New Anatolian Cultures, Tags, Formables, and Improvements for the existing ones.

New Anatolian Cultures, Tags, Formables, and Improvements for the existing ones.

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Feb 2, 2012
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After making this post regarding the Phrygians l hoped some of the changes could make it is. However, since they have not, I figured I'd up the ante and do the rest of Western and Central Anatolia as well. Especially since Paradox has not added minorities on most of this area yet, and hopefully this can be taken into account in the future when they do add in these minorities. Not including Cyprus or the Troad. At the very bottom is a rough (and quick) sketch of how this new spread of cultures would look. EDIT: Some of the sources are listed at the bottom of this first post.

First off, the Anatolians living on the coast whose culture is currently in game:

Clockwise from Cilicia: Cilicians, Pamphylians, Lycians, Carians, Lydians, Mysians, Phrygians - Paphlagonians, Cappadocians on the coast, and the Isaurians and Lycaonians living inland. The coastal areas of Asia Minor and the Hellespont were not ever at this point 100% Hellenic during the game's timeframe. The above peoples continued to live in the coastal areas, and the Hellenes lived amongst them further inland as well especially in the valleys. Furthermore, a large region around the Tauros was not primarily inhabited by these peoples at all.

These areas are where they should be present at the minimum, with the coastal areas having a larger Hellenic presence and the hinterlands being more Anatolian:

Cilician: Cilicia Trachea (Majority in the Adana plain (easternmost three provinces, and sporadically along the coast), Cilicia (whole area)
Pamphylian (Including the Sidetians, the Pamphylians still speaking a Luwian language): Pamphylia, (Whole coastal area until Syedra, and 1911) Pisidia (166, 168)
Lycian: Lycia (Coastal facing part only, not the 6 inland ones), Pamphylia (Only 162)
Carian: Caria Litoralis (Anatolian areas), Ionia (Southern half below Ephesus), Caria Mediterraneus (The western part of the valley)
Lydian: Ionia (Epesus and beyond, Ephesus should have an especially large Lydian presence as it contained one of their holiest sites) Lydia (Most of it, except for the very eastern bits) Aeolia (285)
Mysian: Mysia Abrettene (whole area), Aeolia (North of Kyme, especially Pergamon, not 260, 258), Mysia (The area around the lakes, not the Troad parts or Kyzikos), Phrygia Epictetus (western border region with Abrettene)
Phrygian: Mysia (254 specifically had a large rural Phrygian population, in general in the same areas the Mysians), Bithynia (the area around Kios and the lakes) Mysia Abrettene (The western half), Bithynia Inferior (The southern area south of the wastelands), Phrygia Epictetus (whole area), Phrygia Pacatiana (whole area), Phrygia Parorea (The 5 westernmost provinces, and 1939, 1937), Galatia (whole area), Galatia Trocmi (southern reaches, 194, 197, 202), Bithynia Superior (Southernmost two provinces), Cappadocia Saravene (western half), Cappadocia Garsauritis (sporadically up to Tyana and around the lake), Lycaonia (sporadically around the and northern plain)

-rushing past the western Pontic coast-

Paphlagonian: Paphlagonia Superior (whole area), Paphlagonia Inferior (the very western 4 provinces), Pontus (majority in the eastern three provinces), Galatia Trocmi (the northernmost provincesm and sporadically in the south), Heracleotis (sporadically in the very eastern two), Bithynia Superior (Sporadically in the very eastern few provinces, majority in 217)
Cappadocian: Cappadocia Garsauritis (sporadically especially in the towns and the regions bordering Cappadocia), Cappadocia Cataonia (in the western and northern parts mostly along the Pyramos, a few in the eastern part), Cappadocia Melitene (very sporadically, mostly in the eastern half), Cappadocia Saravene (especially the central corridor to the Pontic regions), Pontus Colopene (whole area), Pontus (whole area), Paphlagonia Inferior (on the coast up to 1815 and inland, very few in Sinope)

Wait, you forgot the Pontic culture! Nooope:

Pontic: Remove, the people of Pontus were Cappadocians. Ancient authors from before and after the game's timeframe recognised this, calling them Cappadocians or Leukosyrians. They a highly mixed group which at this point is far from its Hittite origins, having taken on Syrian and quite a lot of Persian influences as well. And looking at the sources, these areas mostly fell back into Tribal hands as soon as the invaders had left, and were not reconquered by Antigonos, or Seleukos, the Attalids were the first to establish a presence in the north, followed by the Romans in the rest of the area, with some parts only being conquered near the end of the game.

In addition, Greco-Pontic could perhaps be renamed to Pontic.

-inland Anatolians-

Lycaonian: Cappadocia Garsauritis (Whole area, especially in the plains), Lycaonia (whole area, mainly in the south around the Konya plain and the lake), Isauria (the Konya plain majority, and the plains around Derbe majority)
Isaurian: (Homonadian included, see at the end below): Isauria (the eastern half east of 1920), Cappadocia Garsauritis (1940, 1888).

-Hellenic Anatolians-

A little extra blurb for the Aeolians and Ionians. Hellenic Anatolians, are you crazy? No. Well, yes, but no, hear my out. By the Hellenistic period, the peoples we call Aeolians and Ionians (and Dorians, see below) were far removed from the trans-Aegean Ionians, Dorians, and Aeolian Greek dialectal groups. Oh and the Pontic Greeks too of course.

The Anatolian Hellenes had undergone their own ethnogenesis during their time there, starting around the 7th century BCE when the main migration took place. These three groups took their name from wider Greek dialects, but by the game start formed their own seperate Asian or Anatolain Greek ethnicities. Like any migrant group, elements of the lands you move into are assimilated, and by the time Alexander rolled through we can speak of Anatolian Greeks in earnest. By virtue of the Aegean highway strongly conntected to the wider Hellenic sphere, but very much a native group at this point. They mainly lived along the coastlines, where they formed the main interface between the hinterland and overseas trade.

Aeolian: Mysia (Majority in the Troian coast, and 268) Aeolia (Majority everywhere but inland (278, 276), and 281) Ionia (Large presence at 287. likely sporadically in the north) Lydia (Sporadically throughout entire plains of Lydia, likely none in mountains) Mysia Abrettene (Sporadically at 272 and 273)
Ionian: Ionia (Majority on coast, sporadically at 1968) Caria Mediterraneus (Large groups along the Maeander, less in the sides, none at 295) Bithynia (Settled most Propontic cities) Mysia (Large groups in eastern half, majority at 252 and 251) Cilicia Trachaea (large groups at 1887, 1892, 1890, 1897, 1901) And sporadically along larger tracts of the South-Anatolian coast.
Pontic (Greek): Heracleotis (all along the coast living amongst the natives, barely any inland except for 237 and 233 where a small presence would be) Paphlagonia Inferior (Amongst the natives along entire coast, majority at 1812, 1807) Machelonia (Living amongst the natives, larger groups at 1793, 1785, 1733, 1798) Also present in Colchis.

Let us turn to the missing Anatolians:

Now, these people are a very interesting bunch, and they were mostly some level of autonomous in the more rugged parts. Most of these were independent for the first half of the game, with only a few being Tribal Vassals (though none at the start). They should be present as Federated Tribes, and be independent. Even Alexander did not manage to conquer most of these peoples, permanently, only the regions along the Royal Road likely remained under his control. Some of these peoples would only be brought under control near the end of the game. most famously the Homonadeis (who cannot be added at this time due to flaws in the map) only in 6 BCE:

Pisidian: Also known as Pisideis, the inhabitants of Pisidia, one of the Anatolian mountain peoples. They were the most important ones of this region. They would even expand westwards, conquering some areas of the Milyadians and Cabalians, and Phrygians, and founding the important city of Kibrya.
Present in: Pisidia (almost entire area, not in 1933, 7760, heavily present in 170), Phrygia Prorea (central valley of 1929, 1928, 1939), Pamphylia (1908, 1911, 164 primarily, but also in 165, 1910, and 1905 sporadically)

Some extra info: The Pisidians are a tribe that were feared by all empires in the region. A hardy people, whose culture shows clear Phrygian influences, and who were staunchly autonomous and warlike. It is in Pisidia and areas influenced by it we find many warrior gods, likely a mix of Phrygian, Luwic, and Hittite deities. The Pisidians rapidly Hellenized by mostly their own volition throughout the period, and at least their cities we would call Greek by the end of the game. This process in part seems to have come about from their internal competetive nature, where cities tried to essentially out-Hellenize one another around the mid-2nd century BCE. However, due to a near complete lack of archaeology outside of those cities, we have no idea about the state of the rural Pisidians, though it is clear many kept using native names until at least the 2nd century CE. The Pisidians were also renowned mercenaries, and we find multiple groups living in Egypt, just like Karians and Lycians had done so before them.

Final fun note: The Pisidians are often considered a possible origin for Ares, the Greek god of War.

Suggested tags:
Termessia (170), the Termessians even beat Alexander's army, yet their territtory is not very large in game.
Sagalassia (1988, 1949) one of the most important Pisidian tribes, the Sagallaseis, who will capture most lands to their north and east in the coming century.
Selgia (1885, 1931, 1927, 168), the Selgeis, another important tribe who were known for their monopoly in a type of incense produced at Selgia. (yes, actual Aspendos lay in the coastal plain but the map is wrong here)
Etennia (1911, 1908), the Etenneis another Pisidian tribe, likely those two built the magnificent rock-cut tombs at Etenna.
Pednelissia (167) the Pednelisseis who inhabit the central river valley (map needs some work in this area.)

Formable: A Pisidian tribe that manages to conquer the others could perhaps form Pisidia upon controlling the main lands of 170, 1949, 1885, 167, 1928, they could then form the T1 Tag: Pisidia.

Milyadian: Also known as Milyans, Milyadeis, probably the biggest losers during the Hellenistic period, would see their territory heavily colonised by many other peoples during the second half of the period.
Present in: Lycia (majority in the inland regions, small presence in the coastal ones), Pamphylia (westernmost two coastal provinces, small minority), Pisidia (majority in 170, 7760, 1933), Phrygia Parorea (majority in 1930), Phrygia Pacatiana (present in 1936, 1943 sporadically), Milyas (the four eastern provinces)

Some extra info: The Milyadians are closely linked to the Lycians, except they have been under much more Phrygian influence. They wrote a version of Lycian, and were generally Lycianized throughout the Hellenistic period as Lycian culture crept up into Cabalis and Milyas. They were also culturally linked to the Pisidians, especially those around Lake Burdur which has been in close contact with the Sagalassians.

Suggested tags:
Ormelia (1935, 1961, 1959), the northern Milyadians of the Orlemeis, this area would later be heavily settled by Thracians, Pisidians and Lydians during the Attalid period.
Arycandia (160, 1993, 159, ) the Arycandeis were a Milyan tribe inhabiting the mountains directly behind the Lycia, they twisted their allegiances to whomever seemed best, owing them to the Ptolemies, Seleukids, and Mithradatids at various times. They would join the Lycian Federation once the Lycians were freed from Rhodian dominance.
Tymandia (1930, 7760, 1933), the Tymandeis who ruled the lands around the mountain)
Perminundia (1986, 171), the Permiundeis, who ruled the highland west of Termessos.

Formable: Perhaps one can unite the Milyadians, and form Milyas. Requires Milyan culture, and the main lands of: 1935, 159, 160, 1986, 1930, they can then form the T1 Tag: Milyas.

Oroandian: Also known as Oroandeis or Orondeis. The Oroandeis were quite urbanised, and at least a small community of them seemes to have lived in Attika near the end of the game as freemen, and the were granted quite a few rights by the Romans to help control this area.
Present in: Isauria (The four westernmost provinces primarily), Lycaonia (1965), Phrygia Parorea (178, 1925)

Some extra info: The Oroandians were a very mixed people, sitting at a crossroads of Phrygian, Lycaonian, Isaurian, Pisidian, and Pamphylian culture - and likely taking after all of them. They were a highly adaptable group which seems to have taken the new opportunities the Hellenistic and Roman period provided with both hands and whom we find all over the region soon after. We know there was a small Oroandian community in Athens by the 1st century CE, and we find Oroandians throughout the South- and West-Anatolian region often active as merchants or craftsmen.

Suggested tags:
Oroandia ( 1920, 1965, 1924, ), the Oroandeis and roughly the lands they covered, however this also includes bits of the lands of the Homonadians (see below, again). The northern parts of the Oroandian lands would probably remain under control of Antiochus, considering the important road passing through them.
Ambladia (1921, 1922) the Ambladeis lived in the western part of the lands of the Oroandians.

Cabalian: The Cabalians lived in the Cabalis, a region behind Caria and bordering on the lands of the Milyans.
Present in: Milyas (The south-western 6 provinces), Lycia (1960, 1991), Caria Mediterraneus (primarily 1952, some in 1945)

The Cabalians are, like the Milyadians and Oroandians, a group with very mixed influences. In Cabalis we see strong Lydian, Phrygian, Carian, and Lycian influence before the game's start, and afterwards the Pisidians also make their mark on the region. They are an old group, and especially the Lydian influence seems strong, likely due to extensive colonization under the Lydian Kingdom.

Suggested tags:
Oenoandia (1991, 1990, 1960) the Oenoandeis were the Cabalians centred at the religious centre of Oenoanda, and later an important centre for the Epicurean philosophers.
Kibyratia (1956, 1958, 1997, 1957, 1953), the Kibyrateis lived around the later centre of the Kibyrateian Tetrapolis, and the nearby mountains. They would later be invaded by the Pisidians like their Milyadian neighbours.

Other: Perhaps one who unites the Cabalian lands could form Cabalis, requires Cabalian culture, and control the main Cabalian area of 1991, 1990, 1958, and 1957, they can then form the T1 Tag: Cabalis.

Cataonian: The Cataonians were the peoples of eastern Cappadocia, and Cataonia is named after them. They seem to have been on the path to being assimilated into the Cappadocian culture, which probably accelerated after a brief period of independence from Cappadocia. They seem to have conquered parts of Lesser and Greater Armenia briefly, before being crushed and absorbed back into Cappadocia. There were likely other peoples living in Cappadocia as well, but these would have also been further along being assimilated and only the Cataonians have survived into the sources.
Present in: Cappadocia Cataonia (especially the eastern half, sporadically in the western half), Cappadocia Melitene (especially the western half, a few in the eastern half), Cappadocia Saravene (only in the very eastern province), Armenia Minor (only the southern most two provinces)

Suggested tags:
Comana Cappadocia (172 ( maybe 163, 158, 157, 1886, 1898, 1994, 1976, 1999, 1902, 1983, 1979 as a vassal) The temple state of Comana Cappadocia, a vassal of the Cappadocian Kingdom, run by a Priest-King. It ruled over Cataonia in the past, before being reigned in at some point in the 3rd century BCE. Its not clear if this was indirectly (as a satrapy) or directly.

And so, alternatively:

Cataonia (172163, 158, 157, 1886, 1898, 1994, 1976, 1999, 1902, 1983, 1979) Cataonia seems to have had more autonomy then any part of Cappadocia bar Pontus during the 3rd century BCE, and due to how unclear the nature of this autonomy was (as part of Comana Cappadocia's realm, or as a satrapy of Cappadocia) alternatively it can be made also as a Theocratic monarchy Satrapy of Cappadocia.

Lalassian: A people often called 'Isaurian' by the Romans, but Isaurian was a common name for all the mountain peoples living in the central Tauros. They lived primarily in Rough Cilicia, and on part of the coast.
Present in: Pamphylia (1906, and especially 1784), Cilicia Trachea (1780, 1896, 1901, 1897, 1890, 1894, and sporadically in 1892 and 1887)

Suggested tags:
Lalassia (1906, 1784, 1780, 1896, 1890, 1897, 1901) The lands of the Lalasseis on the southern flanks of the Tauros.

Cennataian: The Cennatae lived in the Cilician hinterland, and were a pain in the back for those trying to control Cilicia. They often were given some form of autonomy just to stop them from raiding the Adanan plain. The state of Tarkondimotos was Cennataian. They inhabit all around the Cilician plain, from the Amanian Gates to near Olbe.
Present in: Cilicia (sporadically in 1884), Cappadocia Cataonia (majority in 1979, and sporadically in the two adjacent provinces to its east and west.) Cappadocia Garsauritis (1888), Cilicia Trachea (1872, 1883, 1887, 1892, 1894)

Suggested tags:
Cennataia (That new province you're adding in the mountains above Soloi), the lands of the Cennatae.

Morimenian: The people of (north)-western Cappadocia, living along the Halys and at lake Tatta. Our information on them, and the region they inhabit (and Cappadocia in general) is very sparse. Yet from the information Strabo gives us, we can identify they were a seperate people, living in a pastoralist region, and who were likely related to the priest-kings of Ouenasa (third in rank to the king of Cappadocia himself). By Strabo's time, they have their own district. It is likely that some of the other districts were also named after other ethnic groups or tribes within Cappadocia, but we simply do not know.
Present in: Cappadocia Garsauritis (1813, and large presence in 173 and 1954, sporadically in the adjacent areas), Cappadocia (1817, 1818, 1913, probably sporadically in the adjacent areas), Cappadocia Saravene (1820, 1923, and likely sporadically in adjacent areas), Phrygia (1811, probably sporadically in the adjacent area)

Suggested tags:
Ouenasa (1818) The Priest-King of Ouenasa was of less importance then the one at Comana, but still seems to have held a high rank. Its either here, or at the unlocated Morima, where the centre of Morimenian power lay before they slowly dissapeared into history.

Furthermore, let us look at the Thracians (Dacian culture group):
Mariandynian: The Mariandynians are the original inhabitants of the lands of Heraclea Pontica, and those living in the lands of the Heracleotes were all enslaved and function as their slave class. In the hinterlands, free Mariandynians still hold out. The Heraclean Mariandynians would eventually gain a few minor rights, but their fate remained slavery. It is likely the Mariandynians eventually assimilated into the Paphlagonians and Bithynians, especially when the latter (who was likely their closed cultural link) conquered most of their lands. All slaves in Heraclea Pontica should be Mariandynian, and their cultural right should be set to slavery for that tag. (Note that some academics believe the Mariandynians to have been Anatolians instead - however the general consensus is that they were Anatolianised Thracians (so still Thracians).
Disclailmer: Some authors regard the Mariandynians as assimilated by the time the game starts, while others regard them and the Kaukonians as two different ethnic groups. Yet others consider them to have been the same, etc. There are other theories as well, I tried to pick a middle ground with interesting gameplay in mind.

Present in: Heracleotis (everywhere, as mostly tribal pops in the hinterland, but as slaves in Heraclea Pontica.), Bithynia Superior (in the northern provinces, especially in the valley stretching from Bithynion to Proseilemmnene which seems to have been their homeland)

Suggested tags:
Kaukonia (212, 213), the tribe of the Kaukones, probably another group of Mariandynians which whom the southern ones seem to have been in conflict from time to time. They lived in the lands of Tieion and Sisamos as well. Independent, mix of Mariandynian and Paphlagonian pops.

Mariandynia (219, 215, 214, 220, 210, 216), the Mariandynians living away from Heracleote control in Mariandynia. This area is likely the area that was ruled by Mithradates Ktistes' uncle together with Mysia, and from which he set out to conquer Pontic Cappadocia (though it might have extended even further west to Kimiata). This area would be mostly conquered by the Bithynians about 20 years into the game historically. For now, I'd just keep them as a Settled Tribe, because of the terrain its not inconcievable they would not be under Antigonid control, so : Independent.

Bithynian: The Bithynians are currently in game as a Hellenic culture. This would have abhorred the Greeks as they consistently noted the Bithynians as non-Hellenes, usually Thracians. Bithynian should thus be moved to the Dacian group which contains other Thracian peoples as well, together with the Mariandynians. They are currently also spread too far - the Bithynians only spread throughout the region in the 280s.
Present in: Bithynia (The northern half beyond Astakos, where they were the majority in the hinterlands.), Bithynia Inferior (The northern half beyond the 7763)

Dorian: The Doric Greeks, like their Ionian and Aeolian brethren, arrived here mostly in the 7th and 6th century BCE. And like them, they formed their own ethnicity in their new homeland. The Dorians are the least successful Asian/Anatolian Greeks, and have started being supplanted by the Ionians in the north of their lands. The Dorians have the closest relation and influence on the Karians and Lycians, and would rule large parts of these people's lands under the Rhodians.
Present in: Caria Litoralis (Majority on the islands and 1987, except for 1996 and 310. Minorities at 1989, 1985, and a larger minority at 1981) Lycia (Minorities all along the western coast) Pamphylia (Minorities in the western part)

Suggested tags:
Rhodos, Kos, Knidos. Already present but Rhodos was very much part of the South-West Anatolian region, and should be made Doric culture, together with Kos and Knidos.

Halikarnassos seems to have been becoming more Ionian over time, and while Dorian was once the majority, it is now Ionian with a strong Doric undertone. Perhaps Integrated Dorian at Halikarnassos?

Other: If a Dorian tag controls 1981, 266, 1970, and 1985 - they can form the Dorian Hexapolis - a federation of Dorian cities and islands.

Other suggested tags:
Isauria (1918, 1919, 1785) Isauria proper, the area which contained both Old and New Isauria. Independent.

Larandia (1955, 169), the lands of the Larandeis, another Isaurian group further east. Independent.

Pamphylia (164, 165, 166, 1910, 1905, 1904) Pamphylia, since it would not be directly connected to the other Antigonid lands if the above tags get added, Pamphylia, Lycia and Olbe should definitely be feudatories of the Antigonids, to represent how far away they are and how direct control would be hard.

Lycia (1992, 1995, 1998, 156, 161, 162), as with the above, the Lycians lands too were far away, and this can give a player the chance to play as the Lycians, who would see a brief moment of glory once whey were away from Rhodian occupation, and who then expanded into their hinterland.
Formable: Lycian Federation, requires Lycian culture, and control of the main regions of 1995, 160, 1998, 156, 171, 1990, 161, can form the T1 Tag: Lycian Federation, makes it some kind of republic form of government as well, and gives claims on all of Lycia, and Milyas.

Tieion (209), the Greek settlement of Tieon, which would later combine with others including Sesamos to form Amastris. It was independent of Heraclea Pontika, which is one of the reasons it managed to do this. Independent.

Sesamos (208) the Greek city of Sesamos, also independent of Heraclea Pontica, and which would be the most important element of new Amastris. Independent.

Olbe (see this post)

Some additional tags:

Cilbiania (295) The Cilbiani were a Lydian tribe living at the very end of the Kayster valley, they were only really brought under control under the Roman Empire. Independent, as the nature of the area likely meant no one bothered with them.
Mocadenia (305, 301, 306) The Mocadeni were a Lydo-Phrygian tribe inhabiting Katekaumene in Lydia, also known as Mocadene. The Mocadeni became quite urbanised under the Roman Empire. Parts of the Mocadeni lands were likely under Antigonid control, and thus I would make them a Tribal Vassal.

Abrettenia (267, 295) The Abretteni were a Mysian tribe, who likely remained mostly unaffected by Alexanders passing. They were later conquered by the Romans. Independent
Abbaeitia (303, 320) Like the Abretteni and Hellespontii, this region was mostly left to its own devices until the Roman conquest. The Abbaeiti lived in the valley of Synaos and the surrounding mountains. Independent
Hellespontia (321) The Hellespontii alternatively called the Olympeni, after Olympus in Mysia. They too were conquered under the Romans. Independent

(186) The Corpeni probably gave their name to Eukarpia, and they were the Phrygian tribe who inhabited the lands of the later Pentapolis (Otrous, Brouzos, Eukarpia, Hierapolis, and Stektorion). The valley which they lived sat just north of the important centre of Kelainai, and sat astride two branches of the Royal Road that led to Sardis - and it is thus highly unlikely they were independent, and likely were in some sort of contract with the Antigonids Tribal Vassal.
Hyrgalia (311) Like the Corpeni, the Hyrgaleis sat in a similar spot, occupying lands just outside of the grasp of society but never entirely outside of it. They continued to be mostly autonomous until well into the Imperial period, Tribal Vassal.

Furthermore, I hope this area can be looked at again in the future to flesh it out more, as it currently is represented a bit sloppy. Then the Homonadians could be fit in as well, who lived inbetween the Isaurians and Oroandians. These were the last people to be conquered of the Tauros mountain by the Romans, and deserve a spot simply for that fact.

Finally, some quick improvements before hopefully the area gets a proper overhaul in the future:

1993 Tlos to Nisa (Tlos lay in the Xanthus valley)
1991 Podalia to Oenoanda (Podalia lay east of Choma)
1990 Oenoanda to Balbura (Oenoanda lay east)
1960 Sinda to Lagbe (Sinda lay in the lake near Kibyra)
1959 Salda to Tymbrianassos (A Milyan town in this area, Salda is an old fort but thats not its Hellenistic name)
1935 Baris Pisidia to Baris ad Askania/Baris pros to Askania (Baris is not Pisidian yet, but it lay at lake Askania)
1939 Tekmoreioi to Peidra (The Tekmoreioi were a kind of cult in the region)
1930 Apollonia Paroreias to Tymandos (The city was founded by the Greeks later on (should still be its Greek localisation)

Also, does this area have way too many cities? Hell yeah, and the wrong ones as well. But thats for a later post. Furthermore, here's a rough map of the cultures. Coastal areas, facing the Aegean and Hellespont would have been mostly Hellenic Majority, with a varying amount of Anatolians present. Sardis, Ephesus, Halikarnassos, and Kaunos would have especially large communities of Anatolians, as is shown via the archaeological record (and inbetween the lines of Greek texts). And the first two, in their capacity as important religious centres, would see some numbers of pops from the other nearby groups as well.


Golden Yellow - Lycian
Orange - Carian
Green - Lydian
Yellow - Mysian
Purple - Phrygian
Dark Pink - Lycaonian
Red - Cappadocian
Brown - Paphlagonian
Nurgle Green - Cilicia
Light Purple - Pamphylian
Bone White - Isaurian
Darkest Pink - Aeolian
Blue - Ionian
Jungle Green - Pontic (Greek)
Lime Green - Armenian

New Cultures:
Prussian Blue - Cataonian
Pinkish Red - Kennataian
Light Green - Milyadian
Light Blue - Cabalian
Salmon Pink - Pisidian
Light Pink - Morimenian
Teal - Lalasian
Dark Teal - Oroandian
Light Orange - Mariandynian

Dark Jeans Blue - Doric

Dark Green - Bithynian (to be removed from the Hellenic group)

Black Dots - Macedonians
Pale Blue Dots - Persians

::Minorities Beyond Anatolia::

So some of these cultures lived outside of Anatolia, and the above map, as well. The below provinces are places where Anatolians were historically present:

Carian Kemetic Freemen Pops in: 929 (1), 919 (1), 515 (1), these Karians came from Egypt, where some of them settled in the past working as mecenaries. Some of them later moved to Mesopotamia, where we possibly have toponyms of Carian origins near Nippur and Borsippa. There were also some that stayed in Egypt. They were called Karo-Egyptians, indicating a level of assimilation - hence the Kemetic culture.
Carian Chaldean Freemen Pops in: 880 (1), 881 (1), an area where there are a few Carian villages noted. These Carians are called 'Babylonian Carians' in the sources - probably indicating they adopted Chaldean practices. They are different from the Karo-Egyptians.
Carian Cybelene Freemen Pops in: 416 (1), 358 (1), like the Phoenicians, the Carians were to a lesser degree known for producing purple dyes as well, with one site somewhere on Crete. There were also some Carians in Athens, enough to leave some epigraphic evidence.
Lycian Hellenic Freemen Pops in: 515 (1), part of an earlier wave of migration.

In general and without specifics:

Roughly, the region stretching along the areas of Babylonia, Sumer, Sittacene, Chaldaea, Susiana, Mardiene, and Persis, had become quite multicultural during the Persian period. From various sources we know there were Lycians, Karians, Ionians, Aeolians, Lydians, Cappadocians, and even some Phrygians living in these areas that had moved there from Anatolia. I would personally spread out a couple of each across the region, with especially Lycians, Carians, Lydians, and Ionians being present. These would have been a mix of Chaldean, Anatolian, Hellenic, and Zoroastrian beliefs.

Furthermore, in Egypt there were also more Karians, in the Delta and further down along the Nile, as well as some Lycians around the Pelusiac branch.
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This is a great and informative post. I will likely be using this information for our 275 BC CK3 mod and this post will increase the depth of the cultural situation in Anatolia.

Thanks, I planned a small update to fix one of two mistakes and add in more info for the Hellenes in the region, so keep an eye our for that soon.

I am a bit confused on the Cappadocians. Do we have any information on what their language was like or what it was influenced by? We'd like to give them some culturally appropriate title names at some point.

For the purpose of your mod, the Cappadocian elite seems to have used Persian and later Hellenic titles and names. Hellenization only began after the mid 2nd c. BCE, and even then only in the cities and mainly of the elites. And even then a strong Iranian influences was present.

Cappadocians spoke an Anatolian language, probably related to Hittite - but our knowledge on the region is super sparse, Cappadocia, despite having great natural wealth, was always peripheral until Tiberias annexed it. The designation "Cappadocians" refers to both the people living in the regions of Tauric and Pontic Cappadocia and a specific group of people called the Cappadocians (the other group that clearly stands out are the Cataonians, and to a lesser extent the Morimenians.) They descend from the Hittites, and to some extend Hattians, Assyrians, Cimmerians. and Persians (there seems to have been a larger prescense of them compared to other Anatolian satrapies).

Their language probably died out in the 4th century CE at the earliest, but might have continued till the 6th c. CE (depending on how one reads the sources). It probably descended from Hittite, with Assyrian, Persian, and maybe other influences. Cataonian was clearly different from Cappadocian, but by Strabo's time it was no longer spoken in western Cataonia (around Comana Cappadocia), though we have no idea what those deeper in Cataonia spoke.

EDIT: I think the best work on Cappadocian is still L. Franck, 'Sources classiques concernant la Cappadoce' in vol 91 of the Revue Hittite et Asianique, but I have as yet to track that down at any uni nearby.
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Ive updated the original post and fixed any mistakes made. Primarily this was the range of the Kennataians, and their name, which in latin spelling would correctly be Cennataian in Latin.

  • Furthermore I also added the Aeolians, Ionians, Dorians, and Armenians to the map, the latter just as a reference point.
  • Ive added a few more tag suggestions, for the Cataonians, Morimenians, Lydians, Phrygians, and Mysians.
  • I also added a bit more flavour to the Pisidians, Milyadians, Cabalians, Oroandians - as they are generally a very unknown people outside of a small academic scope.

Finally I would like to touch on Persians and Zoroastrianism in Anatolia, followed by a quick note on... Camels?:

There seems to have been some Iranian colonization happening across the region, taking two forms.

1: Around centres of power, naturally as a by-product of Persian rule, Persians settled in the wake of Persian satraps. Scribes, Craftsmen, Guards, and other peoples came along with them and over time many stayed. This happens especially in Lydia, but can also be seen in parts of Cilicia, Phrygia, Armenia, Albania, and Cappadocia (including Pontus).

Amongst these we also find Hyrcanians, Parthians, Medians, and even the occasianal Bactrian and one Sogdian. But most of them were Persian. (Also some Egyptians lived in Lydia around Sardis)

2: Rural colonization, especially by Herdsmen, probably mostly of Persian ethnicity. This was especially prevalent in Phrygia and Cappadocia (not including Pontus), where the rolling plains and focus on animal husbandry were a natural fit for them. This was of smaller scale, and more spread out.

I tried to show both on the map.

With Iranians and the Persian/Achaemenid Empire too came Zoroastrianism. This would find deep roots in parts of Lydia, Cappadocia, and likely through Lydians, the Cabalis to a minor extent. From Lydia, we have various sanctuaries across the region, where especially Anahita was popular. We even find Iranian names amongst some attendees of early Christian councils as late as the 4th century, and Zoroastrian imagery on coins is prevalent.

In Cappadocia Strabo tells us of the fire worshippers during his time, and the major religous centre at Zela was a cult site of Anaitis (Anahita), Omanos (Vohu Manah), and Anadates, likely Ameratat. And here too we find evidence of Persians, both in the river valleys and at the courts of Cappadocia and Pontus, two kingdoms mostly ruled by Iranian monarchs.

I would thus add some Persian pops throughout the region, some other Iranians, but also some native Anatolian Zoroastrians, especially in Lydia and Cappadocia.

Now, finally, CAMELS, you ask?

Yes, camels. The range of Camels in game current spans Arabia, Iran, Egypt, West India, Syria and south Central Asia. However, we know from both epigraphic, written, and archaeological sources that the range of the Camels - as a trade good - was far larger and stretched all the way into Phrygia and the North Caucasus. It is in Phrygia Alexander would have met his first camels, as the Central Anatolian Steppe was excellent to raise herds of these animals, and they were employed to carry the salt produced at lake Tatta.

Cappadocia too has shown Camels in its archaeological material, and like in Phrygia these were mostly of the Bactrian type. And in Armenia and its environs we know from Urartian and medieval sources Camels were herded in some parts, especially the plain south of Mt Ararat. And while the archaeology of Atropatene is in an atrocious state, here too we find excellent conditions for camel herding and while we lack the evidence, its very likely they were here too.

Finally, the North Caucasus and northern Central Asia. Camels occasionally turn up here in archaeological material. Especially along the Caspian and in Chorasmia. Here they were likely another type of herd for the Scythians.

And so yes, camels, we need more camels! Please add more Camels.

Phrygians had it hard enough, Empire - Gone, Culture - Destroyed, Capital - Now a village. But at least they had camels, dont take those way PDX!! Just look at this cutey below.


If that doesnt convince you, perhaps a great article might:

Potts, D. T. 'Camel Hybridization and the Role of Camelus bactrianus in the Ancient Near East' Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (2004) Vol. 47, pp. 143-165.
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I hope they tag this suggestion as implemented, one of many to come!

Congrats @Samitte for your work.
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Ketchup & friends

Lt. General
Jan 4, 2020
I hope they tag this suggestion as implemented, one of many to come!
considering that they've missed the latest batch of suggestions, hopefully NO.

Congrats @Samitte for your work.
No disagree on that.

Here's a legthy feedback on the changes and suggestions for further improvements (@Chopmist and @Bratyn , hopefully you'll read this):

while the map was greatly improved some issues remain (or were added in 2.0),

  • in some parts existing tiles were were removed, which harms some small tags (Kios and Bithynia in particular).
  • Rhodes again owns 1 tile in another region needing a governor and affecting levies.
  • some historically important locations are missing (Pinara, Mithymna)
  • a few tiles (Baka, Sardis) are too big (like Gordion was, before the update)
  • The island tiles in the Sporades province are far more granular than the islands further north.
  • the Antigonid mission Antigoneia’s port allows developing Myriandros (Alexandretta) but it’s not in the capital region (in Cilicia instead of Syria).
  • the tailor-made heritage for Calchedon, Astakos and Kyzikos became unused and makes no sense (no other bithynian tags).

judging by @Snow Crystal 's comments, many changes weredone to keep all provinces at not more than 12 tiles.
others, like the Bithynian heritage or Cappadocia Pontica missing in decisions are just bugs.

We have discussed a possible better solution that you should implement for 2.1:

add 1 more province in Asia, a few more tiles and shift some tiles between provinces to improve the map further. This will allow you to undo all the bad changes from the 2.0 update while keeping the good ones and have all provinces at 10, 11 or 12 territories.


Asia and Bityhina:
Add 1 New province: Troad (10 or 11 tiles):
  • from Mysia Inferioris: 4 tiles (Abydos, Lampsakos, Kolonai and Parion.
  • from Aeolis: 5 tiles (Ilion, Antigoneia Troas, Kebren, Skepsis, Kale Peuke)
  • new tile: Tenedos (split off from Antigoneia Troas, it’s as big as some of the new islands in the Sporades)
  • possibly split Kolonai in 2 (along the river). it’s the biggest tile here (11 tiles with this, 10 otherwise).

move to Mysia Inferioris:
  • From Bithynia Inferioris: Apollonia Rhyndakos and Helge
  • from Mysia Superioris: Kallydion

Restore removed tiles in Bithynia Inferioris:
  • Eikote (in Kios, bringing it back to 3 tiles)
  • Split Artanes back in 2 tiles (Psillion and Trikomia)

Aeolis province: move 2 tiles, 1 or more new ones
  • move Aigai from Lydia (should also be part of Aetolia tag, was one of the founding members of the league)
  • move Smyrna from Ionia province (Don’t change the political border)
  • ADD Mithymna on Lesbos (between Mitylene and Eressos, it was an important city and the island of Rhodes has now 3 tiles, Lesbos shouldn’t be smaller.)
  • Possibly: add 1 or even 2 tiles on the mainland.

  • add Samos and Icaria from Ionia province.

Ionia (would lose Samos, Icaria and Smyrna to nearby provinces):

  • Magnesia Maiandrou (from Caria Superioris)
  • Larisa Ionias (from Lydia)

Caria Superioris:

  • Move Daidala from Lycia
  • Move Alabanda to Caria Inferioris (edit)


  • Split Sardis in 2 tiles (to replace 2 tiles moved to other provinces)
  • (add any of the cities here, perhaps @Samitte can make a good suggestion) EDIT: Nymphaion.
  • Lydia_circa_50_AD_-_English_legend.jpg

  • New tile: Pinara (currrently part of Tlos and Kadyanda tiles west of the river)
  • add a bit of Choma’s tile (up to the H on the map) to Tlos, creating a connection between Tlos and Kandyba.

Cilicia, Syria and Cappadocia:
  • Move Myriandros/ Alexandria ad Issum to Syria province (to fit the Antigonid mission and because it was part of Roman province of Syria)
  • move Beloi from Syria Province to North Phoenicia province (it has 10 tiles, would be 11th).
  • Restore Thebai Kilikias/Augusta in Cilicia Pedias (north of Adana) to bring it back to 12 tiles).
  • add an uninhabited pass (Pillars of Jonas/Kodrigai or Kilikiai Pylai in DARE) between Myriandros and Issus (for a clean new border between Syria and Cilicia regions)
  • Change a majority of starting POPs in Myriandros to Canaanite Phoenician. (It was an old Phoenician colony!)
  • Split Baka (Cataonia province) in 2, restore Sipha as the southern half (still in Cataonia province, would go from currently 11 to 12 tiles)


  • Change Bithynian heritage to propontic, tie it to the propontic culture (for Astakos, Calachedon and Kyzikos).
  • Add the Cedar of the Gods modifier to Irkata, Raphaneia, Amatha, Konne, Kabiosa, Heliopolitana, Berothe, and Gerra.
  • Adjust the borders of Arta. it would look better an island tile with a ferry instead of adding that tiny bit on the mainland.

Question: Dear @Samitte Since you want to split Etruria in multiple smaller tags, would it be justified to do the same with Lycia at start?
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Dear @Samitte Since you want to split Etruria in multiple smaller tags, would it be justified to do the same with Lycia at start?

Lycia should come as one unit. If a League-style mechanic was ever implemented it should be able to fragment into one at some point. Etruria on the other hand has no right to be united, and was split amongst Caere, Volsinii, Tarquinii, Arretium, Perusia, Faesulae (Currently given to the Frentini? Faesulae was the biggest city in northern Etruria), Vulci, Volaterrae, Rusellae, Vetulonia, Populonium, Pisae, Saena, Cortona, and Clusium.

(add any of the cities here, perhaps @Samitte can make a good suggestion)

There's a whole bunch in the western half of the province, and it was an important crossroads where the road from Smyrna and Ephesus came together on the way to Sardis. I'd go with Nymphaion.
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Ketchup & friends

Lt. General
Jan 4, 2020
thanks, made a small update.

Since you prefer ID codes, here’s how the provinces could look like with our proposal, with current and suggested tile IDs. Tiles to be moved between provinces are highlited, new and restored tiles named (obviously no IDs):

Troad 10+ (n/a): 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 261, 262, 267, 268, Tenedos, ?

Aeolis 10+ (12): 259 279 281 282 283 284 285 287, 298, Mithymna, ?,

Mysia Inferioris 11 (12): 218, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 264, 265, 269, 7908

Mysia Superioris 11 (12): 271, 272, 273, 276, 278, 303, 304, 306, 337, 320, 321

Ionia 11 (12): 275, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 294, 1972, 1973, 1808, 1969

Lydia 11 (12): 274, 292, 293, 295, 296, 299, 300, 301, 305, 1947, Nymphaion

Sporades 12 (11): 220, 266, 280, 310, 1653, 1830, 1884, 1970, 1974, 7936, 7937, 8015

Caria Inferioris: 12 (12): 1876, 1968, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989, 7934, 7935, 7942

Caria Superioris: 12 (12): 1948, 1952, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1962, 1963, 1966, 1967, 7938, 7939, 7941

Bithynia Inferioris 12 (12): (239), 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, Eikote, (Psillion or Trikomia. 239 should be split back in 2 tiles)

Cyclades: 11 (10): 263, 375, 387, 437, 447, 454, 1835, 1915, 1964, 1996, 7905

Lycia: 12 (12): 159, 162, 156, 160, 161, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1998, 7948, 7949, Pinara

Cilicia Pedias: 12 (12): 796, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1889, 1882, 7986, 1870, 8021, Thebai Kilikias

Syria: 12 (12): 789, 790, 791, 793, 795, 797, 798, 813, 814, 851, 1871, 7985

North Phoenicia 11 (10): 766, 767, 769, 771, 779, 780, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788

Cataonia: 12 (11): 172, 1849, 1891, 1893, 1898, 1902, 1976, 1979, 1983, 1994, 1999, Sipha

more questions for @Samitte:

Astypalaia would need to be moved from Sporades to Cyclades. But should it be owned by Egypt directly instead of Kos? It was a major Ptolemaic naval base.

and would the descendants of Carian settlers still have their culture (represented by 1 or 2 Carian POPs)?
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