rocket sites cost an arm and a leg, so a smart call to postpone it, in my opinion. The discussion on AT weapons is extremely fascinating, and of course, I'm happy to see the Army given some more hitting power! Keep up the great work!

That's correct, it's theoretical range, so optimal elevation, no wind, etc.
The shells used most with this weapon in WW2 seem to have been an HE fragmentation shell (F-412, 15.6kg), and an Armour Piercing High Explosive shell (BR-412). I guess the first was used against overwhelmingly soft targets, and the second, when tanks were expected. I don't know which one was the primary round, but both seem to have been widely used.
Later 1944 tests revealed that a Panther's Glacis could be breached from 1.500m. It's not clear which shell was used in either test.
Nowadays there are a lot of more powerful rounds in use, of course.
For the SB-3 variant, it seems that it could disable a TigerAusf. B with well aimed shots at no more than 1.600m, most other tanks could be neutralised at longer range.
I don't know how much sense this all makes, as I am by no means an expert when it comes to guns, I just know what I read on the internet...
All from second hand information, the cited sources for the bits I used were:
  • Enqvist, Ove (1998). Itsenäisen Suomen rannikkotykit 1918-1998/Coastal guns in Finland 1918-1998. Helsinki: Military Museum of Finland. ISBN 951-25-1033-2.
  • Shunkov V. N. - The Weapons of the Red Army, Mn. Harvest, 1999 (Шунков В. Н. - Оружие Красной Армии. — Мн.: Харвест, 1999.) ISBN 985-433-469-4
From what I can tell, that's pretty much the gist of it. There were also ballistic capped APHE shells, with improved long range performance, that apparently could penetrate 108 mm at 90 degrees from 3000 meters away. Anything lighter than Tiger Ausf. B could be penetrated from "long range", which I believe we can presume to mean at the very least 2 km and probably more like 2500 meters or more. Apparently it was mainly used for AT purposes, but the Soviets did like to use AT pieces as field guns when they weren't preoccupied with AT work, and apparently was quite successful in that too, given the mobility and quick rate of fire. Some sources actually indicate maximum range as 20 km (12.42 mi) for the BS-3 field gun, and 14,600 meters or 16,000 meters for the D-10 tank gun. Probably from Jane's pocket book of towed artillery, but I don't own that so this is all third-hand.

Also, very cool to see a Finnish book cited! We did use the D-10 as a coastal gun in the 60's, by taking the entire turret assembly (sans stabilizer) of a T-55 and slapping it on a coastal artillery bunker. We bought the turrets from the Soviets, and TBH I don't know what they thought we were going to do with them, but they didn't expect us to use them for THAT and were apparently quite surprised. They were eventually decommissioned in 2012.