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Inactive Custodian of the Light
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Feb 27, 2011
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Rebuild the Empire of Megas Alexandros! Restore Roman Glory! Banish the Dark Ages!


  • [*]This mod is the brainchild and masterpiece of Shaytana, and the vast majority of the work is his, and we are simply the custodians and caretakers of this mod. This thread's original post has been subsequently edited to improve and simplify information organization and presentation to make this mod more accessible to others.
    [*]This mod technically has always been (and still is in) a beta state, as the mod is continously polished and worked on and improved at by the community.
Current Custodian Council: Cèsar de Quart, Darkgamma, DarkReborn, Futuregary, Numahr, Richvh, Riknap.

Release Version: v alpha 0.6K36 +++
Date Released: 03-September-2015 +++
CK2 Compatibility: 2.4.4
Save Compatibility: variable
Next Update ETA: ?

Changelogs: [Contemporary Chronology]
Bug Reports: [Entomology Corner]
Gameplay Guide: [Calibration Coordinates]
Frequent Questions: [Clairvoyance Corner]
Subsidiary Modules*: [Ancillary Aperture]
Recommended Readings: [Timeline] [Religions]
*[sub](DLC-requisite LI-BLC here)[/sub]

Make Shaytana Proud!
-> Share your Lux Invicta Empires here <-

Due to the sheer memory mass of Lux Invicta, enough virtual memory must be freed up for the CK2 game engine, especially (but NOT ONLY) with a 32-bit OS. Please do the following at least once:

> Run command prompt as administrator
> Type: bcdedit /set increaseuserva 3072*
> Verify by typing bcdedit, and find the entry above.
> Reboot

> Find boot.ini (usually on C:, might be hidden), mark it not read-only, and open
> Under the section called [operating systems] find the line that says "multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Windows XP Professional...". Duplicate that entire line below.
> Add a space at the end and /3GB /USERVA=3072*
> Rename the OS name of that entry to identify it at startup
> Save boot.ini, then r-click and make it read only.
> Reboot

*any value above 2048 really (at least 2560), but restrict it to 3072 if you only have 4GB in your system.
original source: MadBoris (Total War Center / ETW Technical Help)


Welcome to the Invincible Light,

the fractured realms,

the lawful kingdoms,

the empires of memory,

the plurality of man, and

the diversity of men.



Lux Invicta is an alternate history and gameplay mod. It's called Invincible Light because the original focus of my modding was centered on allowing me to play the two hostile "Realms of Light" - the Imperium Romanum worshiping Sol Invictus, and the Ahura Mazda worshiping Sassanid Eranshahr. You will also notice that the Light of Classical Antiquity has not been extinguished. Can you banish the Dark Ages?


While Shaytana's words above describe the heart and essence of the mod, allow me to describe the flow and feel of the mod.
As compared to the settings of the large overhaul mods which indulge you with alternative settings, Lux Invicta instead takes a long hard look at our history's timeline, eyes the smooth mellow flavour that is vanilla, stares at the forbidden cabinet containing the toughest gaming condiments in the planet, and with the most manly man look, asks that fateful question:
"Will it blend?"
And blend, we shall make it. The thing is, are YOU strong enough to consume it?

-- riknap

(continuation of Shaytana's mod concepts)
A temporary quick description of the alternate timeline (for a detailed timeline scroll down to TIMELINE section):

    • the worship of Sol Invictus became the official religion of the Roman Empire and remained so in the East - where Imperial authority remained strong initially. Christianity did not gain a lasting foothold in most Roman controlled Eastern Mediteranean. The Eastern Empire became very anti-Christian.
    • Christianity did thrive in the West and was adopted by a variety of invading peoples. Arianism is alive and well. Crusading happened earlier than in our reality, with several holy war initiatives aimed at the Eastern Mediteranean area. Several crusader states exist, from island realms to Jerusalem itself.
    • Muslim expansion was not as succesful as in real life - the Sassanids managed to stop them and survive. They were stopped in Northern Syria by the Romans, but managed to conquer most of North Africa - a notable exception being the Vandal Kingdom of Carthage. They did manage to establish themselves in Sourthern Spain but did not manage to thoroughly defeat the Visigoths - they are alive and well.
    • General fragmentation/successor state syndrome - (partly because I dislike starting big, partly because I like to have many interesting playable options available) The Roman Empire (Eastern) is in tatters following rebellions/various cryses - and so is pretty much every other former power. You get to try to rebuild the bigger states, plus experience some very interesting (imho) smaller powers such as the Kingdom of Palmyra (a former long term vassal of the ERE) or the Exarchate of Ravenna.
    • Alexander and company were more succesfull than in our reality. Hellenism was much more stubborn in its grip. The Diadokhoi managed to hold on to some areas and the world was changed forever.
As a general rule I concocted a logical timeline that lent itself towards the survival/appearence of interesting states and general fragmentation, with the potential for grand imperial adventures.

This mod is being developed for my own pleasure(as such many things both alternate-history and gameplay changes are done to suit my tastes), but if people are interested and offer good suggestions I am more than willing to alter things and expand some aspects etc.

Any suggestions, requests, interesting ideas, feedback, etc, is greatly appreciated!


This is an alternate universe, with an alternate history. There is no "point of digression" per se. There are MANY differences going back into antiquity... such as Indohellenic survival, or a vassal state of Siracusa under the Roman Empire. When I started thinking about this timeline many years ago(and trust me I've given a lot of stuff a lot of thought over a period of years so some things are set in stone sort of -I had plenty of time over my university days where I studied history to come up with alternate history and research a lot of stuff) the alternate history started sometime before the very dawn of what we consider the historical period today.

My timeline has rhyme and reason, and research behind it -BUT- I am willing to make and I've already made some minor changes for pure fun and gameplay reasons (this so called 1066 scenario is a major compromise to gameplay), BUT those changes have to make sense and I have to be able to come up with a logical history behind how that stuff came to be given the general situation.

NOTE: I have caved in to my love for the Diadokhoi and gone a bit heavier on the Hellenistic side than I should have had, but hey it's fun and I've rethought some aspects of the timeline and setup for it.


This is an early version so don't expect it to be perfectly polished! Even so I think the mod is very fun to play in its current state.

Note that the vast majority of counts are random generated -if you want to play one start as a playable character save->resign->load as the count.(or use play in console) Some characters are placeholders. Notice that there's quite a few claiming ancient descent from some famous dynasty...some are the real deal some maybe not...(I need to add some characters to history files and titles so everyone is not a no. I - that drives me crazy)

-- Shaytana

- Roleplay your character! Hundreds of new events!
- Many new traits! Blood Traits with dynastic histories attached!
- Around 2700 new buildings(number fluctuates depending on udpates) including regional troops, legendary military traditions, a bureaucratic system etc.
- Stats and traits matter! For instance Learning is supremely important to tech research, Martial affects your overall military power in many ways, such as levy numbers, Stewardship greatly affects your income etc!
- New modifiers of various sorts!
- The world is deadly! Death chance from all sources from battle to disease is increased!
- Revamped casus belli system! Wars cost resources! Holly wars require traits and resources to wage! New Total War and Expansion Casus Belli etc!
- Councillor skills and opinion of their masters matter a lot now! A skilled loyal councillor is much preferable to a disloyal incompetent! Make sure you have the right man(or woman) for the job!
- Revamped setup with MANY new states (from Gothia to Baktria), cultures (from Gallo-Romans to Serindians), dynasties (from Argeadai to the Artorii), religions (from Sol Invictus to Zalmoxianism), and characters added.
- A new expanded religious system!
- MANY mercenaries and holy orders added including MANY State Troops.
- New laws! Military, economic and control policies! Raising crown authority and centralizing your state is difficult! It requires traits and resources!
- New ambitions, plots and decisions!
- Many specific/culture related creatable Empires! From the Hellenic Hegemony to Arche Seleukeia!
- A genetic inheritance system courtesy of wiz -for the Kwisatz Haderach breeders.
- A new cultural administration system diferentiated by culture for kings and emperors.
- anti blobbing measures with various bad things happening to Kings and Emperors with bad stats or large demesne.
- non-Basques can use Absolute Cognatic.(as requested)
- A vassals join in rebellion vs liege system inspired by wiz's CK2+. (as requested)
- New graphics. Improved character looks, including individualized DNA given to all independent historical characters.
- Hundreds of new dynasties - the new dynasties of historical characters all have their own CoAs.
- A gigantic amount of localisation.
- Countless tweaks under the hood changing pretty much everything*.


*do read the Gameplay Overhaul notes for a better overview.

Gameplay Overhaul:
Gameplay in Lux Invicta is quite different from CK2 vanilla and will become ever more so in the future. Pretty much everything is changed or being changed under the hood of the game. Every update brings about new tweaks and changes. Because of the countless ongoing changes being made I will not be posting a detailed list until I reach 1.0 because otherwise I would spend more time writing changelogs than developing the mod. What you need to know is everything is being changed, yet if you pick up the mod you can still adapt very fast and have fun playing it!


Due to circumstance and partial necessity, most balancing and gameplay mechanic updates are now under an associate integrated module:
Lux Invicta Buildings & Events, Retinues & Tactics, Traits & Technology Module
A simplified list of LIBERT3-tweaked modifiers, title requirements, CB rebalances, and such can be found in the Calibration Coordinates post.

Because the LIBERT3 has ended up taking over the balancing part of the mod, most if not all relevant gameplay changes will be documented in the changelogs directly.


Religion Overhaul:

My implementation of many religions needed further development and explanation... As such I present to you Numahr's epic work helping with this particular area:

Spirituality Enhanced for Lux Invicta by Numahr (Read that post. Seriously. You will see why)


Buildings Overhaul:
The new buildings system is slowly being implemented and tweaked. The basic concept behind it is that each holding represents a region that happens to have an initial military/economic/or religious center. Each region is going to be able to build "regional" buildings while retaining a degree of specialization.

In order to build things you need to first increase your "control" over the region, then build up your administration. All of the many building lines, are tied together in logical fashion and allow for continous development of your provinces. Overall counting all implemented buildings for the 3 holding types there were at one point over 2700 buildings implemented -that number might be different /cut or expanded in the current build.

The new building system promotes differentiated cultural armies in various ways, from specific traditions and regional troops to a new liege and province system to a levy->professional->cultural elite corps military tied to liege culture. A select few legendary military traditions exist in some provinces, representing the very pinnacle of elite troops. Various religions also have their own versions of warrior cults.

Building up a professional military is a costly enterprise so you'd better make sure you have the economy to back it up.

-- Shaytana

The buildings system has been further worked and refined since LIBERT3 was integrated in stages.

Currently, buildings have been polished for both rebalance and deeper integration with technology and ruler/realm attributes/stats. For example, more advanced buildings require not only the prerequisite buildings but also advances in the relevant technology. This is to simulate advances in development that would allow "buildings" to be conceived and developed.

Others require not only these, but also a minimum level of a certain attribute to unlock (for the most part these are realm-attributes, so a subpar ruler could compensate with a skilled council) to simulate the plausibility of developing the relevant "buildings" in the first place.

In any case, there's a list of notes that I made for quick reference: LIBERT3 Building Flowchart. This list is mostly updated, but Sir Kulinski and I am intermittently working on flowcharts that could serve as an easier reference.


Events Overhaul:

I believe that roleplaying your ruler is a very important aspect of fun gameplay. As such I will continue to add events to the game that allow you to roleplay your character. I have made (at the time of writing this) over 220 events that further this goal. They range from the infamous lunacy / possessed events (thank you Dune for inspiration) to historical flavor events, to various events that allow you to gain the new traits, to assassination events that can see your ruler killed off! Fortune favors the brave, and there is no greatness without risk!


Aside from Shaytana's original files, Lux Invicta also reinstates the vanilla files as well as incorporating and integrating applicable events from other mods, such as VIET, F&F, and a lot more. As such, you can keep track of most of the incorporated mods by checking the release changelogs directly.


Casus Bellis Overhaul:
Casus Bellis have received a significant overhaul to streamline the effect of authority as well as allow more fluid and dynamic gaming while still adhering to original design principles. For simplicity, the comprehensive index of CB's can be found in the Calibration Coordinates.


Creatable Titles:
Aside from de jure titles, there are a lot of creatable titular titles that are not only cheaper to create, but relatively significant lore-wise as well. For simplicity, the comprehensive list of Creatable Titles can be found in the Calibration Coordinates.


Bloodline Biographies and History:
I am implementing specific Bloodline Traits that provide a short biography and history of a dynasty and are meant to give you an overall feel of that particular dynasty/state. If you see a trait icon with a man on a golden/orange background hover your mouse over it to read the history in the trait tooltip. You can see an example here:


Following some design principles, the AI effects of Bloodline Traits have been rebalanced in conjunction with the originally assigned bonuses (which themselves depend on the lore behind each dynasty bloodline), as well as being given general minor bonuses as well. With this, all important dynasties in the game (all of which are found in the Interesting Characters list underneath the Bookmarks) will play a greater role in Lux Invicta.


Notes Regarding Republics:
All playable republics start out as vassals. However, if you wish to play an independent state, it isn't hard to mod your desired republic to be independent. Making say Venice independent would be easy: edit history/titles/d_venice.txt and delete the liege line. If you want to eliminate the king and give the county to the doge, edit k_venice and change the holder line to holder = 0, and edit c_venezia.txt and give it the same holder as appeared in d_venice.txt.


Following some redesign and discussion, it has been agreed upon to make the state of republics dependent on their history, geography, and appropriety. For example, the merchant archipelago of Venice is a vassal of the Aurelian Realm of Venice situated in the Italian mainland, while Carthago Nova, a survivor and offshoot of the former maritime empire of Carthage (which itself still survives in its distant homeland), is an independent republic itself, not to mention the new slaver republics...



Integrated Mods:

(Originally Integrated Mods)
BLC [now a separate optional sub-mod]
Culturally Different Cities by Velho e Bom Joe.
CK2 Heraldry by pothkan
Patrum Scuta by Keanon (via CK2 heraldry)
Syren's Nickname Mod by Syren
Better rebels by avee
Ogamod -A Revamp Traits mod by Ran Miller (partial implementation)
Culture Spread Via Ports by Meneth (partial implementation)
Culture Specific Titles mod by Amauri (partial implementation to complement my titles)
Additional Objectives mod - 15 new objectives. by JGCrusader
The Mercenary Mod by Solo? (adapted/partial implementation)
Norse Mod (various mechanics) by Aspie
Friends & Foes = 100+ Traits Mod by ash001
subparts of the Friends and Foes mod included via the above mod:
  • Family Relations Mini-Mod by avee (included)
  • Adoption MiniMod by Korbah (included)
  • Council Shuffling by The Chancellor (included)
  • Council 13+ by Rendon (included)
  • Dungeons and Sieges by waylit1 [now uses Meneth's PB code]
Portions of Ard Ri na hEireann ? Celtic World Mod by neondt
More Congenital Traits by cybrxkhan [now integrated as VIET]
NBRT+ by EOOQE [redacted as requested]
Minimap color change by kmkenpo now obsolete
(Post-Shaytana Integrated Mods)
[currently an inexhaustive list due to design fluctuations! please inform us if a mod wasn't listed accidentally!]
Keyboard Shortcuts and Interface Adjust by Arumba
Decorus Visum by ancestral
Armories ARKO Pack by Arko
Clouds of War by antigravity
Koeppen Climate Classification by chatnoir (now only partially implemented)
Mazdayasna Zarathushtrish by Maestro Ug
Project Balance (various) by Meneth
Vanilla Immersion, Events, and Traits (traits and events) by cyberxkhan
CK2 Plus (various) by Wiz
Better Armies (tactics) by Six Gun South
Painterly CK2 (terrain map) by Fishman786
High Res Mountains by Fishman 786
Korbah's Minimaps (Embossed) by Korbah

Vyllis's SFX by Vyllis
MB-GOTW by Damocles
Consort Mod by Parsidius
No Hassles Vassals by twiggyt13
New Duel Engine by jordarkelf and AGOT team
Alternate Portraits for Mongol Children by AnaxXiphos‎
AGOT (Slavery Mechanics) by AGOT team
Various Micromods (various) by jordarkelf
LI Music, credits to the teams of 0 A.D., Europa Barbarorum, and the composers Morgan Casey, Nick Wylie, Omri Lahav, and Antti Martikainen.

Numahr, Meneth, Keanon, wiz, Cesar de Quart, ash001, JGCrusader, Aspie, Arcaul, Arko, Sleight of Hand, HKK, CrackdToothGrin, idib816, Peuri, Trovador, thrashingmad, Velho e Bom Joe, pothkan, duinnin, Ofaloaf, Thure, Bloodmerchant, Bad Haggis, zeress, keytool, Solo_Adhemar, mike the knight, Syren, avee, Ran Miller, Rendon, The Chancellor, Korbah, Solo?, Orinsul, Keperry, TheConqueror, Woody Man, Tsar Monarchist, richvh, LordStark, ColonelWright, ShadowGamer42, waylit1, Aernil, jedrek, jmberry, Teutonic_Thrash, Sernista, neondt, cybrxkhan, EOOQE, kmkenpo, Darkgamma, galle, jordarkelf, Novacat, riknap, futuregary, DarkReborn, SirKulinski, Arumba07, aethel27, AnaxXiphos, Danevang, ts4, Bismarck1899, Kleiner, ziji, Hawkeye1489, Jaidal, siath70



This is a temporary historical timeline, to be expanded upon and adjusted if needed:

330 BCE: Megas Alexandros conquers Persia. Beginning of implementation of policies regarding Hellenic Colonization of the East. Parmenion appointed Satrap of Ecbatana, his son Philotas sent to Media to oversee the creation of Hellenic military colonies in the region.

319 BCE: Megas Alexandros dies, poison is suspected to be the cause of his death. He leaves behind several legitimate children by Roxana and Stateira, and several ilegitimate ones widely acknowledged to be his. His son Alexandros IV is blinded in an accident and following unrest he is taken by his mother and loyal retainers to Cyprus.

318 BCE: Diadokhoi crysis starts in earnest. Beginning of the division of the Empire.

312 BCE: Seleukos I Nikator and Ptolemy I Soter defeat Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedon in the Battle of Gaza. Beginning of Seleukid Era and creation of Arche Seleukeia.

305 BCE: Seleukos I Nikator founds Seleukeia on the Tigris, his new capital.

303 BCE: Seleukid Conquest of Sindhia. Chandragupta Maurya becomes a Seleukid vassal.

300 BCE: Founding of Antiocheia by Seleukos I Nikator, western capital of the Empire.

298 BCE: The Hieronid Agathocles of Syracuse unifies Sicily under his rule and marries Ptolemy's stepdaughter Theoxena. Kyrene is brought under Ptolemaic control.

292 BCE: Lysimachus, Basileus of Thrakia campaigns beyond the Danube, but he is defeated and taken prisoner by the Dacian king Dromichaetes. Lysimachus is set free after the marriage of Dromichaetes with Lysimachus' daughter. Hellenic influence over Dacia increases.

289 BCE: Agathocles of Siracusa dies and a succession struggle ensues. Mercenaries calling themselves Mamertines - The Sons of Mars, take over Messana and the Northeastern part of the Island.

287 BCE: Pyrrhus defeats Demetrius Poliorcetes and is proclaimed King of Macedon.

285 BCE: Ptolemy I Soter abdicates in favor of his son Ptolemy II Philadelphos. The Pharos of Alexandria is completed. Pyrrhus is driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus with Dacian help.

283 BCE: Antigonus, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes becomes King of Macedon in name only as Lysimachus controls the Kingdom. The Great Canal between the Red Sea and the Nile is reopened by Ptolemy II Philadelphos.

281 BCE: Battle of Corupedium: Seleukos kills Lysimachus in battle, but is assasinated by Ptolemy Keraunos. He is succeeded by his son Antiochus. Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Heraclea and goes on to besiege Rome itself.

279 BCE: A Celtic Army under Brennus invades Greece. They defeat a Makedonian army under Ptolemy Keraunos but the Spartans temporarily hold Brennus at Thermopylae. Brennus retreats to the North only to defeat the pursuing Spartans in a battle near Mount Othrys. He then presses on and conquers Delphi, before retreating northwards. The Celtic hosts splits, and a Celtic Kingdom of Tylis is founded under Cerethrius. Part of the host moves Northwards to establish a kingdom in Pannonia, under Bolgios. Celtic Singidunum is founded. Brennus crosses the Helespont and overruns Bythinia.

Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Asculum. Peace is negotiated, with Rome acknowledging his dominion over Magna Graecia.

278 BCE: Brennus is defeated by Antiochus Soter near Ankyra. He acknoledges Seleukid sovereignty and the majority of his Celts are settled in Galatia, many of the Celtic warriors taking up service with the Seleukid Basileus. Beginning of Seleukid policy of establishment of Celtic military colonies, from Asia minor to Bactria and Sindhia.

277 BCE: Daco-Celtic War, following Scordisci invasion of Dacia. Defeated, Bolgios King of the Scordisci marries Darava, the daughter of the Dacian King and retires to Singidunum. Beginning of the Daco-Celtic alliance.

276 BCE: Ptolemy II marries his own sister Arsinoe. They become known as Philadelphoi - Brother-Loving.

273 BCE: Ashoka the Great, Satrap of Sindhia defeats the Seleukidai in battle near Pataliputra. Following the Treaty of Taxila Eastern Sindhia becomes a quasi-independent kingdom under his direct rule. He marries the Seleukid princess Olympia as part of the peace negotiations.

272 BCE: The Spartans under Areus I defeat Pyrrhus in the Battle of Argos, and Pyrrhus is killed. Areus I is proclaimed King of the Hellenes, while Antigonos II Gonatus manages to regain the Macedonian throne. Following the Treaty of Corinth Antigonos II is acknowledged as King of Makedonia, while Sparta retains the entire Peloponesus.

270 BCE: Romans drive out the Mamertines from Rhegium and restore it to its Greek citizens. Mamertines retreat to Sicily.

269 BCE: Hieron II of Siracusa defeats the Mamertines near Mylae. The defeated Mamertines accept his sovereignty and Hieron II becomes King of the entire island.

264 BCE: Carthaginians invade Sicily. Hieron II asks for Roman support. Beginning of First Punic war. Hieron II acknowledged as King of Sicily by the Romans. Beginning of the Roman-Siracusan Alliance.

262 BCE: Supported by the Ptolemaic navy and army, Athens rebells. Antigonos tries to besiege the city but is defeated and forced to acknowledge an independent Athenian state. Eumenes I of Pergamum defeats Antiochus and founds an independent kingdom.

260 BCE: Qin overruns the state of Zhao. The Great Western Exodus follows, with several hundred thousand Zhao citizens migrating to the West, eventually making it into Central Asia and Bactria, where they become Hellenic subjects.

255 BCE: Diodotus, Satrap of Bactria rebells and establishes an independent Kingdom. His dominions are expanded with the help of Galatian and Zhao refugees military colonies.

246 BCE: Diodotus marries the sister of Seleucus II Callinicus as his dominion over Bactria is confirmed.

243 BCE: Agis IV reforms the Spartan state under a new Lycurgan model. The entire Peloponesus is turned into a militaristic state with all Hellenes gaining citizenship and with all young men being enrolled into the new Agoge system. A defensive alliance is formed with the Athenians against potential Makedonian invasion.

241 BCE: Carthage is defeated by the Roman-Siracusan alliance in the Battle of the Aegates Islands. The First Punic War ends, Carthage renouncing all of its claims on Sicily. Siracusan dominion of Sicily is confirmed. An Eternal Alliance Treaty is signed between Rome and Siracusa and a Roman legion, supported by Siracusan taxes, is stationed in Sicily.

237 BCE: The Parni King Arsaces invades and conquers the Seleukid Satrapy of Parthia. Seleukos II Callinicus is taken prisoner.

230 BCE: Attalus I Soter of Pergamum defeats the Galatian invasion of Pergamum. He marries the Galatian princess Berena and an alliance is formed between the Galatians and Pergamum.

228 BCE: Attalus I Soter and his Galatian allies defeat Antiochus Hierax near Tarsus. Anatolia and Cillicia are divided between Atallus and his allies.

227 BCE: Queen Teuta of Illyria acknowledges Roman overlordship. Illyria becomes a client kingdom of Rome.

223 BCE: Euthydemus I, Satrap of Sogdiana rebells against his Bactrian Overlord, founding a great Hellenistic kingdom centered around Marakanda. Part of his army is composed of Helleno-Zhao troops.

222 BCE: Antigonus III attacks Athens, but is defeated by a Spartan-Athenian coalition in the 2nd Battle of Marathon. Antiochus III marries Laodice the daughter of Mithridates II of Pontus and an alliance is formed against Pergamum and the Galatians.

219 BCE: Hannibal besieges Saguntum, an ally of Rome. Beginning of the 2nd Punic War.

216 BCE: Philip V of Macedon invades the Roman client state of Illyria. Beginning of the First Macedonian War. Hannibal defeats the Romans at Cannae.

215 BCE: Atallus I Soter of Pergamum occupies Antiocheia. Antiochus III sues for peace and acknowledges Atallus's conquests and regains Antiocheia in the following peace treaty. Philip V, with the help of his Dacian and Scordisci allies defeats a Roman army near Apollonia in Illyria.

213 BCE: Emperor Qin Shi Huang orders all Confucian writings destroyed. Renewed Chinese emigration to Hellenistic Central Asia, Confucian scholars find refuge in Marakanda.

212 BCE: The Celtic Kingdom of Tylis allies with Rome against Philip V of Macedon. Syphax, Numidian King of the Masaesyli allies himself with Rome against Carthage.

Antiochus III campaigns in India and establishes Seleukid control over the region. His campaigns see him reach Sri Lanka, and he is proclaimed Megas by his troops following the utter destruction of the army of a coalition of Southern Indian princes in the battle of Suvarnagiri. Meanwhile in the west, his sister Antiochia is married to King Xerxes of Armenia.

211 BCE: Sparta, Athens and Pergamum join Rome in their war against Philip V of Macedon.

209 BCE: Antiochus III conquers Hecatompylos, the Parthian capital and defeats Arsakes II in the Battle of Mount Labus. Arsakes II is forced into an alliance with Arche Seleukeia. Modu Chanyu, Emperor of the Xiongnu pushes into China, renewed Chinese emigration towards Central Asia.

208 BCE: Megas Antiochus III becomes titular Overlord of Bactria and Marakanda, receiving the submission of their kings. Seleukid princesses married to the heirs of Bactria and Marakanda.

206 BCE: Publius Cornelius Scipio defeats the Carthaginians at Ilipa and drives them out of Spain. Masinissa, the Numidian King of the Massylii joins the Roman cause, but is more concerned with fighting his fellow Roman ally Syphax.

Megas Antiochus's legendary campaign into China. Founding of Antiocheia Eschate. End of the Qin dynasty following capture of Emperor Ziying, last ruler of the Qin Dynasty, by Liu Bang, leader of a popular revolt. China is in civil war as the Seleukids enter it from the West and the Xiongnu attack it from the North.

205 BCE: First Macedonian War ends with Philip V emerging victorious in the 2nd Battle of Apollonia. Large parts of Illyria are ceded to Macedon.

Philip V conquers Crete and attacks Rhodes. Antiochus III campaigns in China.

202 BCE: Philip V conquers Rhodes but allows the local Apollonios dynasty, supposed descendants of Apollo to remain in power as his clients.

Roman victory in the Battle of Zama. Hannibal is defeated by the Roman-Siracusan-Numidian coalition lead by Scipio, now receiving the surname Africanus. End of the 2nd Punic War, marking the decline of the Carthaginian state.

Peace between Megas Antiochus and Liu Bang. Formation of the Great Seleukid Chinese Satrapy
of Antiocheia Escate.

201 BCE: Philip V conquers Chios and installs the Lysimachid prince Alexandros as a client ruler. He then invades Pergamum, in spite of a Roman ultimatum warning against it. Beginning of the Second Macedonian War.
197 BCE: Philip V marginally defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. A peace is signed with Rome.

196 BCE: Megas Antiochus crosses the Helespont into Europe. War with Rome. The exiled Hannibal arrives at his court. Sparta and Athens fearing Seleukid conquest ally with Rome. A vast Hellenic coalition including Philip V joins with Rome against Megas Antiochus.

191 BCE: Megas Antiochus defeats a coalition army near Amphipolis, but is forced to retreat over the Helespont in order to deal with a Galatian threat to Syria.

190 BCE: The Allies defeat the Seleukid fleet at Eurymedon and Myonessus. Galatians besiege Antiocheia. Widespread rebellion throughout the Seleukid Empire. The Eastern Satrapies declare independence.

189 BCE: Megas Antiochus defeats the Romans in the Battle of Magnesia in a pyrrhic victory. He then turns his attention East against his rebellious Satraps.

187 BCE: Megas Antiochus is assassinated while praying in the great temple of Alexandros-Ammon in Seleukeia on the Tigris, on the orders of Antialcidas Parmenion, Satrap of Ecbatana.

185 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos of Marakanda converts to Buddhism. His conversion to Buddhism and his reliance on a Confucian bureaucracy of Zhao origin is used by King Diodotus III of Bactria as a pretext to invade Marakanda in order to restore proper Hellenic rule. Diodotus III is defeated, taken prisoner and forced to become a vassal.

184 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos campaigns in India.

182 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos proclaimed Megas Basileus of India. Establishment of a new Empire ruled from the newly founded city of Demetria, near Ujjain. The Buddhist Demetrius I Aniketos rules India with the help of his Zhao Confucian bureucracy and the might of his Indohellenic armies. Hellenic and Gallic military towns are established throughout his dominion in order to maintain control.

180 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos assassinated on the orders of Apollodotus I Soter, the Satrap of Taxila. Apollodotus I Soter proclaims himself Basileus of Sindhia taking control of the Western part of the Empire. Diodotus IV of Bactria regains independence, while Marakanda acknowledges Antimachus the second born son of Demetrius I Aniketos as King. Demetrius II, the rightful heir of the Empire rules over the East from his new capital at Pataliputra.

179 BCE: Philip V of Macedon campaigns against the Galatians. He famously dies leading a Hetairoi charge against the Galatian left flank in the Battle of Ancyra. Following his death his son Perseus makes peace with the Galatians, and reconfirms the Roman-Macedonian alliance.

177 BCE: Perseus marries the Seleukid princess Laodice before embarking on a campaign against Galatia.

172 BCE: Eumenes II of Pergamum asks for Roman help against Perseus. Beginning of Third Macedonian war.

171 BCE: Perseus defeats the Roman consul Publius Licinius Crassus in the Battle of Callicinus and proclaims himself Hegemon of the Hellenes.

170 BCE: Antiochus IV Epiphanes invades Egypt but allows Ptolemy VI to continue as a puppet ruler, as he is forced to return to Judaea to deal with a large Jewish Rebellion.

Eucratides Arianos the Satrap of Aria founds an independent Kingdom centered around Alexandria Areion. He marries the daughter of Antimachus Hephaistionos, the Satrap of Gedrosia and descendant of Hephaistion, Alexandros's favored companion. Gedrosia becomes part of the newly formed Basileia of Aria.

169 BCE: Perseus defeats the Romans at Tempe, the Roman consul Quintus Marcius Phillipus is captured, treated with the highest honors, and then released by Perseus.

168 BCE: A Romano-Hellenic coalition army led by Lucius Aemilius Paulus defeats Perseus at Pydna. Perseus is wounded and captured in battle as his Hetairoi cavalry failed to break the Spartan force on the Roman right flank. In spite of grievous wounds Perseus survives and is brought to Rome to take part in Lucius Aemilius Paulus's triumphal procession. Macedon becomes a Roman client kingdom with a legion stationed at Pella.

Ptolemy VI asks for Roman help against the Seleukids and Antiochus IV invades Egypt. As his forces camp outside Alexandria, the Roman ambassador Gaius Popillius Laenas presents Antiochus IV with an ultimatum that he evacuate Egypt immediately. Popillius draws a circle around the king with his walking stick and demands a clear answer before Antiochus leaves the circle. Antiochus withdraws from Egypt.

167 BCE: Angered by Seleukid Hellenization policies, the Jews led by the High Priest Mattathias ben Johanan rise up in revolt. Antiochus IV tries to suppress the revolt in blood, half of the population of Jerusalem being butchered.

166 BCE: Antiochus IV is forced to leave Judaea in order to deal with a Parthian invasion. Mattathias, dies and his third son, Judas Maccabeus is proclaimed king. The rebels rout the Seleukid army at the Battle of Beth Horon. Following another Seleukid defeat, at the Battle of Emmaus, Judas Maccabeus gains full control of Judaea, except Jerusalem still held by a strong Seleukid garrison.

165 BCE: Antiochus IV is forced to turn West to fight an Armenian invasion. Parthians are left to continue their advance unopposed. Following a great victory outside Antiocheia, Artaxias of Armenia is captured by Antiochus IV Epiphanes and is forced to recognize Seleukid sovereignty over Armenia.

164 BCE: Ptolemy VI Philometor is exiled from Alexandria by his brother Ptolemy VIII Euergetes and flees to Rome to ask for support support. Antiochus IV is assasinated on the orders of his chancelor Lysias who becomes Regent for his son Antiochus V Eupator.

Judas Maccabeus defeats Lysias at the battle of Beth Zur. Judas Maccabeus enters Jerusalem in triumph and purifies the Temple. He destroys the idols erected there by the Seleukids and restores the sacred service in the Temple.

163 BCE: Romans intervene in Egypt and partition the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy VIII Euergetes receives Cyrenaica and Ptolemy VI Egypt. Lysias confirms Judas Maccabeus as King of Judaea. Timarchus Epigonos leads a rebellion against Lysias and establishes an independent kingdom in Media.

162 BCE: Judas Maccabeus lays siege to Acra, a fortress within Jerusalem that faces the Temple Mount still held by a Seleukid garisson. Lysias invades Judaea and defeats Judas Maccabeus at the battle of Beth-zechariah, and Judas is forced to withdraw to Jerusalem.
Lysias lays siege to the city but is forced to withdraw as the Seleukid prince Demetrius arrives in Antiocheia and claims the Seleukid throne with Roman support.

161 BCE: Timarchus occupies Babylonia. Demetrius defeats Lysias and sends an army under Nicanor to deal with Judas Maccabeus, but Nicanor is defeated in the battle of Adasa, near Beth-horon. Judas Maccabeus sends envoys to Rome asking for support.

160 BCE: Demetrius accepts the submission of Timarchus who is confirmed as Satrap of Babylonia, while the Parthian King Mithradates I invades Media. Judas Maccabeus defeats a Seleukid army in the Battle of Elasa. Rome intervenes on behalf of the Judaean King and Demetrius is forced to accept Judas Maccabeus as King of Judaea.

158 BCE: Demetrius invades Kapadokia and removes Ariarathes V from power who flees to Rome and asks for Roman support.

157 BCE: Demetrius rejects a Roman ultimatum to restore Ariarathes V on his throne. A Roman-Galatian coallition forces Demetrius to retreat from Kapadokia, and Ariarathes is reinstated.

155 BCE: Punicus the King of the Lusitani defeated in battle by Lucius Mummius accepts Roman sovereignty and Lusitania becomes a vassal kingdom. Menander, Megas Basileus of India completes the conquest of Lanka.

154 BCE: Menander campaigns into China and enters Antiocheia Eschate in triumph. His brother Alexandros is made Satrap of the Great Chinese Satrapy of Antiocheia Eschate. Capitalizing on the Rebellion of the Seven States, a Treaty of Eternal Friendship is signed with Emperor Jing of Han, confirming the borders of the Hellenic Satrapy of Antiocheia Eschate.

153 BCE: Romans try to install Alexandros Balas Seleukos, a bastard son of Antiochus IV by the Argeadai princess Olympia, as Seleukid Basileus. Demetrius is forced to withdraw from Antiocheia as Alexandros Balas is installed Basileus by a Romano-Galatian-Judaean coalition.

150 BCE: Cato urges the Destruction of Carthage following its war with Rome's ally Numidia. Demetrius defeats Alexandros Balas in battle outside Antiocheia, only to be assassinated by a Jewish mercenary upon entering the city in triumph. Alexandros Balas is restored as Basileus of Arche Seleukeia.

149 BCE: Third Punic War begins. Viriathus, King of the Lusitani proclaims himself independent from Rome.

147 BCE: War for Arche Seleukeia between Demetrius II and Alexandros Balas.

146 BCE: Carthage conquered by Scipio Aemilianus.

145 BCE: Demetrius II and Ptolemy VI Philometor defeat Alexandros Balas in the Battle of Antioch. Ptolemy VI dies in battle, while Alexandros Balas flees to Nabatea.

144 BCE: Parthians take control of Babylonia. Viriathus fights the Romans to a draw near Numantia. Following the Treaty of Saguntum Viriathus is confirmed as client king of Lusitania.

141 BCE: Beginning of Tocharian Exodus to Bactria. Demetrius II defeated in battle by Mithridates, King of the Parthians becomes his prisoner. Beginning of Seleukid Anarchy with several Seleukid princes proclaiming themselves Basileus.

134 BCE: Epander, Megas Basileus of India conquers Burma and establishes the Satrapy of Epanderia Eschate. Atallus IV of Pergamum becomes a Roman vassal.

129 BCE: Antiochus VII Sidetes killed in the battle of Ecbatana by Menander Parmenion, now a vassal of Phraates II. Seleukid control over the East collapses entirely. Demetrius II recovers the throne of Syria with the support of Phraates II of Parthia.

128 BCE: Tocharians defeated by a Hellenic Coalition led by Alexandros Soter of Marakanda. Defeated Tocharians resettled throughout the Indohellenic states.

126 BCE: Seleukos V Philometor succeeds his father Demetrius II, asssasinated on the orders of Cleopatra Thea who acts as regent before having Seleukos V assassinated in turn. Cleopatra Thea and her son by Demetrius II, Antiochus VIII rule jointly.

124 BCE: Artabanus I of Parthia killed in battle against the Saka, after the Hellenic Kings of Marakanda, Bactria and Aria had allowed a new wave of Saka to pass through their lands into Persia. Kingdom of Sakastan founded in Eastern Persia.

118 BCE: Jugurtha becomes King of Numidia and begins expanding his kingdom throughout North Africa.

112 BCE: Roman-Numidian War begins. Jugurtha establishes a vast North African Empire.

111 BCE: Nam Viet collapses under a joint invasion by Epander of India and the Han Empire.

105 BCE: Jugurtha defeated in battle by a Roman led coalition, featuring Siracusan and Ptolemaic troops. Together with his vassal Bocchus of Mauretania Jugurtha acknowledges the sovereignty of Rome and Numidia and Mauretania become client states.

104 BCE: Alexandros II Aniketos of Marakanda establishes a vast Empire in Central Asia. His Empire stretches from Marakanda to China. Tocharians and Sakas play an important role within the military of Marakanda.

103 BCE: Tigranes II of Armenia proclaims himself King of Kings and establishes the Armenian Empire following his conquest of Atropatene.

100 BCE: Following Peasant Rebellions against Emperor Wu of Han, Alexandros II Aniketos of Marakanda invades China from the West and Epander II of India from the South West. Beginning of the legendary Katabasis of Alexandros II Aniketos to the Pacific.
(100BCE-1BCE and on continued in the next posts)
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98 BCE: Changan falls to Alexandros II Aniketos.

97 BCE: Ariarathes VII of Kapadokia becomes a vassal of Mithridates VI of Pontus. Various campaigns of expansion by Tigranes II of Armenia.

96 BCE: End of the Legendary Katabasis of Alexandros II Aniketos as he reaches the Pacific. Alexandros II weeps as he states that "There are no more worlds left to conquer". A new Alexandreia Eschate founded on the Pacific Coast, at the mouth of the Yellow River.

94 BCE: Legendary Hellenic expedition to Japan. A force under Hephaistion Epigonos, Satrap of the new Chinese Satrapy of Alexandreia Eschate lands in Japan. A whirlwind campaign sees Hephaistion subdue the western part of the archipelagos.

Tigranes II of Armenia turns Kapadokia into a vassal state, Pontus is forced to acknowledge this state of affairs.

92 BCE: A Roman anti-Armenian coalition under the generalship of Sulla fights Tigranes to a draw in Kapadokia. A second coalition army, under the leadership of Lucullus, mainly composed of Roman clients, Galatians and Spartans invades Armenia. Tigranes is forced to retreat to deal with this threat.

90 BCE: Mithridates VI of Pontus defeats Nicomedes IV of Bythinia, and occupies his kingdom. Nicomedes flees to Rome.

88 BCE: Roman Civil War between Sulla and Marius. The Scordisci of Singidunum under Bolgios V, attack Illyria and expand their dominions within the region. Mithridates receives the submission of the Hellenes of Asia Minor then invades Greece. He occupies Macedon, has himself crowned Megas Basileus in Pella before advancing South. He defeats a Spartan-Athenian army near Pydna. The Spartan King Areus IV is killed in battle refusing to retreat. The Spartan force rallies around their dead King refusing to forsake his body. The Spartans refuse to surrender and are killed to a man. Mithridates weeps as the body of Areus IV is brought to him.

87 BCE: Mithridates captures Athens. A new Spartan army is dispatched to guard the Isthmus of Corinth against Invasion. Mithridates shifts his focus towards Epirus.

86 BCE: A Roman-Siracusan Fleet under Sulla retakes Athens and lands an Army behind Mithridates's lines. A Spartan army under Areus V advances Northwards to link up with the Romans, only to be met by a returned Mithridates at Pagae. The Spartan King Areus V is killed in the ensuing battle.

Dardanians under Bardyllis III allied with the Scordisci invade Illyria.

85 BCE: Mithridates narrowly escapes an assassination attempt and is left incapacitated. His army under Archelaus is defeated at the battle of Orchomenus by Sulla and forced to retreat. Sulla is forced to march to the North West to face a Dardani incursion into Greece. A peace is signed with the Dardani King Bardyllis III near Lamia, and the Dardani are payed off.

83 BCE: Sulla returns to Italy and defeats Gaius Norbanus at the Battle of Mount Tifata. Mithridates VI recovers from his injury. The Seleukid Antiochus XIII Soter defeats Tigranes II Emperor of Armenia near Antiocheia ad Taurus. This battle is considered to be the beginning of the Seleukid Renaissance. A series of whirlwind campaigns follow.

82 BCE: Sulla enters Rome in triumph. Burebista becomes High King of the Dacians and starts building a centralized Dacian state. Antiochus XIII Soter wins the battle of Tarsos, establishes Seleukid control over Cilicia.

81 BCE: Sulla is Roman Dictator. Bardyllis III of Dardania and Areus Bolgios of Singidunum attack Dacia and are thoroughly defeated by Burebista. Bardyllis and Areus Bolgios are captured and ritually sacrificed by the Dacian king. Antiochus XIII Soter advances into Kapadokia, besieges Mazaka.

80 BCE: Sertorian War in Hispania. Quintus Sertorius defeats a Sullan army under Quintus Metellus Pius in the Battle of the Baetis river. Antiochus XIII receives the submission of Commagene.

78 BCE: Antiochus XIII campaigns in Sophene. Further victories over the Armenians.

76 BCE: Salome Alexandra assasinates her husband the Maccabean David III and becomes queen of Judaea, her baby son being relegated to heir to the Kingdom. She reestablishes the Sanhedrin and begins a policy of foreign expansion. Roman control over Illyria is reestablished.

75 BCE: Mithridates defeats a Roman Fleet in the Battle of Chalcedon. Antiochus XIII besieges Tigranokerta.

74 BCE: Mithridates defeats Lucullus in the Battle of Cyzicus. Fall of Tigranokerta to Antiochus XIII Soter. Tigranes II escapes to the East. Megas Basileus Epander III of India establishes his authority over the Malayan Peninsula, now called Epanderia.

73 BCE: Rebellion of Spartacus. Quintus Sertorius finally accepts peace. He remains in control of vast regions in Hispania. Antiochus XIII continues his dismantling of the Armenian Empire as he chases Tigranes II from province to province.

72 BCE: Mithridates marches on Athens. He defeats a Helleno-Roman coalition near Marathon, then turns West to face a new Roman army marching on him from Epirus. He routs the Romans at Amphissa.

71 BCE: End of the Rebellion of Spartacus. Marcus Licinius Crassus sent against Mithridates.

70 BCE: Marcus Licinius Crassus defeats Mithridates near Thermon, after the right wing of the Pontic army defects to the Romans. Mithridates is wounded but escapes with his life being hauled off by his bodyguards from the battlefield in spite of his protestations. Antiochus XIII conquers Kabalaka.

69 BCE: Mithridates stops the Roman advance in the Battle of the Helespont. Antiochus XIII defeats Armenian loyalists in a great battle near Artaxata. He advances into Atropatene.

68 BCE: Antiochus XIII turns south west and defeats an anti-Seleukid coalition army at Arbela, but is forced to march west as news of the Judaean Invasion of Syria by Salome Alexandra reaches his camp.

67 BCE: The Warrior Queen Salome Alexandra of Judaea is killed in battle near Antiocheia by Antiochus XIII Soter. Mithridates marches into Greece once more. Antiochus XIII campaigns against Judaea. In the East the Great Satrap Antimachus Craterus of Turpiana, a descendant of Alexandros's great general, defeats the Xiongnu at the Battle of Jushi.

66 BCE: Tigranes II negotiates peace with Antiochus XIII. He remains as vassal King in Armenia, Antiochus marries his daughter. He continues his campaign against Judaea. Pompey defeats Mithridates at the Battle of Pella, following the arrival of an allied army under King Deiotarus of Galatia to the rear of the Pontic Army. Mithridates barely escapes with his life.

65 BCE: Antiochus XIII besieges Jerusalem. Aristobulus II of Judaea sues for terms and is confirmed as client King of Judaea. Antiochus XIII Soter enters Jerusalem and the Jews pay lip service to him as a new "Messiah" after he confirms their freedoms and allows the Jewish state to continue on as his autonomous vassal. Pursued by the Romans, Mithridates flees to the Kingdom of Cimmerian Bosphorus, where his son Machares rules as Regent.

64 BCE: Pompey installs Mithridates VII as client King of Pontus before embarking on his expedition against Cimmerian Bosphorus. Following a decisive battle outside Panticapaeum, Mithridates flees and is killed by his own son who brings Pompey his head. Pompey executes Machares, and orders Mithridates's body sent back to Pontus to be interred with honors in the Royal Necropolis. Asander is made client King of Bosphorus.

63 BCE: Pompey campaigns in the Levant against the Seleukids, as Antiochus XIII is campaigning in the East. Aristobulus II ousted by Pompey and replaced with his brother Yohanan. Judaea comes over to the Roman side and is turned into a Roman client kingdom. 12000 Jews massacred on the Temple Mount by Roman troops as Pompey tries to secure Yohanan's power over Judaea.

62 BCE: Antiochus Theos, the Seleukid client king of Commagene is defeated by Pompey near Antiocheia. Antiochus XIII returns from his Eastern campaign only to find Pompey besieging his capital. Upon hearing news of a Galatian army under Brogitarus approaching from the North West, Antiochus XIII sues for terms. Pompey allows him to retain Syria and his Eastern conquests in exchange for renouncing all of his western claims from Cilicia to Kapadokia and recognizing Judaea as a Roman client.

61 BCE: Antiochus XIII Soter begins his Anabasis to Seleukeia on the Tigris. In a great battle near Dura Europos Antiochus XIII kills Phraates III of Parthia. The Parthians are in dissaray.

60 BCE: Antiochus XIII Soter enters Seleukeia on the Tigris in triumph after Philotas VIII Parmenion, the Satrap of Ecbatana opens the city gates without a fight and acknowledges Antiochus XIII as sovereign. King Asander of Cimmerian Bosporus expands his dominions on the Northern Shore of the Pontus Euxinus and comes into conflict with the Dacian King Burebista.

59 BCE: Burebista fights Asander to a draw near Histria. A Treaty of Friendship is concluded between the two Kingdoms, Asander marries Burebista's daughter Boriava. Antiochus XIII Soter campaigns in the East. Several Hellenistic Satraps including Timarchus III Epigonos acknowledge him as Megas Basileus.

58 BCE: Burebista expands his Dacian empire. The Gallic kingdoms of Singidunum and Tylis confirmed as clients.

57 BCE: Burebista's western campaign into Germania. Antiochus XIII besieges and conquers Hecatompylos.

56 BCE: Antiochus XIII Soter defeats Orodes II in battle near Antiocheia Margiana, but dies leading a Hetairoi charge against the Parthian Immortals. Caesar campaigns in Gaul.

49 BCE: Roman Civil War begins as Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Peace between Arche Seleukeia and Parthia, Antiochus XIV and Orodes II sign a Treaty of Eternal Friendship. Pompeian forces in Spain surrender to Caesar. Lucius Afranius pardoned, remains in control of Ilerda. Caesar appointed Dictator in Rome.

48 BCE: Pompey defeated at Pharsalus, flees to Egypt. Ptolemy XIII takes him prisoner and attempts to hand him over to Caesar. Pompey flees to the Court of Antiochus XIV. Caesar arrives in Egypt to link up with his Ptolemaic ally. Cleopatra VII becomes his mistress. A Roman-Egyptian force starts its advance towards Syria.

47 BCE: Caesar arrives outside Antiocheia only to find Antiochus XIV and Pompey had left the city. Caesar is forced to turn North West and march against the rebellious king Pharnaces II of Pontus who threatens Roman interests in Asia Minor. Caesar's army supplemented by a Galatian host destroys the Pontic army at Zela. Pharnaces II flees to Panticapaeum. Asander has him killed. The young Pharnaces III set up as king in Pontus as a Roman puppet.

46 BCE: Caesar defeats Antiochus XIV near Epiphania. Pompey dies in battle. Antiochus XIV retreats to Seleukeia on the Tigris. Caesar returns to Egypt, installs his mistress Cleopatra VII as Queen and exiles Ptolemy XIII to Kyrene. With the help of Juba, client King of Numidia Caesar defeats the Optimates at Ruspina and Thapsus.

45 BCE: Caesar campaigns against Antiochus XIV. Antiochus refuses to give battle and retreats East. A peace is negotiated with the Seleukid King accepting to pay Caesar large war reparations. Caesar returns to Rome.

44 BCE: Caesar assassinated in Rome. Dacian High King Burebista assassinated near Argidava.

43 BCE: Roman Civil War. Octavian and Marcus Antonius reconcile.

42 BCE: First and Second Battles of Philippi. Marcus Antonius and Octavian lead a coalition army of Romans, Makedones and Spartans to victory against Marcus Brutus. Marcus Brutus killed, Cassius flees to Antiocheia.

41 BCE: Marcus Antonius goes to Egypt to raise Ptolemaic support for a campaign against Syria. He is seduced by Cleopatra VII. Marcus Antonius becomes the tutor of young Caesarion. Rather than pursue the war against Antiochus he remains in Egypt with his mistress.

38 BCE: Marcus Antonius finally moves against Antiochus XIV. Herod the Great installed as King of Judaea. Antiochus XIV pays off Marcus Antonius and moves Northwards against Amyntas King of Galatia, now in control of Kapadokia and threatening to invade Syria. Amyntas defeats Antiochus XIV in battle near Mazaka. Antiochus XIV torn to pieces by the Galatians. Amyntas advances towards Antiocheia.

37 BCE: Amyntas besieges Antiocheia. Amyntas abandons the siege and campaigns in Armenia. Decaeneus, Priest King of Dacia institutes far ranging reforms trying to turn Dacia into a militaristic theocracy.

34 BCE: Artavasdes II of Armenia acknowledges Amyntas as sovereign. Amyntas campaigns East into Atropatene. Marcus Antonius arranges the bethrotal of his son by Cleopatra, Alexandros Helios to Berenice Seleukos.

32 BCE: War between Octavian and Marcus Antonius, as it is revealed that Marcus Antonius wishes to establish himself as Megas Basileus of the East. Amyntas Sovereign of Atropatene.

31 BCE: Marcus Antonius defeated by Octavian at Actium. Amyntas campaigns against Parthia. Alexandros III Seleukos joins Octavian in his war against Marcus Antonius.

30 BCE: King Malchus of Nabatea attacks Egypt in support of Octavian. Marcus Antonius commits suicide. Cleopatra VII and her children flee South into Nubia. Octavian reinstates Ptolemy XIII as client King of Egypt.

29 BCE: Octavian granted the cognomen Augustus. Amyntas defeats Phraates IV of Parthia near Hecatompylos. His Tindotae are said to have refused to emasculate the Parthian dead after considering them "not manly enough to be worth the trouble". The Galatian King enters Hecatompylos and proclaims himself King of Kings. 7 days later he is dead, in mysterious circumstances.

28 BCE: Cottius King of the Bastarnae, submitts to the Dacian King Decaeneus. Bastarnae resettled by Dacians on their Southern border. Octavian Augustus awarded with the imperium maius, becoming Supreme Commander of the Roman military. Livia Drusilla dies. Corocotta, King of the Cantabrians begins his campaigns of conquest in Hispania.

27 BCE: Augustus marries Alexandra Argead, a princess of the Cypriot line of the Argeadai. Azes I of Sakastan campaigns succesfuly against Parthia. Corocotta proclaimed High King in Numantia.

26 BCE: Cleopatra VIII Selene, the daugher of Antony and Cleopatra, marries Juba II of Numidia. Berenice Ptolemaios, daugher of Ptolemy XIII married to Bocchus III of Mauretania. The Ptolemaioi spread their influence across North Africa. Edicts of Amaravati issued by Archebios I Dikaios of India. A new state religion, a hellenic-buddhist-hindu mix adopted by the Indian dynasty. Corocotta overruns the Roman client state of Lusitania.

23 BCE: Augustus Princeps of Rome. Kandake Amanirenas, Warrior Queen of Nubia marries Ptolemy XV Caesarion and invades Egypt. Ptolemy XV Caesarion proclaimed Pharaoh in Thebes. Azes I of Sakastan conquers Susa, proclaims himself King of Kings. Augustus has to leave for Hispania to deal with the Cantabrian King Corocotta.

22 BCE: A Roman-Ptolemaic army defeated near Abydos by Amanirenas. The Katabasis of Ptolemy XV Caesarion to Alexandria begins. After being defeated and captured near Asaak, Azes I of Sakastan is forced to accept Parthian sovereignty.

21 BCE: Ptolemy XV and Amanirenas enter Alexandria in triumph. The Roman client boy-King Ptolemy XVI flees to Kyrene.

20 BCE: A Roman army under Lucius Cornelius Balbus defeated by Ptolemy XV Caesarion in the Nile Delta. Ptolemy XV and Amanirenas march Eastwards. Nabatea submits to their authority. Campaign against Judaea. Ptolemy XV installs his half-brother Alexander Helios as client King in Amman.

19 BCE: Augustus defeats Corocotta near Numantia and accepts his submission on lenient terms, in order to leave Hispania to deal with Ptolemy. Ptolemy XV enters Jerusalem in triumph, prays outside the Jewish Temple, to ingratiate himself with the Jews. An alarmed Alexandros III Seleukos assembles his army outside Antiocheia, only to be forced to march North to deal with a Galatian incursion.

18 BCE: Helleno-Chinese invasion of Korea under the Great Satrap Menander Aniketos of the Chinese Satrapy of Alexandria Eschate. Augustus assembles a vast host composed of armies from various Roman client states in order to deal with Ptolemy. Ptolemy XV enters Antiocheia in triumph as Alexandros III is occupied against the Galatians in the North.

17 BCE: A vast Germanic host led by the Sicambri king Melo invades Gallia. Augustus forced to reconsider his planned campaign against Ptolemy. Ptolemy XV accepts the submission of Cyprus and Cilicia. Alexandros III Seleukos forced to retreat to his Eastern domains rather than continue his war against Ptolemy and the Galatians.

16 BCE: A Roman army under Marcus Lollius is defeated by the Germans. Dacian King Scorillo and his allies, most proeminently the Celtic Kings of Singidunum and Tylis invades Illyria. Ptolemy XV campaigns in the Aegean, accepts the submission of Rhodes and the Antigonids of Crete.

15 BCE: Augustus campaigns against the Germans. Ptolemy XV allies with Scorillo against Rome. Dacians ravage Illyria and Dardania, Ptolemy conquers Isauria.

14 BCE: Augustus defeats the Germans in the Battle of the Upper Rhine. Melo and the remnants of his host flee to the East. Ptolemy XV Caesarion links up with his Dacian allies. Together they besiege Pella. A Roman-Helleno-Makedonian army under Leonidas IV of Sparta is defeated as it tries to relieve the city. Leonidas IV is captured and the Dacians sacrifice him to Zalmoxis, considering him a proper offering.

13 BCE: Augustus has to deal with a second Germanic host invading Southern Gaul. Pella falls, Ptolemy XV and Scorillo besiege Athens. The Kushan Yuezhi are allowed to pass into Sakastan by the Hellenic Kings in order to weaken the Saka state. Azes II defeats the Kushan Yuezhi and settles them as military clients. Beginning of Kushan Yuezhi influence in Sakastan.

12 BCE: Augustus defeats the Germans in Southern Gaul and moves East to deal with Ptolemy. Ptolemy XV enters Athens in triumph and is proclaimed Hegemon of the Hellenes.

11 BCE: Augustus wins a pyrrhic victory over a Dacian-Celtic army led by Zaxes, Scorillo's son near Apollonia. He is forced to reconsider continuing on into Greece. Troubles on the Germanic border.

10 BCE: Alexandros III Seleukos takes back Antiocheia from its Ptolemaic garrison. With Seleukid help, Alexandros Helios of Amman rebells against Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Herod the Great reinstated in Judaea.

9 BCE: Augustus marches against Ptolemy XV Caesarion. They meet in battle outside Ambrakia. Augustus only manages to win a pyrrhic victory after a Spartan force arrives from the South and attacks Ptolemy's army from the rear. Ptolemy XV withdraws Eastwards.

8 BCE: King Maroboduus of the Marcomanni invades Noricum. Augustus forced to turn North to deal with this threat. He narrowly defeats Maroboduus who retires to the North.

7 BCE: Augustus changes his strategy and lands with an army near Beirut. He receives the renewed submission of Herod and acknowledges Alexandros Helios as King of Amman. A Roman-Jewish-Ammanite force marches on Egypt.

6 BCE: Ptolemy XV Caesarion forced to retire to Egypt to defend it from invasion. His wife Amanirenas leads an army into the Sinai and is defeated and captured by Augustus. The Allies enter Egypt from the East. Ptolemy XV Caesarion fights them to a draw near Pelusium. Augustus is grievously wounded. The Peace of Pelusium is negotiated, Ptolemy XV Caesarion allowed to retain Egypt as a theoretical Roman client, renouncing all other claims outside Egypt. Augustus returns to Rome.

4 BCE: Herod the Great dies. Three Roman legions sent to Judaea to help his heir Herod Archelaus deal with rebellions against his rule. 10000 Jewish rebels crucified, permanent Roman garrisons established, paid by Judaean taxes.

3 BCE: Maroboduus builds a vast Germanic Confederation centered around Bohemia.

1 BCE: Arminius, King of the Cheruschi starts building a Confederation in North West Germania.
1 CE: Sapadbizes I establishes a small Kushan Yuezhi client kingdom within Sakastan.

5 CE: Cunobelinus of the Catuvellauni High King in Britain. Augustus's son by Alexandra Argead, Alexandros Julius Caesar campaigns in Germania and conquers Germania Inferior. Alexandra I Empress of the Helleno-Chinese ruling for her young son Alexandros Epander.

6 CE: Alexandros Julius Caesar campaigns against Maroboduus. Judaean Census, followed by Revolt and Birth of the Zealot movement.

7 CE: Alexandros Julius Caesar campaigns in Judaea. Siege of Jerusalem. 5000 Jews crucified. Herod Archelaus reinstated. Abgarus V, client King of Osroene rebells against his overlord Alexandros IV Seleukos.

8 CE: Abgarus V besieges Antiocheia, the city is taken by treachery. He receives the submission of Commagene and Adiabene, proclaims himself King of Kings.

9 CE: Alexandros Julius Caesar's pyrrhic victory in the battle of the Teutoburg Forest. 3 Roman legions decimated, Augustus exclaims: "such victories destroy an empire". Romans forced to retreat West of the Rhine.

11 CE: Artabanus II of Parthia comes to the aid of Alexandros IV Seleukos against Abgarus V. Artabanus defeats Abgarus V in battle in Atropatene. Empress Alexandra I of the Helleno-Chinese issues the Edicts of Alexandria Changana. A vast program of reform implemented within the Helleno-Chinese Satrapies. A strong theocratic meritocratic bureaucracy system is instituted. A state-run Indohellenic-Confucian religion is widely disseminated throughout the Empire.

13 CE: Abgarus V submits to Artabanus II and becomes his client, as a result the Northern part of the Seleukid domains become Parthian vassals.

14 CE: Augustus dies and is deified. He is succeded by his son Alexandros Julius Caesar. Alexandros Julius Caesar campaigns in Germania. He is unable to defeat Arminius in a field battle and retreats back to Roman territory.

18 CE: Maroboduus and Arminius ally and invade Roman territories. Alexandros Julius Caesar defeats Maroboduus in Noricum before turning West to face Arminius. Artabanus II of Parthia receives the submission of Armenia and Pontus.

19 CE: Battle of Lugdunum, Alexandros Julius Caesar wins a pyrrhic victory over Arminius. Artabanus's legendary whirlwind campaign through Anatolia. The Parthian King of Kings crosses the Helespont.

20 CE: Artabanus II enters Athens in Triumph after defeating an Athenian-Spartan army outside the city walls. The body of King Leonidas V is said to have been pierced by 42 arrows. Artabanus invokes the spirit of Xšayaršā the Great Achaemenid in a gigantic ceremony on the Acropolis and proclaims: "We have returned!".

21 CE: The First Great Crysis of the Empire: Greece North of the Peloponesus, with the exception of Pella, is controlled by Artabanus II, renewed Germanic attacks in the North, Dacians invade Illyria, and Lucius III Afranius, the great Magnate of Ilerda engineers a Spanish rebellion.

22 CE: Alexandros Augustus negotiates with Lucius III Afranius. Lucius III Afranius appointed Hereditary Governor of Tarraconensis. Artabanus II destroys a Spartan army on the Isthmus of Corinth, killing the Eurypontid King Eucleidas II. The Spartans die to a man. Artabanus invades the Peloponesus.

23 CE: Alexandros Augustus defeats the Germans in a 2nd Battle of Lugdunum and marches East against the Dacians. King Koson of Dacia assasinated by King Vorix of Singidunum during a banquet. Dacians retreat from Illyria. King Vorix of Singidunum becomes a Roman client and is reportedly paid handsomely for this deed. Artabanus II camps outside Sparta. The Spartan boy-king Leonidas VI comes to him unarmed and proclaims: "You might burn down our buildings, but you can not conquer our spirit. You can kill our men, but we can decimate your army and destroy your empire." Impressed by the boy-king Artabanus decides to leave Sparta alone and prepare his army for his confrontation with Augustus.

24 CE: Alexandros Augustus narrowly defeats Artabanus II in the battle of Argithea, as a result of the treachery of Arakhsh Surena, commander of the Parthian right wing. Artabanus forced to retreat.

25 CE: Artabanus retreats over the Hellespont, destroys a coalition army of Roman clients near Lampsacus. The client kings of Pergamum and Galatia captured and executed.

26 CE: Kujula Kadphises, the King of the Kushan Yuezhi and client of the Saka conquers Susa. Artabanus decides to march East. An indecisive battle is fought outside Tarsus between Alexandros Augustus and Artabanus. Peace of Tarsus signed, Artabanus renounces all claims on Roman client states.

27 CE: Rebellion of the Satraps of the Parthian Empire. Kujula Kadphises enters Asaak in triumph. Artabanus and a small loyalist army defeated by Kujula Kadphises near Ecbatana. Artabanus II flees to the court of Alexandros V Seleukos. Kujula Kadphises campaigns throughout Parthia attempting to be accepted as King of Kings by the rebellious Satraps.

30 CE: Alexandros V Seleukos moves against Kujula Kadphises in order to reinstate Artabanus II. Artabanus had offered him half of the Parthian Empire. Seleukid victory over the Kushan Yuezhi near Susa.

32 CE: Alexandros V Seleukos captures and executes Kujula Kadphises after defeating him in battle outside Asaak. Artabanus II assassinated by Alexandros V Seleukos after Alexandros reneges upon their agreement. Alexandros marches into Parthia trying to restore Arche Seleukeia control over the East.

34 CE: Alexandros V Seleukos assassinated by agents of Tiridates III of Parthia. Aretas V of Nabatea invades Judaea. The Judaean King Herod Antipas becomes a vassal of Nabatea.

35 CE: Sensing Seleukid weakness Aretas V besieges Antiocheia. Antiocheia falls. Aretas V proclaims himself Sovereign of the East. The Romans decide to intervene.

36 CE: Battle of Tyre. Aretas V surprises the Romans and Alexandros Augustus is killed in battle. The Roman Emperor is cut to pieces and fed to the dogs. Roman indignation follows. His son Alexandros II vows revenge.

37 CE: Alexandros II prepares for war with Aretas, a vast army is assembled.

38 CE: Punitive expedition against Aretas V begins. A Nabatean army is defeated near Beirut by the overwhelmingly superior force under Alexandros II. Nabatean captives are all cut to pieces, a caravan carrying some of these grisly remains is sent to Aretas. Alexandros II Augustus enters Jerusalem and angers the Jews by having a statue of himself set up in the Temple.

39 CE: Aretas V defeated in a great battle near Hebron. He flees East. Alexandros II proclaims himself a God, Neos Helios, has all of the prisoners executed, and to the horror of his generals drinks the blood of an executed Nabatean prince.

40 CE: Alexandros II captures Aretas V near Petra. Aretas V is tortured for several days, then cut to pieces and fed to pigs. Alexandros II believes he is not good enough to be fed to dogs. Alexandros II takes the young daughter of Aretas V, Salome as a mistress. As a result he spares Nabatea from utter destruction installing the baby-boy Aretas VI as King to the dismay of his generals.

41 CE: Alexandros II celebrates his Triumph in Rome. Alexandros II begins to turn Rome into a Hellenistic Autocracy. In contempt of the Senate he appoints his horse Bucephalus as a senator.

43 CE: Alexandros II begins a campaign against Britain. He defeats the Britons under Caratacus and Togodumnus. Several kings submit to him without a fight. Vespasian sent to subdue the South-West.

45 CE: A great Helleno-Chinese expedition under Epander Craterus, Satrap of Alexandria Changana, against the Xiongnu.

47 CE: Alexandros II campaigns against the Germans. Xiongnu defeated by the Helleno-Chinese, vast numbers are resettled in military colonies throughout the Empire.

50 CE: Yaziges settlement in Eastern Pannonia as Dacian clients.

56 CE: Alexandros II declares war on Parthia after Vologases I invades Armenia.

58 CE: Alexandros II conquers Artaxata, then marches East, the Parthian army retreats before him without giving battle.

59 CE: Alexandros II conquers Tigranocerta. Vologases I sues for peace. Alexandros II returns to Rome in Triumph.

60 CE: Alexandros II in Britain. He publicly rapes the two daughters of Queen Boudica of the Iceni. The Iceni rise up in rebellion.

61 CE: Alexandros II defeats the Iceni in battle near Viroconium. A dying, wounded Boudica is brought before Alexandros II who rapes her proclaiming that "she is receiving the favor of a God before her death".

62 CE: Parthians invade Armenia once more. An angered Alexandros II vows to see the treacherous Vologases I dead.

63 CE: Alexandros II defeats a Parthian army near Tigranocerta. He continues on East.

64 CE: Alexandros II besieges Hecatompylos. The city falls after a 2 month siege. Alexandros II has 1 in 10 inhabitants chosen by lot sacrificed to himself. He then chases Vologases into the East.

65 CE: Alexandros II catches Vologases I near Antiocheia Margiana. The Parthian King is ritualy sacrificed to the glory of the Divine Alexandros II. Alexandros II returns West.

66 CE: Alexandros II in Rome. Rome is consumed by fire. It is said that Alexandros declared: "Rome is consumed by my divine will, to be rebuilt as a vision of my Glory". The Jewish Revolt begins after Alexandros II orders the Temple be rededicated to himself.

67 CE: Alexandros II orders the heads of the statues of Roman Gods removed and replaced with his own. The Zealots are in control of Jerusalem. A Roman army under Cestius Gallus is nearly wiped out in the battle of Beth-Horon. Vespasian sent to Judaea.

68 CE: Alexandros II arrives in Judaea. 40000 Jews massacred at Jotapata. Gamla falls to the Romans, all of its inhabitants sacrificed to Alexandros II. Alexandros II vows to exterminate all Jews, as they have rejected his divinity, but is assassinated by conspirators lead by his mistress Salome of Nabatea. His last words are: "You can not kill a God".

69 CE: Year of the Four Emperors. The 2 year old Alexandros, the son of Alexandros II Augustus is kept safe by loyalists in Neapolis. Vespasian receives the support of the East, from the Ptolemaioi to Pontus to Makedon and Sparta. He emerges victorious, and allows the boy Alexandros to remain unharmed in Neapolis.

70 CE: Fall of Jerusalem to Titus. Rabell of Aqaba fights in support of the Romans in Judaea. The Kingdom of Aqaba is recognized by Rome as a client independent of Nabatea. The Rabellid dynasty turns Aqaba into a great commercial centre.

73 CE: Fall of Massada. Beginning of Jewish resettlement in the Sinai.

79 CE: Vespasian dies. Remembering the death of Alexandros II, his mocking last words are: "I think I'm turning into a God". Titus succeeds him as Emperor. Agricola campaigns in Caledonia.

80 CE: Saka-Kushan general Vima Takto rebells against Parthia. Vima Takto becomes King of all Sakastan. He receives the submission of Saka and Kushan alike. He captures Vologases II of Parthia in battle and has him executed.

81 CE: Pacorus II of Parthia accepts Vima Takto as an independent King of Sakastan. Domitian, Emperor of the Romans.

85 CE: Dacian Wars begin. King Decebalus of Dacia ravages Illyria and Dardania.

87 CE: Decebalus of Dacia destroys five Roman legions in battle at Tapae. Rome is horrified.

88 CE: Decebalus is bought off. His dominion over Pannonia and the Celtic client kings of Singidunum and Tylis is accepted. Rome pays a large war settlement.

91 CE: Decebalus creates a large Rhoxolani-Sarmatian client kingdom in the area of Moldova. He uses Sarmatians for his cavalry. Dacians raid Illyria.

93 CE: A Roman army largely composed of client troops and led by the Legio XXI Rapax is completely annihilated near Tylis by the Dacians.

96 CE: Domitian assassinated. Nerva is Emperor. Mahayana Buddhism appears in India.

98 CE: Nerva dies of a stroke. Trajan is Emperor. Trajan restores the powers of the Roman Senate. A system of state welfare taking care of poor children is implemented. Several other reforms including taxation reforms are implemented.

100 CE: Fourth Buddhist Council held in Pataliputra. Epander VII of India tries to create a new form of Buddhism subordinated to the State.
HISTORICAL TIMELINE 100CE-200CE: (200CE-300CE and on found in next post in thread)
101 CE: Trajan campaigns against Dacia. Tylis and Singidunum submit to the Romans. Second Battle of Tapae, Trajan defeats the Dacians, as a result of Sarmatian treachery. Abeakos King of the Sarmatians switches sides during the battle, overwhelming the Dacian right flank. He accepts Roman patronage. Revolt of the Satraps of Parthia, with Seleukid help Philotas XII Parmenion of Ecbatana defeats Pacorus II near Qom.

102 CE: The Romans win a pyrrhic victory outside Sarmizegetusa. Decebalus negotiates peace and Dacia becomes a Roman client. In order to restore his honor the Dacian King commits ritual suicide, his son Decebalus II ascends to the throne. Philotas XII wins a great victory near Arsakia Rhagae over Pacorus II, then enters the city in triumph and crowns himself King of Media.

105 CE: Philotas XII captures Pacorus II and has him kept as prisoner in a golden cage. He begins his conquest of Atropatene.

106 CE: Philotas XII completes conquest of Atropatene, campaigns against Armenia.

107 CE: Armenia divided into three lesser client kingdoms by Philotas, Sanatruk Arshakuni installed as client king in the East, the Artaxid Tigranes V ruling the West, and the Orontid Arsames III in the South.

108 CE: Philotas XII attacks Arche Seleukeia. The Seleukid army is defeated near Antiocheia ad Taurus, rather than march on Antiocheia, Philotas decides to march East towards Seleukeia on the Tigris.

109 CE: The Battle of the Bloody Shields fought near Dura Europus. With the rest of the Seleukid army in full rout, the Seleukid Argyraspides refuse to retreat defending their wounded Basileus Antiochus XVI Epiphanes against all odds. Impressed by their valor, Philotas chooses to leave the field to them.

110 CE: Philotas XII reaches Seleukeia on the Tigris. Antiochus XVI retreats before him choosing not to give battle. Philotas XII the Conqueror enters Seleukeia on the Tigris in triumph, proclaims himself Megas Basileus of the Hellenes and of the Persians vowing to restore Arche Makedonia. On that very night he is dead, chocking on a poisoned cup of wine.

112 CE: Kushan-Saka prince Kanishka elected King of Sakastan by the great lords of the Saka. He attacks Gedrosia and accepts the submission of Menander Hephaistionos, its Satrap.

113 CE: Trajan decides to capitalize on Seleukid weakness and attack Arche Seleukeia. A vast Roman led army invades Syria.

114 CE: Antiocheia falls after a siege of 8 months. Trajan allows its citizens to remain unharmed. He prays in the Temple of Seleukos for guidance.

116 CE: 2nd Battle of Epiphania. Overwhelmed by vastly superior numbers, the Seleukid Argyraspidai refuse to surrender and are killed to a man. The Roman client, Spartan King Pleistarchus II comments: "They died like Spartans." Seeing that all is lost Antiochus XVI Epiphanes leads his Hetairoi in a suicide charge against the Roman center. His Hetairoi are cut down, Antiochus XVI is captured after having suffered no less than 13 wounds.

Impressed by Seleukid valor, Trajan allows Antiochus XVI to remain as client king of Syria. 30 days later in a grand ceremony in Antiocheia, Antiochus decides to bend the knee, in order for the Seleukid dynasty to continue. The ailing Basileus takes his own life the next day proclaiming: "To save Syria I can kneel before a man once, but I can not live a life kneeling."

117 CE: Trajan campaigns in the East, and overruns Mesopotamia. Trajan dies of a stroke in Seleukeia on the Tigris, Hadrian appointed his successor. Kanishka extends the Saka-Kushan state, accepts the sumbission of Epander Arianos, the Satrap of Aria.

119 CE: Kanishka defeates Helias I the Basileus of Sindhia in a great battle near Jask. He overruns Western Sindhia and appoints Nahapana as Satrap.

120 CE: Kanishka campaigns in Arachosia. Fall of Alexandria Arachosia. Kanishka turns South to face a Sindhian army sent to recover Western Sindhia.

121 CE: Battle of the Indus, Kanishka defeats Craterus Antipater the Satrap of Taxila, leading the Hellenic coallition army sent to stop him. Kanishka decides to push on East.

122 CE: Kanishka conquers Alexandria on the Indus. He orders it razed to the ground, but before the city can be destroyed, the Miracle on the Indus happens - the Saka-Kushan King's legendary meeting with the Buddha. Kanishka converts to Buddhism. Various legends explain this episode in different ways, they all agree that Kanishka emerged radically changed from a religious experience. Kanishka abandons his plan to destroy Alexandria on the Indus.

123 CE: Kanishka accepts the submission of the Indohellenes of Western Sindhia. He is proclaimed Megas Basileus and calls himself Kanishka Alexandros Philhellene.

130 CE: Simon bar Kokhba, claiming to be the Messiah rebels against Rome. The Legio X Fretensis is completely destroyed by the rebels.

132 CE: A Ptolemaic army sent to supress the rebellion is destroyed in the Sinai by the Jewish rebels.

133 CE: Hadrian begins his campaign to subdue the rebels. Jewish towns are retaken one by one.

134 CE: Siege of Jerusalem. Alans raid the Caucasus.

135 CE: Hadrian dies during the siege. Antoninus Pius succeeds him. Jerusalem falls. A Statue of Jupiter erected in the Temple. New policies of Jewish resettlement in the Sinai and elsewhere. Simon bar Kokhba flees into the desert. Beginning of the Myth of his Expected Return.

140 CE: Kanishka acknowledged as "brother" and Sovereign of Sindhia by Apollophanes II Epander of India. Treaty of The Eternal Peace of the Buddha signed.

144 CE: Marcion of Sinope gathers a large following. He preaches that the wrathful God of the Old Testament was a separate entity to the Merciful God of the New Testament.

148 CE: Kaniskha "ascends to the Buddha". His son Huvishka Alexandros Philhellene proclaimed Megas Basileus, the Hellenic Kings of Sindhia accept him as Sovereign. Marcus Aurelius is Roman co-Emperor.

152 CE: King Asander V of Cimmerian Bosphorus defeats the Alani outside Tanais. He begins extending his dominion Eastwards vowing to reach the Caspian Sea.

156 CE: After a long succesfull war against the Alani, Asander V reaches the shore of the Caspian Sea. He orders a temple dedicated to Apollo-Boreas built on the shores of the Sea then returns West. The ecstatic prophet Montanus preaches in Phrygia. "The New Prophecy" later to be known as Montanism starts to gain adherents. Believers assert that Montanus is posssesed by God.

158 CE: Beginning of Sol Invictus worship in Rome.

160 CE: Asander V proclaims himself Emperor of Pontus and attacks the Roman client Sarmatian Kingdom. He is killed in battle by the Sarmatians near Tyras. His body is ritually shot with 100 arrows before being sent back to his son as a warning not to continue his father's policies.

161 CE: Antoninus Pius dies. Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus co-Emperors. Craterus Antipater, the Great Satrap of Andhra campaigns in Sindhia breaking the "Eternal Peace of the Buddha". He defeats Huvishka near Patala. Huvishka is killed in battle, trampled by elephants. Hellenic vassals rebel.

166 CE: Huvishka II defeated and killed in battle near Alexandria Areion. End of Saka-Kushan domination over the Hellenic Kingdoms of Sindhia. Marcus Aurelius campaigns against the Germans. Barbarians attack the Western borders of the Empire.

170 CE: Marcomanni raid into Italy. Reorganization of the European Imperial border regions into military provinces begins.

174 CE: Craterus Antipater, Satrap of Andhra executed by Apollophanes III Epander of India, on charges of treason. Revolt of the Southern Satraps. Craterus's son Menander Satakarni Antipater proclaimed Megas Basileus of the South.

177 CE: Christian persecutions throughout the Roman Empire.

180 CE: Abgar IX King of Osroene receives the submission of Sophene.

181 CE: Marcus Aurelius dies. He appoints his son Commodus as succesor. Following a narrow defeat in battle outside Pataliputra Apollophanes III Epander acknowledges Menander Satakarni Antipater as Megas Basileus of the South. Gothic attacks into Cimmerian Bosphorus. Commodus adopts Sol Invictus as the Patron God of the Roman state and Mithra as the Patron God of the Roman armies. Religious reforms are implemented in order to spread the two faiths. Roman military border provinces are forcibly converted to the worship of Mithra.

182 CE: A great conspiration against Commodus fails. His sister Lucilla exiled to Capri. Commodus persecutes the Christians.

184 CE: Abgar IX receives the submission of Adiabene, proclaims himself Emperor of Armenia. Septimius Severus sent against the Armenians.

185 CE: A Roman-Seleukid Army under Septimius Severus occupies Osroene. Abgar IX retreats East.

187 CE: Abgar IX fights the Romans to a draw outside Tigranocerta. A peace is signed, Abgar IX renounces all imperial ambitions and resumes rule of Osroene as a Roman client. The Hellen general Antimachus Epigonos appointed Military Governor of Amida. Septimius Severus sent to Hispania to quell a minor Lusitanian rebellion.

192 CE: Commodus dies while fighting as a gladiator in the Colosseum. Christian missionaries reach India. Septimius Severus hailed Emperor by his legions in Hispania. Clodius Albinus hailed Emperor in Britannia, while in Neapolis the Augustan magnate Alexandros is proclaimed Alexandros III with the support of Siracusa and the Italian legions.

193 CE: The Imperial Triumvirate. Septimius Severus, Clodius Albinus and Alexandros III reach a compromise and rule as co-Emperors. Severus is in control of Hispania and Africa, Clodius Albinus of Gallia and Britannia and Alexandros III is given control of the East.

195 CE: Alexandros III campaigns in the East attempting to extend Roman control in Mesopotamia.

197 CE: Alexandros III captures Hatra.

199 CE: Alexandros III captures Ctesiphon. He is acclaimed by his troops as "Megas Alexandros" but he openly refuses the title. He declares to his soldiers: "I am nothing but a man, you are the Great Ones!"
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200 CE: Septimius Severus in Rome. He attempts to have himself proclaimed sole Emperor. The Senate refuses. Septimius Severus disbands the Senate. Clodius Albinus crosses the Rubicon to deal with Severus. Clodius Albinus enters Rome and forces Severus to retreat to Hispania. Clodius Albinus restores the Senate, embraces the Republican party and vows to restore Rome to a Republican system.

201 CE: Alexandros III refuses to accept Albinus's Republican vision. He proclaims: "Republics are not meant to rule over vast territories. The world can only be ruled by military Emperors and their armies. The army is the state and the Emperor is the head of the army." Alexandros III begins to assemble the armies of the Eastern clients to march against Albinus.

202 CE: Clodius Albinus narrowly defeats Septimius Severus near Massilia. Severus decides to retreat into Hispania.

203 CE: A Severan army under Quintus Afranius, the hereditary governor of Tarraconensis is defeated near Emporion. Clodius Albinus besieges Ilerda. Alexandros III lands near Tarentum with a huge Eastern army. He begins his march towards Rome.

204 CE: Clodius Albinus abandons the siege of Ilerda. His army is forced to march East in order to deal with Alexandros III. Alexandros III enters Rome. He proclaims before the Senate: "There is no Empire without the Army. Our State is the Army. We shall make that clear to everyone who would deny it." Beginning of his military reforms, further shift to a profoundly militarized Roman state. Alexandros III rededicates Rome to Sol Invictus and Mithra.

205 CE: The Battle of the Rubicon. Seeing the vast Eastern army arrayed against him, Clodius Albinus famously proclaims before the battle, in immitation of Caesar: "Alea iacta est." The Republicans under Clodius Albinus are narrowly defeated by Alexandros III's superior numbers after a heroic stand against all odds. The general Lucius Artorius, the bastard son of Abgar IX of Osroene is instrumental to Alexandros's victory. Leading the client Sarmatian cavalry he routs the Republican left flank and nearly captures Clodius Albinus. Clodius Albinus and the remnants of his army retreat into Gallia.

206 CE: The Battle of Lugdunum. Alexandros III defeats the Republicans, Clodius Albinus executes a masterful fighting retreat and manages to escape to the North.

207 CE: Alexandros III forced to turn South to deal with Severus who is marching unopposed into Narbonensis. He sends an army mainly composed of Sarmatian and Dacian troops under Lucius Artorius to Britannia to deal with Clodius Albinus.

208 CE: 2nd Battle of Massilia. Alexandros III wins a pyrrhic victory over Severus. Septimius Severus retreats towards Narbo. Lucius Artorius defeats Clodius Albinus outside Londinium. The Republican center refuses to surrender and makes a legendary last stand under the SPQR banner. They are overwhelmed by the Sarmatian cavalry. Clodius Albinus is killed grasping the banner. Sarmatian cavalrymen ride over his body repeatedly, trampling it into an unrecognizable shape. Lucius Artorius intervenes and puts an end to it. He orders an imperial funeral for Clodius Albinus declaring: "He was the last of the Romans." The remains of Clodius Albinus are cremated in the ancient Roman fashion, alongside his SPQR banner.

In Persia the death of Vologases V sparks the War of The Princes. His sons Vologases VI and Artabanus IV battle for power. In Estakhr, the Sassanid Ardashir I rebels.

209 CE: Lucius Artorius and his Sarmato-Dacian army campaigns in Britannia. He takes Eburacum from the rebels. Alexandros III and Septimius Severus fight an indecisive battle outside Narbo. Quintus Afranius wounds and nearly captures Alexandros III during the battle.

210 CE: Lucius Artorius campaigns against the Caledoni. He defeats the Caledoni in a great Battle South of the Wall. His Sarmatian cavalrymen sacrifice the Caledonian King Circennos to a Sword of Victory dedicated to the God of War. The Sword is thrust in the ground through the beating heart of the tied King. The Sarmatians present Lucius Artorius with the Sword of Victory. Lucius Artorius's legendary campaign beyond the Wall begins.

Septimius Severus and Alexandros III negotiate an agreement. Septimius Severus hailed as Emperor of Hispania renouncing all claims on the Empire proper. The wounded Alexandros III retreats to Rome.

211 CE: Legendary Expedition of Lucius Artorius beyond the wall. Caledonia is ravaged. Ardashir I expands his power in Persia.

212 CE: Lucius Artorius confirmed as Supreme Military Governor of Britannia. In order to assert complete control over the region Alexandros III begins a vast policy of Sarmatian and Dacian colonization in Britannia. Military colonies are established throughout the Island.

213 CE: Septimius Severus dies. He is succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta as co-Emperors of Hispania. On his deathbed he tells his sons: "Be harmonious, make sure to enrich the soldiers, and scorn all other men." Caracalla rules over Eastern Hispania and Geta over the Western part of the peninsula.

215 CE: The reforms of Alexandros III continue. All men serving in the Roman Army, including citizens of Roman client states are given Roman citizenship. Vachagan I becomes king of Caucasian Albania. Alexandros III sends a large fleet and army under the command of his son Lucius to Southern Erythrea in a bid to establish control over the Red Sea and Indian Ocean trade routes. The province of Erythrea Adalia is founded and a large Roman military presence dispatched to the region, spearheaded by the reformed Legio X Fretensis.

216 CE: Seeking to capitalize on Parthian weakness Alexandros III campaigns in the East. He is grievously wounded in battle near Nisibis while leading a cavalry charge to save surrounded elements of his light cavalry. Alexandros III lingers on for 3 days. Before his death he addresses his army telling his soldiers: "You are all my true children, and the Empire is yours, see that you do not squander it!" In spite of his prohibition against it his army acclaims him as Megas Alexandros before his death. Alexandros III dies with the chants of Megas Alexandros in his ears. His son Alexandros IV proclaimed Emperor.

217 CE: Alexandros IV campaigns against the Parthians. Sabellianism gains many addherents among the Christians. Sabellius argues that God is only One indivisible person, with the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit being nothing but outward manifestations of Him in the way he revealed Himself to Man. In recognition of his great services, Alexandros IV appoints Lucius Artorius as hereditary military Governor of Britannia.

218 CE: Alexandros IV defeats Artabanus IV outside Ctesiphon. A peace treaty is signed, Alexandros IV marries the daughter of Artabanus IV in a grand ceremony in Ctesiphon. After the end of the festitivites, as the Sun rises, Alexandros IV orders the Parthian King and many Parthian nobles, including his wife sacrified to Sol Invictus. He proclaims: "I am the God come in the flesh!" The Massacre of Ctesiphon allows Vologases VI to become sole Parthian King of Kings. Alexandros IV begins the Roman Imperial practice of considering the Emperor to be "Sol Invictus in the flesh".

219 CE: Alexandros IV campaigns against Vologases VI but loses interest in chasing the Parthian King of Kings East. He retires West.

220 CE: Alexandros IV in Rome. His marriage to the Vestal virgin Aquilia Severa, claiming that their children would be "godlike on both sides of the family" causes outrage. Ardashir I campaigns against Vologases I.

221 CE: A great Black meteorite is brought to Rome and considered to be the Sacred Earthly heart of Sol by Alexandros IV, a great Temple to it is dedicated on the Palatine Hill. Continuation of policies persecuting Christians in favor of the cult of Sol Invictus.

222 CE: Three Kingdoms period in Helleno-China. Upon the death of the Reigning Empress Alexandra III, the Empire is divided between her three sons.

224 CE: Vologases VI defeated at the battle of Hormizdegan by Ardashir I. He kneels before Ardashir I and accepts him as Overlord and King of Kings.

226 CE: Ardashir I accepts the submission of the Satraps in a great ceremony in Estakhr. He is crowned King of Kings. Philotas XV, Satrap of Ecbatana famously proclaims: "May you be the Persian Alexandros." Official beginning of Sassanid Rule over Persia. The only Parthian Lord not to submit to his authority is Artabanus V, son of Artabanus IV who rules as Shah in Northern Kharesmia.

227 CE: First unification of Hibernia. Cormac mac Airt is High King of Hibernia. Tara is made capital of Hibernia.

229 CE: Ardashir I defeats a coalition of Saka princes in battle near Yazd. The Saka kings submit to him as King of Kings. Neoplatonism begins to gain great popularity in the urban centers of the Roman Empire.

230 CE: Reforms of Ardashir I. Ardashir tries to institute a new magi Zoroastrian bureaucracy subservient to the state throughout the Satrapies. Alexandros IV receives an embassy from Artabanus V inviting him to attack Ardashir I from the West while the Parthian monarch would attack from the North East.

231 CE: Alexandros IV and Artabanus V attack Persia. Ardashir I decides to deal with Alexandros IV first. An indecisive battle is fought near Nisibis, the Persian army decides to retreat from the field. Alexandros IV proclaims it a great victory and promises to build a Temple to Sol Invictus on the spot of the battle.

232 CE: Alexandros IV slowly advances into Mesopotamia. Several minor skirmishes are fought, as the Persians are trying to buy time to reform their army near Ctesiphon. Artabanus V besieges Hecatompylos. In command of the defense of the city is the Moabadan-moabad, the chief of the magi priesthood. After the magi refusal to surrender the city, a furious and embittered Artabanus V decides to embrace the worship of Angra Mainyu on the condition of the fall of the city. He makes a public promise to Angra Mainyu before his army, that he will sacrifice all of the magi priests to him if he manages to conquer the city. The city falls, after a section of the wall miraculously collapses. Artabanus V has all of the magi within the city sacrificed to Angra Mainyu. The Moabadan-moabad is burned alive, Artabanus V proclaiming: "Let us see if fire will cleanse you of sin!".

233 CE: Alexandros IV and Ardashir I fight another great indecisive battle outside Ctesiphon. Ardashir I decides to withdraw rather than risk defeat. Alexandros IV proclaims the battle to be another great victory. He camps his army outside Ctesiphon making little effort to besiege the city. He proclaims Sol will deliver him the city without a fight.

234 CE: Ctesiphon surrenders. Dariush Surena commander of the city garrison is bought off to open the gates of the city. Alexandros IV proclaims it a great miracle of Sol. A series of ceremonies is held in the city in the honor of the Sun Emperor made flesh. Historians note 30 days of debauchery and ritual orgies. Alexandros IV makes little effort to continue the war being content to continue his celebrations in Ctesiphon.

235 CE: Alexandros IV killed while relieving himself by several of his Persian mistresses, after having publicly sacrificed several of his bastard children to his own self. It is said that Sol Invictus made flesh died chocking on his own excrement.

A wave of attacks on the Empire's European borders begins. Lucius Verus II proclaimed emperor by the Italian legions. In Rome, Alexandros IV's widow Aquilia Severa, the former Vestal virgin is buried alive according to Roman custom. Her young son Alexandros V, safe in Antiocheia, is proclaimed Sun Emperor in the East. Maximinus Thrax proclaimed Emperor by the Germanic legions.

236 CE: Ardashir I expells the Romans from Ctesiphon. He turns East to deal with Artabanus V. Lucius Verus II and Maximinus Thrax come to an agreement to rule as co-Emperors. Maximinus Thrax campaigns against the Germans. Lucius Verus II prepares to deal with Alexandros V.

237 CE: Lucius Verus II forced to campaign in Africa after Marcus Antonius Africanus, a descendant of Alexandros Helios of Amman and Marcus Antonius, was proclaimed Emperor by the Carthaginian legions and accepted as such by the client kings of Numidia and Mauretania.

238 CE: Maximinus Thrax and his son are assassinated. Gothic attacks in the East. Lucius Verus II besieges Carthage. Ardashir I defeats Artabanus V in battle outside Hecatompylos, after several Parthian nobles and their troops switch sides and betray him. Artabanus V flees vowing revenge. Cyaxares, a descendant of Xšayāršā the Achaemenid appointed Satrap of Margiana. He is given a free hand to deal with Artabanus V, while Ardashir I turns South West to deal with a Saka rebellion. Troubles on the European frontiers.

239 CE: Lucius Verus II forced to compromise with Marcus Antonius Africanus in order to deal with the troubles around the European border. Marcus Antonius Africanus recognized as co-Emperor. He promises to attack Alexandros V.

240 CE: Instead of attacking Alexandros V, Marcus Antonius Africanus mounts a major expedition against Hispania. Alexandros Severus Emperor of Hispania defeats Marcus Antonius Africanus near Valentia. Marcus Antonius Africanus retires to Carthage. Mani starts preaching at the court of Ardashir I.

241 CE: Shapur I is King of Kings. Alexandros V lands in Italia.

242 CE: Shapur I invades Roman territories in the East. Many Goths settled in the Crimea as clients of the Asanderoi of Cimmerian Bosphorus.

243 CE: Faced with the great crysis on the borders of the Empire, Alexandros V and Lucius Verus II reconcile. Alexandros V publicly forgives Lucius Verus II for the murder of his mother, he proclaims it to have been "the Roman way".

244 CE: Shapur I besieges Antiocheia. Alexandros V relieves Antiocheia, Shapur retreats East. Alexandros V and Shapur I agree to an armistice.

245 CE: Lucius Verus II assassinated by Germanic emissaries. His legions proclaim his second in command Marcus Traianus II as Emperor. Alexandros V accepts him as co-Emperor.

246 CE: Marcus Traianus II campaigns against the Germans. Alexandros V occupies himself with the further institutionalization of the religion of Sol Invictus and the Imperial cult.

250 CE: A Gothic invasion under Cniva advances into Moesia. Marcus Traianus II marches against the Goths.

251 CE: The Goths under the Amali King Cniva defeat a Roman-Dacian-Sarmatian army near Tomis. Marcus Traianus II is killed in battle.

252 CE: Shapur I invades Syria. Alexandros V appoints Publius Licinius Valerianus as co-Emperor and sends him to fight Shapur.

253 CE: Valerian campaigns against Shapur I. Several minor battles are fought.

255 CE: Alexandros V persecutes the Christians. Valerian and Shapur I fight an inconclusive battle outside Dura Europus.

258 CE: Battle of Edessa. Shapur I captures Valerian. Valerian is degraded in many ways, including being used as a footstool for the Sassanid Emperor while mounting his horse. After Valerian offered Shapur a great amount of gold as ransom for his release, Shapur I forces Valerian to drink molten gold. He is then flayed and his stuffed skin is preserved in Ctesiphon, as a monument to Roman shame. Alexandros V appoints Valerian's son Gallienus as co-Emperor. Alexandros V survives an assassination atempt by a Christian soldier, only to be grievously wounded and become bedridden. It is widely considered the Emperor is incapable to rule.

259 CE: A series of Germanic invasions across the borders of the Empire. Gallienus marches North to deal with them. Berber attacks in Africa. Marcus Antonius Africanus killed by the Berbers in battle. His young son Marcus Antonius Africanus II is captured and married to the Berber Amanaya princess Calara, of supposed descent from Amun. Rebellion of Marcus Posthumus in Gaul, proclamation of the Gallic Empire. In Britannia, Maximus Artorius, declares himself Emperor of Britannia.

260 CE: Odaenathus declares himself Emperor of Palmyra. He overruns Judaea.

261 CE: Marcus Antonius Africanus II escapes his Berber captors. He is welcomed by the legions in Carthage and proclaimed Emperor. His abandoned Berber wife Calara gives birth to twins. Odoenathus accepts the submission of Nabatea.

262 CE: Odaenathus accepts the submission of Syria and campaigns in Cilicia.

263 CE: The Palmyrene Empire is recognized by Gallienus.

265 CE: Posthumus defeats Gallienus near Lugdunum and has him and the first born son of Alexandros V executed. The head of his son is sent to the ailing Emperor in Rome. Upon seeing the severed head of his son Alexandros V begins a miraculous recovery.

266 CE: Alexandros V sends emissaries to Maximus Artorius offering to make him full co-Emperor in exchange for an alliance against Posthumus. Odaenathus conquers Ctesiphon and proclaims himself King of Kings.

267 CE: Odaenathus is assassinated on the orders of Alexandros V. His wife Zenobia succeeds him and rules for her son Vaballathus. Maximus Artorius attacks Posthumus.

268 CE: Maximus Artorius defeats Posthumus near Lugdunum. He proclaims himself Gallic Emperor, besides his title of Emperor of Britannia. He has Posthumus executed and sends his head to Alexandros V. Alexandros V acknowledges his rule over Britannia and Gallia.

269 CE: Zenobia conquers Egypt. Ptolemy XXV of the Caesarion line flees to his relatives in Kyrene. Zenobia marries her son Vaballathus to his captive daughter Cleopatra. With Zenobia in control of Egyptian grain supply Alexandros V decides to sue for peace but is rebuffed.

270 CE: Vandals invade Pannonia. Alexandros V appoints Aurelian as co-Emperor and sends him to fight the Vandals.

272 CE: Nestorians and Manichaens thrive in Sassanid Persia after Shapur I issues his Edicts of Complete Toleration. Zenobia conquers Ancyra after defeating the Galatian King Samorix. Samorix becomes a client of Palmyra.

273 CE: Aurelian wins a pyrrhic victory over Zenobia near Nicomedia. Zenobia retreats East.

274 CE: Bahram I is Persian Emperor. His policies favoring Manichaeism results in a wave of Manichaean missionary activity. Manichaean missionaries are sent in all directions, including the Steppes. Aurelian fights an indecisive battle against Zenobia in Cilicia.

275 CE: Aurelian advances into Syria. Zenobia decides to sue for peace. A peace is negotiated in Epiphania. Zenobia retains Palmyra as a client, and renounces all actual control outside her kingdom. She retains the title "Empress in Palmyra".

276 CE: Aurelian returns to Rome and is hailed "Restitutor Orbis" - Restorer of the World. Alexandros V confirms him as "deus et dominus natus" - God and born ruler. A new program of reform is launched strengthening the position of Sol as Supreme God of the Empire. On the 25th of December, while celebrating the Dies Natalis Sol Invicti he is assassinated by a Christian centurion. Alexandros V begins a great campaign of persecution in response.

277 CE: The Christian Pope Felix I is sacrificed to Sol Invictus and the Divine Aurelian in reprisal. Remaining Christians are purged from the Italian legions. New programs favoring Mithraism as the religion of the military are instituted.

278 CE: Alexandros V appoints his second born son Alexandros VI as co-Emperor. Alexandros VI defeats the Burgundians and the Vandals in Rhaetia.

280 CE: Alexandros V is assassinated by a Christian senator, who carves a cross on his chest. Renewed persecutions follow. Alexandros VI appoints Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus as co-Emperor.

282 CE: Alexandros VI campaigns against Persia.

284 CE: Alexandros VI enters Ctesiphon in triumph, he has the preserved skin of Emperor Valerian cremated during a grand ceremony of remembrance.

285 CE: The Amanaya Berber prince Antonius, the son of Calara invades Egypt. He enters Alexandria in triumph and is hailed as Antonius Ptolemy son of Amun.

286 CE: Diocletian issues a series of military and adminstrative reforms. Maximian is appointed as his junior co-Emperor by Diocletian. Alexandros VI turns West to deal with Egypt.

287 CE: Briton vassal King Carausius revolts against Maximus Artorius. Artorius goes to Britannia to put down the revolt. Diocletian sees this as an opportunity to invade Gallia. Alexandros VI defeated and captured in the Sinai by Antonius Ptolemy. Antonius Ptolemy has his eyes put out and parades the blind Emperor throughout Egypt.

289 CE: Diocletian appoints another co-Emperor in the person of Constantius-Chlorus.

290 CE: Diocletian attacks Egypt. Siege of Alexandria.

291 CE: Carausius submits to Maximus Artorius, now only Emperor of Britannia. Alexandria falls, the Blind Emperor Alexandros VI is released and he embraces Diocletian, seemingly recognizing him without aid, proclaiming that he is not blind but sees through the eyes of Sol.

292 CE: Diocletian and Alexandros VI chase Antonius Ptolemy who retreats into the desert. Maximus Artorius assassinated. His son Maximus Artorius II marries a Sarmatian, Zyxara.

295 CE: The Sassassanid Narses I invades Syria. Alexandros VI the Blind marches an army out of Antiocheia to meet him. Battle of Antiocheia ad Taurus - Alexandros VI the Blind leads his heavy cavalry into battle and defeats the Persians.

296 CE: Constantius Chlorus invades Britannia. Maximus Artorius II negotiates a peace. Roman dominion over Britannia is restored. Maximus Artorius II confirmed as client High King of Britannia.

297 CE: Alexandros VI campaigns against Persia. Galerius is his second in command.

299 CE: Alexandros VI defeats and captures Narses and his harem at Satala. In a legendary episode Alexandros VI the Blind seemingly comments about the various qualities of the concubines of Narses in spite of his blindness. Narses is forced to sign a humiliating peace, paying immense war reparations and ceding vast territories.

HISTORICAL TIMELINE 300CE-400CE: (400CE-500CE continued in next post)
300CE: The Year of the Junior Emperors. Maxentius appointed as another junior co-Emperor by Diocletian, in order to oversee the reorganization of the Gallic military provinces, Galerius appointed junior co-Emperor by Alexandros VI in recognition of his services during the campaign against Narses. Constantius Chlorus famously quips "We'll soon have more Emperors than legions."

302 CE: Galerius takes the name Dacicus in honor of his Dacian forefathers. He promotes a vast programme of establishing Dacian military colonies in the military provinces of the Empire. He openly converts to Zalmoxianism and promotes it as a military religion of the Empire alongside Mithraism. Further Dacian and Sarmatian settlement in Britannia and Gallia.

306 CE: Constantius Chlorus leads a Briton-Sarmato-Dacian force beyond the Wall to subdue the Picts. He dies in battle and is succeeded as co-Emperor by Constantine, his son by the Julio-Argead princess Helena. Further reorganization of the military provinces throughout the Empire.

310 CE: Maximian dies. After celebrating the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti in a gigantic ceremony in Alexandria, with all the client kings of the East coming to worship Sol-made-flesh, the Sun Emperor Alexandros VI proclaims the necessary Setting and Rebirth of Sol. Sol is to rise again in the person of his son Alexandros VII, now crowned Sun-Emperor by his father. As a symbol of the Setting Sun, Alexandros VI the Blind departs for the Western Desert the next day and dissapears. The myth of his Return to rule the world once more is created.

311 CE: Diocletian dies in his palace in Split. He commits suicide declaring: "I should not keep Alexandros (VI) waiting." Donatists, originally Christians frowning upon those who waivered in their faith during times of persecution, gain great popularity in Numidia. Alexandros VII has Saint Catherine of Alexandria executed after she refuses his romantic advances.

313 CE: Galerius dies of bowel cancer. In order to spread dissension among the Christians Alexandros VII supports Arius and his followers as the favored sect of Christianity. Their belief that Jesus was a subordinate entity to God is further seized on by Alexandros VII to establish one of the many Solar-Christian variations, by having state preachers spread the message that "Jesus was the son of the true God, Sol, his messenger to us all". Alexandros VII proclaims to his council that the way to destroy Christianity is not by persecution, but by making Christians turn against one another.

315 CE: Alexandros VII continues his policies of splitting Christianity into many sects. Various Christian sects are given encouragement. Arian and Solar Christian missionaries are funded by the state. Constantine I marries his young son Constantine to the Artorian princess Axara and makes him hereditary governor of the new military province of Dumnonia, in order to weaken Artorian hold on Britannia. New Sarmatian settlements created in Britain.

318 CE: Renewed Xiongnu attacks against Helleno-China. Hunnic attacks in Western Serindia.

320 CE: In order to further the cause of Solar Christianity, Alexandros VII proclaims December 25, the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti to be the birth of Jesus as son of Sol. The Dies Solis Invicti (Sunday) is proclaimed a day of rest. Constantine defeats a Gothic incursion into Dacia.

325 CE: Constantine campaigns against the Goths and the Vandals. Christianity reaches Georgia.

330 CE: Constantine dedicates his city of Nova Roma, future Constantinople and moves his capital there. Maxentius dies. His son Maxentius II is confirmed co-Emperor with direct authority over Gallia. Constantine's son Constantine of Dumnonia rebels for being passed over as co-Emperor. An agrieved Constantine I sends Maxentius II to quell the rebellion.

331 CE: Constantine of Britannia and his Artorian allies defeat Maxentius near Londinium and force him to retreat to Gallia.

335 CE: Constantine allows King Alexandros Asanderos of Cimmerian Bosphorus to style himself Emperor of Pontus in exchange for campaigning against the Goths.

337 CE: Constantine I campaigns in Britannia against his own son. During a surprise night attack he is captured by Sarmatian cavalrymen and brought to his son Constantine of Britannia. Constantine of Britannia asks his father to appoint him as co-Emperor and his succesor. Constantine I refuses, declaring he would rather die instead. His enraged son declares that he will have to take the Empire if it is not given to him. The Emperor Constantine is executed in the Sarmatian fashion, a Sword of Victory dedicated to the War God thrust through his heart into the earth. Constantine of Britannia takes the Sword of the War God, now blessed by the blood of an Emperor and proclaims his intent to rule the Empire.

338 CE: Alexandros VII accepts the sons of Constantine, Crispus, now styled Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans as co-Emperors. He proclaims it to be their bussiness to deal with their rebellious brother. Shapur II attacks the Roman East.

339 CE: Constantine II prepares to invade Britannia. Constantius II campaigns against Shapur II.

340 CE: Catastrophic defeat of Constantine II by Constantine of Britannia near Aquae Sulis. Seeing that his brother is mortally wounded, Constantine of Britannia proclaims that it would be a mistake to waste such a great offering to the War God and has his Sarmatians execute him with his Sword of Victory, now dedicated with the blood of two Emperors.

342 CE: Constantine of Britannia invades Northern Gallia. Constantius II expells the Persians from Adiabene. The War with Persia continues.

343 CE: Constantine of Britannia defeats Maxentius II in battle outside Lutetia. Maxentius II dies during the fighting, yet Constantine has an imperial sacrifice ceremony to the Sword of Victory in anycase. Constantine of Britannia proclaims himself to be Slayer of Emperors. His army besieges Lugdunum.

344 CE: Lugdunum falls. Alexandros VII decides to follow his father's example and depart into the desert. After a grand ceremony, suffused with Solar and Christian symbolism is held on the 25th of December, Alexandros VII proclaims that the Sun Emperor is Christ as Sol Incarnate on Earth. Before his departure he appoints his son Alexandros VIII Emperor. He is never heard of again.

345 CE: Constantine of Britannia defeats a Roman army outside Massilia. Shapur II and Constantius II fight an indecisive battle outside Singara. The Visigoths convert to Arianism.

347 CE: Constantine of Britannia besieges Mediolanum. Alexandros VIII negotiates with the Balthi King Athanaric of the Visigoths. Athanaric is offered land in Moesia in exchange for attacking Constantine of Britannia.

348 CE: Constans rushes to relieve Mediolanum before Athanaric and his Visigoths can link up with him. A short decisive battle is fought. Constans is killed and his brother dedicates his body to the Sword of the War God. Alarmed by this turn of events Alexandros VIII orders Athanaric to hold his advance.

350 CE: Hunnic attacks through Serindia into the Eastern parts of the Sassanid Empire. Constantine of Britannia besieges Rome. Alexandros VIII prefers to assemble a vast army before intervening. Constantius II is campaigning in Mesopotamia.

351 CE: Rome falls. Constantine of Britannia enters the city in Triumph. A subservient senate proclaims him Emperor. Alexandros VIII finally decides to move against him.

352 CE: Siege of Rome by Alexandros VIII. Constantine of Britannia refuses to abandon the city. The Sun-Emperor Alexandros VIII proclaims that he will re-enter the city in triumph on the date of his birth. On the 25th of December, the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the Sun-Emperor orders an all out assault against the city. The city falls and a wounded Constantine of Britannia is captured. Alexandros VIII has him sacrificed to Sol with his own infamous Sword of Victory. His head and the sword are sent to his son, by the Artorian Axara, Constantine II of Britannia. Alexandros VIII's emissary tells Constantine II to take good care of the sword for if he does not surrender it will be used for his sacrifice as well.

353 CE: Alexandros VIII orders all senators who had accepted Constantine of Britannia as Emperor, sacrificed to Sol. They are rounded up and executed on the senate floor.

354 CE: Battle of Mediolanum. Alexandros VIII narrowly defeats Constantine II of Britannia. Vast barbarian hosts, most notably the Franks and the Alammani invade Northern Gaul, taking advantage of the Roman war in the South.

355 CE: Alexandros VIII appoints Julian, the second son of Constantine II (Crispus) as co-Emperor. He marries him to his younger sister Alexandra. Julian is sent to campaign against the Franks, while Alexandros VIII follows Constantine II of Britannia into Gallia. The Huns begin their drive West from Central Asia.

356 CE: Alexandros VIII defeats Constantine II of Britannia outside Massilia. Constantine II retreats North.

357 CE: Alexandros VIII besieges Lugdunum. Julian wins several victories against the barbarians.

358 CE: A Solar Christian priest called Lucius opens the gates of Lugdunum to Alexandros VIII. Alexandros VIII appoints Lucius as ruler of the city. Measures are taken to turn Lugdunum into a theocratic city state, the heart of Solar Christianity. The Salian Franks capitulate to Julian. He promises them land in exchange for fighting Constantine II.

359 CE: Julian and Alexandros VIII campaign together against Constantine II. Shapur II besieges Amida. Quadi attacks into Pannonia. Julian sent against them.

360 CE: Julian defeats the Quadi and the Alammani. Huns fight the Goths in the East. Constantius II dies in battle against Shapur II near Amida. Alexandros VIII defeats Constantine II near Burdigala. Alexandros VIII is grievously wounded and is unable to continue his campaign.

361 CE: Julian defeats Constantine II outside Limonum. He chases Constantine II North. Constantine II retreats over the Channel. Rather than pursue, Julian heads East to deal with the Persians.

362 CE: Julian begins his campaign against Shapur II. He relieves Antiocheia. Shapur had promised to raze it to the ground to punish it for its continued defiance. Its grateful citizens proclaim him "Saviour of the Light".

363 CE: Although outnumbered, Julian defeats Shapur II near Nisibis. He wins several minor victories on his way to Ctesiphon.

364 CE: Julian II conquers Ctesiphon. His army hails him "Sol Invictus in the flesh" as he rededicates the temples of Ctesiphon to Sol. The brothers Flavius Valentinianus and Valens are appointed co-Emperors by Alexandros VIII, who decides to retire to Egypt.

365 CE: Valentinian I campaigns in Britannia against Constantine II. It is widely reported that the Emperor has a dream about Christ offering to deliver him Britannia in less than a month, in exchange for conversion. The very next day Constantine II is assassinated by conspirators led by Marcus Artorius while holding a war council. His head is sent to Valentinian I along with an offer of submission. Valentinian I accepts their submission. He confirms Marcus Artorius as client High King of Britannia, while the young Constantine III retains Dumnonia. Valentinian I converts to Christianity.

366 CE: Julian captures Shapur II in battle near Ecbatana. Several Persian Satraps led by Ardashir Parmenion of Ecbatana offer him the title King of Kings and promise their submission. Julian refuses the title. He proclaims "to hold the East is to lose the West". He releases Shapur II after a peace is signed winning great reparations and territorial concessions for the Empire.

367 CE: Julian is in Constantinople. He asks Valentinian I to renounce Christianity. Valentinian refuses. Julian begins a vast programme of reforms. New military provinces are formed, a new system of state education is implemented within the cities of the Empire. Neoplatonism is funded by the state.

368 CE: Massive barbarian attacks on the Imperial borders. Saxon attacks in Britannia. Valentinian and Valens win several victories over the barbarians. Julian attempts to reconciliate with Valentinian I. Valentinian declares that he and his brother will be co-Emperors of the West while Julian and Alexandros VIII can rule the East. Julian decides against fighting a civil war, given serious barbarian pressure on the imperial borders. Division of the Empire.

369 CE: After an emboldened Christian mob kills the Scholarch of the Academy of Athens and several other philosophers, Julian begins his Christian Persecutions. He proclaims: "Christians would bring a great Darkness over the world, we must make sure that the Light of Civilization is never extinguished by the Shadow of Barbaric religion". His Sacred Policies of Purification, as they come to be known are aimed at purging Christianity from the Eastern Empire. Many Christians flee the Eastern Empire.

370 CE: After a failed assassination attempt by a Christian fanatic of senatorial rank, Julian pardons him in a gesture of clemency. The man is brought before the Imperial family and Julian orders his chains struck off. Instead of accepting his pardon, he manages to take a sword from one of the guards and in the ensuing scuffle kills Julian's 7 year old daughter Alexandra. He is captured alive once more and declares: "My only regret is I could not send you all to hell". An enraged Julian orders the man sacrificed to Sol Invictus and his name erased from all records. Julian orders the immediate execution of all Christians who refuse to abandon their faith.

371 CE: Valentinian I is enraged by the persecutions of Christians in the East. He starts a policy of offering barbarians land within the Empire in exchange for military service. He begins assembling an army largely composed of barbarians, in order to march against Julian. The Huns defeat the Alans, Alans begin migrating West.

372 CE: The Huns attack Cimmerian Bosphorus and the Tervingi Goths. Valentinian I concludes an unnatural alliance with Shapur II against Julian. Shapur II invades the East.

373 CE: Valentinian marches East at the head of a large army mostly composed of barbarian troops. Valens converts to Arianism. Julian is in the East trying to organize a counterattack against Shapur II.

375 CE: Valentinian I besieges Constantinople. As the city is about to fall, he promises to raze it to the ground and "make it a desert". After a long forced march Julian crosses the Helespont. A battle is fought outside Constantinople. Valentinian is captured. Julian offers him clemency in exchange for renouncing his Christian faith. Valentinian refuses. In an unexpected act of clemency Julian pardons him anyway. Julian is proclaimed "Saviour of the Light" once more.

376 CE: Valentinian I sent to Valens in an effort to reestablish peace. Julian marches East to deal with Shapur II.

377 CE: Julian defeats Shapur II outside Amida. Valentinian I and Valens march together against the Eastern Empire. Large scale Gothic migration into the Empire.

378 CE: After failed negotiations with the Goths Valens decides to deal with them before proceeding on to Constantinople. A large battle is fought outside Adrianople. Valens is defeated and killed. Julian defeats Shapur II near Ctesiphon. Shapur II dies of his wounds, while being nursed by Julian himself. Having no knowledge of Valens's defeat at Adrianople Julian decides to force march his army West once more rather than deal with a secondary Persian army under Ardashir II.

379 CE: Valentinian appoints his son Valentinian II co-Emperor. Julian defeats the Visigoths in a 2nd battle outside Adrianople. A peace is negotiated with the Visigoths and Julian has them settled as foederati in the Balkans. Niall, ancestor of the Uí Néill is High King in Ireland.

380 CE: Valentinian I is killed in battle against Julian outside Athens. Valentinian II appoints Flavius Theodosius co-Emperor.

381 CE: An ailing Alexandros VIII follows the now established tradition of "going into the Desert". His son Alexandros IX is co-Emperor of the East. Julian is acclaimed as Sun Emperor.

382 CE: Theodosius has the Temple of the Vestal Virgins in Rome destroyed and the Sacred Heart of Sol defiled and thrown into the Tiber. An outraged Julian decides to march West. Vandals and other barbarians invade the Empire, some of them are pacified and settled as foederati.

383 CE: Julian lands in Italia with a vast Eastern Army. He starts his march across the Peninsula destroying all Christian churches in his wake. Athanaric High King of the Goths dies.

384 CE: Julian besieges Rome. He retakes the city after a 3 month siege. After refusing to convert, Pope Damasus I is sacrificed to Sol. The Temple of the Vestal Virgins is rebuilt. The Sacred heart of Sol is fished out of the Tiber and brought back to the Palatine Hill.

385 CE: Julian marches North and defeats Valentinian II and Theodosius outside Ravenna. The two co-Emperors of the West flee to Gallia. They are defeated outside Narbo and flee into Severan Hispania. Julian begins a new programme of military reorganization. He establishes new military provinces and reorganizes the old ones. The military provinces of Aquileia, Venetia, Mediolanum, Genoa, Ravenna and Provincia are thoroughly reorganized and strengthened. Julian proclaims them "The Eternal shield of Rome."

386 CE: Julian appoints Magnus Maximus co-Emperor in the West.

387 CE: Theodosius instigates large scale rebellion among the foederati and invites several barbarian tribes to invade the Empire. Julian is in Alexandria where he is grievously wounded by a Christian fanatic during the celebrations of the Dies Natalis Sol Invicti. His doctors believe he will not survive for long. Julian decides to "go into the Desert". The Sun Emperor Julian Saviour of the Light is carried into the Western desert by twelve loyal retainers. Before leaving Alexandria, Julian famously proclaims: "I will return."

388 CE: Theodosius and Valentinian II cross the Pyrenees supported by a Severan army. Magnus Maximus has to deal with large scale barbarian troubles.

389 CE: Magnus Maximus is killed in battle outside Lutetia. Alexandros IX is sole Emperor in the East.

390 CE: After being welcomed within the city, Theodosius executes more than 5000 pagans in Mediolanum. Ambrose the new Bishop of Mediolanum orders him to repent. Theodosius humbles himself by renouncing the purple and kneeling before Ambrose.

391 CE: Theodosius proclaims Christianity to be the official religion of the Western Empire. Rome surrenders to him. As Persians prepare to invade, Theodosius and Alexandros IX reach an agreement. Theodosius and Valentinian II can remain as Emperors in the West.

392 CE: The half Vandal general Stilicho defeats the Goths under Alaric. New Gothic resettlement as foederati.

395 CE: Theodosius dies, supposedly of sun stroke. Alexandros IX proclaims it to be "only fitting". His son Honorius is appointed co-Emperor by Valentinian II. Valentinian II retires to a life of debauchery. The real power behind Honorius is the half Vandal Stilicho.
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401 CE: Stilicho fights the Vandals in Rhaetia. Massive Gothic unrest in the Balkans. Alexandros IX decides to resettle many Goths on the Eastern borders of the Empire in military colonies aimed at containing Persia. Honorius moves his administrative capital to Ravenna, Rome remains the theoretical capital of the Empire.

403 CE: Urged on by Alexandros IX Alaric and his Goths try to invade Italia. They are repulsed by Stilicho and Lucius Traianus, the military governor of Aquilea. Pure Land Buddhism starts gaining popularity in Serindia.

405 CE: Stilicho campaigns against the Hasdingi Vandals. Massive barbarian attacks on the borders of the Empire. King Godigisel of the Vandals leads a vast army into imperial lands. Alaric prepares to invade once more, Flavius Aetius is sent to him as a hostage.

406 CE: A Gothic army under King Rhadagasius is defeated by Stilicho and Lucius Traianus with the help of a Hunnic army under Uldin. Gothic prisoners are integrated in the Roman army. In exchange for his services Lucius Traianus is appointed hereditary governor of the military province of Aquileia, beginning the trend of hereditary governorships for the military provinces of the Empire.

407 CE: Alexandros IX continues his reorganization of the Eastern borders of the Empire. He appoints the Constantian Alexandros Constans as king of Trapezunt, in order to avoid appointing him as co-emperor. The kingdom of Trapezunt is reorganized into a great military defensive region of the Empire. A Gothic military province is established on the Eastern borders as well.

408 CE: Vandals, Suevi, Alans and others pour into the Western Empire. Rather than oppose them Stilicho decides to retreat the main Roman forces into the South to defend the Italian military provinces. Gallia is being overrun.

409 CE: Stilicho is accused of treachery in the senate, on account of his decision to defend Italia alone. He is executed after a show trial. The senate issues an edict of "damnatio memoriae" against him. In spite of it, Lucius Traianus famously comments: "he was the truest Roman of us all." Flavius Aetius is now sent as hostage to the Huns.

410 CE: Vandals under Gunderic cross into Hispania, followed by Suevi and Alans. Rather than fight a potentially disastrous war, the Severan Emperor of Hispania Alexandros Severus V decides to allow them to settle as foederati. Vandals receive Baetica, Suevi are settled in Gallaecia and Alani are settled in Lusitania. The Lusitanian client king Viriathus VIII objects but is soon faced with a fait acompli.

411 CE: Valentinian II dies. His son Valentinian III is appointed co-Emperor. Honorius decides to allow the Goths under Alaric and Ataulf a free reign in Gallia in exchange for stopping their attacks on the Italian military provinces. He also entreats them to invade Severan Hispania.

412 CE: Ataulf starts building a Gothic kingdom in Southern Gaul. Alexandros IX becomes sick and dies while inspecting the Eastern borders. Before his death he appoints his son Alexandros X and Julian's grandson Julian II as co-Emperors.

413 CE: Alaric invades Severan Hispania. A great indecisive battle is fought outside Ilerda. Alaric is mortally wounded. In a legendary episode his Goths temporarily divert the Ebro river to have the King buried in its riverbed. The Roman captives used for labor are then executed so none may find out the location of the King's tomb.

414 CE: Galla Placidia, Honorius's half sister is married to Ataulf the Gothic King of Southern Gallia. Honorius continues his policy of entreating barbarians to invade Hispania. A vast Gothic army links up with the remainder of Alaric's forces. Visigothic king Wallia besieges Ilerda.

415 CE: Hypatia, the female Scholarch of the Academy of Alexandria is stripped naked and skinned alive with pot shards by a Christian mob. Her remains are defecated on and then left to rot in the central Agora of Alexandria. An enraged Alexandros X vows to eradicate Christianity from Egypt once and for all. He vows to turn Alexandria into a Neoplatonic city in memory of Hypatia and vast funds are poured into the institutionalization of the Academy. Merciless persecutions begin. Christians flee Egypt in large numbers. Vast Christian exodus into Nubia and the South.

416 CE: The Visigoths overrun most of Tarraconensis. Marcus Afranius is allowed to continue as a vassal in Ilerda. Several other Roman magnates accept Wallia as their overlord rather than lose their lands. Alexandros X proclaimed to be the Antichrist by Pope Innocent I. In response Innocent I is assassinated on Alexandros X orders, a Solar Crown put on the head of the body.

417 CE: The Visigothic kingdom of Aquitaine is confirmed as a theoretical Roman client. Wallia is killed in battle outside Numantia. Theodoric is elected High King of the Visigoths. He campaigns in Hispania against the Severans.

421 CE: Hunnic attacks into Dacia. After several senators accused of Christianity are executed, and their hearts are removed and burned, Alexandros X famously proclaims: "There is not one beating Christian heart left in the Eastern Empire."

423 CE: Honorius is assassinated on the orders of Alexandros X, after having declared that he would lead a "Crusade against the Antichrist". A Solar Crown is placed on the head of his body. His young son Honorius II is appointed co-Emperor. Valentinian III sends Flavius Aetius to retake control of Gallia.

424 CE: Flavius Aetius begins to reestablish Roman control over Gallia. The Visigoths of Aquitaine are confirmed as clients.

426 CE: Gunderic, King of the Vandals is accepted as King by the Alans. He decides to join Theodoric in his campaigns against the Severi.

427 CE: Receiving support from Alexandros X, the magnate Lucius Antonius of Carthage proclaims himself Emperor. Receiving vast payments from Alexandros X, the vassal kings of Numidia and Mauretania accept Lucius Antonius as Emperor. The Hephtalite Huns invade Serindia and Eastern Persia.

428 CE: Valentinian III bribes the Vandals into attacking Lucius Antonius. A vast Vandal army under Genseric, Gunderic's brother lands in Africa. Quintus Verus appointed hereditary military governor of Provincia. Saxon attacks into Britannia. Nestorianism, a doctrine emphasizing the disunion between the divine and human natures of Christ becomes popular among the Christian refugees of the East.

429 CE: Genseric accepts the submission of Juba IV Bocchus of Mauretania. He proclaims himself High King of Africa as he marches East towards Carthage. Pelagianism gains popularity in Britannia. Its adherents believe that original sin did not taint human nature and that man is still capable of choosing good or evil without the need of any Divine aid.

430 CE: Genseric besieges Hippo Regius. Saint Pattrick reaches Ireland. Flavius Aetius continues his campaigns of reestablishing Roman power in the West.

431 CE: Flavius Aetius forces the Salian Franks under Chlodio to become foederati. Hippo Regius falls to the Vandals. Flavius Juba, King of Numidia submits to Genseric and becomes a vassal.

432 CE: Valentinian III dies in mysterious circumstances. When accused of his murder Alexandros X laughs and criptically declares: "It was Sol's will". Valentinian IV is co-emperor in the West.

435 CE: Atilla and Bleda rule over the Huns. Flavius Aetius defeats the Burgundians and resettles them as foederati. Their Kings Gunther and Gunderic become clients.

436 CE: Theodoric, High King of the Goths, defeats the Severan Emperor of Hispania Septimius Severus IV in a great battle outside Saguntum. Septimius Severus IV renounces his imperial authority and is allowed to retain his Valentian territories. Theodoric I is the first Gothic Emperor of Hispania. The former client kings of the Severi bend the knee to their new overlord.

437 CE: Ambrosius Aurelianus, a member of the lesser branches of the Artorian family rules as sub-King over the Eastern part of Britannia. He defeats the Saxons in a great battle near Wallop. Alexandros X decides to help Lucius Antonius of Carthage against the Vandals.

438 CE: King Hermeric of Suevia rejects Theodoric's demand to convert to Arianism. A Germanic brand of monotheism, worshipping The Allfather takes hold in North Western Hispania. Genseric besieges Carthage.

439 CE: Alexandros X lands with a large army outside Carthage. Genseric proclaims that Armaggedon is about to be fought against the Antichrist. In the ensuing battle Alexandros X suffers no less than 8 wounds before being captured by the Vandals. His Imperial Bodyguard dies to a man. The wounded Emperor is brought to Genseric and asked to convert to Arianism in order to be spared. Alexandros X replies: "Sol can not convert to the religion of a lesser god". Alexandros X is crucified before the walls of Carthage. Defiant till his death, his last words are: "I do not forgive your sin, and you shall be punished for it." The Emperor's death on the cross before Carthage is seized on as a powerful symbol by later Solar Christians.

440 CE: Alexandros XI is co-Emperor in the East, with Julian II as Sun Emperor. Carthage falls to Genseric after Lucius Antonius surrenders the city after a peace is negotiated. Lucius Antonius retains his vast properties in Africa and retires to one of his villas. Genseric wishes to send Alexandros XI the body of his father, but the tomb is found empty. Solar Christians whisper that Alexandros X has risen and they expect his return.

441 CE: Julian II marches an army through Tripolitania. A great battle is fought outside Ruspina. Julian II is killed in battle. Genseric has his body burned with the exception of his head. His head, with a cross carved on its forehead, is sent to Alexandros XI as a warning.

442 CE: Julian II's son Julian III is appointed co-Emperor. Making good use of the Carthaginian fleet, Vandals overrun Western Sicily. Hunnic attacks into the Empire. Hepthalite Hunns pour into Eastern Persia after being given safe passage by the Hellenic kings.

443 CE: The Romano-Gothic general Areobindus expells the Vandals from Sicily. Hermeric of Suevia dies. His son Rechila is confirmed King by Theodoric.

444 CE: Honorius II dies fighting the Huns. Valentinian IV appoints Honorius II's son Honorius as hereditary military governor of Ravenna, but does not appoint him co-Emperor. Flavius Aetius and Marcus Maxentius sent against the Huns.

445 CE: The Huns are pushed back into Pannonia. In recognition for his services Marcus Maxentius is confirmed as hereditary military governor of Genua. Flavius Aetius is appointed co-Emperor.

446 CE: Genseric's son Huneric is married to Valentinian IV's daughter Eudocia. In order for the marriage to proceed, Huneric's first wife, Theodoric's daughter, is accused of trying to poison him. She is mutilated, her nose and ears cut off and sent back to Theodoric. Theodoric is enraged.

447 CE: Endemic war in Britannia results in the beginning of a series of migrations towards Northern Gallia. Merovech is King of the Franks. Theodoric and a vast Hispanic army cross the straights into Africa against the Vandals.

448 CE: Faced with a Roman incursion into Tarraconensis Theodoric negotiates an agreement with Genseric. He allows his son Huneric to be mutilated in retaliation, the Vandal prince losing his ears and nose. Satisfied, Theodoric returns to Hispania.

449 CE: British sub-king Vortigern allies with the Saxons Hengist and Horsa against Ambrosius Aurelianus.

450 CE: Justa Honoria, daughter of Valentinian IV invites Atilla to become her husband in order to escape a proposed marriage to the Romano-Goth Areobindus. Atilla announces his intention to marry her and proclaims the Western Empire to be her dowry. Large scale Germanic invasions into Britannia.

451 CE: Atilla invades the Western Empire. Valentinian IV is killed in battle against the Huns in Belgica. His son Valentinian V becomes co-Emperor. Flavius Aetius musters a large coalition, including Theodoric of Hispania. A great battle is fought at Chalons. The Huns are defeated but Theodoric is killed during the battle. His sons immediately start to contest for the Crown of Hispania. Beginning of the Hispanic Anarchy. Royal Hispania is divided into several lesser kingdoms by the Balthi princes. Euric, Thorismund and Theodoric II all proclaim themselves Emperor of Hispania.

Battle of Avarayr. Christian Armenians under Saint Vartan are defeated by Yazdegird II. He abandons his invasion aimed at establishing a Zoroastrian King on the throne, deciding to honor the valor of his enemies.

452 CE: Atilla prepares to invade Italia. The magnate Publius Aurelius is appointed hereditary military governor of Venetia in exchange for spending much of his wealth on arming troops.

453 CE: The expected invasion of Italia never arrives. Atilla dies of conjugal exhaustion, in his bed after his wedding to the Goth princess Ildica. His sons Ellac, Dengizich and Ernakh fight among themselves for the Hunnic Empire.

454 CE: Flavius Aetius is assassinated on the orders of Valentinian V, although the Emperor widely protests his innocence. Upon hearing of Aetius's death the Romano-Goth general Areobindus famously exclaims: "He might have been a Scythian by birth, but he was the last of the Romans." Valentinian V appoints Aetius's son Marcus as hereditary military governor of Panormus, but does not make him co-Emperor. He rules alone as Emperor of the West. The Vandals conquer Malta.

455 CE: Valentinian V attempts to reestablish control over Eastern Hispania. He sends Areobindus and Stilicho's grandson Tiberius Stilicho into Hispania. Roman control is reestablished over the Eastern coastline.

456 CE: The Severi of Valentia submit to Tiberius Stilicho and are turned into hereditary military governors of Valentia. Most of the Eastern coastline of Hispania is reorganized into new military provinces. Tiberius Stilicho remains in Hispania as Supreme Military Governor. His attempts to expand Roman power into the interior of the peninsula fail repeatedly.

457 CE: Hengist's son Aesc besieges Londinium.

459 CE: Childeric I, foederati King of the Salian Franks establishes his capital at Tournai. Julian III dies as his ship sinks in the Black Sea while traveling to Sinope. Alexandros XI grants his son vast estates in Bythinia but does not name him co-Emperor. Leo I, a Romano-Dacian general is appointed co-Emperor. Peroz I defeats his brother Hormizd III and becomes Sassanid Emperor.

463 CE: Peroz I conquers Caucasian Albania and appoints his second born son as King. Leo I forms the Isaurian Guard.

464 CE: Theodoric II acknowledged as Emperor of Hispania by the other kings of the Peninsula. He marches into Gallia.

465 CE: Theodoric II establishes control over Southern Gallia. He marches North. The Roman general and magnate Syagrius and a Frankish army meet him in battle outside Orleans. Theodoric II is defeated and retreats South.

467 CE: Vandal raids increase throughout the Mediterranean. Theodoric II is assasinated by his son Euric. A new struggle for power begins in Hispania. Alexandros XI dies assassinated by the Isaurian guard on the orders of Leo I. Alexandros XI's eldest son escapes to Italia and arrives in Neapolis where he is well received by his relatives, great magnates of the region. Valentinian V refuses to offer him any support against Leo. Leo appoints Alexandros XI's youngest son, the 2 year old Alexandros XII as co-Emperor and has him live as a virtual hostage in the Imperial Palace.

470 CE: Theodemer, the High King of the Ostrogoths in the Balkans is assassinated on the orders of Leo I. Leo I resettles many Ostrogoths on the Eastern borders of the Empire. Gundobad is elected High King of the Burgundians.

474 CE: Leo I is assassinated by his son-in-law, Zeno, commander of the Isaurian guard. Zeno is crowned co-Emperor with Alexandros XII. Vandals reconquer Western Sicily and the Balearic Islands.

477 CE: Vandals conquer Corsica and Sardinia. Valentinian V attempts to retake Sardinia but is killed in battle outside Caralis. The old and ailing Genseric lives to see the body of Valentinian V thrown at his feet. He uses it as a podium and asks his people wether he has ruled them well. The Vandal army cheer their king hailing him as "Genseric the Great". Genseric dies peacefully the next day of old age, proclaiming: "I've killed enough Emperors, now it is time to rest."

478 CE: Valentinian VI is sole Emperor in the West. Aelle is first King of the South Saxons. Theodoric, High King of the Ostrogoths in the Balkans accepts the submission of the kings of Tylis and Singidunum. He declares himself independent of Constantinople.

481 CE: The Burgundian King Gundomar embraces Solar Christianity. Clovis is King of the Franks.

483 CE: Zeno offers Theodoric the Western Empire if he would abandon the Balkans and attack Italia instead. Theodoric accepts.

484 CE: The Ostrogoths attack Aquileia but are defeated by Valentinian VI. Theodoric and his remaining Ostrogoths are allowed to continue West and sent against the Visigoths of Southern Gallia. Zeno appoints Theodemar II as client king of the remaining Ostrogoths in the Balkans.

486 CE: Clovis overruns Northern Gallia. The Roman magnate Syagrius becomes his vassal.

491 CE: Zeno dies "hit by a stray arrow" in the palace grounds. His son Leo II becomes co-Emperor with Alexandros XII seemingly content to live as a prisoner within the Imperial palace. Anti-Isaurian riots within Constantinople are suppressed in blood.

492 CE: Theodoric the Ostrogoth succeeds in being proclaimed High King of the Goths in Gallia.

495 CE: Cerdic and his son Cynric begin to establish the Kingdom of Wessex.

496 CE: Clovis defeats the Alammani at the Battle of Tolbiac. The Alammani King Gibuld becomes his vassal. Clovis converts to Christianity. Thrasamund is King of the Vandals.

498 CE: Leo II humiliates Alexandros XII by requiring him to take an oath of fealty and having him publicy prostrate himself before him. Leo II publicly calls Alexandros XII "the little Emperor". Alexandros XII is denied all funding and is reportedly allowed to live as a destitute on bread and water alone.
500 CE: Battle of Mons Badonicus, Magnus Artorius, High King of Britannia defeats the Saxons and puts a stop to their expansion West. Battle of Dijon, Gundobad of Burgundy is defeated by Clovis and accepts to pay tribute. Alexandros XII is forced to marry Selena, a descendant of the Caesarion Ptolemies. He is further humiliated by Leo II as he is forced to publicly copulate with his new wife for the entertainment of Leo II who proclaims that he only requires a new "little Emperor" then the father can "go to Sol".

502 CE: Selena gives birth to twins. True to his threat, Leo II orders Alexandros XII starved to death. In a macabre jest, Leo II offers to allow an emaciated Alexandros XII one of his baby sons to eat if he would want to live longer. A starving Alexandros XII refuses and demands to be killed. Leo II allows him to linger on. Alexandros XII dies on December 25, on the Day of the Birth of Sol. Before his death Leo II brings his two baby sons to him to gloat about them taking his place. He mocks Alexandros XII and asks whether he should be sent to the desert. In an unexpected display of will and strength Alexandros XII rises and blesses his children. Before collapsing, his last words are: "I have already been to the desert."

503 CE: Kavadh I of Persia attacks the Eastern Borders. Bulgars are allowed by Dacians and Sarmatians to pour through their lands into the Balkans. Leo II famously flips a coin before choosing which of Alexandros XII's baby sons to proclaim as co-Emperor. One of them becomes Alexandros XIII. The Persian Mazdak gains influence at the Sassanid court. He declares private property to be the source of evil.

504 CE: Leo II creates the client Ostrogothic Kingdom of Diocleia in order to combat the Bulgars. Utigur and Kutrigur contest for leadership of the Huns.

506 CE: Peace between the Eastern Empire and Persia, as Kavadh has to deal with renewed Hephtalite attacks in the East.

507 CE: Battle of Vouillé - Clovis defeats Theodoric the Ostrogoth. Theodoric bends the Knee to Clovis as a vassal king. Following several succesful campaigns in central Germania, the Thuringii King Hermanafrid proclaims himself High King of Germania.

508 CE: Leo II recognizes Clovis as High King of Gallia and entreats him to attack the Western Empire. Aergol Lawhir of Dyfed and Budic II of Britanny, lead a Briton army against the Saxons and defeat them outside Wintanceaster.

511 CE: Clovis dies. His domains are divided into lesser kingdoms ruled by his sons. Theodoric and the Goths rebel in the South. Hermanafrid of Germania invades from the East. Kavadh officialy converts to Mazdakism. To demonstrate his addherance to the concept of communal property he allows Mazdak to sleep with the Empress. A vast programme of reforms begins, as Mazdakite communities are set up within the Empire. Mazdakism is also exported to the Kindah kingdom in Arabia.

515 CE: Eutharic a lesser Gothic King in Southern Gallia, and son-in-law of Theodoric, assassinates his father-in-law, instigated by his ambitious wife Amalasuntha. Gothic Gallia descends into anarchy, as Theodoric's children and lesser kings fight for the High Kingship. Aelle, first King of Sussex is captured by a contingent of Artorian Sarmatian cavalry and used for target practice. His body, pierced by countless arrows is left to rot for days before it is found by his Saxon followers.

518 CE: Leo II orders Justin, commander of the Excubitors to execute Alexandros XIII after Alexandros XIII publicly declares Leo II "a murdering tyrant, hated by Sol and man alike". Justin refuses proclaiming Alexandros XIII to be the true Sun Emperor. The Excubitors assassinate Leo II. His head is mounted on a pole outside the Palace Gates and his sons are executed within the Palace. The Isaurian guard fights the Excubitors and Justin's supporters in street battles in Constantinople. Leo II's youngest son Zeno is safe in Isauria where he proclaims himself Emperor.
Justin becomes co-Emperor.

519 CE: Isaurian War. Justin campaigns against the Isaurian loyalists. Wehha founds the kingdom of East Anglia. Hygelac King of the Geats raids the Lower Rhine. Vandal Civil War between the Arian party and a Catholic Party funded by Rome. Romans take the opportunity to retake Corsica, Sardinia and Western Sicily. The Catholics are defeated.

523 CE: The Isaurian War ends in stalemate. Zeno is allowed to remain as client King of Isauria as he renounces his Imperial ambitions. Hilderic King of the Vandals campaigns unsuccesfully against the Amanaya Berbers of Tripolitania.

526 CE: Inspired by Roman custom, in an unprecedent move, Amalaric and Athalaric rule as joint High Kings of the Goths in Southern Gallia. Amalaric enlarges his kingdom of Septimania, turning it into the dominant power in East Southern Gallia.

527 CE: Justin I dies of consumption. Before his death he appoints his nephew Justinian as co-Emperor. The Kingdom of Essex is founded by Aescwine.

529 CE: Justinian I begins to give state patronage to the cult of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, a monotheistic offshoot of graeco-roman paganism, seeing Jupiter Optimus Maximus as the only True God, while all other gods are nothing but inferior entitites. War against Persia.

530 CE: Hilderic is deposed by his brother Gelimer and forced to retire to a villa outside Carthage. Battle of Dara - Belisarius defeats the Persians and helps spark the beginning of rebellion against the Mazdakite Kavadh I.

531 CE: Hermanafrid High King of Germania assassinated by a Frankish noble. Kavadh I is assassinated by his own son Khosrau I, a staunch supporter of Zoroastrianism. His son orders the body of his father cut to pieces so that "it can be divided as he would have divided the wealth of Persia". His elder brother, Kawus proclaims himself King of Kings. Beginning of Mazdakite-Zoroastrian civil war.

532 CE: Nika Riots in Constantinople after Justinian redidicates the Great Temple of Sol Invictus to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Alexandros XIII supports the riots. The Temple burns down. Belisarius massacres over 30000 rioters in the Hippodrome. The Legio I Lux Invicta joins the rebels. Alexandros XIII and Justinian negotiate and a compromise is reached. A new, even greater temple, the Temple of Hagia Sophia, Holy Wisdom, is to be built where both Sol Invictus and Jupiter Optimus Maximus are to be worshipped. Justinian also allows Alexandros XIII to remain in control of Constantinople and he departs the city to rule from his own capital at Nikomedeia.

533 CE: Justinian sends Belisarius to retake Africa from the Vandals. A great battle is fought at ad Decimum, Gelimer defeats Belisarius and takes him captive. Gelimer sends Belisarius back to Justinian with an offer of alliance against the Western Empire. Justinian accepts the offer.

534 CE: The Vandals and the Eastern Empire attack the Western Empire. The Vandal and Eastern Roman fleets win a great naval victory near Malta which leaves the allies masters of the Sea. Belisarius lands in Southern Italia while the Vandals start their campaign in Western Sicily.

535 CE: Belisarius is in control of most of Magna Graecia. The Vandal King Gelimer recieves the submission and vassalage of the Aetii of Panormus and of the Hieronids of Siracusa. Valentinian VII tries to have Gelimer assassinated but his assassination attempt fails. Gelimer's eldest son, also called Gelimer dies in the assassination attempt. Gelimer swears revenge.

536 CE: Belisarius takes Neapolis without a fight, the Julio-Argead ruler of Neapolis Alexandros Maximus openly welcomes Belisarius within the city. Gelimer begins his conquest of Sardinia. Belisarius's son Lucius, serving under Gelimer conquers the North of the Island. The Vandal King is so impressed by the young Lucius that he makes him hereditary lord of Arborea in order to secure his services.

537 CE: The Battle of Camlann is fought. The old Magnus Artorius, High King of Britannia is killed in single combat by Mordred, his son by the Saxon princess Aethelflaed, leading a Saxon coallition against the Britons. Mordred proclaims himself High King of Britannia, but the Britons elect Magnus Artorius II instead. Gelimer and Belisarius link up outside Capua. Together they defeat Valentinian VII in battle who flees to Rome. Belisarius decides to move North towards Ravenna, while Gelimer decides to besiege Rome.

538 CE: Gelimer offers to abandon the siege of Rome if Valentinian VII would face him in single combat outside the city walls. Valentinian VII agrees. A duel to the death is fought. Valentinian VII is killed and Gelimer honors his promise abandoning the siege of Rome. Valentinian VIII is proclaimed Emperor within the city.

539 CE: Gelimer leads a Vandal-Roman force in Corsica. The island falls to him. He appoints the Roman Cyrillus as governor. Belisarius receives the allegiance of Quintus Honorius, the hereditary military governor of Ravenna. Gabran mac Domangairt is king of Dal Riata. Khosrau I emerges victorious in the Zoroastrian-Mazdakite Sassanid civil war. His brother Kawus is spared after he abandons Mazdakism and is named as satrap of Mazandaran. An embittered Kawus turns to the worship of Ruha d-Qudsha.

540 CE: Quintus Honorius confirmed as hereditary Exarch of Ravenna by both Eastern Emperors. Belisarius recieves the sbumission of Mediolanum. Beowulf, legendary King of the Geats raids the Frankish lands. Gelimer finalizes the conquest of the Baleares. Alexandros XIII sends Narses to Italia with a secondary Roman army under his control.

542 CE: Taliesin the Bard, son-in-law of Maelgwn ap Cadwallon, King of Gwynned dies. His son Mael made sub-King in Perfeddwlad. Belisarius and Narses continue to campaign in Italia refusing to cooperate with each other. Gelimer attacks Southern Hispania.

544 CE: Gelimer is in control of most of Baetica. His favorite son Genseric is killed by a Roman assassin, on the orders of Valentinian VIII, while leading a Vandal force to support Belisarius in Italia. Upon hearing the news Gelimer vows eternal enmity to Rome. "Roma delenda est" he proclaims vowing to choke Valentinian VIII in his own blood.

546 CE: Gelimer besieges Carthago Nova. The Theodosian general and magnate Publius Theodosius defects. He is appointed hereditary Exarch of Etruria by Alexandros XIII. Belisarius is sent to Tripolitania to subdue the Berbers.

547 CE: Ida founds an Anglian kingdom in Bernicia. The Amanaya Berbers of Tripolitania accept Roman sovereignty once more. Carthago Nova falls to Gelimer. Gelimer intends to proclaim himself Emperor of Carthage and start a direct campaign against Rome. He is assassinated while praying before the Imperial Crowning ceremony, on the orders of Valentinian VIII. His last words are "Roma delenda est." A vicious succession war starts among the Vandal nobility.

548 CE: Belisarius sent to Baetica to try to establish Roman control after the Gundericing prince Rhaderic in control of Carthago Nova offers to become a client king in exchange for support. Belisarius extends Roman control in Baetica.

549 CE: Munderic, a Hasdingi prince is confirmed as client king of Western Baetica after submitting to Belisarius. Alexandros XIII arrives in Italia deciding to prosecute the war against Rome in person.

550 CE: Gaiseric, a Wisimarid vandal prince in control of territories on both sides of the Pillars of Hercules submits to Belisarius and is confirmed client King. Alexandros XIII besieges Rome.

551 CE: All out war erupts in the East against the Sassanids. Military forces are diverted from Italia and the West to fight the Sassanids. Alexandros XIII abandons the siege of Rome. The Great Gokturk Khaganate is established under the leader of the legendary Bumin of the Ashina. Several nomadic tribes submit to the rule of the Celestial Turks.

553 CE: Valentia submits to Belisarius. Justinian confirms Marius Severus as hereditary Exarch of the new Exarchate of Valentia. Kara Khan is Great Khagan of the Gokturks.

554 CE: Alexandros XIII negotiates with Valentinian VIII. He accepts Valentinian VIII as co-Emperor in an attempt to reunite the Empire. Alexandros XIII enters Rome in Triumph. A great ceremony is held, Alexandros XIII reconsecrating the Heart of Sol on the Palatine Hill. Alexandros XIII awarded the title "Restorer of the World".

555 CE: Athanagild is High King of the Visigoths and self-proclaimed Emperor of Hispania. Muhan Khan is Great Khagan of the Gokturks. Justinian funds Persian Zurvanite rebels. Zurvanites believing in Zurvan, the God of Infinite Time and Space, the One Alone is widely worshipped in the South and West of the Sassanid Empire. Ardashir, the Bahramid Satrap of Khermanshah and Darius the Kurusid Satrap of Fars (a descendant of Cyrus the Great) join the rebellion.

556 CE: Alexandros XIII has Valentinian VIII assassinated. It is said that Alexandros XIII watches the murder and whispers to the dying Valentinian: "your end is only fitting." While he publicly proclaims his innocence, Alexandros XIII does not appoint Valentinian's son co-Emperor. He orders a two pronged attack from Provincia and Valentia to reestablish control over the Western coastline of the Mediterranean. Preparations are being made for this vast enterprise.

557 CE: Kutrigur Huns under Zabergan pour through Dacia and Sarmatia into the Balkans. Alexandros XIII has to divert troops from the West to fight them.

560 CE: Aella is King of Deira. Believing that he is about to invade Southern Gallia, the Merovingian High King Clotaire is assassinated by agents of Alexandros XIII. The Frankish kingdoms of Northern Gallia fight among each other for the High Kingship.

562 CE: The North Eastern coastline of Hispania is conquered by Narses. The area of Catalonia is turned into a military province under the Valentian Exarchate.

565 CE: Khosrau I makes peace with the Zurvanite Satraps allowing full toleration of Zurvanism within the Empire. Justinian is assassinated on the orders of Alexandros XIII, although his murder is disguised as the result of Persian agents. His son Justin is appointed hereditary military governor of the military province of Nikaea, but is not appointed co-Emperor. Alexandros XIII is sole Emperor of the Roman Empire. On the 25th of December gigantic ceremonies of Thanksgiving to Sol are held in the great cities of the Empire. Alexandros XIII proclaims himself to be "Sol, Maintainer and Redeemer of the World."

567 CE: Avars under Bayan Khan pour into Pannonia, as a result Lombards and Gepids start to migrate West. In recognition of his services, Belisarius is appointed hereditary military governor of Laodikeia.

568 CE: Lombards invade Roman Northern Italia. Underestimating the Lombard threat, Alexandros XIII marches at the head of 3 legions, including the Legio I Roma Victrix to meet the Lombards in battle. The Romans are overwhelmed, the Legio I Roma Victrix dies to a man defending Alexandros XIII, but the Emperor is ultimately captured by the Lombards.

569 CE: The captive Alexandros XIII cedes the province of Mediolanum and other Italian territories to the Lombards. The general Maurice, commander of the Scholae is proclaimed Emperor in Constantinople. Alexandros's son proclaimed co-Emperor in Alexandria, as Alexandros XIV. Persian attacks on the Eastern borders. Avars attack into the Balkans. The Visigoths attack the Exarchate of Valentia.

570 CE: The Lombard duchy of Spoleto is created under Faroald. Amanaya Berbers rebel. Vandals begin a vast campaign of raiding against the Empire. The Roman fleet is defeated outside Capua.

571 CE: Lombards continue to rampage throughout the Italian peninsula avoiding the heavily defended military provinces. They besiege Rome and tell their captive Alexandros XIII to order the city to surrender. The garrison refuses to listen to the Emperor. Alboin declares the Emperor to have outlived his usefulness. He has the Emperor burned alive in view of the city walls, after mockingly placing a solar crown upon his head. Alexandros XIII calmly proclaims that Alboin will be dead within a year and that as Sun Emperor fire will only make him ascend to Godhood, before being consumed by the flames.

572 CE: Alboin assassinated as the result of the treachery of his wife Rosamund, less than a year after Alexandros XIII's pronouncement.

573 CE: Dara falls to Khosrau. Alexandros XIV and Maurice recognize each other as co-Emperors.

576 CE: Maurice defeats Khosrau in the Battle of Melitene. Alexandros XIV campaigns against the Amanaya Berbers.

578 CE: Maurice establishes the Gothic military province of Ancona to combat the Lombards. Ostrogoths from the Balkans are settled there, under the new hereditary governor Magnus Areobindus, of the famed Romano-Gothic family.

579 CE: Slavs pour into the Balkans. Alexandros XIV is killed in battle by the Amanaya Berbers while leading a cavalry charge in person. Seen as a descendant of Amun and Alexandros, the Emperor's body is taken by the Amanaya Berbers and made into an object of worship. Maurice does not appoint any of Alexandros's sons as co-Emperor and is now sole Roman Emperor.

581 CE: Gokturk civil war between the three Great Khans, Ishbara, Talopien and Tardu.

584 CE: Maurice campaigns against the Avars and the Slavs in the Balkans. Kubrat is Khan of the Bulgars. Authari is High King of the Lombards. He begins a new campaign of conquest in Italia.

585 CE: Saint Leogivild, Visigothic Emperor of Hispania converts to Catholicism and attempts to convert his vassal Kings and is completely unsuccessful. Widescale rebellion follows throughout the peninsula.

586 CE: Battle of The Sacred Cross - The Catholics under Leogivild hold their ground defending the King and his Sacred Cross banner given to him by the Pope, their refusal to surrender leaves them in control of the field.

588 CE: Leogivild defeats a coallition army led by King Viriathus X of Lusitania near Plasencia. He pardons the rebellious King and all the other prisoners, proclaiming "God loves all His errant children." Aethelric is King of Northumbria. Maurice narrowly escapes an assassination attempt by the Julio-Argeadai party and retreats to the safety of the Imperial palace, turning it into a virtual fortress.

589 CE: Leogivild defeats a new coallition of Kings near Astorga. He pardons all prisoners, including the captured vassal kings, and is hailed as The Great and Merciful.

590 CE: Leogivild holds a great ceremony of Thanksgiving in Toledo, proclaiming Hispania to be Catholic. The very next day, while praying in the royal chapel he is set about by several vassal kings, he had formerly pardoned. He receives 13 mortal wounds before expiring. His last words are: "Forgive them Lord, they know no better." He is later sainted and proclaimed Patron Saint of Hispania by the Catholic Church. Hispania descends into anarchy.

591 CE: Maurice forments civil war in Persia between Khosrau II and Bahram Chobin. Large sums of money are paid to Zurvanite rebels.

593 CE: Agilulf, High King of the Lombards besieges Rome. Maurice refuses to send help, being concerned with the vast scale troubles in the Balkans, caused by the Avars and the Slavs.

595 CE: A great Council is held in Toledo. The Council achieves nothing, but furthers religious dissent between the Kings of Hispania. The Kings of Hispania refuse to accept Catholicism. Leogivild's son eldest son Hermenegild is the only Catholic King left in the peninsula. He is passed over as Emperor, and his younger brother Reccared, an Adoptionist is elected Emperor instead. Theodemer I, the Arian Euricing King of Leon famously proclaims: "So called Catholic Monarchs have no place in Hispania."

599 CE: Raedwald of East Anglia proclaims himself High King of Eastern Britannia.
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A Concise Timeline of the History of the Known World - from 600 CE to 700 CE:

602 CE: Emperor Maurice campaigns against the Avars. He is wounded in battle. Conflicting accounts regarding his wound and potential death spread throughout the Empire. The Julio-Argeadai party seizes the moment. The general Heraclius proclaims himself and Alexandros XIV's grandson as co-Emperors in Alexandria.

603 CE: Raedwald, Bretwalda of the Saxons is defeated by the Brythons under Riothamus Artorius II near Wantage. A peace is signed between the the two High Kings of Britannia. The Artorian Riothamus II is High King of the West, the Saxon Raedwald is High King of the East.

604 CE: Maximus Syagrius, the Gallo-Roman magnate of Pictavia defeats and captures Clotaire II, High King of the Franks, in battle outside Tours. He proclaims himself Emperor of Gallia. Maurice has to deal with the Balkan troubles and an increasing number of client kings defecting to Heraclius and Alexandros XV.

606 CE: Following a great victory outside Burdigala, Maximus Syagrius receives the submission of the kings of Southern Gallia.

607 CE: Following the defection of his Galatian troops, Maurice is defeated in battle by Heraclius near Ankyra. The Emperor flees to Constantinople. News of his defeat arrive in Rome. The Roman Senate proclaims Maximus Syagrius Roman Emperor of the West and invites him to invade Italia.

608 CE: Constantinople besieged by Heraclius. The Gallo-Roman magnate Marius Posthumus of Arvernia defeats Theuderic II of Austrasia near Troyes. The Frankish King accepts Maximus Syagrius as Emperor of Gallia.

609 CE: Maximus Syagrius enters Italia. The Roman hereditary military governors accept him as Emperor, with the exception of Marcus Honorius, the Exarch of Ravenna. In Constantinople, the unpaid Excubitors rebel against Maurice and open the city gates. Maurice is brought before Heraclius, who after seeing the sorry state of the Imperial Palace, now stripped of valuables to pay for military expenses asks: "Is this how you have ruled?" Maurice replies: "And will you rule better?" He does not find out, for he is soon executed. The Emperor Maurice is burned alive in the central square of Constantinople, for his "blasphemy against Sol" at the instigation of the Julio-Argead party. The old Emperor comments before his death: "I always liked the heat."

610 CE: Oswald of Northumbria proclaims himself Bretwalda. Raedwald and Oswald fight an indecisive war.

611 CE: Faced with troubles in the Balkans Heraclius and Alexandros XV are forced to accept Maximus Syagrius as Western Emperor.

618 CE: Tong Yabghu Qaghan founds the Khaganate of Khazaria.

620 CE: Heraclius fights the Slavs and the Avars in the Balkans. Alexandros XV negotiates a treaty of "Eternal Peace" with Persia.

622 CE: The Hegira, Mohammed and his followers emigrate to Medina.

623 CE: Samo is elected High King by the Slavs of Moravia and Slovakia.

626 CE: Arioald, High King of the Lombards becomes a Roman vassal accepting Maximus Syagrius as Emperor.

628 CE: Maximus Syagrius dies peacefully in Rome. His son Maximus II is proclaimed Emperor. The Frankish Kings rebel in the North.

630 CE: Serbs and Croats are settled as foederati in the Balkans by Heraclius. Maximus II fights a great indecisive battle against the Franks led by Pepin of Landen, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, near Orleans. A peace treaty is negotiated, Maximus II accepting Frankish dominion over Northern Gallia.

632 CE: Mohammed dies. Ridda Wars in Arabia. Abu Bakr is the Rashidun Caliph. Oswald of Northumbria becomes Bretwalda of the Saxons.

633 CE: Muslims start their attacks against the Roman Empire. The Romans are occupied fighting the Avars in the Balkans.

634 CE: Fall of Damascus to Khalid ibn Walid. Umar is Rashidun Caliph.

635 CE: Muslims overrun parts of Mesopotamia.

636 CE: Battle of al-Qadisiyyah. The Sassanid Yazdegird III defeats the invading Muslim army. Having to deal with internal rebellion, Yazdegird subsequently pays off the Muslims and asks that they attack the Roman Empire.

637 CE: Umar recieves the submission of Nabatea as vassals and overruns most of Judea, except for its coastal cities.

638 CE: A Roman army under Alexandros XV narrowly defeats a Muslim incursion into Syria, suffering heavy losses. Alexandros XV decides not to continue on South believing his remaining army insufficient for the task.

639 CE: Muslims pour through the Sinai into Egypt. The Jewish Roman clients in the Sinai decide to allow them to pass freely and supply them as necessary in order to retain their lands.

640 CE: Battle of Heliopolis. Alexandros XV is defeated by Amr ibn al-'As. Muslims begin to overrun Egypt. Alexandros XV retreats to Alexandria. Heraclius dies in battle against the Avars in Malvensis.

641 CE: Alexandria is besieged by the Arabs. As Alexandria is about to fall, Alexandros XV decides to negotiate. He offers himself up to the Muslims in exchange for them sparing the city. A detailed treaty is signed allowing Alexandria to remain as a quasi-independent client city state. Alexandros XV gives up Egypt and surrenders himself to the Muslims. He is asked to convert to Islam but refuses, proclaiming himself to be "Immortal Sol in the flesh". Amr ibn al-'As mockingly decides to "put Sol's immortality to the ultimate test". Remembering the death of Alexandros X, and wishing to outdo Genseric, he has a defiant Alexandros XV crucified, then burned alive before the walls of Alexandria. As the flames begin to consume him Alexandros XV shouts: "You can burn this flesh, but I shall return." Alexandros XV will later be widely venerated as the Martyr Emperor, whose return in glory in Alexandria is still expected by various Solar and Solar Christian sects.

642 CE: The Julio-Argead Alexandros XVI is proclaimed Emperor in Constantinople. Heraclius's son Heraklonas is proclaimed Emperor by several Eastern clients, including the Seleukids of Syria, in Antiocheia. The Muslims negotiate a treaty with the Amanaya Berbers and prepare to attack Carthage.

643 CE: With the main Muslim army campaigning against the Vandals, a large fleet under Alexandros XVI retakes Alexandria. The Muslim force splits. An army under Abdullah ibn Saad continues the western campaign while Amr ibn al-'As returns to Egypt.

644 CE: Arabs besiege Alexandria, but are forced to abandon the siege and march South to deal with a Makurian invasion.

645 CE: The indecisive Battle of Aswan is fought between the Muslims and Makuria. A Truce is signed with Makuria.

646 CE: Abdullah ibn Saad abandons his campaign against Carthage and decides to push West, integrating Berber converts into his army.

647 CE: Muslims besiege Alexandria but are repulsed. Alexandros XVI demands that Heraklonas renounce his Imperial title. Heraklonas refuses.

648 CE: Heraklonas is betrayed by Antiochus XXV, the Seleukid Basileus of Syria, and handed over to Alexandros XVI. Alexandros has Heraklonas mutilated, his ears and nose are cut off and the former Emperor is imprisoned.

650 CE: A truce is signed between the Caliphate and the Empire. Alexandros XVI acknowledges their conquests, while the Arabs allow the Romans to retain Alexandria. Oswiu of Northanhymbra proclaims himself High King of the North. He is supported by the Britano-Sarmatian Riothamus Artorius III, High King of Brythonia. Wulfhere, the Bretwalda of the Saxons is forced to accept this state of affairs, a new status quo being created in Britannia.

656 CE: Ali is the Rashidun Caliph. Maximus II demands that the Exarchates of Valentia and Ravenna be transfered over to his authority. Alexandros XVI refuses. Islamic Civil War between the partisans of Ali and his opponents. Beginning of Islamic fragmentation.

657 CE: Maximus II assassinated on the orders of Alexandros XVI, in order to avoid a war for control of the Exarchates. Being paid off by Alexandros XVI, the Roman senate proclaims the Gallo-Roman general and magnate Tetricus Posthumus as Emperor. Maximus II's son Lucius is merely confirmed as hereditary military governor of Pictavia.

661 CE: Ali assassinated by a Kharijite during prayer. Muawiyah I is Caliph in Damascus.

663 CE: Alexandros XVI invades Magna Graecia in response to Tetricus's demand to surrender authority over the Exarchate of Ravenna.

665 CE: Alexandros XVI besieges Rome without success. He negotiates a truce with Tetricus and returns to Constantinople. The Eastern Romans retain control of the Exarchates and Southern Italia. Kotrag is Khagan of Volga Bulgaria.

668 CE: Arab forces campaign in North Africa independent of the Caliphate in Damascus. Alexandros XVI begins the policy of establishing several new military provinces throughout the Eastern Empire, even seizing some territories from client kings. This new "thematic" system is aimed at providing the state with more troops in case of necessity.

670 CE: Muslim infighting continues. Fearing that Muawiyah I of Damascus might consolidate his power among the Muslims, Alexandros entreats him to attack Persia and offers the promise of support.

671 CE: Muawiyah I campaigns against Persia.

672 CE: Ctesiphon falls to Muawiyah I, the Persians are expelled from Mesopotamia. Alexandros XVI famously laments: "Never trust a Persian to do your bussiness."

673 CE: Unwilling to deal with an open war, out of fear of a potential unholy alliance between Muawiyah I and the Western Empire, Alexandros XVI decides to weaken the Caliphate from within. Vast sums of money are paid to Islamic splintter groups, and Islamic rebels are given covert support by the Empire. Alexandros XVI also has several Islamic governors assassinated.

675 CE: The Islamic Fragmentation widens. The Caliphate barely controls Damascus, Ctesiphon and several territories in Mesopotamia.

677 CE: Akh-Yakrib, the Almaqahid Mukkarib of Saba attacks Islamic Arabia from the South. He besieges Mecca, but abandons the siege after he is paid off. Ghazala al-Haruriyya, the female warrior Imam of the Haruri conquers Kufa. She leads her warriors in a great prayer of thanksgiving, proclaiming that the end of the Blashphemers of Islam, like the followers of Ali or Muawiyah is near.

680 CE: Bulgars under Asparukh overrun the territory that is to become the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The Battle of Karbala, Imam Hussein is killed by the Umayyads. Muawiyah I is assassinated on the orders of Alexandros XVI. Alexandros XVI campaigns against the Bulgars.

681 CE: The Battle of Dorostotum. Alexandros XVI is defeated by Asparukh and he flees South. He takes refuge in Tylis. Heracleon Cerethrius, the client King of Tylis betrays him, and surrenders the Emperor to Asparukh in exchange for confirmed dominion over his lands. Asparukh has Alexandros XVI tied to four stallions and "quartered". He takes the Emperor's skull and turns it into his favorite drinking cup. Alexandros XVII is proclaimed Emperor.

682 CE: Alexandros XVII leads an army against Tylis to punish Heracleon Cerethrius for his betrayal. The Bulgars break the siege and Alexandros XVII is killed in battle after refusing to surrender. His body is cut to pieces, and his skull is turned into another, less favored drinking cup by Asparukh. A descendant of Justinian I, Justinian II is proclaimed Emperor in Nicomedeia. He quickly seizes the young Julio-Argead princes and has them imprisoned in the Imperial Palace.

685 CE: The Vandals allow a great Muslim army under Uqba ibn Nafi to pass through their lands into Numidia. Renewed Islamic attempts at Conquest of North Africa.

686 CE: Justinian II negotiates peace with Asparukh, who is allowed to retain his conquests in the Balkans. Ghazala al-Haruriyya, the great female Imam of the Haruri is assassinated and her corpse is publicly raped by agents of the Umayyads. The Haruri swear vengeance. The Caliph Abd al-Malik narrowly escapes assassination, but is grievously wounded by a Haruri assassin.

688 CE: Uqba ibn Nafi reaches the Atlantic. He famously kneels and prays in the waters of the Atlantic, thanking Allah for having allowed Islam to reach the great Western Ocean. He is assassinated the very next day, on the orders of the Wisimarid Vandal King of Tangiers. Islamic North Africa succumbs to infighting.

690 CE: Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the Palace of Austrasia becomes the most powerful man in the Frankish lands, and the power behind the Merovingian kings. He is given the newly created title of "Lord Palatine" of the Franks.

692 CE: Various Islamic reverses in North Africa. Kahina, the great Warrior Queen of the Berbers destroys an Islamic army near Biskra. All captives are decapitated, their bodies left to rot on the field.

695 CE: An Islamic army under Hasan ibn al-Nu'man is defeated by a Vandal-Berber coallition under Kahina. Kahina swears not to rest till Islam is purged from Africa.

698 CE: The Kharijites of Siwa, having received funding and support from the Ptolemaioi of Kyrene, are in control of most of Egypt, except for areas in the Delta and Roman held Alexandria.

A Concise Timeline of the History of the Known World - from 700 CE to 800 CE:

700 CE: Musa bin Nusair leads an Islamic army to the Straits of Hercules. He finds an ally in the Wisimarid Godigisel II of Tangiers, who after assassinating his father converts to Islam.

702 CE: Justinian II is forced to flee Constantinople after a palace coup. A military council proclaims Maurice II Belisarius (a descendant of the great general) as Emperor. In order to gain a measure of legitimacy, Maurice II appoints the 1 year old Julio-Argead prince Alexandros, a grandson of Alexandros XVII as co-Emperor.

703 CE: Justinian II finds refuge at the court of Tervel, Khagan of the Bulgars. He grants Tervel the title of Caesar and offers him all the Balkan territories of the Empire in exchange for putting him back on the throne. Maurice II convinces the Dacians and the Sarmatians to attack Bulgaria thus forestalling a potential invasion. Christians in Armenia revolt against the Empire.

705 CE: Maurice II campaigns in Armenia in order to secure its continued vassalage. He has all Christian nakharars rounded up in churches and burned alive. Captured Christian nobles are sacrificed to Sol in a great ceremony on the shores of Lake Van. Justinian II and a Bulgarian army under Tervel enter Constantinople through the Constantine Aqueduct. Justinian II is in control of Constantinople and appoints Tervel co-Emperor. The young Alexandros XVIII flees West to Rome.

706 CE: Maurice II gathers his forces in Anatolia. Justinian II rounds up the Byzantine senators and has all of them mutilated, their ears and noses cut off. He parades them through the city inciting the crowds to attack them. Several senators are killed in the ensuing riots.

707 CE: The Exarchate of Valentia declares itself independent. Julius Severus proclaims himself King of Valentia. Maurice II crosses the Helespont, but is defeated by Tervel and Justinian II in a battle outside Kaliopolis. He is captured by the Bulgarians and quartered. Justinian II asks Tervel for his skull to use as a drinking cup, and the Bulgar co-Emperor obliges.

708 CE: Ceolred, King of Mercia and Bretwalda of the Saxons is defeated and captured by the allied Osred, King of Northanhymbra and High King of the North and Agravanus Pendragon, the Sarmato-Brython High King of Brythonia. He is executed in the ancient Sarmatian fashion, with a Sword of Victory being driven through his heart. Saxon power in Britannia is diminished.

710 CE: The Kahinid prince Amnay founds the Berber Kingdom of Nekor. Gelimer II, the Vandal King of Baetica converts to Islam after being promised support by Godigisel II of Tangiers against a Visigothic invasion.

711 CE: A large Islamic Vandal-Berber-Arab force crosses the Straights into Hispania to aid Gelimer II against the Visigothic High King Roderic. The Islamic allies win a pyrrhic victory at Guadalete. The Visigoths retreat from Baetica.

712 CE: Radbod, King of Frisia humiliates the Frankish army sent to subdue him. Frisia is confirmed to be independent of Frankish authority. Musa bin Nusair and his Vandal allies expand Islamic control in Southern Hispania.

714 CE: Justinian II is assassinated on the orders of Tervel who reigns alone in Constantinople. Outraged by this the Eastern parts of the Empire rebel. The commanders of the Eastern legions proclaim Leo, the client King of Isauria and descendant of the Isaurian dynasty Emperor.

715 CE: Leo III besieges Constantinople. A Muslim army led by Musa bin Nusair is defeated by Roderic near Toledo. The Muslims are driven South into Baetica.

716 CE: Leo III enters Constantinople in Triumph after elements of the garrison betray Tervel. Tervel is captured and burned alive as a sacrifice to Sol in the Great Forum. All Bulgarians in the Imperial capital are also burned alive, while former supporters of Justinian II and Tervel are summarily executed wherever they are found, their bodies also burned in the Forum. Leo III proclaims Constantinople to have been "purged by fire".

718 CE: King Nechtan IV of the Picts expells all Christian missionaries from the Pictish lands. Charles Martel, Lord Palatine of the Franks expands his authority within the Frankish Kingdoms.

720 CE: Leo III campaigns against Bulgaria. Tervel II submits and becomes a client King.

722 CE: Large scale Viking raids in the British Islands. Leo III refuses to accept Alexandros XVIII, still in exile in Rome as co-Emperor. Saint Boniface is burned alive and sacrificed to Sowilo by the Germans.

726 CE: Leo III introduces the cult of the Luwian Sun Goddess Arinniti to Constantinople. He has several statues of the Sun Goddess erected in the capital. He proclaims Sol to be the consort of the Goddess, and the Emperor her consort in the flesh.

727 CE: The Roman Senate elects Alexandros XVIII as Princeps of the Western Empire. Alexandros XVIII demands the submission of Ravenna and all Italian territories of the Eastern Empire.

728 CE: War between the Western and Eastern Empires. Alexandros XVIII besieges Ravenna.

729 CE: The indecisive Battle of Ravenna, the Roman armies slaughter each other refusing to surrender or accept defeat. Leo III's army is left in control of the field after Alexandros XVIII decides to retreat in order to end the carnage. It is said that the waters of the Po river run red with blood and for several years fishermen refrain from eating fish from the river.

730 CE: Leo III campaigns in Italia. He has all Christian icons and statues destroyed, and churches in conquered towns converted to Temples of Arinniti.

731 CE: Leo III besieges Rome. Alexandros XVIII asks for the support of the Franks.

732 CE: A Western Roman-Frankish army under Charles Martel is humbled by Leo III outside Pavia. Leo III pursues the Franks into Gallia.

733 CE: Leo III defeats Charles Martel near Lyon. The Frankish Lord Palatine humbles himself before Leo III swearing never again to interfere in the affairs of the Romans. Leo III recieves the submission of various Western Roman hereditary military governors.

734 CE: Leo III besieges Rome once more. Maysara rebellion in North Africa. Spread of Kharijite influence in the Maghreb.

735 CE: On the Ides of March Leo III orders a general assault and Rome falls. He enters the city in Triumph. He has Alexandros XVIII publicly sacrificed to Arinniti, by being trampled by a raging bull in the Colosseum. Leo III is sole Roman Emperor. All senators who refuse to publicly worship Arinniti join Alexandros XVIII in death by being trampled by bulls in subsequent spectacles held in the Colosseum.

737 CE: Leo III begins a vast programme of persecution against Christian priests within the Empire and orders all Christian imagery destroyed. Several Christian rebellions are put down. Pope Gregory III is challenged by the Emperor to see if his faith can pacify several raging bulls in the Colosseum. His faith fails him and the Pope is killed. Leo III has his corpse desecrated and cut into pieces. Its various parts are sent as "presents" to various Christian bishops outside the Empire.

740 CE: The Khazars convert to Judaism. On the 25th of December, Leo III is assassinated on the senate floor by members of the Roman Senate. He is said to have received no less that 20 wounds before expiring. His last words are reported to have been: "You can't even kill a man properly."

741 CE: Leo Constantine, Leo III's son by the Constantinian princess Hellena is proclaimed Emperor in Constantinople. In Rome, the Roman senate elects the Valentinian magnate Theodosius as Princeps. The Armenian general Artavasd is proclaimed Emperor by the Eastern Legions.

742 CE: Leo Constantine accepts Artavasd as co-Emperor. Artavasd campaigns against the Muslims in the East.

743 CE: Leo Constantine lands in Italia with a vast army. He offers amnesty to all those who would submit to his authority.

744 CE: Leo Constantine enters Rome without a fight as Theodoisus II decides to surrender in exchange for clemency. Leo Constantine spares his life, after having him mutilated. Theodosius II is forced to sacrifice to Arinniti. His wife, the staunchly Christian Marcia refuses. Leo Constantine has her forced to publicly copulate with a bull in the Colosseum as punishment. She expires after her ordeal, Leo Constantine famously declaring to her agrieved husband: "She had a frail constitution, you can do better."

745 CE: Foundation of the Uyghur Empire by Qutlugh Bilge Kol. Artavasd kills the Umayyad Caliph Yazid III in the Battle of Al-Mafraq and campaigns in Judea.

746 CE: A second vast Roman army led by Leo Constantine lands near Ascalon. Leo Constantine marches inland and receives the submission of several Muslim held cities. He establishes the Exarchate of Palaestina, comprising the Roman possessions on the Coast and the newly reconquered territories.

747 CE: Leo Constantine supports Abu Muslim's rebellion against the Umayyads. He besieges Jerusalem while Artavasd besieges Damascus.

748 CE: Leo Constantine captures Jerusalem. He has the Church of the Holy Sepulchre torn down and orders the construction of a temple to Arinniti and the Thousand Gods of Light in its place. Artavasd abandons the siege of Damascus as he decides to go to the aid of the Abbasid rebellion in Mesopotamia.

749 CE: Ctesiphon falls to the Abbasids. Leo Constantine receives the submission of the Jewish prince of the Sinai.

750 CE: The Battle of the Zab. Artavasd and the Abbasids defeat the Umayyad army. Marwan II flees to Damascus. Al-Saffah is proclaimed Abbasid Caliph in Mesopotamia.

751 CE: Unwilling to see the Abbasids consolidate their power at the expense of the Umayyads, Leo Constantine has the two Caliphs negotiate a peace. Marwan II is Umayyad Caliph in Damascus while Al-Saffah is Abbasid Caliph in Ctesiphon. After the truce is negotiated, Leo Constantine leaves the Levant and returns to Italia to deal with Christian rebellions.

752 CE: Pepin the Short, Lord Palatine of the Franks takes the title of High King as well. The Merovingian High King Childeric III continues on as a lesser puppet-King in his new capital of Paris.

753 CE: A North African Muslim army lands in Sardinia and besieges Agrigentum. In a whirlwind campaign Leo Constantine expells the Muslim army from the Island. He appoints the Aetid Comes of Panormus as Hereditary military governor of the new province of Western Sicilia, in spite of the protests of the Hieronid client King of Siracusa.

755 CE: The Umayyad Abd-ar-Rahman I lands in Hispania. He receives Valentian support, and proclaims himself to be the true Caliph.

756 CE: Much of Southern Hispania recognizes Abd-ar-Rahman I as Caliph. Desiderius, the vassal High King of the Lombards demands increased toleration for the Christians, faced with potential large scale rebellion, Leo Constantine issues the Edicts of Limited Toleration. Christians are tolerated within the Western half of the Empire, while Christian imagery is still banned. After receiving a petition from the Roman senate to increase the powers of the Roman consuls, Leo Constantine starts a system of yearly co-Emperors in Rome. These so-called Emperors have little authority in practice and are kept under tight observation by Leo.

757 CE: The Berbers of Sijilmasa lead the Berber Gurzil tribes into a grand campaign against the Muslims of North Africa. Offa is King of Mercia. He marries the Artorian princess Axyra, allying himself with the Brythons. The Tassilid prince, Tassilo I of Austria declares independece from Bavaria with Avar support.

762 CE: The Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur founds a new capital at Baghdad. Ciniod, King of the Picts purges his kingdom of the last remnants of Christian missionary activity.

765 CE: The Banu Ifran Berbers found an independent Kingdom. Offa of Mercia is Bretwalda of the Saxons, he rules in peace establishing good relations with the High Kings of Brythonia and Northanhymbra.

767 CE: The Karluks and the Oghuz establish themselves as regional powers. The Armenian Emperor Artavasd dies peacefully in Teluch. Leo Constantine is sole Roman Emperor.

771 CE: Charlemagne is High King of the Franks. Leo Constantine orders non-noble Christians in the Empire to be stamped with a distinctive symbol on their hands.

775 CE: Leo Constantine is assassinated by his secretly Christian misstress. She has his body emasculated and marked with crosses. Leo IV is Emperor in Constantinople. In Rome the senate proclaim the yearly co-Emperor Marcus Aurelius V as Emperor and Princeps. Leo IV negotiates with Marcus Aurelius V. Marcus Aurelius V is allowed to remain as co-Emperor and Princeps in Rome in exchange for continuing the anti-Christian policies of the Isaurians and accepting Leo IV as senior Emperor.

777 CE: Abd-er-Rahman ibn Rustam is Imam of the Ibadis in the Maghreb. Charlemagne campaigns against the Saxons but is defeated by Widukind and forced to retreat from Saxon lands.

782 CE: Leo IV fights Slavic rebellions in the Balkans. The Slavic Prince Viseslav accepts to return to the status of client.

785 CE: Viking raids in Britannia. Leo IV is once again in control of the Balkans as the Bulgar King submits to his authority.

789 CE: Idris I founds Fes. With the Balkans firmly secured, Leo IV requests Marcus Aurelius V issue new legislation against the Christians. Christian worship is banned in Rome and the Pope is expelled from the City. Marcus Aurelius V issues an edict against any public Christian worship within the Roman military provinces.

790 CE: Pope Leo III takes refuge at the court of Charlemagne. He entreats the Frankish High King to attack the Empire.

791 CE: Pope Leo III begins preaching a crusade against the Unholy Empire now found in Rome. Marcus Aurelius V establishes a new Imperial Academy in Rome, modeled on the Academy of Alexandria. He proclaims that the best way to stamp out Christianity is through the dissemination of philosophic ideals and a renewed emphasys on reason as the chief principle to be taught Roman citizens within a new system of state education within the cities of the Empire.

792 CE: Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in Aachen and proclaims him to be the legitimate Sovereign of a new Holy Roman Christian Empire. He calls for all Christians to submit to his authority and join a Holy War against Marcus Aurelius V and Leo IV. Marcus Aurelius V continues his reforms.

793 CE: After having secured an alliance with Bavaria, Austria and the Avars, Charlemagne invades Roman Gallia.

794 CE: The Battle of Lemonum. The early fighting is indecisive, but then according to legend a Fiery Cross is seen in the sky. The Crusading army takes heart and defeats the Romans. A grievously wounded Marcus Aurelius V is captured by Charlemagne. He asks that he be allowed to die, but Charlemagne orders him treated and cured. The magnates and vassal kings of Southern Gallia begin to defect to Charlemagne.

795 CE: The Bulgars rebel in the Balkans. Leo IV is assassinated by his own wife, the Attalid princess Irene. Irene proclaims herself to be Arinniti in the flesh and claims the Imperial throne. Roman power in Southern Gallia collapses as Charlemagne is accepted as Sovereign by all former Roman clients.

796 CE: Irene entreats Julius II Severus of Valentia to attack Charlemagne while she campaigns against the Bulgars. She leads her army in person in the Battle of Durostotum. The Bulgars are defeated. Their King Kardam is captured and the Empress personaly emasculates Kardam and has him force fed his own manhood before expiring.

797 CE: Charlemagne defeats Julius II Severus near Narbo and chases the Severans into Hispania. Irene campaigns succesfully against the Avars. The Bayanid Khan Dulan is captured alive. Irene is merciful. She only turns him into an eunuch and personally blinds him and cuts off his tongue, allowing him to continue to live.

798 CE: Charlemagne overruns the area of Catalonia. Beginning of the establishment of the Marca Hispanica by the Franks. The captive Emperor Marcus Aurelius V starves to death after refusing to continue on as a prisoner. Before his death, he famously quotes his ancestor to Charlemagne: "Death is merely a release from the impressions of the senses, an escape from the desires that make us their puppets." In Italia the Empress Irene takes Mithraius Honorius, the Exarch of Ravenna as a lover.
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A Concise Timeline of the History of the Known World - from 800 CE to 900 CE:

800 CE: Charlemagne makes peace with Julius II Severus. His control of the new Marca Hispanica is confirmed. At the instigation of her lover, Irene personally blinds and cuts of the ears and nose of her eldest son by Leo IV. She claims only she can do it "with a mother's touch." Her young son is then exiled to Isauria where he is kept as a client puppet King and virtual prisoner.

802 CE: Charlemagne invades Italia. The Roman army is commanded in the field by Mithraius Honorius, while the Empress watches on from a safe distance - but supposedly directing the battle. The Romans defeat the Crusaders. Charlemagne is forced to retreat. The Empress orders all Frankish prisoners blinded. Charlemagne's oldest son Peppin the Hunchback is blinded and crucified. His corpse is then cut to pieces and the blinded Frankish prisoners are forced to defecate on it. His young son Karolus, now Charlemagne's heir is personally blinded by Irene who decides to be "merciful" and send him, his father's remains and the blinded Franks back to Charlemagne.

803 CE: Charlemagne is overcome with grief. He shuts himself in his palace in Aachen. Saxons, Thuringians and Alammani attack the Frankish Empire from the East. His son Peppin the Younger is forced to take the field to fight them off.

804 CE: The Abbasid Caliph Harun-al-Rashid invades Roman territories in the East. Krum of Bulgaria rebels against Imperial authority.

805 CE: Irene sends Mithraius Honorius to deal with Krum while she goes East to deal with the Abbasids.

806 CE: Irene leads her army in person and destroys the Abbasid army outside Palmyra. The Caliph Harun-al-Rashid is captured. Irene is not merciful. The Caliph is emasculated, blinded, fed his own manhood and then cut to pieces. Irene marches into Mesopotamia.

807 CE: Mithraius Honorius is defeated by Krum outside Serdica. Krum has him quartered and his skull is made into his drinking cup. Irene swears revenge and abandons her campaign in Mesopotamia, thus sparring the collapsing Abbasid Caliphate.

808 CE: The Battle of Tylis. The Empress Irene leads her army in person against Krum. Several client kings, including the King of Tylis, betray her. Her Imperial Guard is killed to a man trying to defend her. She is captured by Krum who publicly rapes her before his army. Her captive generals are emasculated and the Empress is forcibly fed some of their remains. The Empress is then quartered and trampled by horses. It is said that Krum commented before her death: "It is almost a pity she did not choke."

809 CE: The Year of the Countless Emperors. Several Roman generals and client Kings proclaim themselves Emperors. In Rome the Senate proclaims the Valentinian magnate Theodosius III as Princeps. Krum receives the submission of Dacia and Sarmatia as client kingdoms.

810 CE: Theodosius III negotiates a Peace with Charlemagne confirming Frankish control of Gallia, and accepting Charlemagne as "Holy Roman Emperor". The Romano-Gothic principality of Sapaudia is also given over to Frankish control in exchange for peace.

811 CE: The Roman general and self-proclaimed Emperor Nicephorus I is defeated by Krum near Mesembria. He is captured and subsequently quartered. Krum does not deign his skull worthy of being turned into a cup.

812 CE: The Anarchy of the Eastern Empire continues. There are no less than 12 self-proclaimed Emperors throughout the Empire.

813 CE: The Bulgars besiege Constantinople. The Amorian Commander of the Scholae, Leo, is proclaimed Emperor by the senate. Leo V the Amorian manages to break the siege of Constantinople.

814 CE: Charlemagne dies in battle against the Saxon King Widukind II. His paladins are cut down as they try to defend his body. His heir Karolus the Blind is proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor in Aachen, but the Empire descends into anarchy.

815 CE: Leo V negotiates a peace with Krum. He turns his energies towards re-establishing Imperial authority over the rest of the Empire.

817 CE: Karolus the Blind, Holy Roman Emperor, is forced by his vassal kings and magnates to sign the Great Charter of Aachen. Peppin the Younger, the Karling King of Austrasia becomes his Lord Palatine, as the Sacral Emperor loses all actual authority outside his capital. The Empire becomes a theoretical entity composed of quasi-independent feudal states.

818 CE: Leo V campaigns in Anatolia. He sends a fleet under the Argead general Philippos to retake Alexandria from its rebelious Exarch. Philippos retakes Alexandria and is confirmed as Exarch by Leo V.

820 CE: Karolus the Blind has the Lord Palatine Pepin, King of Austrasia assassinated. The Blind Emperor begins his campaign to re-establish Imperial authority.

821 CE: Leo V succeeds in reestablishing imperial authority over the Western part of Anatolia.

822 CE: Karolus the Blind leads his army in person to victory over an Austrasian army outside Aachen. He then marches West attempting to establish his authority over Northern Gallia.

825 CE: After several succesful battles Karolus the Blind receives the submission of Neustria. Leo V reestablishes imperial control over most of the Eastern provinces of the Empire.

827 CE: Leo V receives the submission of Marcianus, the Exarch of Palaestina. Karolus the Blind campaigns in Southern Gallia.

829 CE: Karolus the Blind receives the submission of the Kings and magnates of Southern Gallia. The Emperor returns to Aachen in triumph.

830 CE: The Aghlabids capture Agrigentum.

833 CE: Mojmir I reunifies Great Moravia. Karolus the Blind is killed in battle against the Saxons, while leading his paladins against the Saxon right. The Assembly of the Princes proclaims his young son Karolus III as Sacral Emperor in Aachen. The young boy is forced to sign the Great Charter, and becomes the virtual captive of the Karling Prince Lothair who is confirmed as Lord Palatine.

835 CE: Leo V visits Alexandria. During a lavish feast, the Argead Exarch Philippos has the Emperor disembowled and force fed his own guts. Philippos proclaims himself Emperor. He leaves his youngest son Alexandros in charge of Alexandria and takes the Alexandrian fleet to Constantinople.

836 CE: Philippos is accepted as Emperor by the senate in Constantinople. The Lord Palatine Lothair has himself made Sovereign of a large Kingdom within the Frankish Empire, centered around Metz.

837 CE: The Empire is in anarchy once more, as many military governors and client kings refuse to accept Philippos as Emperor. Norse raids throughout the British Isles and the Northern Frankish lands.

841 CE: Viking raids in the Black Sea. A Viking fleet manages to reach Constantinople before being chased away by the Imperial Navy.

844 CE: Vikings raids in Hispania and in the Mediterranean proper.

845 CE: Paris is sacked by Vikings under Ragnar Lodbrok. Nominoe proclaims himself King of Armorica.

847 CE: Philippos campaigns in Anatolia against the Galatians, attempting to reestablish imperial authority. He is maimed and barely escapes with his life. He retires to Constantinople content to allow imperial authority to be limited to the City itself and a handfull of military provinces.

852 CE: The Croat Trpimir proclaims himself King of Illyria. Varangian attacks in the Slavic lands. Lothar attempts to extend his authority as Lord Palatine within the Empire. His attempts of taxing the vassal kings spark the First Great War of the Princes.

855 CE: Lothar I is killed in battle outside Paris. Karolus III is taken prisoner by the rebels and forced to sign a new Charter of Liberties. Robert the Strong, the Sovereign-Magnate of Neustria proclaims himself King. Several former magnates assume Royal titles.

860 CE: Capitalizing on endemic war in Hispania, a large Viking fleet led by Bjorn Ironside conquers the Baleares. A Viking state is established in the Mediterranean.

862 CE: The young Varangian chieftain Rurik takes control of Holmgardr.

865 CE: The Bulgar Khan Boris converts to Christianity. Philippos is assassinated in his own bed, by his own son Basil. It is said that Basil commented before his death: "You have slept all your reign as Emperor now go sleep forever." Large scale Norse attacks in Britannia.

866 CE: Ivar the Boneless defeats and capture King Aella of Northanhymbra. York is captured by the Norse. Harald Fairhair is High King of Norway. Basil I begins his campaigns of reestablishing imperial authority throughout the East.

867 CE: War in Britannia. A Crusade to liberate Southern Hispania from the Infidels is preached throughout the Frankish lands.

868 CE: The Turkish mamluk Ahmad ibn Tulun takes control of the Egyptian Delta and founds an independent state. The Norse rampage through Britannia. Karolus III takes up the Cross and a vast Crusader army marches into Hispania.

869 CE: A series of battles is fought in Southern Hispania by the Crusaders. Karolus III shows a complete disregard for the safety of his person in battle and earns the nickname "The Bold". He is wounded several times and some believe he is courting death.

870 CE: The Norse overrun new territories in Britannia. Basil I reestablishes imperial control over much of Anatolia. Harald Fairhair, High King of Norway leads a large scale Norse attack into the Frankish lands. Alarmed by this turn of events the Frankish Lords decide to abandon the Crusade and return North to deal with the Vikings.

872 CE: Basil reestablishes imperial authority over the Eastern provinces and client kingdoms.

874 CE: The Exarchate of Palaestina is returned to Imperial control. Ingolfur Arnarson establishes the first permanent Norse settlement in Iceland. The Norse invade Mercia.

875 CE: Karolus III the Bold is killed in Battle by Harald Fairhair. His son Karolus IV is held captive by Harald who demands a large ransom no one is willing to fund. The Second Great War of the Princes begins as the Holy Roman Empire descends into anarchy.

878 CE: Alfred of Wessex defeats Guthrum, the Danish King of the Danelaw at Ethandun. A treaty is signed between the Danes and the Saxons, allowing the Danes to keep their Eastern conquests in Britannia.

880 CE: With the support of the Vandal fleet, Basil conquers Djerba. He establishes a new Exarchate of Africa centered around Djerba.

882 CE: Oleg the Seer conquers Kiev. Continued Varangian expansion in the East.

884 CE: Basil lands in Italia and reestablishes Eastern Imperial authority over Southern Magna Graecia. The Western Princeps Marcianus Valentinianus acknowledges this state of affairs.

885 CE: Alfred is High King of the Saxons. After negotiating with Marcianus, Basil enters Rome. The Senate accepts him as Senior Emperor. Marcianus is forced to humble himself before Basil. After great celebrations are held to honor Alexandros-Ammon and Sol Invictus, the senate is alarmed Basil might start persecuting Christians once more, but he dispells their fears, by inviting the pope Boniface VI to return to the city.

886 CE: Basil issues the Edicts of Toleration and Religious Reform. All religions are tolerated within the Empire. The official religion of the state becomes the worship of the Three Victorious Gods, Sol Invictus, Alexandros-Ammon and Mithra.

887 CE: Basil dies peacefully in Rome. His last words are reported to have been: "It is well." The Pope Boniface VI declares him to have been an "Instrument of God" and Christians join in mourning the dead Emperor. His son Leo VI is senior Emperor.

891 CE: Continued Varangian expansion in Russia. The Empire is at peace, Leo VI proclaims it "a Peace to last for a thousand years".

895 CE: Magyars under Arpad invade the Carpathian Basin. The Avars lose the Eastern half of their Kingdom. Leo VI appoints the Roman patrician Lucius Vespasianus hereditary Exarch of Africa.

898 CE: The Avars and the Magyars reach a common understanding and become allies. Together they pour over the borders of the Empire.

A Concise Timeline of the History of the Known World - from 900 CE to 1000 CE:

900 CE: Leo VI struggles to deal with a common Avar, Magyar and Bulgarian invasion within the Empire. Abu-Sa'id Jannabi, the Qarmatian ruler of Bahrain rampages across the Arabian Peninsula.

901 CE: Karolus IV, and his Lord Palatine Ludwig, the Karling King of Austrasia die while fighting a Viking force on the Rhine. Their deaths cause the Third Great War of the Princes as the Empire descends into renewed anarchy. Leo VI campaigns in the Balkans.

902 CE: The Merovingian Clovis VI of Frankia, married to the Karling Princess Adelheid, begins reestablishing Merovingian authority over the central Frankish lands.

904 CE: Leo VI is soundly defeated at the battle of Rama. The Emperor barely escapes with his life and retreats South. Harald Fairhair of Norway invades the Northern Frankish Lands.

906 CE: The Battle of Adrianople. Leo VI is maimed during the battle, but his Scholae manage a fighting retreat from the battlefield. The Emperor withdraws to Constantinople. The Balkans are in chaos.

907 CE: Varangian raids against the Empire. Roman armies are defeated in several minor battles in the Balkans.

909 CE: Upon hearing of large scale rebellion in the Eastern provinces, Leo VI commits suicide. His last words to his heir Leo Alexandros are: "I have wanted only peace, but war is the natural state of this world, I leave this flawed world to you my son."

910 CE: Leo Alexandros decides to ignore the Balkans and focus on puting down the rebellions in the Eastern provinces. The newly formed Fatimid Caliphate under Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah begins to expand its power in North Africa. Taking advantage of the Frankish anarchy, Vikings overrun the area of Normandy. Their leader Rollo is accepted as duke by his Frankish neighbours.

912 CE: A large Varangian army under Oleg besieges Constantinople, but can not penetrate its fortifications. In a legendary episode, Oleg fixes his shield to the main city gate before abandoning the siege. Leo Alexandros receives the submission of the Trapezuntine Constantinid Kings.

914 CE: The Kutama Berbers fight the Fatimids and drive them East. The Fatimids are chased into Egypt by the Kutama and Amanaya Berbers, where they manage to overrun several Kharijite territories. Ragnall ua Ímair is acknowledged as High King of the North in Britannia.

916 CE: Leo Alexandros recieves the submission of Osroene and Seleukid Syria. The Fatimids besiege Alexandria. Cassander Argead, the Exarch of Alexandria offers to submit under the terms of the Treaty of 641 CE. The Fatimids accept the terms, and the Exarch is confirmed as a quasi-independent client ruler of Alexandria. The Alexandrian troops march to support the Fatimids in their struggle against the Tulunids.

917 CE: The Tulunids rout the Fatimids in the Delta. A peace is signed confirming Tulunid independence of the new Caliphate of Egypt. The Vikings overrun much of Ireland.

918 CE: The Battle of Achelous. The Roman army under Leo Alexandros is annihilated by the Bulgarians under Simeon the Great. The Scholae are decimated and the Emperor is captured. Simeon humiliates Leo Alexandros by holding him as a starving naked captive in a golden cage. Leo Alexandros is forced to grant the title of Emperor to Simeon. The Eastern Empire descends into anarchy. The Western Princeps Julius Valentinianus refuses to interfere outside Italia.

920 CE: Hywelus Artorius is King of Deheurbath. He crushes a Viking attack led by the legendary Norse King Harald Fairhair. Hoping to make a bid for the Brython High Kingship, Hywelus has Harald sacrificed to a Sword of Victory in the ancient Sarmatian fashion. Norway collapses into anarchy.

923 CE: Battle of Soissons. The Karling Emperor Karolus V is killed by the Merovingian Clovis VI. His young son Karolus VI is held hostage by the Merovingian King, who is acknowledged as Lord Palatine of the Empire. The Bulgars besiege Constantinople.

924 CE: The Senate of Constantinople negotiates with Simeon. They accept him as Emperor and open the city gates to him. Simeon is crowned Roman Emperor, with the captive co-Emperor Leo Alexandros being held under close-scrutiny by the Bulgars. The Bulgar emperor holds little authority outside the Balkans.

926 CE: The Croatian Tomislav is King of Illyria. Simeon dies, allegedly as a result of sorcery. Leo Alexandros decapitates a statue supposed to be his inanimate double, and within the hour the Simeon dies of a stroke. Simeon's son Peter is accepted as Emperor by the senate. He has Leo Alexandros put on trial for murder using sorcery. Leo Alexandros is found guilty. Peter is merciful. He has the Leo Alexandros castrated and his eyes put out but allows him to live on as a captive in the Imperial Palace.

929 CE: Abd-ar-Rahman III, the Caliph of Cordoba attempts to conquer Lusitania but is soundly defeated near Evora by the Lusitanian King Martim Viriathus. The Ruriking Prince Ingvar of Holmgardr is aclaimed as King of Gardariki by the Varangian princes. The Rhomaion general Aurelian, a descendant of the great Emperor Julian, and Aurelian on the maternal side succeeds in subduing several rivals in the East and is proclaimed Emperor by the Eastern Legions in Kaiseria.

930 CE: Aurelian II campaigns in Anatolia, the former client kings of the Empire submit to his authority one by one.

931 CE: Erik Bloodaxe is High King of Norway. Aurelian II receives the submission of Constantine Justinian, the hereditary military governor of Nicomedeia, and is now in complete control of Anatolia. The Battle of Abydos, the Bulgarian Emperor Peter is defeated and forced to retreat over the straights. Aurelian II crosses the Helespont. He famously proclaims: "The Sun is rising." as he crosses into Europe.

932 CE: Aurelian II destroys a Bulgarian army outside Adrianople. In a grand ceremony of sacrifice to Sol, he has all Bulgarian prisoners burned alive, as the Sun rises over his army. His troops acclaim him "Sol Invictus in the flesh." Aurelian II besieges Constantinople and on the 25th of December, the very Birth of the Sun, the Dies Natalis Sol Invicti, he enters the city in triumph. All Bulgarians found in the city are sacrificed to Sol. Aurelian is proclaimed Sun Emperor by the Senate. The senators prostrate themselves before Sol made flesh, but Aurelian orders them to rise. He is given the title "True Restorer of the World." and celebrations on a scale never seen before follow.

933 CE: William Longsword expands the territory of the Duchy of Normandy. The Magyars and Avars are soundly defeated in the vicinity of Graz by a German coallition led by the Tassiling King Albrecht of Austria. The Zirids expand their power in the Tel Atlas. Aurelian II accepts the Blind Leo Alexandros as co-Emperor. The blind, castrated Emperor is treated with great kindness by Aurelian who promises to raise his son to co-Emperor in the future.

934 CE: Aurelian II campaigns against the Bulgarians, at his insistence Leo Alexandros joins him on campaign.

935 CE: Wenceslas of Bohemia is murdered by his brother Boleslaw. Haakon the Good is High King of Norway. Aurelian II reestablishes imperial control over Greece.

936 CE: The great German magnate Otto is Lord Palatine of the Holy Roman Empire. Aurelian campaigns against the Bulgars. He defeats Peter in a great Battle outside Dorostotum. The Bulgar Emperor is captured and Aurelian II allows Leo Alexandros to blind him and emasculate him before the Bulgarian Emperor and his fellow prisoners are all burned alive as a sacrifice to Sol. Bulgaria submits to Imperial authority and Aurelian II has the young Peter II installed as a puppet king.

939 CE: Otto, Lord Palatine of the Holy Roman Empire has the Sacral Emperor Karolus VI assassinated, and rules in Aachen as Lord Palatine and Regent for the young Karling Emperor Karolus VII.

941 CE: Gorm the Old, the King of Denmark raids the Northern Frankish Lands. A vast Varangian host led by Ingvar, King of Gardariki besieges Constantinople. They decide to retreat rather than give battle as Aurelian II marches on them from the West.

942 CE: Hywelus Artorius is High King of Brythonia. The Varangians raid across the Caspian Sea.

944 CE: Ingvar besieges Constantinople once more as Aurelian II is occupied subduing Illyria. He is forced to retreat as the Roman army force marches to raise the siege of the city.

945 CE: Ingvar's legendary Viking expedition in Persia.

946 CE: Ingvar's Varangian army sacks the great city of Arsakia Rhagae. They terrorize Northern Persia. Leo Alexandros the Blind Eunuch Emperor, dies in battle near Mostar, against the Croatians, after bravely leading the charge of the Scholae to shatter the Croatian centre. Aurelian II promises the dying Leo to have his son raised as co-Emperor. It is said the Argead Emperor smiles before his death, staring with unseeing eyes at Aurelian II, and whispers: "It is well", in immitation of his ancestor Basil, before expiring. Aurelian II has the Croatian captives burned alive and sacrificed to the Divine Leo Alexandros as a tribute to his unshakable courage.

947 CE: Leo's son is appointed co-Emperor as Leo Alexandros II by Aurelian II. The Varangians capture Gilan. The Ruriking prince Oleg becomes the first Varangian King of Gilan.

948 CE: Oleg dies while besieging Tabriz, as he fearlessly walks alone to the city gate asking the bravest of the enemy warriors to come out and face him. The Persians simply pepper him with arrows. His enraged Varangians storm and mercilessly sack Tabriz in retaliation. All Persian men are executed, while their women are mecilessly ravaged. Oleg's warriors take his body all the way to the Caspian where the King is burned on a huge royal ship while many Persian women captives are sacrificed to his glory. His son Ingvar becomes King of Gilan and continues the Varangian campaign in Persia.

952 CE: Aurelian II defeats the Avars and the Magyars near Singidunum. The Avar Khan is burned alive as a sacrifice to Sol. The Qarmatians sack Mecca. They desecrate the Well of Zamzam with pilgrim corpses and take the Black Stone.

955 CE: After having been expelled from the Eastern Empire, the Magyars and Avars march once more into Germania. A vast allied Germanic and Frankish army under Otto destroys the invading army at Lechfeld.

959 CE: Aurelian II campaigns in Judea attempting to reestablish control over the Exarchate of Palaestina. The Emperor besieges Jerusalem. The city is taken by storm, but Aurelian II spares the city its customary sacking. While inspecting the Temple Mount, as he is about to order the construction of a new Temple dedicated to Sol Invictus, Aurelian II is set about and mortally wounded by several Jewish fanatics, angered by his refusal to restore the Jewish Temple. The dying Emperor orders to be carried out into the desert in the ancient Julio-Argead fashion. He is taken South into the Negev by 12 loyal retainers. He is never heard of again, joining the ranks of mythical Emperors prophesiezed to one day return from the Desert and rule once more in Glory.

960 CE: Miezko I, Prince of the Polans is proclaimed King of Poland but has little authority outside his principality. Julian IV is Sun Emperor with Leo Alexandros II as co-Emperor.

961 CE: Norwegian Civil War - several petty kings battle for the High Kingship, after Haaokon the Good is killed by Erik Bloodaxe's sons.

962 CE: The Lord Palatine Otto invites Pope John XII to crown him as co-Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in exchange for new Imperial policies favoring Catholicism. Pope John XII agrees. Otto is crowned co-Emperor. His self-agrandizing attempt backfires as a wave of rebellions by the non-Catholic princes starts within the Empire.

963 CE: The Turkish Khan Sabuktigin establishes a new Turkish state in Central Asia.

967 CE: Conchobar mac Tadg, the King of Connacht beats back a Norse attack into Western Ireland. Pandulf is Duke of Benevento. Otto I dies in battle against the Arian Romano-Gothic King of Aquitaine Teodelindus. His son Otto II is Lord Palatine, and crowned co-Emperor in Aachen.

968 CE: The Pechenegs besiege Kiev.

970 CE: Erik the Victorious is High King of Sweden. Leo Alexandros II travels to Rome attempting to reunite the two Roman states. He spends several years in Italia advocating a peaceful reunification of the Empires.

974 CE: The Qarmatians return the Black Stone to Mecca, after a huge ransom is paid. Leo Alexandros II is assassinated on the Senate floor, by the Roman Republican faction. The Roman Senator Julius Cato proclaims: "We need no Eastern Emperors here!"

975 CE: Leo Alexandros's son, Basil II, is appointed co-Emperor by Julian IV. Brian Boru is King of Munster. Basil II lands in Italia and begins his march on Rome in order to avenge his father.

976 CE: King Edward of Wessex converts to Christianity. His repeated attempts to convert his subjects fail. Basil II besieges Rome. In order for Rome to be spared a compromise is reached. Julius Cato surrenders himself to Basil and is promptly burned alive by the Emperor as a sacrifice to his father. As he burns Cato proclaims the Roman Republic to be Immortal, while Emperors are only men.

977 CE: Basil II appoints the Neapolitan Julio-Argead magnate Laurentios as Princeps, before departing for the Balkans to deal with a Slavic rebellion.

978 CE: Alexandr, the bastard son of the Rhomaion general Lucius, the military governor of Philippopolis, the head of the senior branch of the Julio-Argeadai, and the Ruriking princess Olga is elected Prince of Pereyaslavl by its Assembly of Freemen. King Edward the Martyr is killed by his pagan brother Aethelred.

981 CE: Bulgars rebel against Imperial authority. The Lord Palatine and co-Emperor Otto II is assassinated by the West Frankish party. The Holy Roman Empire collapses into anarchy once more. Hugh Capet, the King of Neustria leads the West-Frankish party against the German Karlings.

986 CE: Sweyn Forkbeard is King of Denmark. Following his great victory over the Karling party near Reims, Hugh Capet is crowned High King of the Franks. His ally, the Merovingian King Charibert VIII acknowledges him as High King and grants him the legendary Oriflamme Sacred Banner of Saint Denis.

988 CE: Prince Alexandr of Pereyaslavl converts to Christianity.

991 CE: The Battle of Maldon, Olaf Tryggvason defeats the Saxons. He forces the Saxon Kings to acknowledge him as High King.

993 CE: An extremely sick Julian IV, after having contracted several venereal diseases as a result of his excessive love of orgies, decides to meet with a dignified end, and follow the Sun Emperor tradition of "going into the desert." The snickering senators whisper that this decision is only the result of his "divine instrument failing him". The sick Emperor travels to Syria and dissapears. His son Julian V is Sun Emperor alongside Basil II.

996 CE: Hugh Capet, High King of the Franks is killed in battle, cut down by his own treacherous nobles after refusing to surrender to the traitors. He dies still clutching his Oriflame Sacred Banner.

998 CE: Basil II campaigns against the Bulgarians.
A Concise Timeline of the History of the Known World - from 1000 CE to 1066 CE:

1000 CE: Battle of Svolder. Olaf Tryggvason is killed. Norway is in anarchy.

1002 CE: Brian Boru is High King of Ireland.

1003 CE: Sweyn, High King of the Danes invades Eastern Britannia.

1005 CE: Sweyn is acknowledged as High King by the Norse and Saxons of Britannia.

1007 CE: Sweyn is defeated by Brennius Pendragon, High King of the Brythons outside Glevum. He agrees to peace renouncing any attempt to occupy the Brython lands.

1014 CE: The Battle of Clontarf. Brian Boru is killed by treachery, although his army emerges victorious. The Battle of Kleidion. Basil II defeats the Bulgars and has over 15000 Bulgar prisoners blinded. 99 men in 100 are blinded, with 1 man out of 100 getting to keep 1 eye so that they could lead the others home. Samuel of Bulgaria dies of shock seeing his returned army. Basil is now called the "Bulgar Slayer".

1015 CE: Sweyn dies. His son Cnut has to subdue the Saxons in a long civil war in order to be acknowledged as High King.

1017 CE: Basil II dies in mysterious circumstances. The Emperor is found dead in his chambers in the morning. His body is found naked and apparently untouched, although rumours of a strange wound on his backside persist. It is widely believed that one of Basil's secret lovers might have been the instrument of his death. Julian V is sole Emperor of the East, as he does not appoint a co-Emperor. Several senators openly accuse Julian V of having plotted Basil's death.

1018 CE: Julian V is assassinated. To the stupefaction of the Senate he is found dead, in similar fashion to Basil II. Julian VI is Emperor. He accuses Christians of a conspiracy against the State and the murder of the two Emperors, after a cross drawn in blood is supposedly found in the Imperial Palace. He initiates a new wave of persecutions against Christians in the Eastern Empire.

1019 CE: As a response to Julian's persecutions the Pope Benedict VIII preaches a Crusade against the Eastern Empire and declares all Christians who continue to accept Imperial Authority to be damned if they do not rise up against the Emperor. Wide scale rebellion follows.

1020 CE: Julian VI is killed by a Christian fanatic in Adrianopolis. His last words are reputed to have been "Father, forgive me". This is seized on by his enemies, who claim it as proof of involvement in the murder of his father. His young son Julian VII is proclaimed Emperor in Constantinople, but his government holds little authority outside the capital as the Empire descends into complete anarchy. Client kings and military governors alike reject Imperial authority, while the Crusade begins as planned, in spite of Julian's death.
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Sol Invictus
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A solution kindly provided by idib816:

Download cff explorer. Make a backup of ck2.exe (location of file can vary depending on where the game was bought - for steam it is in C:\program files (x86)\steam\steamapps\common\crusader kings ii). open ck2.exe with cff explorer (right click on it and it shows up), click on "file header", click on characteristics where it says "click here" and tick the option "app can handle >2gb addresset". click ok. save the file. do the same with the ck2 launcher. Play the game.

-chages in 06A - Rule Britannia!
-Britannia rework/added counts/blood traits/troops/holy orders.
-rework/additions all over/many tweaks to gameplay such as increased defensive bonuses in hill and mountains, lowered declare war cost, increased chance of vassals joining in rebellion, improved counts ability to raise troops etc/new modifiers.
-first implementation of cultural administration modifiers for kings and emperors
-changes in 05C
-implemented a vassals join rebellion against liege system inspired by CK2+ as requested.
THANK YOU wiz for inspiration.
-setup additions. many tweaks/fixes from modifiers to events/it's easier to keep dynasties alive now/new beneficial events added/new SELIN mods.
-changes in 05B
-fixes/many setup additions/states/troops/blood traits/holy orders etc.
-changes in 05A
-various gameplay changes, new modifiers, anti-blobbing changes, a new system of demesne laws, invasion CB now available to all at extreme resources and traits cost, open succession available to more religions, new localisation (partly thanks to LordStark), new SELIN modifiers by Numahr/various setup additions, states, traditions, dynasties, state troops, holy orders etc/tweaks/changes and much more!
-implemented a genetic inheritance system so you can breed your own Kwisatz Haderach courtesy of wiz.
-changes in 04A/04B/04C/04D/04E/04F
-some fixes/continued setup rework from new states to new dynasties/added Gautar and Sarmato-Brythons/new localisation/new SELIN modifiers./added new state troops and many new holy orders/added Romano-Brythons./implemented and tweaked latest version of Norse Mod.
-many states added to map/new cultures implemented/Gallo-Roman culture made by Ofaloaf among them!/new localisation/fixes/changes.
-added some localisation courtesy of Orinsul/made a new dow only cost conquest CB for militarist religions from mithraics to Sabaothists to others/HRE and Ptolemies got boosted, recieved state troops/added a new crown law/new SELIN modifiers by Numahr
-setup changes/most notably added Huns and Jews/creatable empires for them/various state troops added from legions to hetairoi kataphraktoi/2 new crown laws/a total war casus belli for the genocidal religions/made fabricating claims easy/increased chance of death from all causes/and more.
-changes in 03I
-fixes/tweaks/changes/all creatable empires work now/added a Hellenic Empire/setup changes including an Ostrogothic remnant kingdom in the Balkans./tweaked conversion speed(faster)/vassalized mercenaries cost less/kingdom of Rhomania is creatable now/and more.
-changes in 03G
-fixes/tweaks/changes/setup rework in progress/balance drive/many holdings added to balance things/new legendary tradition for the kataphrakt horse archer lovers/ more counties localized
-sarmatian culture added/new kingdoms added: Sarmatia/Pergamon/Osroene
-new loading screens and 50 quotes for loading screens implemented
-changes in 03F
-setup tweaks/fixes/balance improvement/ implementation of new empires and legendary military traditions
-implementation of 3 new religious heads courtesy of Keperry // SELIN fixes by Numahr
-changes in 03E
-temporarily removed sectarian/communitarian traits because of their distribution issues
-setup changes/tweaks /added Kingdoms of Tylis, Singidunum and Pontus
-implemented some religious icons based on the ones Orinsul sent me
-changes in 0.3C/0.3D
-implemented first and second batches of SELIN religious modifiers made by Numahr
-reduced religious differences penalties, heretic penalty not so great now
-developed several locations from carthage to samarkand - gave them buildings at start
-changes in 0.3B
-changes to CBs - made cheaper, county conquest CB now available to Christians. County conquest is available to all - if you can't use it yet it means that you don't have the required prestige/cash/piety for it yet.
-various fixes/changes regarding buildings/build times /reduced fortifications and garissons across the board
-fixes to localisation/events text.
-changes in 0.3A
-balance rework from casus belli changes, to mercenary costs, to buildings
-setup fixes/changes/additions/ from some new title graphics to a new Empire of Arabia /new state troops added for Dacia and Saba +added some localisation for them /Arianism now a proper religion with its own heresies attached.
-new triggered modifiers related to rulers stats /now stats matter more and learning IS VERY important to technology research
-added many new events and new bloodlines: blood of Agis (Sparta), Charlemagne, Merovech, Hugh Capet, Bello (Barcelona), Decebalus (Dacia), Brian Boru, Oleg (Kiev), Rurik, Parmenion (Ecbatana - no in this reality Parmenion and Philotas were not involved/accused of any conspiracy), Almaqah (Saba).
-changes in 0.2C
-polish/additions/tweaks/fixes -changes to casus belli primarily made cheaper/ tech research rate upped and other gameplay tweaks
-implemented many new events
-changes in 0.2B
-polish/additions/tweaks/fixes -reworked centralization law requirements and more
-first implementation of Bloodline/Biography Traits -added bloodline traits for Seleukidai, Ptolemaioi, Gelimerids, Sassanids, Argeadai and Juliani.
-changes in 0.2A
-major under the hood overhaul/buildings rework/traits system changes/new modifiers etc.
-new events added...and much more!
-changes in 0.1g
-additions/polish/fixes most notably to military buildings
-elite corps system implemented for all cultures at pinnacle of professional troops line -some cultures bunched together as a compromise
-Legio XIII Gemina is here. 13th!!! (and other legendary units added)
-changes in 0.1f
-additions/polish/almost all historical dynasties present at start have CoAs now.
-a religion head added for Zoroastrianism, the legendary Legio XII Fulminata added
-many new Empires added - see creatable titles part for some
-changes in 0.1e
-building system changes
-implementation of the Norse Mod, fixing Different Cultural Cities implementation
-polish, additions, a few new events, a new Religious Head for Sol Invictus religion
-changes in 0.1c an 0.1d
-many flavor events added/tweaks to events system
-changes in 0.1b / 0.1b2
-fixes regarding implemented mods (0.1b2)
-fixes/setup improvement
-integrated several mods - see integrated mods list
-changes in 0.1a
-polish/fixes/additions - getting the mod into release shape
-many CoAs added to historical dynasties
-some buildings fixes /new complex buildings prereqs will be redone in the future the compromise consolidated buildings system messed up my prereqs system so I went with a simplistic version
-changes in 0.093alpha
-polish/additions/many provinces renamed from Bactria to Britain.
-added creatable Hellenistic Empires
-added 2 legions -Legio I Lux Invicta, (ERE) and Legio I Roma Victrix (WRE) +Spartan Homoioi
-added individualized dna to all historical characters, used some from BLC. Some don't show up properly because of BLC cultural rules.
-changes in 0.092alpha
-fixes/polish/additions(maybe I should not even bother adding this line -it's a given)
-more de jure kingdoms added
-an advanced version of my buildings system implemented - consolidated and sadly with a lot of stuff removed like tech triggers because of the way I did the consolidation -placeholder unbalanced effects - yet the system works overall.
-This is Sparta!
-changes in 0.091alpha
-more buildings implemented, legendary military traditions have appeared at select locations
-tweaks to casus belli
-An ambitious rebellious Hellenistic general claiming descent from Megas Alexandros has appeared in Thessalonika...can he emulate his supposed ancestor?
-changes in 0.090alpha
-religious and conquest casus belli reworked - now made costly
-replaced paradox liege culture units lines with new ones balanced for my system
-changes in 0.088alpha and 0.089alpha:
-regional troop buildings implemented and army composition changes
-changes in 0.087alpha:
-fixes and updating for 1.06b
-more buildings implemented (not balanced/placeholder effects)
-changes in 0.086alpha:
-various setup related tweaks/fixes/additions and other fixes
-more buildings implemented
These screnshots are OUTDATED TO A DEGREE - they will become ever more so as I update things but for now they still provide a decent overview. I will most likely redo the screenshots section in the future when I'm done with the setup rework.

Here you see the current ERE fragmentation setup.

Some notes:
-Bogomil Bulgaria
-Despotate of Epirus and Principality of Achaia are the Rhomaion Christian states opposing the ERE.
-ERE worships Sol Invictus -is currently experiencing a severe crysis - see the independent statelets surrounding it
-there's a rebellious Hellenistic general in Thessalonika claiming descent from Megas Alexandros. Can this pretender emulate his supposed ancestor? His troops think so!
-the islands are held by Crusaders and some Diadokhoi remnants
-you can see the Kingdom of Palmyra in the east
-Isauria, Galatia and Trebizond, or the 3 great kingdoms guarding?(aheeeem) the Rhomaion flank.
-the Levantine coast is Crusader held - you can see a tiny fragment of Jerusalem in the SE.

EDIT: Added map of England here for people who miss it to see:


+added cultural fragmentation for those who missed it:


Southern Italy:


-That is proper S.P.Q.R. in Rome yes, and Roman culture yes. (Catholic religion)
-The Kingdom of Siracusa is a surprise... in this alternate timeline it was a Roman vassal succesor state of the Siracusa of old. They're Graeco-Roman Pagan and want to kick arse.
-Panormus is held by another surprise...a last of the Romans syndrome of the dynasty of Aetius! It's a remnant of the proud old militaristic tradtions of Rome, a militaristic statelet worshipping Mithra!
-Drepanon is Vandal held and Arian
-Girgenti is muslim held
-Salerno and Benevento are Lombard duchies
-Neapolis is a Roman statelet
-Calabria is the Rhomaion Remnant of the once proud Catepanate
-Capua, Apulia, Malta are Norman held. Malta is an early type of Knights of Saint John wannabe crusader statelet.


Religious Map:


Cultural Map:


Some notes:
-Norse Baleares! Björn Ironside's Viking fleet took the Baleares and given everyone else was busy fighting each other...they held it. I present to you the proud Viking state of the Balearic Islands! Barbary pirates??? Pah! Behold the True Terror of the Mediterranean!
-Two new Islamic flavors - the enlightened followers of Ilm, proud seekers of knowledge, rulers of the Righteous Caliphate of Cordoba, and the ghazi Islamists... who needs Ilm when you've got Jihad?
-The Vandal Sunni Emirate of Granada...? You don't say! The Vandal Court of Lions!
-Carthago Nova! Mithraic Vandal militarist naval power ahoy! They do not sow, honestly!
-Roman military statelet remnant - former Exarchate of Valencia! You look their way, they kill you. (a common Mithraic trend)
-not in Iberia but an interesting pick in NE: Romanogothic, Cathar Septimania!

Western Maghreb WIP - for Eastern go page 10, for rest of North Africa page 11:


-Gurzil worshipping Sanhaja berbers - ready to sweep up the Almoravides if they blink!
-The Almoravides are ghazi islamic, which should help them overcome the Idrisids if all goes well...maybe. (and when I implement ghazi islamic buildings)
-The berber statelet of El Rif is a pagan worshipping mini-kingdom of Tecron, Amanai is their poison.
-there's a couple of maraboutist provinces hiding in there...and the Ibadi of Tahert to the East might decide to barge in too.


-Aksumite Kingdom worshipping Ts'ähäy Mahrem - their own version of a Warrior Sun god, with their dynasty claiming descent from him...this is a true Holy Empire of Light...a bad tempered one.
-Solomonic Christianity...yep! More interesting than Monophysite for a proper neo-Solomonic Empire!
-As you can see pagans are alive and well in South Arabia... and Saba is ready to expell Islam from the peninsula! It's a proper super-power by this scenario's fragmentation standards...needs a nerf.



some notes:
-The Sassanid Eranshahr ruling from the old capital of Estakhr. The Realm of Light is eternal! Can you be the true Aryamehr?
-Indohellenic Buddhist Sakhastan! The hosts of war assemble... Gautama Buddha might not be so proud.
-Bactria...need I say more? Time for another Megas Alexandros to rise and ride into the west to reclaim the glory that once was!
-Indohellenic Hindu Kingdom of Sindhia!
-And a lot more! From the Zoroastrian Hindu merchant princes of Hormouz to the lurking Shadow of Parthia in the North...





-The embitered Parthian Khwarazmshahiyan embraced Angra Mainyu! A new Shadow will come from the North and sweep the Lands of Persia under the Lords of Eternal Darkness!
-The Serindian Buddhists of Marakanda!
-Nestorian Bukhara! Can Christianity thrive in the East?
-A man claiming to be Bumin reborn of the great Ashina has arrived! The Celestial Turks are back, ready to reforge their empire! There can be only one true Khaghan under the Great Blue Sky.
-Manichaean Uyghurs! Their only regret is there is no China to invade...(damn you map)
-Kimek Khan-Priests!
-The Buddhist Seljuks! Alp Arslan, champion of Gautama Buddha!
-and...a personal favorite...Parthian Khorasan! The bloodline of the ancient Parthian sovereigns rules from their ancient capital of Asaak! They are bidding their time, waiting to be crowned once more as rightful Kings of Kings. The Ashkâniân will rise again!

And now the situation North of the Pontus Euxinus: (if you want to see more of this go page 15)


-In the Crimea...we have... the Principality of Gothia! Antinomian Goths!!! (sorry I could not abstain myself haha - some might get this hehe)
-Bosporan Kingdom! The Hellenes bow to none but Apollo Boreas! Unbent, unconquered and unbroken! Time for a Hellenistic Pontus Euxinus!
-Jewish Khazaria! Did anyone doubt this was going to be here?
-The splinter Khazar state worshipping Yahweh Sabaoth! The Lord of Hosts be their guide! Victory is theirs!

FRANCIA and co:

Francia and co: (for screens of religions and cultures go page 16)

-This world's Carolingian Empire was not as succesful as ours. You can see a massive Pagan block to the East still holding strong.(the screenshot cuts of at the former Imperial border pretty much) That area is also culturally different - that's the Tiudiskaz block - the Germanic Pagans. The Carolingian Eastern border didn't go as far as in our reality, neither did the Empire succeed in matching its exploits in our reality in the SE or SW. It was also much more of a theoretical empire than an actual one, with many practically independent areas being theoretical vassals.

Some notes on states:
-Francia proper is held by a revived Merovingian dynasty. The proper sang real gets a second chance! Unctionism and royal supremacy in the affairs of the Church! In opposition to the Papacy and its support of the Carolingians this restored Merovingian state is in deep trouble... Nothing some laying on hands can't cure!
-Capetian Neustria - for those who can't help but want to build a Capetian France...
-Lotharingian Karling line ruling over...Antinomian Goths! Yes, it seems Germanic people have a thing for Antinomianism! :cool:
-The Karlings of Austrasia!(the blue kingdom surrounding the Imperial capital -the Imperial CoA obscurs theirs hehe) Proper Catholic Karlings. Your best bet for reforming the Empire in the proper manner.
-The Sacral Emperor! A pitiful but majestic figure "ruling" over Aachen, the former Imperial Capital. Think Japanese Emperor during the Shogunate if you want a paralel. Everyone smiles and bows but sadly that's about as far as imperial majesty goes... can you restore the Empire? A Carolingian Meiji restoration is in order. :p
-Romanogothic Kingdom of Aquitaine! The Bastion of Arianism.
-And so much more...from the Romano-Burgundian Kingdom of Arles to the Sacred Heart of Solar Christianity - Lyon!

Norway sneak peak:


-Kingdom of Agder - for those who want to make Norway Catholic...(why? :cool:)
-Raumariki - Norse Christians...Odin-Christ has redeemed them! Who needs the Pope anyway?
-Hordaland and Lade = Norse Pagans. For those who want to build a proper Viking empire and terrorize all they survey.
-in the North you can see a tiny fragment of Halogaland - the cult of Ragnarok holds sway there - beware! Winter is coming! ;)


Some notes on the less obvious stuff:
-The Rurikids of Holmgardr! They've copied the Romans and adopted Ódinn-Sól as their patron! They will build their new Empire of Gardariki!
-Kiev under a Rurikid branch descending from Oleg the Seer.
-Turov ruled by the non-Rurikid ancient local dynasty descended from Tur.
-Volhynia ruled by Haskuldrings - non-Rurikids descended from the varangian Haskuldr - descended from Ragnar Lodbrok!
-Siveria under the Dyrings - descended from Dyri - one of Rurik's lieutenants.
-Truvorings in Tver - descended from Rurik's brother Truvor
-Yulianovichs of Pereyaslavl rightly claim the bloodline of Roman Emperors. Can there be such a thing as a Russian Czar?
-the Vladimirovichs of Chernigov...this Rurikid line embraced Christianity...with dire consequences.
-Eirikings in Sursdalar - these varangians claim descent from Erik the Victorious!
-And a strange twist of fate... Styrbjörnings! Styrbjörn the Strong's descendants rule in Yaroslavl!
-Svafrlamings ruling over Rádstofa! The legendary Odinid kings of Gardariki exist! Their divine heritage might be in question, but their swords will silence the naysayers!
-Haakonings in Vitebsk. Descendants of the Jarl of Lade, Haakon Sigurdsson who helped the Rurikid Valdamarr the Great reclaim his lands.
-Ingvarrings rule over Beloozero. Ingvar Vittfarne's bloodline is ready to go South once more!



norse_christ;Norse Christian;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
solomonic_christ;Solomonic Christian;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
GOD_SOL;Sol Invictus;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_SOL;The Scriptures;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
sol_apollo;Apollo Helios;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
sol_boreas;Apollo Boreas;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
sol_tsahay;Ts'ähäy Mahrem;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
GOD_MANI;The Father of Greatness;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_MANI;The Scriptures of Mani;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_MITHRA;The Mysteries of Mithras;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_TORAH;The Torah;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
indoh_bud;Indo-Hellenic Buddhist;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
indoh_hindu;Indo-Hellenic Hindu;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
GOD_HELEN;The Divine;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_HELEN;The Sacred Texts;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_ZAL;The Mysteries of Zalmoxis;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
vattisenyaly;Vattisen Yaly;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
celtic_pagan;Celtic Pagan;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_CELTIC;The Legends;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
german_pagan;Germanic Pagan;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
allfather;The Allfather;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
jupiter;Jupiter Optimus Maximus;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
roman_imperial;Imperial Cult;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_PLATO;The Neoplatonic Texts;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
GOD_PLATO;The One;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
plato_christ;Platonic Christian;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
plato_pythagorean;Platonic Pythagorean;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
plato_islam;Platonic Islam;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
ilm_islam;Ilm Islamic;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
ghazi_islam;Ghazi Islamic;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
berber_pagan;Berber Pagan;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
arab_pagan;'Abdaal ash-Shams;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
shams;Al Shams;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_BUD;The Sutras;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
GOD_BUD;Gautama Buddha;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
bud_gandharan;Gandharan Buddhist;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_MAND;The Genza Rabba;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
mand_ruha;Ruha d-Qudsha;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
THE_YAZ;The Sacred Texts;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
zor_angra;Angra Mainyu;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
zor_hindu;Zoroastrian Hindu;;;;;;;;;;;;;x
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Sol Invictus
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Thank you Arko. I'll look into it when I get to it hehehe, atm I'm a bit far off from sorting the coas hehe.



Behold the Leper King of Carthage! Whip of Arius, and Hannibal wannabe. He's a kinslaying poet...his poetry is so bad his brothers died when they heard it. I've nerfed Carthage bad, you can see they're a remnant state atm... once I get to testing balance I might give some provinces back (it was quite a bit bigger) but I'm thinking the Leper King would enjoy a proper challenge,(never mind getting heirs haha) and 4 provinces is not that bad to start with given I'm fragmenting everything to a whole new level. :glare:

Any feedback/suggestions are appreciated!
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Red zone
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Thank you Arko. I'll look into it when I get to it hehehe, atm I'm a bit far off from sorting the coas hehe.

Finding suitable Coa for Vandales, Visigoths and such will require a bit of imagination hehe^^


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I have some questions and ideas that I kind of want to suggest.

First off will there be Mongols at all in this? The Mongols may have invaded anyways, but initially the reason why the Mongols invaded (via the Ilkhanate) was because a Mongol emissary was killed by a Muslim Persia. With a Sassinid Persia in play this event may never have occurred and the Mongols could've stayed in the east and focused on conquering Vietnam and Japan for instance. Another point is that the Muslim Timurids would never have shown their faces in the west because the entire story of their origin would be wrong.

Another thing is what are you doing for religions in the east and west? Are you making Arianism its own religion or just a heresy of Christianity? What will the new Christian heresies be? What are the heresies of Sol Invictus? Not being a scholar on Middle Eastern religion is Ahura Mazhda simply a part of Zoroastrianism? Also I kind of would like to request a makeover for other pagan faiths to make them more playable and what not especially if there is other highly advanced pagans at play. So for instance a makeover for the Cumans (if they are even in your mod) making Tengri its own faith with its own heresies and whatnot.

Finally I can help research faiths and their heresies and whatnot to help flesh out that aspect of the game if you feel like it. So if you want a pagan Celtic Britain I can help with that for instance. If you just want to make some of these things up that's cool too.

Finally awesome concept and I wish all the best to you!


Sol Invictus
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Aye, imagination + inspiration drawn from the gazillion history books lying around the house = profit. If the results are bad, I can blame stuff on alternate history hehe.


Thank you! I'll be showing more as I go, I'm in the process of fixing things - my original mod and this public version I'm working on are different beasts.

A quick answer now before I go to bed (1am here)
-Mongols I haven't touched them yet. My original mod started in 1000 and I never got to them, so I never actually bothered to implement anything about them. I'm brainstorming what I wanna do about them and invasions in general though - because I WANT THEM!(invasions not necessarily mongols, this is alternate history and I can think of a few horrific possibilites) I'm thinking what I can do on that front to have some serious serious trouble coming from the East at some point.
-Arianism is a heresy atm. It will most likely stay a heresy. That might change. I'm open to change on this front.
-On other heresies/religion and the like - Pelagianism will be a heresy. Manicheism will be in although it's getting a proper religion slot.
-Ahura Mazda is a part of Zoroastrianism yes.
-Sol Invictus religion has no heresies implemented - I am thinking of giving it 2.
-Religious makeovers of pagan faiths will be adressed in the future I hope. Although I think I made Tengri its own faith? I honestly forget hehehe, will check tomorrow.

Any feedback/suggestions/inspiring research/ideas on heresies/whatnot is appreciated and might be used. I stress the word "might" because this universe I'm implementing here is something I've been thinking about for many years now and some of its aspects are kind of set in stone although I am adapting a gazillion things to make it more interesting from a gameplay perspective.


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Cool I forgot to mention before but what are you doing for the papacy is it in the game and does it act like the ecumenical patriarch within the Western Roman Empire? Also does the West still exist or has it been overrun by Ostrogoths and whatnot?

Also another thing you might want to ask the people over on the new cultures thread to come up with the cultures for you just to save you some time.


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What about the far-flung British Isles? Are they ardent Christians or still under the sway of paganism? If Christian I would consider adding in a heresy called "Celtic Christianity" for them as without a central power to bring them in line (like the Catholic Church) they would deviate a bit into something slightly 'unique' (which is how Celtic Christianity came about in the first place, iirc).


Sol Invictus
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Thank you, I hope you'll enjoy it. This mod can be quite fun even in its current state. :)

@van Helsing

BLC 8d (hmmm I haven't even released that lol) is fully implemented in the mod... and some graphical aspects regarding portraits will have to be modifed yes. I can't have my Pagan Rhomaioi (proud of their Roman anti-Christian heritage) look like Orthodox Byzantines for one... I also need to realize people's computers can have memory issues with full BLC, (i played this mod for 10? hours at one point and had 0 issues though) so I might have to do a BLC light customized for this mod.


The Papacy was not a focus of mine-playable factions are hehe.(I will do some things for it in the future though and listen to suggestions....hmmm maybe even make it playable?) It currently has no counties... I might change that. There is a Western Emperor -although...you could call him a universal joke rather than Emperor. :laugh:


Well, I will most likely release some playable public version sometime next week. Keep in mind that this will be 0.1a, something intended to allow people to see the setup and give feedback /suggestions -not an incredibly detailed/complex/polished version. If there is interest in it, I will start building the public version from there - most likely like i did with BLC -> add some things, release 0.1b, add more things release 0.1c, more substantial additions go to 0.2 etc. I am not a fan of waiting forever to release a version, much rather do smaller additions as I go and I want some version out to see if there's interest in building it up.


The British Islands are a mess. (Petty kingdoms ahoy) Maybe I'll post a screenshot of them later today after I fix the setup a bit to its new 1066 more fragmentation format. I was going to make them Pelagian (I have not implemented a heresy there yet) actually well the Christians at least - there's plenty pagans still -as a rule periphereal areas of Christianity got tons of pagan strongholds.
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If you want to make the pagan faiths all full fledged religions I have a list of heresies for the pagan faiths on the Religion and Heresy thread. I'll go add Celtic Paganism to the list along with its heresies. Its on the 3rd page of the thread.

Also another question I wanted to ask but forgot to was how are you handling holy wars? Can pagans declare holy wars? And are you doing the 100 piety cost to holy wars or not?
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