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The following naval system information is current to EUII v1.08.


Introduction

The purpose of this FAQ is to untangle some of the mysteries of the use of navies in the game EUII. There are six main sections to this FAQ: Attrition Section, Movement Section, User Interface Section, Tips and Tricks, Miscellaneous Section, and Recommendations for Paradox. The Attrition Section describes how ships are lost although not in battle. The Movement Section describes the number of days it takes to move ships from one sea-zone to another given various naval technology levels. The User Interface Section describes topics that involve, at least partly, the use of the user interface. Tips and Tricks gives helpful information that may border on exploitation. The Miscellaneous Section gives some possibly little known but helpful information. The Recommendations for Paradox section lists bugs and exploits uncovered along with possible solutions. Due to size, the FAQ is provided in three posts.

The truncate function is used in this text. The truncate function gives the integer portion of a real number, truncating the number at the decimal point. Truncate means that decimal remainders are no longer considered part of the result.


Credits

Thanks to Daniel A, Xang Xong III, Castellon, and VKV for their contributions to the making of this FAQ.


Table of Contents - post 1 of 3

[anchorlink=recent_changes]Recent Changes[/anchorlink]

[anchorlink=i]i) Attrition Section[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=i_I]I) Exemptions to Naval Attrition[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=i_II]II) Naval Supply Attrition[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=i_II_A]A. List of Modifiers[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_1]1) Storm[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_2]2) Icy[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_3]3) Blockade[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_4]4) Adjacent to port[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_5]5) Coastal[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_6]6) Leader[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_7]7) Months at Sea[/anchorlink]
------------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_a]a) Month Multiplier Table[/anchorlink]
------------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_b]b) Merging Fleets and Months at Sea[/anchorlink]
------------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_c]c) Reorganizing and Months at Sea[/anchorlink]
---------- [anchorlink=i_II_A_8]8) Attrition Limit Reached[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=i_II_B]B) Small Fleet Penalty (a.k.a. Minimum Naval Supply Attrition)[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=i_II_C]C) Maximum Naval Supply Attrition[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=i_III]III) Naval Movement Attrition[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=i_IV]IV) Dispersal of Attrition[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=i_V]V) How Naval Attrition Eventually Sinks Ships[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=i_VI]VI) Round-off Errors (Discrepancies in Number of Ships on Reload)[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=i_VII]VII) Repair of Ships[/anchorlink]


Table of Contents - post 2 of 3

[anchorlink=ii]ii) Movement Section[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=ii_I]I) Movement Speed[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=ii_II]II) Fast Northern Sea-zones[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=ii_III]III) Naval Exploration Time[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=ii_III_A]A) Days to Explore a Normal Sea-zone with Explorer[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=ii_III_B]B) Days to Explore a Fast Northern Sea-zone with Explorer[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=ii_III_C]C) Days to Explore a Normal Sea-zone without Explorer[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=ii_III_D]D) Days to Explore a Fast Northern Sea-zone without Explorer[/anchorlink]

[anchorlink=iii]iii) User Interface Section[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=iii_I]I) Troops and Splitting Ships or Losing Ships to Battle or Attrition[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iii_II]II) Reorganizing Ships and Troops On-board[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=iii_III]III) Troop Loading when Multiple Fleets Present[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iii_IV]IV) Types and Ranks of Naval Leaders [/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=iii_V]V) Multiple Leaders within one Fleet or Battle[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iii_VI]VI) Automatically Unloading Troops by Sailing into Port[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=iii_VII]VII) Way-points (Multiple Destinations or Stop in Port along the Way)[/anchorlink]
- [anchorlink=iii_VIII]VIII) Battles Cancel Movement Orders[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iii_IX]IX) Patrolling[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=iii_X]X) Canceling Orders to Unload Troops[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iii_XI]XI) Unloading Troop Detachments to One or More Destinations from Single Fleet[/anchorlink]

[anchorlink=iv]iv) Tips and Tricks[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=iv_I]I) Detecting Enemy Ships[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_A]A) Your Fleet or Active Allies' Fleet in the Same Waters[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_B]B) Naval Tech 18 or Higher (Increased Sight Range at Sea)[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_C]C) Spotting Enemy Ships from Land[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_D]D) Port Being Blockaded[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_E]E) Enemy Troops Recently Unloaded[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_F]F) Pirates[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=iv_I_G]G) Hidden Enemy Ships[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iv_II]II) Sneaking by Enemy Fleets[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=iv_III]III) Trying to Engage Enemy Fleets[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iv_IV]IV) Stopping Enemy Fleets from Unloading Troops[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=iv_V]V) Preventing Pirates from Appearing in National Waters[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iv_VI]VI) Detecting Enemy Armies Stationed in Port Provinces with Military Access[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=iv_VII]VII) Using Fleets to Capture or Recapture Provinces without Fortresses[/anchorlink]
- [anchorlink=iv_VIII]VIII) Quick Troop Unloading to Enemy Port with Military Access[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=iv_IX]IX) Sailing or Exploring Long Distances without Making Port[/anchorlink]


[anchorlink=v]v) Miscellaneous Section[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=v_I]I) Being Forced to Return to Port[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=v_II]II) Where Transports Can "Fight"[/anchorlink]
Table of Contents - post 3 of 3
-- [anchorlink=v_III]III) Where Galleys are "Safe"[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=v_IV]IV) Spontaneous Naval Battles[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_IV_A]A) Battle Caused by Splitting or Reorganizing Ships[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_IV_B]B) Battle Caused by War, Peace, or Increasing Alliance[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=v_V]V) Shipyards[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_V_A]A) Requirements to Build[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_V_B]B) Benefits[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=v_VI]VI) Naval Support Costs and Naval Support Limit[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_A]A) Number of Ports[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_B]B) Shipyards[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_C]C) Merchants[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_D]D) Naval Manufactories[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_E]E) Naval Supplies Produced[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_F]F) Naval Supplies Traded[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_VI_G]G) Economical Resources[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=v_VII]VII) Ship Build Capacity[/anchorlink]
- [anchorlink=v_VIII]VIII) Ship Build Costs[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=v_IX]IX) Naval Morale Modifiers[/anchorlink]
---- [anchorlink=v_X]X) Blockade Effects[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_X_A]A) Enemy Tax Income[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_X_B]B) Enemy Trade Income[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_X_C]C) Supply for Friendly Troops[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_X_D]D) Supply for Friendly Ships[/anchorlink]
------- [anchorlink=v_X_E]E) Siege Effects[/anchorlink]
--- [anchorlink=v_XI]XI) Blocking Strait Crossings[/anchorlink]
-- [anchorlink=v_XII]XII) Unusual Province and Sea-Zone Adjacencies[/anchorlink]
- [anchorlink=v_XIII]XIII) Naval Battle Information[/anchorlink]

[anchorlink=vi]vi) Recommendations for Paradox[/anchorlink]



[anchor=recent_changes]Recent Changes[/anchor]

April 2005:
Information on shipyards and ship support has been added.
Information on ship building costs and naval morale has been added.
Information about blockade effects and blocking straits has been added.
Table of contents and references are now improved with links.

May 2005:
Additions to naval morale modifiers have been made.
Changes reflect economical resources are affected by investment income (not exactly correct).

August 2005:
Siege effects of blockades are mentioned.
A bug is mentioned regarding lost galleys in deep seas being incorrectly classified as lost warships.
Owning Hinterpommern gains The Sund as national waters.
Changes reflect economical resources are affected by the previous month's surplus slider income.

October 2005:
Difficulty level affects base cost and support cost of ships.
"Cloud" above a navy in battle means that navy has a combat bonus from national waters.
Naval supplies traded are always zero for the first month after a reload.


[anchor=i]i) Attrition Section[/anchor]

When naval attrition occurs, ships are lost although they are not in battle and there has not been an event. At most one ship a month may be lost from a fleet due to "naval supply attrition" because the fleet has been too long from port or the condition of the sea is hazardous (see [anchorlink=i_II]i.II.[/anchorlink] below). More than one ship may be lost due to "naval movement attrition" if the ships are in motion at the end of a month (see [anchorlink=i_III]i.III.[/anchorlink] below). Attrition is computed and applied at the end of each month; the effects may be seen on the first of the following month. In many cases, one month's attrition only causes damage and no ships sink; ships usually sink only after multiple months of accumulated attrition (see [anchorlink=i_V]i.V.[/anchorlink] below).

Supply and movement attritions do not stack. The higher attrition percentage takes precedence.


[anchor=i_I]i.I) Exemptions to Naval Attrition[/anchor]

Naval supply and movement attrition do not apply to AI or to a player's ships in his own national waters (sea-zones adjacent to provinces owned by the player). When left-clicking on a sea-zone, shields are displayed of all nations that claim those waters as national waters.

Naval supply and movement attrition do not apply while in any port, including moving out of port. That is, movement attrition does not occur if ships are in port on the last day of the month, even though the ships may be in motion. Ships are considered "in port" for the entire time that the ships are not displayed and instead the "port icon" shows a navigator's wheel not an anchor.

Ships and troops on-board do not suffer movement attrition when led by an explorer.

Fleets with naval tech 41 and higher or fleets of size 101 or larger or do not suffer naval supply attrition; they are still subject to naval movement attrition.


[anchor=i_II]i.II) Naval Supply Attrition[/anchor]

Ships and troops on-board suffer this attrition, which increases with months-since-port (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_7]i.II.A.7.[/anchorlink] below). The number of months-since-port is in whole months; arriving at sea on the first or end of the same month is identical for all purposes except when merging fleets if a weighted-average occurs (see * note in section [anchorlink=I_II_A_7_b]i.II.A.7.b.[/anchorlink] below).

[anchor=i_II_A]i.II.A) List of Modifiers[/anchor]

The full list of modifiers to naval supply attrition is:

+10 Storm (less than 38 naval only)
+10 Icy (less than 41 naval only)
-3 Blockade
-2 Adjacent to port
-3 Costal
- leader
+ months at sea (There is a bug here, see * note in section [anchorlink=i_ii_A_7]i.II.A.7.[/anchorlink] below)
- attrition limit reached

If the summation of all modifiers is a positive value, then naval supply attrition will occur. The sum is to be considered a percentage. If the sum is greater than or equal to the small fleet penalty (see [anchorlink=i_II_B]i.II.B.[/anchorlink] below), then the amount of attrition suffered is the sum as a percentage applied to the ships and to the troops on the ships. If the sum is positive and is less than the small fleet penalty, then the amount of attrition is the small fleet penalty. Due to the "attrition limit reached" modifier (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_8]i.II.A.8.[/anchorlink] below), the sum cannot be greater than the maximum attrition (see [anchorlink=i_II_C]i.II.C.[/anchorlink] below).

The naval-unit window is "buggy" and shows one less attrition (but non-negative) than would be displayed in the naval-battle window; the same bug exists for the army-unit window (see FAQ for Army Attrition on Land V1.08). The naval-battle window is also incorrect in most instances because months at sea is not applied correctly (see * note in section [anchorlink=i_II_A_7]i.II.A.7.[/anchorlink] below). At low naval tech levels it is possible to receive 3% greater attrition than is shown in the naval-unit window.

[anchor=i_II_A_1]i.II.A.1) Storm[/anchor] - If a swirling black mass (storm) is present in the same sea-zone as a fleet on the last day of the month a +10 storm penalty is assessed for naval tech less than 38.

[anchor=i_II_A_2]i.II.A.2) Icy[/anchor] - If a white mass (ice) is present in the same sea-zone as a fleet on the last day of the month a +10 icy penalty is assessed for naval tech less than 41. Icy waters are exclusive to the Arctic area.

[anchor=i_II_A_3]i.II.A.3) Blockade[/anchor] - If the equivalent of at least five warships is present in the sea-zone outside a port controlled by an enemy at war, all ships in that sea-zone that at war with the province controller receive a -3 bonus to naval attrition. Two galleys may replace any one of the warships; ten galleys are equivalent to five warships. For more information about blockades see [anchorlink=v_X]v.X.[/anchorlink] below.

[anchor=i_II_A_4]i.II.A.4) Adjacent to port[/anchor] - If ships are in the sea-zone just outside port of an active ally or an enemy port under control by you or an active ally, a -2 bonus is received.

[anchor=i_II_A_5]i.II.A.5) Coastal[/anchor] - If ships are in a sea-zone adjacent to land, a -3 bonus is received.

[anchor=i_II_A_6]i.II.A.6) Leader[/anchor] - A bonus to reduce attrition is received based on the maneuver value of the fleet's leader. The bonus is -1 for each level of maneuver for non-explorers. Explorers have twice the bonus, -2 for each maneuver. In the case of multiple leaders within a fleet see [anchorlink=iii_V]iii.V.[/anchorlink] below.

[anchor=i_II_A_7]i.II.A.7) Months at Sea[/anchor] - Calculate by multiplying the months-since-port times naval month multiplier based on naval tech (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_a]i.II.A.7.a.[/anchorlink] below). The months-since-port is the number of end-of-month to first-of-month date-crossings since the last time in port (you may add one to that number account for the bug). Arriving at sea from port on the first of the month is preferable; it is the day that ships arrive at sea that is relevant. As stated elsewhere, ships are considered "in port" for the entire time that the ships are not displayed and instead the "port icon" shows a navigator's wheel not an anchor.


months at sea = truncate (months-since-port * month multiplier)

* The bug in "months at sea" is that the actual attrition applied is for the following month's value not the current month. Or you could think that the attrition applied to a ship just having left port is based on one month-since-port not zero months as would be indicated by the game display.

[anchor=i_II_A_7_a]i.II.A.7.a) Month Multiplier Table[/anchor]

Naval --- Month
Tech ---- Multiplier
-----------------
0-6 ----- 2.0
7-8 ----- 1.8
9-11 ---- 1.6
12-14 --- 1.4
15-18 --- 1.2
19-26 --- 1.0
27-30 --- 0.8
31-40 --- 0.6
41-60 --- 0.0


[anchor=i_II_A_7_b]i.II.A.7.b) Merging Fleets and Months at Sea[/anchor]

Merging fleets are "buggy" with respect to computing a sensible value for months at sea. The computation is different depending on the method and order of selection of naval-units before merging. If selecting by dragging a rectangle around the units, the units when merged will take the month-value of the most-recently-created-fleet.

Otherwise, when selecting individual units one by one: if the first naval-unit selected has a lower months-at-sea-value than the next unit selected and they are merged, the resulting fleet has the worst-case months. If however, the fleet with the worst months-at-sea-value is first selected and the units are merged, the resulting fleet has a "buggy" weighted-average where a smaller fleet size of the naval-unit with best-months-value causes a lower resulting months-at-sea-value.

* The weighted-average is a new date since last port computed based on days since last port for the two fleets. So it is possible to get some slightly skewed results for the weighted-average (than would be suggested below) when fleets have left port on different days of the month.

To give some examples I define the following notation where a fleet's attributes are given as (fleet size, months at sea) and the order of the fleets presented in the equation is in order of selection from left (first) to right (last). Assume a naval tech level in the range zero to six where the month multiplier is two.

(9 ships, 20 months) + (1 ships, 0 months) = (10 ships, 2 months)
(1 ships, 20 months) + (9 ships, 0 months) = (10 ships, 18 months)

Above, you see the weighted-average is opposite of what makes sense.

(5 ships, 20 months) + (5 ships, 0 months) = (10 ships, 10 months)
(5 ships, 0 months) + (5 ships, 20 months) = (10 ships, 20 months)
(1 ships, 0 months) + (9 ships, 20 months) = (10 ships, 20 months)

For more than two units merged, the merges are in order of selection.
Each of the following lines is equivalent (i.e. =) to each of the others:

(5, 20) + (5, 12) + (10, 0) =
[(5, 20) + (5, 12)] + (10, 0) =
(10, 16) + (10, 0) =
(20 ships, 8 months)

To get the best months at sea that is possible (referring to all merge or reorganize methods), break a single ship from the best-months-fleet. That is, reorganize the best-months-fleet and move a single ship down into a newly-created-fleet. That makes the tiny fleet of one ship the most-recently-created-fleet. Drag a rectangle around all the naval-units and merge. The new fleet has the month-value of the most-recently-created-fleet, which was the tiny fleet of one ship.

Once fleets that each carry troops are merged there is no quick way to return the original armies to different fleets; so you might not always want to merge all fleets in a sea-zone. After rectangle-selecting all naval-units in a sea-zone you can deselect individual units you do not want to merge. However you must predetermine the position of the selection-bars of those units; there is no way to get a naval-unit window-display for a unit while multiple units are selected. Keep in mind that the position of selection-bars often rotate upon clicking on the fleets. It may sometimes be preferable to individually select the naval-units to merge. To get the best months-value always start by merging with a single ship from the best-months-fleet.

[anchor=i_II_A_7_c]i.II.A.7.c) Reorganizing and Months at Sea[/anchor]

Reorganizing like merging is also "buggy" in computing a sensible value for months at sea. It is always simpler and preferable to use one of the merge methods (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_b]i.II.A.7.b.[/anchorlink] above). When reorganizing, the order of selection is also important. Also important is whether the ships are moved up or down when reorganizing. If first selecting the ships with the best-months-value or if the first ship is moved down in the reorganization, both fleets will take the worst-case months-value.

To get the best-months-value possible in reorganization, first select the fleet with the worst-months-value. Then select the other fleet to reorganize. Move a ship up from the best-months-fleet (bottom) to the worst-months-fleet (top). The result is that both fleets take a "buggy" weighted-average as if the worst-months-fleet had been merged with one ship of the best-months-fleet (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_b]i.II.A.7.b.[/anchorlink] above). Since both fleets then take the same value, additional ships can be moved up or down in the reorganization from that point without further effect on the months-value.

[anchor=i_II_A_8]i.II.A.8) Attrition Limit Reached[/anchor] - This is a reduction in attrition imposed by the maximum attrition level. The attrition limit reached reduction is zero if attrition would not exceed the maximum attrition. Otherwise, the attrition limit reached reduction is whatever number required making the sum of modifiers total to be the maximum attrition level. Even though the months-at-sea-value is not applied correctly (see * note above in [anchorlink=i_II_A_7]i.II.A.7[/anchorlink]) attrition limit reached is applied to counteract months

[anchor=i_II_B]i.II.B) Small Fleet Penalty (a.k.a. Minimum Naval Supply Attrition)[/anchor]

A small fleet penalty applies to fleets of size five or less if there is at least 1% naval supply attrition as calculated in section i.II.A.

Small Fleet Penalty = truncate (10/number of ships)

That means if you would normally suffer 1% naval supply attrition but had a fleet of less than six ships, you would suffer additional attrition. It is a minimum attrition level that is placed on small fleets; attrition will be higher if naval supply attrition as calculated in section i.II.A. is greater.

Fleet -- Small Fleet Penalty
Size --- Minimum Attrition
-----------------------
11-up -- 0%
6-10 --- 1%
4-5 ---- 2%
3 ------ 3%
2 ------ 5%
1 ------ 10%

So, a fleet consisting of a single ship will sink fast. Where a fleet of six ships would suffer 1% attrition, a single ship suffers at least 10% attrition. A single ship would survive for 10 months if attrition were always 10%. The ship exists as a fraction less than one; but attrition is applied as if it was a whole ship. Going to port, splitting, merging or clicking reorganize repairs all fractional portions of ships restoring them to whole numbers (see [anchorlink=i_VII]i.VII.[/anchorlink] below).

When transporting troops outside national waters, use fleets of at least size six since that minimizes troop casualties. Without troops, moving fleets of three or four in size is okay because ships can be repaired before a single ship is lost. A large fleet can accumulate a whole ships worth of attrition fairly quickly. A fleet of size one or two can suffer a high minimum attrition. Once attrition is already at a fairly high value fleets of three can be broken into size one fleets and merged and reorganized frequently to repair damage. They will be forced to return to port eventually however, due to "too high attrition."

[anchor=i_II_C]i.II.C) Maximum Naval Supply Attrition[/anchor]

Maximum Naval Supply Attrition = truncate (100/number of ships)

That is a fleet of 101 ships will never suffer naval supply attrition! Without an explorer, the fleet is vulnerable to movement attrition however. And with so many ships, movement attrition would cause the average loss of at least one ship every month (possibly distributed among different ship types), but not if the ships were not moving at the end of the month.

The basic result of maximum naval supply attrition is that no fleet will ever lose more than one ship a month to supply attrition no matter how many months since port or what the conditions of the seas. High ship losses are still possible with movement attrition and very large fleets.

Fleet --- Maximum Naval
Size ---- Supply Attrition
-----------------------
101-up -- 0%
51-100 -- 1%
34-50 --- 2%
26-33 --- 3%
21-25 --- 4%
17-20 --- 5%
15-16 --- 6%
13-14 --- 7%
12 ------ 8%
11 ------ 9%
10 ----- 10%
9 ------ 11%
8 ------ 12%
7 ------ 14%
6 ------ 16%
5 ------ 20%
4 ------ 25%
3 ------ 33%
2 ------ 50%
1 ----- 100%


[anchor=i_III]i.III) Naval Movement Attrition[/anchor]

Ships and troops on-board may suffer 1% movement attrition if ships are in motion on the last day of a month. Movement attrition does not occur if ships are moving out of a port on the last day of a month. Movement attrition does not affect ships in national waters on the last day of the month. Ships and troops on-board are not affected by movement attrition if led by an explorer.

As stated elsewhere, supply and movement attritions do not stack. The higher attrition percentage takes precedence.


[anchor=i_IV]i.IV) Dispersal of Attrition[/anchor]

If there are warships, or galleys, or transports all by themselves with no ships of one of the other three categories all the attrition is suffered in the ship category present. The chart below shows how the attrition is divided when more than one category of ships is present. Where dashes are present in place of a fraction, the lack of ships of that category is indicated. Where a fraction is present, ships of that category are present and the fraction represents the fraction of the total attrition that ships in that category will suffer. For example, in the last column, when warships are grouped with transports, the warships suffer 5/6 of the attrition. So it is better not to group small numbers of warships with large numbers of transports.

-------------- Dispersal of Attrition ---
Warships ----- 1/9 --- 1/6 ---------- 5/6
Galleys ------ 7/9 --- 5/6 -- 5/6 -------
Transports --- 1/9 ---------- 1/6 --- 1/6


[anchor=i_V]i.V) How Naval Attrition Eventually Sinks Ships[/anchor]

Naval attrition works the same way as land attrition for artillery (see related FAQ on Army Attrition on Land V1.08). In the computer's game logic, a fleet of ships is stored as a number with an integer portion and a decimal portion. If the decimal portion of ships is greater than zero, one more ship is displayed in the game than would otherwise be indicated by the integer portion of the fleet's number. That means that the number of ships available in the game is the value of the ceiling function applied to the fleet's number. The ceiling function applied to a whole number is the number itself. Applied to number between two consecutive whole numbers the ceiling function is the greater of the two whole numbers.

Whenever ships suffer attrition, a percentage is applied to the displayed number of ships and is subtracted from the internal decimal number of ships. The percentage applied is known in this FAQ as either the naval supply attrition or naval movement attrition. When the fleet's number is decreased to have a lower ceiling function value, at least one ship is lost.

For example:

10.000 galleys are displayed as 10 ships.
If 10 ships suffer a maximum of 10% supply attrition:
10.000 - (10% * 10) = 10.000 - 1.000 = 9.000
9.000 galleys are displayed as 9 ships; one ship was lost.
If 9 ships suffer a maximum of 11% supply attrition:
9.000 - (11% * 9) = 9.000 - 0.990 = 8.010
8.010 galleys are displayed as 9 ships; no ships are lost.
If 9 ships again suffer a maximum of 11% attrition (without repair, see [anchorlink=i_VII]i.VII.[/anchorlink] below):
8.010 - (11% * 9) = 8.010 - 0.990 = 7.020
7.020 galleys are displayed as 8 ships; one ship was lost.

Attrition dispersal can reduce a single month's ship losses (compare to above example).
A fleet of 1.000 warships and 9.000 galleys is ten ships.
If 10 ships suffer a maximum of 10% supply attrition,
warships take 1/6 of the attrition (see [anchorlink=i_IV]i.IV.[/anchorlink] above):
1.000 - (1/6 * 10% * 10) = 1.000 - 0.167 = 0.833 warships
galleys take 5/6 of the attrition:
9.000 - (5/6 * 10% * 10) = 9.000 - 0.834 = 0.166 galleys
A fleet of 0.833 warships and 0.166 galleys is ten ships; no ships are lost.

249.500 warships are displayed as 250 ships.
If 250 ships suffer a 1% movement attrition:
249.500 - (1% * 250) = 249.500 - 2.500 = 247.000
247.000 warships are displayed as 247 ships; three ships were lost.

Warships grouped with large numbers of transports may be lost more quickly.
A fleet of 1.000 warships and 199.000 transports is 200 ships.
If 200 ships suffer a 1% movement attrition:
warships take 5/6 of the attrition (see [anchorlink=i_IV]i.IV.[/anchorlink] above):
1.000 - (5/6 * 1% * 200) = 1.000 - 1.667 = -0.667 ==> 0.000 warships
transports take 1/6 of the attrition:
199.000 - (1/6 * 1% * 200) = 199.000 - 0.334 = 198.666 transports
A fleet of 0.000 warships and 198.666 galleys is 199 ships; one warship was lost.


[anchor=i_VI]i.VI) Round-off Errors (Discrepancies in Number of Ships on Reload)[/anchor]

First there are round-off errors in computing attrition percentages. In computers, percentages are not always accurately represented because computers represent fractions in binary (a ones and zeros number system). In binary, one-half is 0.100 and one-quarter is 0.010 and one-eighth is 0.001 and so on. The problem arises from representing one-fifth. In the decimal system one-fifth is simply 0.2. But in binary, one-fifth is an infinitely repeating value past the binary point (0.00110011001100110011...). The infinitely repeating value cannot be fully represented and is truncated at some point. So percentages where one-fifth factors into the lowest common denominator will sometimes be computed very slightly smaller than they should be.

The binary percentage round-off error can be seen when sending 20.000 or 25.000 ships of all the same type (warship, galley, transport) out past national waters at maximum attrition. Twenty ships suffer 5% maximum attrition and 25 ships suffer 4% maximum attrition (see [anchorlink=i_II_C]i.II.C.[/anchorlink] above). In the case of 20 or 25 of the same ship-type, one ship should be lost on the first month at maximum attrition. But since the percentages are actually infinitesimally smaller than 5% and 4%, there is some very tiny fraction of a ship remaining that prevents ship-loss from being displayed (see [anchorlink=i_V]i.V.[/anchorlink] above). Twenty or 25 ships remain after the first month of attrition.

The very tiny fraction of a ship that remains is less than 0.001, which is the smallest fraction of a ship that can be stored in a save-game. So if saving and reloading the above examples where 20 or 25 ships had suffered maximum attrition (without repair, see [anchorlink=i_VII]i.VII.[/anchorlink] below), the number of ships after reloading would be 19 or 24 ships respectively. This is the second type of round-off error. In saving a game, the fractional portion of a ship is converted to a decimal and is truncated past the thousandths place.

Fleets of 100.000, 50.000, 10.0000, 5.000, 4.000, 2.000, and 1.000 composed of a single ship-type (warship, galley, transport) at maximum attrition all lose exactly one ship as should be the case.


[anchor=i_VII]i.VII) Repair of Ships[/anchor]

Ships are repaired to whole numbers upon entering port, splitting, merging or clicking reorganize. That is, the fleet's number is raised to the ceiling function value of the current fleet number (see [anchorlink=i_V]i.V.[/anchorlink] above).

Exploit: (See [anchorlink=iv_IX]iv.IX.[/anchorlink] below)


(post 1 of 3 - Naval FAQ is continued in the following post)
 

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(post 2 of 3 - Naval FAQ is continued)


[anchor=ii]ii) Movement Section[/anchor]

[anchor=ii_I]ii.I) Movement Speed[/anchor]

Galleys (and all ships grouped with galleys) always move at the slowest speed indicated on the chart. Warships and transports move at a speed that varies with naval tech level as indicated below. Wind has no effect upon the speed of ship movement and galleys never get speed upgrades.

Note that February 1 counts for two days of movement. February 15 also counts for two days of movement.

The time to go either in or out of port is half the time to go in and out of port.

Time to enter a fast northern sea-zone is the truncated portion of half the time to enter a normal sea-zone.

Movement Speed Table

Naval --- Days to Move --- Days In and --- Days to Move a Fast
Tech ---- One sea-zone --- Out of Port ----- Northern sea-zone
--------------------------------------------------------------
0-4 --------------- 20 ------------ 10 -------------------- 10
5-8 --------------- 15 ------------- 6 --------------------- 7
9-12 -------------- 12 ------------- 6 --------------------- 6
13-16 ------------- 10 ------------- 4 --------------------- 5
17-20 -------------- 8 ------------- 4 --------------------- 4
21-25 -------------- 7 ------------- 2 --------------------- 3
26-33 -------------- 6 ------------- 2 --------------------- 3
34-41 -------------- 5 ------------- 2 --------------------- 2
42-54 -------------- 4 ------------- 2 --------------------- 2
55-60 -------------- 3 ------------- 2 --------------------- 1


[anchor=ii_II]ii.II) Fast Northern Sea-zones[/anchor]

Because some sea-zones are actually very small and a two-dimensional map causes them to appear larger, the game compensates by making some northern sea-zones fast to travel through. The fast (half-time) sea-zones include and are limited to all sea-zones bordering the northern edge of the map except Coast of Iceland, the three northern-most Baltic sea-zones (Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Turku, Aland Sea), sea-zones bordering Greenland, sea-zone south of Aleutes (Northern Pacific Ocean), nine sea-zones bordering land in the area of Kamcatka that are entirely north of the tip of the peninsula, and a hexagonal deep blue zone in Gulf of Kamcatka (Okhotsk Sea).


[anchor=ii_III]ii.III) Naval Exploration Time[/anchor]

In short, to explore one sea-zone, you can basically estimate an explorer to take three to four times the movement time if the sea-zone were already explored. At low tech levels, a difference of one maneuver makes about a 5% difference in exploration time, in the range zero to three days.

To explore without an explorer (naval 27 and up) requires very roughly seven to nine times the days to move if already explored.

Exploring a fast northern sea-zone is the truncated portion of half the days to explore a normal sea-zone.

The following tables show the exact number of days to explore. The naval tech levels increase from zero to 60 in sets of two to five running down the left side of the tables. The maneuver values from zero to nine run from left to right across the tables.

The maneuver of a random explorer or default leader is two. In typical play, the entire range of maneuver values is from one to six.


[anchor=ii_III_A]ii.III.A) Days to Explore a Normal Sea-zone with Explorer[/anchor]

Naval ---------------------- Maneuver ----------------------------
Tech ----- 0 --- 1 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5 --- 6 --- 7 --- 8 --- 9
------------------------------------------------------------------
0-4 ----- 74 -- 71 -- 68 -- 65 -- 62 -- 59 -- 56 -- 53 -- 50 -- 47
5-8 ----- 55 -- 53 -- 51 -- 48 -- 46 -- 44 -- 42 -- 39 -- 37 -- 35
9-12 ---- 44 -- 42 -- 40 -- 39 -- 37 -- 35 -- 33 -- 31 -- 30 -- 28
13-16 --- 37 -- 35 -- 34 -- 32 -- 31 -- 29 -- 28 -- 26 -- 25 -- 23
17-20 --- 31 -- 30 -- 29 -- 27 -- 26 -- 25 -- 24 -- 22 -- 21 -- 20
21-25 --- 27 -- 26 -- 25 -- 24 -- 23 -- 22 -- 21 -- 19 -- 18 -- 17
26-29 --- 24 -- 23 -- 22 -- 21 -- 20 -- 19 -- 18 -- 17 -- 16 -- 15
30-33 --- 22 -- 21 -- 20 -- 19 -- 18 -- 17 -- 16 -- 15 -- 15 -- 14
34-37 --- 20 -- 19 -- 18 -- 17 -- 16 -- 16 -- 15 -- 14 -- 13 -- 12
38-41 --- 18 -- 17 -- 17 -- 16 -- 15 -- 14 -- 14 -- 13 -- 12 -- 11
42-46 --- 17 -- 16 -- 15 -- 15 -- 14 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 10
47-50 --- 15 -- 15 -- 14 -- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10
51-54 --- 14 -- 14 -- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10 --- 9
55-58 --- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 8
59-60 --- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 8 --- 8


[anchor=ii_III_B]ii.III.B) Days to Explore a Fast Northern Sea-zone with Explorer[/anchor]

Naval ------------------------- Maneuver -------------------------
Tech ----- 0 --- 1 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5 --- 6 --- 7 --- 8 --- 9
------------------------------------------------------------------
0-4 ----- 37 -- 35 -- 34 -- 32 -- 31 -- 29 -- 28 -- 26 -- 25 -- 23
5-8 ----- 27 -- 26 -- 25 -- 24 -- 23 -- 22 -- 21 -- 19 -- 18 -- 17
9-12 ---- 22 -- 21 -- 20 -- 19 -- 18 -- 17 -- 16 -- 15 -- 15 -- 14
13-16 --- 18 -- 17 -- 17 -- 16 -- 15 -- 14 -- 14 -- 13 -- 12 -- 11
17-20 --- 15 -- 15 -- 14 -- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10
21-25 --- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 8
26-29 --- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 8 --- 8 --- 7
30-33 --- 11 -- 10 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 8 --- 8 --- 7 --- 7 --- 7
34-37 --- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 8 --- 8 --- 8 --- 7 --- 7 --- 6 --- 6
38-41 ---- 9 --- 8 --- 8 --- 8 --- 7 --- 7 --- 7 --- 6 --- 6 --- 5
42-46 ---- 8 --- 8 --- 7 --- 7 --- 7 --- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 5 --- 5
47-50 ---- 7 --- 7 --- 7 --- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 5 --- 5 --- 5
51-54 ---- 7 --- 7 --- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 5 --- 5 --- 5 --- 5 --- 4
55-58 ---- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 5 --- 5 --- 5 --- 4 --- 4 --- 4
59-60 ---- 6 --- 6 --- 6 --- 5 --- 5 --- 5 --- 4 --- 4 --- 4 --- 4


[anchor=ii_III_C]ii.III.C) Days to Explore a Normal Sea-zone without Explorer[/anchor]

Naval ---------------------- Maneuver ----------------------------
Tech ----- 0 --- 1 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5 --- 6 --- 7 --- 8 --- 9
------------------------------------------------------------------
27-29 --- 43 -- 42 -- 41 -- 40 -- 39 -- 38 -- 37 -- 36 -- 35 -- 34
30-33 --- 39 -- 38 -- 37 -- 36 -- 35 -- 34 -- 33 -- 32 -- 31 -- 30
34-37 --- 35 -- 34 -- 33 -- 33 -- 32 -- 31 -- 30 -- 29 -- 28 -- 28
38-41 --- 32 -- 31 -- 31 -- 30 -- 29 -- 28 -- 28 -- 27 -- 26 -- 25
42-46 --- 30 -- 29 -- 28 -- 27 -- 27 -- 26 -- 25 -- 25 -- 24 -- 23
47-50 --- 27 -- 27 -- 26 -- 25 -- 25 -- 24 -- 24 -- 23 -- 22 -- 22
51-54 --- 26 -- 25 -- 24 -- 24 -- 23 -- 23 -- 22 -- 21 -- 21 -- 20
55-58 --- 24 -- 23 -- 23 -- 22 -- 22 -- 21 -- 21 -- 20 -- 19 -- 19
59-60 --- 22 -- 22 -- 21 -- 21 -- 20 -- 20 -- 19 -- 19 -- 18 -- 18


[anchor=ii_III_D]ii.III.D) Days to Explore a Fast Northern Sea-zone without Explorer[/anchor]

Naval ---------------------- Maneuver ----------------------------
Tech ----- 0 --- 1 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5 --- 6 --- 7 --- 8 --- 9
------------------------------------------------------------------
27-29 --- 21 -- 21 -- 20 -- 20 -- 19 -- 19 -- 18 -- 18 -- 17 -- 17
30-33 --- 19 -- 19 -- 18 -- 18 -- 17 -- 17 -- 16 -- 16 -- 15 -- 15
34-37 --- 17 -- 17 -- 16 -- 16 -- 16 -- 15 -- 15 -- 14 -- 14 -- 14
38-41 --- 16 -- 15 -- 15 -- 15 -- 14 -- 14 -- 14 -- 13 -- 13 -- 12
42-46 --- 15 -- 14 -- 14 -- 13 -- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11
47-50 --- 13 -- 13 -- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 11
51-54 --- 13 -- 12 -- 12 -- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10 -- 10
55-58 --- 12 -- 11 -- 11 -- 11 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9
59-60 --- 11 -- 11 -- 10 -- 10 -- 10 -- 10 --- 9 --- 9 --- 9 --- 9



[anchor=iii]iii) User Interface Section[/anchor]

[anchor=iii_I]iii.I) Troops and Splitting Ships or Losing Ships to Battle or Attrition[/anchor]

Troops are not lost when splitting ships carrying troops. In many cases, the resulting split fleet may show it is carrying more troops than capacity would allow. Most of the time troops on-board are split along with ships into troop sizes that are close to the capacity of the split fleets. Because of splitting multiple armies and different categories of troops (infantry, cavalry, artillery) capacity can often times be exceeded. Sometimes, capacity can be exceeded by a few thousand for no apparent reason.

It is unverified, but there are possibly circumstances where a fleet's entire troop contents can be carried by the split half of a fleet when the fleet is split in motion. Repeated splitting and merging might be exploited to carry any number of troops in even the smallest of fleets.

So long as a fleet survives, troops are not lost in battle even though several ships may be lost. Troop numbers may be reduced by supply or movement attrition. A fleet losing ships in battle may show that it is carrying more troops than capacity should allow.

When ships are lost to attrition the troops are also affected by the attrition and should be close in size to the resulting capacity of the new smaller fleet. But in some cases, a fleet losing ships to attrition may show that it is carrying more troops than capacity should allow.

In all cases, no extra troops are lost due to diminished capacity of the fleet for holding the troops. That only happens when reorganizing ships or troops on-board.


[anchor=iii_II]iii.II) Reorganizing Ships and Troops On-board[/anchor]

When reorganizing ships with troops on-board, troop losses can occur if there are not sufficiently extra ships to hold additional capacity caused by splitting multiple armies or armies with different categories of troop types (infantry, cavalry, artillery).

The more different armies the more extra ships are needed to avoid troop losses. Even reorganizing troops while on-board into a single army first does not help because the game leaves lots of 0/0/0 armies (armies without men) that still cause troop losses. It is best not to reorganize ships carrying troops unless there is only one army present and there is at least one extra ship for each different category of men on-board. Splitting is less dangerous than reorganizing ships with troops.

Reorganizing troops on ships with insufficient capacity also causes loss of troops. If splitting fleets, or loss of ships has resulted in insufficient capacity do not try to reorganize the troops while on the ships as that will cause casualties.


[anchor=iii_III]iii.III) Troop Loading when Multiple Fleets Present[/anchor]

If there is not enough capacity to hold all troops in a unit, no portion of that unit is loaded. When multiple fleets are present in a sea-zone where troops are loading, troops load first onto the fleet with the largest remaining capacity. Any overflow goes to the next fleet with the largest remaining capacity. If two or more fleets have the same amount of largest remaining capacity, troops load onto the most-recently-created-fleet.


[anchor=iii_IV]iii.IV) Types and Ranks of Naval Leaders[/anchor]

There are three types of naval leaders, explorers, admiralty, and commodores. Explorers are depicted in the game by a navigator's sextant (looks like an eye facing to the left) immediately to the right of the explorer's name in the naval-unit window. Fleets with explorers as the primary leading officer also have a smaller sextant displayed to the left of the fleet's selection-bar. All fleets having explorers among their leadership may explore new unexplored sea-zones; this is the only difference between explorers and other admiralty.

Explorers and admiralty are depicted by a gold-colored rank-insignia immediately to the left of the leaders name in the naval-unit window. The rank-insignia may be an "X" or one or more stars. Admiralty can therefore be seen as having a gold rank-insignia but no sextant. You can hover the cursor over the insignia to list the rank in a tool-tip: Lord Admiral ("X"), Admiral (single large star), Vice Admiral (three small stars), Rear Admiral (two stars), Flotilla Admiral (one small star).

Commodores have one small gray star for a rank-insignia. Commodores are the default leader type.

Whether a leader is an explorer or not, does not affect the rank. The ranks of leaders listed from highest to lowest rank are as follows:

Lord Admiral
Admiral
Vice Admiral
Rear Admiral
Flotilla Admiral
Commodore


[anchor=iii_V]iii.V) Multiple Leaders within one Fleet or Battle[/anchor]

When two or more fleets, each having a leader other than Commodore, are merged or entirely reorganized together, the resulting fleet will contain more than one leader. Commodores (default leaders) do not contribute to multiple leaders within a fleet. Even though an explorer might not be the leader of a fleet, as long as a fleet contains an explorer among its multiple leaders, that fleet may be used to explore new unexplored sea-zones.

The presence of multiple leaders within a fleet is depicted by a gold triangle to the far right of a leader's name in the naval-unit window. You may click on the triangle to toggle or rotate through the multiple leaders for display purposes only. Only one leader leads a fleet.

The leader of the fleet is the highest-ranking leader (see [anchorlink=iii_IV]iii.IV.[/anchorlink] above) and is first displayed when selecting the fleet. The attributes (maneuver, fire, shock) of the highest-ranking leader are applied to the fleet for attrition (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_6]i.II.A.6.[/anchorlink] above) and battle purposes. When leaders of equal rank are also highest in rank, the leader of the most-recently-created-fleet before merging or reorganizing will lead the merged fleet. The exception to this is when the most-recently-created fleet contains more than one leader of highest rank; in that case the leadership changes to a leader that was not the primary leader of any fleet before the merge.

To separate multiple leaders and return them to different fleets, use the split operation. Splitting requires at least two ships of the same category (warship, galley, transport) to be in the fleet. A split operation must be performed for each leader to be removed from the original fleet. Once split, the newly-created-fleet could be merged with the original fleet to switch leadership in the case of leaders with the same rank.

When multiple leaders are present in the same naval battle, only one leader's attributes (maneuver, fire, shock) apply to the battle. This is despite the possibility that leaders may be leading separate fleets. Separate fleets still receive different leader bonuses for attrition (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_6]i.II.A.6.[/anchorlink] above) even during battle. The leader of a battle is decided in the same manner as the leader of a fleet with multiple leaders present; the leader of highest rank leads the battle. Among equal rank, the leader of the most-recently-created-fleet will lead the battle. The current leader of a battle may change as fleets arrive to participate in battle.


[anchor=iii_VI]iii.VI) Automatically Unloading Troops by Sailing into Port[/anchor]

When a fleet loaded with troops ends its movement in a port province, all the troops on-board are instantly unloaded. To make port and prevent the unloading of troops use way-points to go in and out of port (i.e. right-click on the port and shift-right-click on the sea-zone outside of port, see [anchorlink=iii_VII]iii.VII.[/anchorlink] below).


[anchor=iii_VII]iii.VII) Way-points (Multiple Destinations or Stop in Port along the Way)[/anchor]

Way-points are useful for both armies and navies. Way-points are the locations that you desire a fleet or other military unit to travel through on the way to a final destination. The user interface allows you to specify a single destination by first left-clicking on the unit to move and then right-clicking on the destination province or sea-zone. To specify further destinations you can specify way-points by shift-right-clicking on provinces or sea-zones. You can specify as many way-points as is practical. The path your military unit takes to its final destination (the last way-point specified) is a path through all the way-points in the order they were input.

Using way-points allows you to make port along a fleet's path and is the only way to briefly make port without unloading troops (see [anchorlink=iii_VI]iii.VI.[/anchorlink] above). Using way-points is also the only way to definitely specify complete circle trips useful for patrolling (see [anchorlink=iii_IX]iii.IX.[/anchorlink] below).

If you make a mistake in choosing way-points you can clear the current path-selection by right-clicking on the initial destination once more. Or you could cancel the trip altogether and start over by right-clicking the location the military unit is currently in; the latter causes a loss of movement progress.

You may also want to clear the path-selection and start over if you notice the path between two way-points is not desirable (i.e. the path may go into deep-sea unfavorable for galleys). The next time entering the way-points, you may add one or more way-points to specify the exact path to take in the troublesome area.

Note: there is some danger when using way-points to go in and out of port when large numbers of troops are on-board. If there is a battle with pirates or other enemies in the sea-zone outside of port before you actually go in and out of port, and you win the battle, your movement selection path is mostly erased (see [anchorlink=iii_VIII]iii.VIII.[/anchorlink] below) except that you will enter port and unload all the troops. This can expose troops to land supply attrition. So if you win such a battle, you must react quickly to prevent troops from being unloaded.


[anchor=iii_VIII]iii.VIII) Battles Cancel Movement Orders[/anchor]

If you lose a naval battle, your fleet's movement orders are replaced by a nearby destination of retreat. If you win a naval battle, the fleet retains only movement orders for the next province or sea-zone that it was headed to immediately before the battle. Win or lose, once in naval battle, you will have to re-chart a course for your fleet.


[anchor=iii_IX]iii.IX) Patrolling[/anchor]

Ships on patrol will travel in something of a loop, retracing a set of way-points (see [anchorlink=iii_VII]iii.VII.[/anchorlink] above) over and over again. To set ships on patrol, click on the patrol check-box in the fleet's naval-unit window, then use way-points to specify a path to travel. To stop ships from patrolling click to un-check the patrol check-box. The ships continue moving to finish out the current path-selection. You may want to issue new movement orders when you stop ships from patrolling.

Patrolling is useful when attempting to defend sea-zones in time of war. An English fleet may be set to patrol the waters of the English Channel circling between Land's End and Dogger Bank for example. Patrolling is also useful when using an explorer to discover a particular province of land. It is best to use way-points to specify multiple passes of the land province to be discovered. The explorer's patrolled path should include a way-point for making port.

It is best to use way-points to specify a complete circle trip when setting a fleet on patrol. That is, the return-path to the location of origin should be specified. If not, the computer generates a return-path for you when the fleet first moves to a new location. The return-path might not be favorable as it might not pass through national waters or it might lead galleys through deep seas.


[anchor=iii_X]iii.X) Canceling Orders to Unload Troops[/anchor]

To cancel orders to unload troops simply give the fleet the troops are on movement orders. Select the fleet; left-click on the fleet or you may need to left-click and drag a selection rectangle in the area of the fleet. If multiple fleets are present, and you do not want to change movement orders for all the fleets, left-click on the selection bar of the fleet with troops on-board. Fleets with troops on-board are depicted with a small dot to the right of the selection bar. Once the fleet is selected, you can right-click on the sea-zone the ships are currently in. That cancels troop disembarkation orders without actually sending the fleet anywhere.


[anchor=iii_XI]iii.XI) Unloading Troop Detachments to One or More Destinations from Single Fleet[/anchor]

Often, the user interface does not allow unloading troop detachments in a straight-forward manner. Many times when a troop detachment is selected and given orders to disembark ships, all troops on-board will also be given orders to leave. There is a work-around but it involves the use of reorganizing troops on-board. Reorganizing causes troop casualties if there is currently not enough ship capacity in the fleet to hold the troops (see [anchorlink=iii_II]iii.II.[/anchorlink] above).

To unload detachments, select a single fleet and click "unload troops" then click "reorganize." All troops on-board must be reorganized into a single army at the top section of the reorganization window. Next click "create new" and move to the bottom the troops you do not want to give disembarkation orders. The detachment you wish to send is on the top of the reorganization window. While the reorganization window is still in view, right-click on the destination to send the detachment.

You may wish to send multiple detachments to the same or different destinations. Sending various detachments to the same destination is useful for keeping infantry and cavalry separate and is necessary for multiple waves of attack. Sending multiple detachments to different locations is especially useful in capturing Caribbean Islands from Spain.

It is possible to unload four detachments at one time from the same fleet. Once the first detachment has been given its destination, the troop selection window will be in view. If you must attend to other business and click out of the troop selection window, returning to the troop selection window to send further detachments may be impossible. You may be able to simply click on the disembarking troops to return you the troop selection window. Or you can try to left-click and drag a rectangle selection in the area of the fleet; do this to try to select all troops on-board. Then left-click within the rectangular area you selected. This may return you to the troop selection window. If returning to the troop selection window proves impossible, you may need to start the process over by canceling the troop unload orders (see [anchorlink=iii_X]iii.X.[/anchorlink] above) then reorganizing all the troops together again.

Within the troop selection window, click on the leader of the army with orders to remain aboard ship. You see the leader in the bottom of the troop selection window. The troops you have selected should have no movement orders; if not click a different leader until you find the stationary troops. The stationary troops are generally led by the right-most leader in the bottom of the troop selection window. Click "reorganize" and move to the bottom the troops you do not want to give disembarkation orders. The detachment you wish to send is on the top of the reorganization window. While the reorganization window is still in view, right-click on the destination to send the detachment. Repeat as many as two more times for other detachments you wish to send.


[anchor=iv]iv) Tips and Tricks[/anchor]

Computer software is like the law that governs game-play. When you know more about the rules, you find loopholes that allow you to do things that perhaps were not really intended.


[anchor=iv_I]iv.I) Detecting Enemy Ships[/anchor]

There are several ways to detect the presence of enemy ships.

[anchor=iv_I_A]iv.I.A) Your Fleet or Active Allies' Fleet in the Same Waters[/anchor]

Most obviously, if you or an active ally has ships in a sea-zone where enemy ships are present, you can spot the enemy ships. You may or may not engage in combat while occupying the same sea-zone.

[anchor=iv_I_B]iv.I.B) Naval Tech 18 or Higher (Increased Sight Range at Sea)[/anchor]

With a minimum of naval tech 18, you can see all sea-zones adjacent to your fleets' locations even adjacent to fleets in ports where you have military access. You also see all sea-zones that make up your national waters (adjacent to all provinces you own).

[anchor=iv_I_C]iv.I.C) Spotting Enemy Ships from Land[/anchor]

An army present in a controlled port province can see enemy ships in the sea-zone outside of port.

[anchor=iv_I_D]iv.I.D) Port Being Blockaded[/anchor]

If you or an active ally controls a port and that port is being blockaded, then there must be a sufficient number of enemy ships in the sea-zone outside the port. A blockaded port is depicted with a lock-and-keyhole over the "port icon."

[anchor=iv_I_E]iv.I.E) Enemy Troops Recently Unloaded[/anchor]

When enemy troops have suddenly appeared in a coastal province, there are likely to be enemy ships in a sea-zone adjacent to the province. AI ships are able to unload troops while the fleet is in motion, so the fleet might not be in a nearby sea-zone for long.

[anchor=iv_I_F]iv.I.F) Pirates[/anchor]

Pirates can be seen by left-clicking on a sea-zone and looking for the skull-and-crossbones icons in the left-hand display. The number of skull-and-crossbones icons is the same as the number of pirate ships in the sea-zone.

[anchor=iv_I_G]iv.I.G) Hidden Enemy Ships[/anchor]

Most of the time when specifying a destination or way-point for a fleet (see [anchorlink=iii_VII]iii.VII.[/anchorlink] above), the computer generates either the shortest path or shortest coastal path for the ships to pass through. In the case of equal-distance paths available, the computer generally selects the most northern and most western sea-zones to pass through (preference in that order).

When the computer generates an unusually long path or one that does not stay to the coast as much as it could, there are likely to be enemy ships in the path that would otherwise be preferable. If pirates are not in the preferable path, then ships of enemies you are at war with must be in the path. You can use way-points to scout for enemy ships without ever leaving port.


[anchor=iv_II]iv.II) Sneaking by Enemy Fleets[/anchor]

If you know pirates are in a sea-zone you wish to travel to, or if you suspect other enemies may be there (see [anchorlink=iv_I_A]iv.I.A.[/anchorlink] to [anchorlink=iv_I_G]iv.I.G.[/anchorlink] above), you may wish to attempt to avoid combat. Small fleets generally have a better chance of sneaking by enemy fleets. Multiple fleets traveling together have worse chances of sneaking past enemy fleets. If you end your movement path in a sea-zone where enemies are, you are likely to engage in combat. This is especially true if enemy ships are stationary in the sea-zone (i.e. pirates). To avoid combat it is best to continue the movement selection path to another sea-zone past the sea-zone where enemy ships are located. Do this even if the sea-zone with enemy ships is your intended destination; once you reach the destination you can cancel orders to move further by selecting the fleet and right-clicking on the sea-zone it is in.


[anchor=iv_III]iv.III) Trying to Engage Enemy Fleets[/anchor]

There are times when you wish to engage enemy fleets, especially if the enemy fleet has troops on-board or if the enemy fleet is small and vulnerable to attack. If an enemy fleet is stationary in a sea-zone, combat is a certainty if you end a fleet's movement selection path in the sea-zone where the enemy is located.

If enemy ships are in motion, engaging the ships in battle may prove more difficult. Each fleet that you send to the sea-zone has a chance of engaging the enemy. The best chance of engaging the enemy is to end the movement selection path in the sea-zone where the enemy is located. You can break a fleet multiple fleets before entering the enemy's sea-zone (avoid losing morale to spontaneous battle, see [anchorlink=v_IV_A]v.IV.A.[/anchorlink] below) and give movement orders for each smaller fleet to enter the sea-zone one day apart. Even splitting into multiple fleets alone will result in higher odds of combat. If a fleet ends its movement and fails to establish combat you can chase the enemy to the next sea-zone, or if you have port access, go in and out of port ending the path in the original sea-zone. Going in and out of port is the fastest way to re-enter a sea-zone.


[anchor=iv_IV]iv.IV) Stopping Enemy Fleets from Unloading Troops[/anchor]

AI fleets are able to engage you in battle and unload troops at the same time. That is, when an AI fleet enters a sea-zone where your ships are located and a battle ensues, the AI can still unload troops while the battle progresses. The only ways to stop the AI from unloading troops are to either win the battle before the troops are unloaded or to abort the battle and engage the AI fleets in a second battle (see [anchorlink=iv_III]iv.III.[/anchorlink] above).

Whenever your ships enter a sea-zone where any type of enemy is located and a battle ensues, the enemy fleets are unable to unload troops. That is, when you engage enemies (as opposed to AI fleets engaging you) you prevent them from unloading troops. All movement progress for the unloading of troops is lost.

Even a small fleet meeting enemy ships briefly in battle and retreating back to port can defend islands you may own, like Rhodes for the Knights. There is no way enemies can unload troops unless you allow them. Of course, the victory percentage can mount against you due to losing so many naval battles. But if you are likely to capture all enemy provinces, you will gain 100% victory in spite of the naval battles. Still it is best to have enough ships to eventually win a naval battle.


[anchor=iv_V]iv.V) Preventing Pirates from Appearing in National Waters[/anchor]

Pirates can be an annoyance in the early game as they sap your trade income, disturb your naval routes, and continue to reappear nearby as soon as you defeat them. There is a way to reduce the tedium. Pirates do not appear in sea-zones where a player's or AI's fleet is present. National waters that are likely to spawn annoying pirates can be left occupied by a single ship such as an inexpensive galley. You can sweep all your national waters of pirates and leave galleys behind to prevent pirates from reappearing. Pirates can reappear the very instant a sea-zone is left unoccupied even if a ship is scheduled to arrive on the same day another has left; so you must have a day of overlap when reshuffling your galleys.

Although pirates do not spontaneously appear in sea-zones occupied by other fleets, pirates can retreat to those sea-zones when losing a battle in an adjacent sea-zone. In such a case, a single galley might not be enough to thwart the pirate's attack despite the pirate's recent loss and low morale; the retreating pirates can gain some morale at the turn of the month. In troublesome areas, two or three galleys may be required.

This technique is especially useful for early colonizers of the Caribbean. Note: It is not recommended to leave small fleets out of port while at war with a colonial power. You would undoubtedly lose a number of naval battles and the pirates would reappear.


[anchor=iv_VI]iv.VI) Detecting Enemy Armies Stationed in Port Provinces with Military Access[/anchor]

If you have military access with your enemy, it is possible to sail into enemy controlled port provinces if there are troops, without white flags, stationary in the province. So if enemy troops are standing still in an enemy province, you can detect them by attempting to sail into port. If the port is allowed as a destination, there are enemies present. You can cancel the ship movement orders without actually traveling anywhere of course.


[anchor=iv_VII]iv.VII) Using Fleets to Capture or Recapture Provinces without Fortresses[/anchor]

Against the AI, a single galley can prevent the capture of colonies that have no fortresses. It is far cheaper to have a galley guarding a colony compared to building a fortress. In peacetime, the galley can serve the purpose of preventing pirates (see [anchorlink=iv_V]iv.V.[/anchorlink] above). When using ships to capture or recapture provinces, the fleets should either be devoid of troops on-board, or you must go in and out of port so as not end the ships' movement in port causing the troops to be unloaded.

If you have one or more ships in an active ally's or your own port province that has no fortress, and that province is captured by AI troops, you can recapture the port so long as the ships are still in port; select the ships in port and right-clicking on the province. Right-click on the province a second time to prevent the ships from being forced into sea. You or your ally retains control even though AI troops may still be stationed in the province. If the enemy army is given movement orders and those movement orders are cancelled, or if any troops enter the province, enemies regain the port. This makes it necessary to once again recapture the province. The AI does not often capture a province twice; but against multi-player enemies the technique would obviously be a waste of time fighting for control.

If you have military access with your enemy, and a port province has no fortress, it is also possible to use ships to recapture your ally's or your own province even though you have no ships in the port. Or you can use ships to capture an enemy province if it has no fortress. It is only possible to sail into enemy controlled provinces if there are troops, without white flags, stationary in the province. So if enemy troops are standing still in a province they control without a fortress, you can capture the province by sailing into port.


[anchor=iv_VIII]iv.VIII) Quick Troop Unloading to Enemy Port with Military Access[/anchor]

If you have military access with your enemy, it is possible to sail into enemy controlled port provinces if there are troops, without white flags, stationary in the province. So if enemy troops are standing still in an enemy province, you can attack those enemy troops by sailing a fleet full of troops into port and unloading the troops. By sailing troops into port, you can also quickly unload reinforcements if you already have some troops in the port province either stationary or engaged in battle.

When unloading large numbers of troops, it is generally preferable to unload them on the first of the month. Simply sailing to arrive in port on the first of the month would most likely cause movement attrition (see [anchorlink=i_III]i.III.[/anchorlink] above). To avoid movement attrition and unload the troops on the first of the month, arrive in port before the first of the month and establish a way-point to return to sea. Troops are not unloaded, since the ships do not end in port. Then on the first of the month, while the ships are on the way out of port, select the ships and right-click on the port province. The troops are unloaded when the orders to leave port are cancelled.


[anchor=iv_IX]iv.IX) Sailing or Exploring Long Distances without Making Port[/anchor]

A fleet of 17 to 49 or 51 to 99 ships can sail infinite distances without losing a ship, if for every month reorganize is clicked for the fleet. The ships are never forced to return to port and will never lose an entire ship at maximum attrition. Reorganize would repair the fraction of ship that is damaged each month. This method can be used to explore if naval tech is at least five or if an explorer has a maneuver of five or more; time to explore one sea-zone must be less than 60 days. Ships must be at a stop at some point during each month so that reorganize can be clicked.

Fleets of 101 ships or more can sail infinite distances without losing a ship or suffering troop casualties so long as care is taken to avoid movement attrition. Fleets of 101 ships led by an explorer can sail or explore infinite distances without concern of movement attrition.


[anchor=v]v) Miscellaneous Section[/anchor]

[anchor=v_I]v.I) Being Forced to Return to Port[/anchor]

Players' ships may be forced to return to port with the explanation that "attrition is too high." This occurs when ships are not in motion or battle, have been away from port for at least 13 end-of-month to first-of-month date-crossings, and are suffering 6% attrition or more. On low naval tech levels, a small fleet of one or two ships may sink before you get the message; 13 turn-of-the-months result in very high "months at sea" penalties on low naval tech levels. If fleets are sent on a very long journey, they may also sink without being forced to return to port because they are always in motion.

Note that a fleet of 17 or more ships is not forced to return to port so long as there are at least 17 ships in the fleet, because 17 ships have a maximum attrition of 5%. So a fleet of 100 ships would not be forced to return to port until whittled down to only 16 ships or less.

When ships are forced to return to port, players may still move the ships to a desired destination as they would any other ships. The only difference is that the ships cannot remain stationary; so unloading troops and reorganizing the fleet become impossible.


[anchor=v_II]v.II) Where Transports Can "Fight"[/anchor]

Transports have little military capability. In battle against warships and/or galleys transports are highly likely to be sunk and/or to lose the battle. In sea-zones near Europe, transports have no fighting capability whatsoever and will always be sunk in one day's battle if they fight alone. In non-European waters, transports have some fight in them; with tech and morale superiority, transports alone can win naval battles.

Transports sink in one day's battle in any sea-zone that is strictly closer (i.e. tied distant sea-zones are not European) to a European province (including Iceland and Azores, excluding The Canary Islands) than to any other continent's province (including Bermuda and Greenland provinces). Also transports sink in a day's battle in any Mediterranean sea-zone.


(post 2 of 3 - Naval FAQ is continued in the following post)
 

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(post 3 of 3 - Naval FAQ is continued)


[anchor=v_III]v.III) Where Galleys are "Safe"[/anchor]

Galleys can be used safely in all coastal waters, having only the usual vulnerabilities of naval supply and movement attritions. Galleys may be used to round Africa and elsewhere; be sure to stay in coastal waters. Galleys have a great risk in open seas. Many galleys are lost at random each time they enter a new "deep-blue" sea-zone (non-coastal sea-zone). Each galley has a 20% chance of sinking each time, and on the very day, it enters a deep-blue sea-zone. So a fleet containing 10 galleys entering a deep-blue sea-zone may lose zero ships or it may lose five ships; but most often two ships would be lost.


* Galleys lost in deep seas, but not by supply or movement attrition, are reported as lost warships by attrition on page 29 of the ledger. The lost galleys are also incorrectly classified as lost warships as far as maintenance costs are concerned. If galleys are lost in open seas, there is no change in the number of galleys that are supported. There may be a reduction in the number of warships supported. However, the number of warships cannot be negative. So a nation currently supporting zero warships does not notice a reduced maintenance cost after losing galleys in this manner. The correct support is recalculated on a game reload. The ledger continues to be inaccurate about the lost ships.


[anchor=v_IV]v.IV) Spontaneous Naval Battles[/anchor]

Generally naval battles begin when one or more ships enter a sea-zone where enemy ships are present. Many times, enemy ships may sail right past each other while occupying the same sea-zone. Spontaneous naval battles may occur while enemy ships peacefully occupy the same sea-zone even though no new ships have entered.

[anchor=v_IV_A]v.IV.A) Battle Caused by Splitting or Reorganizing Ships[/anchor]

When enemy ships occupy the same sea-zone and either group of ships (AI or player) is split or reorganized in such a way that a new fleet is created, a sea-battle may instantly ensue. The occurrence of a naval battle is a certainty if splitting when pirates are present. In the case of other AI enemies, the chance of battle varies greatly.

When this type of spontaneous battle occurs, the ships of the AI or player that have been split or reorganized will have zero morale. With absolute zero morale, the naval battle cannot be won. By retreating the battle on the very day it begins, the fleets' original morale may be retained and a retreat direction may be selected. Failure to retreat on the first day of battle results in near zero morale for all of the losing ships on the second day of battle.

[anchor=v_IV_B]v.IV.B) Battle Caused by War, Peace, or Increasing Alliance[/anchor]

When a player declares war, makes peace with any nation, or successfully obtains a new ally or joins a new alliance, there is a significant chance of a naval battle wherever the player's ships and enemy ships are together in the same sea-zone. In this case, morale is unaffected by any spontaneous battle, as above in [anchorlink=v_IV_A]v.IV.A.[/anchorlink] Modifying an alliance by banning a nation from the alliance does not cause spontaneous battle.


[anchor=v_V]v.V) Shipyards[/anchor]

Shipyards are upgrades for port provinces. Shipyards are represented in the game display by a large gold-colored port symbol (either an anchor or navigator's wheel depending on whether ships are in port).

[anchor=v_V_A]v.V.A) Requirements to Build[/anchor]

To build a shipyard you must have naval tech 11 or better. You must own and control a city-level, port province with an unmodified base tax of six or better. Only one shipyard can be built in a province. The province cannot be under siege or covered by an enemy force. The province cannot be in the process of building another province upgrade such as a manufactory, missionary, tax collector, chief judge, governor, or fortress improvement. The province cannot currently be building ships or troops. Shipyards cost 1000d * (100% + inflation%). Shipyards take 36 months to construct.

Note: Some countries receive instantaneous shipyard upgrades by event without the need for naval tech 11. For example, Spain gains a shipyard in Andalusia, if they own the province around 1500 to 1510.

[anchor=v_V_B]v.V.B) Benefits[/anchor]

If you have at least one shipyard, you receive a +1.00 bonus to your number of colonists per year. There is no increased bonus to colonists for multiple shipyards.

Shipyards increase ship support (see [anchorlink=v_VI_B]v.VI.B.[/anchorlink] below). Shipyards also increase ship build capacity in the province where they are located (see [anchorlink=v_VII]v.VII.[/anchorlink] below).


[anchor=v_VI]v.VI) Naval Support Costs and Naval Support Limit[/anchor]

The naval support cost is an amount of money deducted monthly from either your monthly income or from your treasury. Each ship requires a small amount of money for maintenance. Maintenance may be set anywhere from 50% to 100%, where higher maintenance results in higher crew morale (see [anchorlink=v_IX]v.IX.[/anchorlink] below). At 50% maintenance, naval support costs are half as much as at 100% maintenance.

Ship support costs are dependent upon the ship base cost at the current difficulty level. Inflation and maintenance level also affect support costs. The table for information on the base cost of ships is provided in section [anchorlink=v_VIII]v.VIII[/anchorlink] below.

The total number of warships, galleys, and transports that can be supported without excessive cost is known as the naval support limit. The so-called "limit" may be exceeded but at a high monthly maintenance cost. The number of ships over the limit require an additional five times of normal support costs; so that effectively makes them six times more expensive to support as ships below the support limit. The support penalty is spread evenly across the ship types. So even though you only build one more galley, you may end up paying more than an additional 0.6d base cost per month for support given that you have mostly warships in your fleets. Notice that the tool-tip displays for "support cost for one ship before penalty" and "over the limit penalty for all ships of ship type" are not updated until the following month if the maintenance slider is changed.

For each ship type:

Support cost for one ship before penalty = (ship base cost for given ship type) * {(100% + inflation%) * (maintenance%) / 480}

Support cost for all ships of ship type before penalty = (Support cost for one ship before penalty) * (number of ships of given ship type)

Number of ships over the limit = (total number of ships - naval support limit)

If total number of ships is non-positive or number of ships over the limit is non-positive, then over the limit penalty for all ships of ship type is zero, otherwise:
Over the limit penalty for all ships of ship type = (Support cost for all ships of ship type before penalty) * (number of ships over the limit / total number of ships) * 5

Actual support cost for all ships of ship type = (support cost for all ships of ship type before penalty) + (over the limit penalty for all ships of ship type)

Total support costs = (actual support cost for warships) + (actual support cost for galleys) + (actual support cost for transports)

The following modifiers affect the naval support limit:

[anchor=v_VI_A]v.VI.A) Number of Ports[/anchor] - Each homeport adds +8. Homeports are ports owned on the same continent as nation's capital or land connected to capital. Colony or city, all homeports give the same bonus. This has changed in the 1.08 betas where the "Number of Ports" contribution to support is based on province tax.

Note on homeports: The recognition of change in homeports due to a port gained or lost to events, vassalization, defection, or declaration of independence is not realized until the game is reloaded or a war is concluded; peace between any two nations will do including the peace that may have resulted in gain or loss or ports. Similarly, the effect on homeports due to a new land connection to ports of another continent is realized at the conclusion of a war or a reload. The effect of a severed land connection to another continent is only realized on reloading the game. The effect of new colonial ports built is immediate.

[anchor=v_VI_B]v.VI.B) Shipyards[/anchor] - Each shipyard owned adds +10 (that it is a port may give the +8 bonus also). The effect of shipyards gained or lost in a peace settlement is immediate. New shipyards built and shipyards gained or lost to events, vassalization, defection, or declaration of independence do not affect support limit until the game is reloaded or a war is concluded; peace between any two nations will do.

[anchor=v_VI_C]v.VI.C) Merchants[/anchor] - Minimum is 0. Maximum is 48. Four ships are supported for each whole merchant received per year. Influencing factors are whether at least one port is owned, number of monopolies owned, number of centers of trade (CoTs) owned, current stability, trade tech level, and Mercantile DP slider setting. Except for CoTs and many cases of the gain or loss of a nation's only port, all factors take effect immediately. CoTs appearing, disappearing, or gained or lost to events, vassalization, defection, or declaration of independence do not affect support limit until the game is reloaded or a war is concluded; peace between any two nations will do. Similarly, the gain or loss of a nation's only port without a peace offer usually does not take effect until the game is reloaded or a war is concluded. The exception is a new colonial port built has effect immediately; only nations with frontier territory can build colonies without first having a port.

The following tables show the influencing factors to "Merchants" contribution to ship support:

---------------------------- Merchants Support
----------------------------------------------
At least one port owned ---- +4 (one time bonus - for colony or city port anywhere in the world)
Each monopoly owned -------- +4 (each)
Each CoT owned ------------- +4 (each)

Current ----- Merchants
Stability --- Support
----------------------------
-3 ---------- (-16)
-2 ---------- (-12)
-1 ----------- (-8)
0 ------------ (-4)
+1 ------------- 0
+2 ------------ +4
+3 ------------ +4

Trade --- Merchants
Tech ---- Support
-------------------
0 -------- 0
1 -------- 0
2 -------- 0
3 -------- 0
4 -------- 0
5 ------- +4
6 ------- +4
7 ------- +4
8 ------- +4
9 ------- +4
10 ------ +8

Mercantile -------------------- Effect to -------------
DP Slider ----- Actual -------- Tool-tip ---- Error in
(0 is full ---- Merchants ----- Merchants --- Amount
Free Trade) --- Support ------- Support* ---- Displayed
-------------------------------------------------------
0 ------------- +16 ----------- 16 ------------------ 0
1 ------------- +12 ----------- 14 ------------------ 2
2 ------------- +12 ----------- 12 ------------------ 0
3 -------------- +8 ----------- 11 ------------------ 3
4 -------------- +8 ------------ 9 ------------------ 1
5 -------------- +8 ------------ 8 ------------------ 0
6 -------------- +4 ------------ 6 ------------------ 2
7 -------------- +4 ------------ 4 ------------------ 0
8 --------------- 0 ------------ 3 ------------------ 3
9 --------------- 0 ------------ 1 ------------------ 1
10 -------------- 0 ------------ 0 ------------------ 0

* Depending on the Mercantile DP slider setting, the tool-tip sometimes displays an erroneous value for "Merchants". The actual "Merchants" contribution to support limit is always a multiple of four but is sometimes displayed to be 1, 2, or 3 greater than should be the case.

[anchor=v_VI_D]v.VI.D) Naval Manufactories[/anchor] - Each naval manufactory owned adds +5.

[anchor=v_VI_E]v.VI.E) Naval Supplies Produced[/anchor] - Each 100 units of naval supplies produced adds +1.

Note on naval supplies: Naval supplies appear as stacks of logs in the game. To find the amount of your current production and trade in naval supplies, locate a province (such as Corsica) that produces naval supplies. If you do not know which province produces naval supplies, go to the economy map mode (click on the coin button just above the mini-map but below the coin button for trade). Select a province that produces naval supplies, then click the production good icon (stack of logs). Total current production and trade amounts are given in units. The market price for 100 units is also shown. Divide the production income of a naval supply province by the market price to determine how many ships are supported by a particular province's production.

[anchor=v_VI_F]v.VI.F) Naval Supplies Traded[/anchor] - Each 100 units of naval supplies traded adds +1.
See the note on naval supplies [anchorlink=v_VI_E]v.VI.E.[/anchorlink] above. Naval supplies traded are always zero during the first month of a reload. This means a temporarily lower support limit immediately after a reload. There may be some longer lasting consequences if support limit is exceeded and treasury is low.

[anchor=v_VI_G]v.VI.G) Economical Resources[/anchor] - The Land DP slider and previous month's surplus slider income affect the "Economical Resources" contribution to support limit. Information on the previous month's income may be obtained from the financial summary window (click the scroll at the top of the control panel). After a last-of-month to first-of-month date crossing, the previous month's income is totaled in the income calculation portion of the financial summary window.

Understand that the previous month's surplus slider income is less than the previous month's total income when the previous month's treasury was insufficient to pay expenses. When treasury is low, greater expenses mean less surplus slider income. The slider income is the total amount that is distributed among the various sliders in the budget window (click on the bag of coins at the top-left portion of the display). As long as the treasury is sufficient to pay expenses, the previous month's surplus slider income is the same as the previous month's income. If the previous month's treasury was insufficient to pay expenses, the previous month's surplus slider income is the previous month's income, minus the previous month's expenses, plus whatever amount was in the treasury, plus whatever amount of expenses may have been paid through loans. The previous month's expenses are totaled in the fixed expenses calculation of the financial summary window. The amounts of how much of a pervious month's expense were paid by treasury or loans are not recorded or listed. The player must be knowledgeable about these amounts by other means.

Leaving a near-zero balance in the treasury after taking loans and/or quickly increasing expenses by building over the support limit lowers economical resources. The support limit is reduced as a result, and expenses increase further. A near-zero treasury, a shifting support limit, and too high of expenses unable to be paid with a month's income, can cause loans leading to bankruptcy or the disbanding of newly built military to prevent loans. Conversely, when over the support limit at a near-zero balance, when minting produces earned income to the treasury or when a gift or loan allows maintenance to again be paid by the treasury, the support limit can increase and expenses are reduced. Also when looting, more income means greater economical resources, which can increase the support limit and reduce expenses.

Keep in mind the game displays a rounded value for the previous month's income; sometimes you may need just a hair more income to be able to support one more ship. On loading a game, the previous month's surplus slider income is stored in each saved game (called "estimation") and is used properly.

------------- Each 100d of ------ Increments of
Land DP ----- Surplus Slider ---- Income Needed
Slider ------ Income Adds to ---- to Improve
(0 is full -- Naval Economical -- Support by One
Naval) ------ Resources --------- Ship (in ducats)
--------------------------------------------------
0 ----------- +25 --------------- 100/25 = 4.0000
1 ----------- +23 --------------- 100/23 = 4.3478
2 ----------- +21 --------------- 100/21 = 4.7619
3 ----------- +19 --------------- 100/19 = 5.2631
4 ----------- +17 --------------- 100/17 = 5.8823
5 ----------- +15 --------------- 100/15 = 6.6666
6 ----------- +13 --------------- 100/13 = 7.6923
7 ----------- +11 --------------- 100/11 = 9.0909
8 ------------ +9 --------------- 100/9 = 11.1111
9 ------------ +7 --------------- 100/7 = 14.2857
10 ----------- +5 --------------- 100/5 = 20.0000

The middle and rightmost columns of the table show the same information presented in two different ways. The rightmost data is simply the reciprocal of the middle column's data.

If the Land DP slider was set to full Land, and the previous month's surplus slider income was 80.0d you would estimate naval economical resources using either (80.0/100.000)*5 = 4 or 80.0/20.0000 = 4. The fist method of calculation will generally produce more accurate results. Also keep in mind that the previous month's surplus slider income could actually be as low as 79.95d, in which case you would get only 3 for economical resources.


[anchor=v_VII]v.VII) Ship Build Capacity[/anchor]

Ships may only be built in city provinces with a port. The number of ships that may be built in that province at one time is called the ship build capacity. The ship build capacity is dependent on the amount of annual tax currently being produced at the time the ships are commissioned.

The amount of annual tax currently being produced is the modified tax value (mtv). The mtv is based on the base tax and then takes into account modifiers such as tax collector, chief judge, stability percentage increase, war tax increase, revolt risk decrease, etc. You can find the mtv for a province by hovering the cursor over the "PROVINCE INCOME" in the province information window. If the MTV was 12, the first line of the tool-tip display might read "12$ Province Taxes (Base 15$)." A full list of modifying percentages in effect for the province is given below that first line, after production income and trade taxes. Note that the "total modification value percentage" applied may be slightly different than the sum of modifying percentages. Also note that tax collector and chief judge each contribute one to tax before other modifiers; but neither is shown in the display.

No ships may be built in a province that has absolutely no mtv at all. If a province has at least some mtv (even 0.1d), then at least one ship may be built. For more ships:

ship build capacity = truncate (mtv * ship build capacity multiplier)

The ship build capacity modifier depends on the following province types and improvements:


------------------------------------ Ship Build Capacity Multiplier
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-core province ------------------ 0.1 (same as divide by 10)
Core province ---------------------- 0.2 (same as divide by 5)
Non-core province with shipyard ---- 1.0
Core province with shipyard -------- 2.0


[anchor=v_VIII]v.VIII) Ship Build Costs[/anchor]

All ship build costs are influenced by difficulty level, the Land DP slider, and inflation. The Aristocracy DP slider additionally influences warships. Notice below that the costs are in whole numbers before inflation is applied. Note also the odd change in costs of warships and transports between Land DP slider 4 and 5.

Warship cost = truncate {(warship base cost + warship Land adjustment + warship Aristocracy adjustment) * (100% + inflation%)}
Galley cost = truncate {(galley base cost + galley Land adjustment) * (100% + inflation%)}
Transport cost = truncate {(transport base cost + transport Land adjustment) * (100% + inflation%)}

The base costs of ships are different for each difficulty level. The base costs of ships is 48d, 8d, 13d for warships, galleys, and transports respectively at the very easy difficulty level. For each level of difficulty above very easy add 1d to the base cost of each ship type.

The following table gives information on the base cost of ships (all in ducats):

-------------- Warship --- Galley -------------
Difficulty --- Base ------ Base ----- Transport
Level -------- Cost ------ Cost ----- Base Cost
-----------------------------------------------
Very Hard ---- 52 -------- 12 -------------- 17
Hard --------- 51 -------- 11 -------------- 16
Normal ------- 50 -------- 10 -------------- 15
Easy --------- 49 --------- 9 -------------- 14
Very Easy ---- 48 --------- 8 -------------- 13

The previous table is required in determing support costs in section [anchorlink=v_VI]v.VI[/anchorlink] above.

The following tables give information on the cost adjustments (all in ducats):

Land DP Slider ------ Warship Land --- Galley Land --- Transport Land
(0 is full naval) --- Adjustment ----- Adjustment -------- Adjustment
---------------------------------------------------------------------
0 ------------------- (-11) ----------- (-4) -------------------- (-6)
1 -------------------- (-9) ----------- (-3) -------------------- (-5)
2 -------------------- (-7) ----------- (-2) -------------------- (-4)
3 -------------------- (-5) ----------- (-2) -------------------- (-3)
4 -------------------- (-3) ----------- (-1) -------------------- (-2)
5 ---------------------- 0 -------------- 0 ----------------------- 0
6 --------------------- +2 -------------- 0 ---------------------- +1
7 --------------------- +4 ------------- +1 ---------------------- +2
8 --------------------- +6 ------------- +1 ---------------------- +3
9 --------------------- +8 ------------- +2 ---------------------- +4
10 ------------------- +10 ------------- +3 ---------------------- +5

Aristocracy
DP Slider ----- Warship
(0 is full ---- Aristocracy
Plutocracy) --- Adjustment
------------------------------
0 ------------- (-10)
1 -------------- (-8)
2 -------------- (-6)
3 -------------- (-4)
4 -------------- (-2)
5 ---------------- 0
6 --------------- +2
7 --------------- +4
8 --------------- +6
9 --------------- +8
10 ------------- +10

So at very hard difficulty, Land DP slider = 5, Aristocracy DP slider = 5, and inflation = 2.0%, a warship costs: truncate ((52 + 0) * (100% + 2.0%)) = truncate (53.04) = 53 ducats. All else being equal, moving the Land DP slider to 4, a warship costs: truncate ((49 + 0) * (100% + 2.0%)) = truncate (49.98) = 49 ducats. If the Land DP slider was kept at 5 but the Aristocracy DP slider was instead moved to 4, a boundary condition exists where there is a slight calculation error: truncate {(52 + -2) * (100% - 2.0%)} = truncate (50.999...) = 50 ducats.


[anchor=v_IX]v.IX) Naval Morale Modifiers[/anchor]

Naval morale is a number from 0.002 to 7.000 that reflects how well ships' crews will hold up in battle. The higher the number of morale the more likely the crews are to tough it out. Morale is capped at 7.000, although the maximum amount of bonuses would allow naval morale of only 6.900. The display gives the following rankings for morale:

Morale Range ----- Displayed Rank
---------------------------------
0.002 to 0.249 --- Panic
0.250 to 0.749 --- Breaking
0.750 to 1.499 --- Weak
1.500 to 2.499 --- Disciplined
2.500 to 3.499 --- Strong
3.500 to 4.499 --- Very Strong
4.500 to 7.000 --- Invincible

All newly built ships have 0.500 morale. If ships are not in battle at the end of each month, morale is gained at a recharge rate determined by the maximum level of morale currently attainable given the influencing factors: naval tech, naval maintenance, military skill of monarch, Land DP slider, Shiite religion, and recent bankruptcy. The recharge rate of naval morale is up to 30% of current maximum naval morale. This means that improving influencing factors such as maintenance will speed the increase in morale. Ships having very low morale may take three or four months to fully recharge. In case of a sudden lowering of maximum morale, the morale discharge rate at month's end is also up to 30% of the current (lower) maximum. That means actual morale for fleets may temporarily exceed the maximum morale; and actual morale will likely continue to fall the first, second, third, and forth months following bankruptcy.

Current maximum naval morale =
{(base naval morale) +
(military skill of monarch / 16) +
(Land DP slider naval morale modifier) +
(Religion bonus) +
(Defender of the faith bonus)} *
(100%-bankruptcy penalty)

Base naval morale varies linearly between 50% and 100% maintenance defined in the following table for the various tech ranges:

Naval Tech --- Base Naval Morale ---- Base Naval Morale
Range -------- at 50% Maintenance --- at 100% Maintenance
---------------------------------------------------------
00-10 -------- 21/16 = 1.3125 ------- 27/16 = 1.6875
11-16 -------- 24/16 = 1.5000 ------- 31/16 = 1.9375
17-25 -------- 33/16 = 2.0625 ------- 43/16 = 2.6875
26-30 -------- 36/16 = 2.2500 ------- 47/16 = 2.9375
31-41 -------- 39/16 = 2.4375 ------- 51/16 = 3.1875
42-48 -------- 51/16 = 3.1875 ------- 67/16 = 4.1875
49-60 -------- 63/16 = 3.9375 ------- 83/16 = 5.1875

The monarch's military skill is the same as the amount the monarch contributes to naval tech research (same as contribution to land tech). The monarch's military skill may be modified by events. Military skill is 9 or less. To see the current military skill, go to the budgeting window by clicking on the bag of coins button at the top of the control panel. Hover the cursor over the naval tech (or land tech) investment slider.

The following table reflects the naval morale bonus given for moving the DP slider toward naval:

Land DP Slider ------ Naval Morale
(0 is full naval) --- Modifier
----------------------------------
0 ------------------- +0.50
1 ------------------- +0.40
2 ------------------- +0.30
3 ------------------- +0.20
4 ------------------- +0.10
5 ------------------- 0
6 ------------------- 0
7 ------------------- 0
8 ------------------- 0
9 ------------------- 0
10 ------------------ 0

Religion bonus is +0.50 for countries of Shiite, Hinduism, or Counter Reformed religion only. All other countries receive no religion bonus.

Defender of the faith bonus is 0.15 for nations claiming defender of the faith. It is zero for all other nations.

Bankruptcy penalty is 50% for a bankruptcy within the past five years; otherwise there is no bankruptcy penalty.

So at naval tech 60, 100% maintenance, with a monarch military skill of 5, full naval DP slider, Catholic religion, not defender of the faith, and no recent bankruptcy (ignore in calculation), current maximum morale is:

(83/16) + (5/16) + 0.50 + (0.0 religion bonus) + (0.0 defender bonus) = 6.000
The recharge rate would be 6.000 * 30% = 1.800 per month.

All else being equal, at 50% maintenance, current maximum morale would be:
(63/16) + (5/16) + 0.50 + (0.0 religion bonus) + (0.0 defender bonus) = 4.750
The recharge rate would be 4.750 * 30% = 1.425 per month.

At 65% maintenance, current maximum morale would require interpolation: 4.750 + {(65%-50%)/(100%-50%)*(6.000-4.750)} = 5.125 morale.

Finally, merging or reorganizing ships of different morale levels causes a weighted average to be applied to morale in a way that one would expect. The resulting morale value is somewhere between the previous morale values; and the greater the number of ships of a particular morale value, the closer the resulting morale will be to that particular morale value.

The above information has been upgraded thanks to the independent research of Castellon. His Morale FAQ V1.08 provides an alternative method of calculating morale.


[anchor=v_X]v.X) Blockade Effects[/anchor]

If the equivalent of at least five warships is present in the sea-zone outside a port controlled by an enemy at war, a blockade is in effect. Two galleys may replace any one of the warships; ten galleys are equivalent to five warships. Blockades do not remain in effect during naval battles. Blockades may be enforced by any combination of allied or unallied ships that are at war with the blockaded province controller. Pirates may also contribute to blockades. Blockades often end when a siege completes and a new nation controls the province. Rumors about the siege value of an admiral leader in a blockade having any effect on enemy income are false.

[anchor=v_X_A]v.X.A) Enemy Tax Income[/anchor]

Census and monthly tax income from blockaded port provinces is half what it otherwise would be. That is, once all other modifiers to actual tax have taken effect, the result is halved. So a province with -30% tax for religious differences and -30% tax for cultural differences would normally get 100%-30%-30% = 40% of the base tax. But a blockade would halve the result to 40%/2 = 20% tax. Blockades therefore reduce ship and troop build capacity.

Also, there is a severe extra penalty increase to "no land connection to capital" on tax income from overseas territories if a nation's homeports are blockaded. This can be up to 50% extra if all of a nation's homeports are blockaded. See [anchorlink=v_VI_A]v.VI.A.[/anchorlink] above for a definition of homeports. Overseas territories, in this context, are all provinces not land connected to your capital regardless of continent.

Actual no land connection to capital penalty% =
normal no land connection to capital penalty% +
truncate {(number of homeports blockaded / total number of homeports) * 50} * 100%

So a province that normally gets a -20% for no land connection and gets -30% penalty for religious differences would get absolutely no tax income whatsoever if all of the nation's homeports were blockaded: 100%-30%-(20%+50%)=0%. Troops and ships could not be built in such a province.

[anchor=v_X_B]v.X.B) Enemy Trade Income[/anchor]

If one or more of a nation's homeports are blockaded, there is a penalty on trade in overseas centers of trade (CoTs). Overseas CoTs, in this context, are CoTs that are located on continents other than the continent where a nation's capital is located regardless of land connection. See [anchorlink=v_VI_A]v.VI.A.[/anchorlink] above for a definition of homeports. Trade is penalized in approximately equal increments for each blockaded homeport; so if one of ten homeports is blockaded the penalty is close to 10% of the normal CoT balance plus or minus 1% or 2% for unknown reasons. If all homeports are blockaded, trade in an overseas CoT may result in a tiny trickle of income or may result in a negative balance. The greater the income from a CoT would normally be if not for the blockades, the greater the negative balance may be (observed -12% of normal balance).

[anchor=v_X_C]v.X.C) Supply for Friendly Troops[/anchor]

The base supply level (displayed when clicking on the province) for all enemy troops in blockaded provinces is doubled, provided that there is some number of enemy troops covering or seizing the fortress of the province. Any combination of enemy fleets and enemy troops from same or different alliances, rebels, or pirates may cause this effect. If the fortress is being seized or covered and enemy troops engage in land battle, the extra supply remains in effect. The actual supply level is not quite doubled in most cases, because the leader bonus is not doubled. But the effects of snow or tropical conditions are also not doubled, so actual supply level may be more positively affected than merely doubling.

[anchor=v_X_D]v.X.D) Supply for Friendly Ships[/anchor]

All ships at war with a blockaded province controller, receive the naval supply attrition modifier of -3 (see [anchorlink=i_II]i.II.[/anchorlink] above).

[anchor=v_X_E]v.X.E) Siege Effects[/anchor]

Blockades increase the weariness of the defenders of a fortress. The blockade must be in force when the cannon fires. If a blockade is not in effect on a port province when the cannon fires, defenders become less weary by the same amount as weariness would increase in a month where a blockade is in effect. The amount of the gain or loss in weariness is 0.3. It takes increments of 1.0 change in weariness to potentially affect the outcome of a siege. So a blockade must be in effect for a minimum of four months in a row for any siege benefit. After three more months of consistent blockade, there is an improved benefit. Three or four months later, there is another improved benefit, and so on. A port province, not on the plains, with a medium fortress or higher will never fall to a siege unless the port is consistently blockaded or a siege bonus is applied using artillery or a leader with a siege stat.

The source on this topic is VKV. See the FAQ on: How Do Sieges Work?


[anchor=v_XI]v.XI) Blocking Strait Crossings[/anchor]

Troops cannot cross straits if at least one enemy warship or galley (not in retreat) is in the sea-zone of the strait. Pirates are considered enemy ships. Even if enemy ships are in battle, troops cannot cross. Beginning movement across the strait and arrival at the other side of the strait are prevented by enemy ships; troops may be put into motion when enemy ships are not present and will continue to remain in motion even though enemy ships may be present. If the enemy ships remain, the troops do not arrive but instead stop their movement. If the enemy ships have left the sea-zone, the troops are able to complete their movement.

Ships in the Gulf of Taranto may block the strait between Messina and Apulia. Ships in the Straits of Messina have no effect.


[anchor=v_XII]v.XII) Unusual Province and Sea-Zone Adjacencies[/anchor]

Although it does not look like it, Kutch is adjacent to Gulf of Indus for national waters and troop loading purposes.

Similarly, Columbia is adjacent to Coast of Oregon for national waters and troop loading purposes.

Owning Hinterpommern gains The Sund as national waters. However troops are unable to load directly from Hinterpommern to ships in The Sund.


[anchor=v_XIII]v.XIII) Naval Battle Information[/anchor]

Naval battle tables are posted in the following combat FAQ: Battle system FAQ - 1.08. Note that a "cloud" appears above any fleet that claims the sea-zone as national waters.


[anchor=vi]vi) Recommendations for Paradox[/anchor]

1) Fix the bug in the naval-unit window that displays naval attrition to be one less than is currently calculated (see [anchorlink=i_II_A]i.II.A.[/anchorlink] above).

2) Fix the bug in the computation of applied naval supply attrition which causes a one month's higher value of "months at sea" to be applied to a fleet than is displayed in the naval-unit window (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_7]i.II.A.7.[/anchorlink] above).

3) Fix the bugs in merging and reorganizing fleets with regard to the "months at sea" value (see [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_b]i.II.A.7.b.[/anchorlink] and [anchorlink=i_II_A_7_c]i.II.A.7.c.[/anchorlink] above). The weighted-average makes sense although there are obviously two variables that have been transposed in the computerized equation. All merging and reorganizing should use a corrected weighted-average average method no matter how or in what order the fleets have been selected. The weighted-average when reorganizing should be based on the full size of both fleets.

4) Ships should not be "repaired" simply by clicking reorganize or by splitting or merging fleets (see [anchorlink=i_VII]i.VII.[/anchorlink] and [anchorlink=iv_IX]iv.IX.[/anchorlink] above). When splitting a fleet, one of the resulting fleets (larger fleet if applicable) should retain the fractional portion of a ship. When reorganizing, whole ships should be moved saving the fractional portion to last. If the fractional portion is reorganized into a fleet also with a fractional portion then the fractional portions should be summed. If those fractional portions do not add to at least 1.001, then 1.001 should be substituted for the sum to preserve the same number of displayed ships. When merging ships, sum the fractional portions of ships as when reorganizing all the ships together.

5) Fleets of 101 or more ships should not be exempt from naval supply attrition. Maximum naval supply attrition should never be allowed to be 0%; 1% is the smallest value that maximum attrition should take (see [anchorlink=i_II_C]i.II.C.[/anchorlink] and [anchorlink=iv_IX]iv.IX.[/anchorlink] above).

6) Splitting and reorganizing fleets should not result in carrying more troops in a fleet than capacity allows (see [anchorlink=iii_I]iii.I.[/anchorlink] and [anchorlink=iii_II]iii.II.[/anchorlink] above). Ideally more and less of infantry, cavalry, and artillery should be in the divided troops to prevent loss of troops from a fleet division.

7) Splitting and reorganizing fleets should not result in spontaneous battles (see [anchorlink=v_IV_A]v.IV.A.[/anchorlink] above).

8) Ships should not be able to capture or recapture provinces; and ships should not be able to sail into uncontrolled enemy ports with military access (see [anchorlink=iv_VI]iv.VI.[/anchorlink], [anchorlink=iv_VII]iv.VII.[/anchorlink], and [anchorlink=iv_VIII]iv.VIII.[/anchorlink] above).

9) Improve the user interface for unloading troop detachments to one or more destinations from a single fleet (see [anchorlink=iii_XI]iii.XI.[/anchorlink] above).

10) Troop unload progress should be restored after naval battle. Otherwise it can be made impossible to capture island provinces defended by even just one ship (see [anchorlink=iv_IV]iv.IV[/anchorlink] above).

11) Restore the full movement path selection after winning a naval battle (see [anchorlink=iii_VII]iii.VII.[/anchorlink] and [anchorlink=iii_VIII]iii.VIII.[/anchorlink] above). It is annoying to have to input the path over and over; and it is frustrating when troops are unloaded to high attrition port provinces after winning naval battles.

12) Fix the bug in the tool-tip display for the "Merchants" contribution to naval support limit (see * note in section [anchorlink=v_VI_C]v.VI.C.[/anchorlink] above).

13) Fix the bug that causes lost galleys to be classified as lost warships when galleys are lost in deep seas. (see * note in section [anchorlink=v_III]v.III.[/anchorlink] above).


(post 3 of 3 - end of Naval FAQ)