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1875 Election Results, Reichstag session and its aftermath

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1875 Election Results, Reichstag session and its aftermath

On the 15th of March 1875, the national newspaper announced the results of the elections.


A more detailed look of the Reichstag composition:


The USPD, as newcomer made immense advances, becoming the biggest party in the Reichstag. Their seemingly radical character and rumours that they had been speaking to the PVP had made many afraid that the end of the Constitution was at hand. This fear reached the highest of echelons and even influenced the Kaiser in his decision making process. The Kaiser, who recognized the need for reform and who attributed the current problems to the indecisiveness of the previous coalitions, summoned the leaders of the DkP (Alexander von Hoth), NLP (Leopold von Hofmeinster) and PVP (Hans von Klopp) to the palace. The Kaiser made clear that they had to form a government to bring the much needed reform and calm down the populous. Leopold von Hofmeinster could not bring himself to agree to a coalition with the PVP and thus the Kaiser dismissed him and summoned Karl Birnbaum, brother of former Chancellor Ruprecht Birnbaum. Birnbaum agreed in name of the NLP to form a coalition under his leadership, but he made clear that the sole purpose of this government would be to bring about social reform, thus not leaving room for the PVP's own political agenda. The four men then discussed Cabinet positions before calling the Reichstag for a vote on the Chancellor.


Kaiser Friedrich III

In the Reichstag, two candidates announced their candidacy for Chancellor: Karl Birnbaum (NLP) and David Blaustein (USPD). Both men were allowed to hold a speech to convince the Reichstag who to vote for. David Blaustein went first:

"Ahem, dear comrades, deputies.
I stand here today with a 21% election result. This is a strong signal from our glorious people. We are on the brink of a social abyss - if we don't act now the workers will lose all reason - we are not against the Reich but we must improve working conditions to bring prosperity to all! Therefore I ask for the support of all present here!"

While rather short, Blaustein's speech received applause from the USPD, while the DkP's reaction remained stone cold. After Blaustein, Birnbaum took the stage to address the Reichstag, already certain of his election before he even reached the stand:

"Thank you, Your Highness. First of all let me thank all those present here across all parties. The next 5 years will be pivotal for this nation. We are at a breaking point. For decades Germany has had a successful foreign and economic policy. Our industry is booming, we have been at peace with our neighbours ever since our unification. However, while we might think of Germany as being a stable and wellfaring country, quite the contrary is the situation in our cities and in the countryside. The economic boom has failed to trickle down to the poorest. We as politicians have failed for far too long to be there for our people. As a result, they became angry with us and sought leadership in misguided corners, such as the vile Voices of Müller. It is time we come together across all aisles, bridge any divide that might prevent us to work for the people of this great nation It is therefore that I step forward as candidate, just as my brother did all those years ago when Germany most needed stability in a period of transition. As Chancellor I will make it my priority to implement the much needed reforms that our people are calling for. Only by listening to them can we prevent them from being misled by the Devil and his agents. I call upon the Reichstag to overlook our ideological differences so that we may ensure that our children can enjoy the same freedoms as we do and that they may live in a country they can be proud to call home. Thank you."

After both candidates had made their speech, the Kaiser called for a vote. In the end, Birnbaum won with an overwhelming support of 395 votes, while Blaustein stranded on 105 votes, coming exclusively from the USPD. Soon after, the Kaiser issued a decree, appointing members of the NLP, DkP and PVP to cabinet positions:
Minister for Foreign Affairs: Otto von Bismarck
Minister of the Interior: Alexander von Hoth (DkP)
Minister for War: Heinrich Berg (NLP)
Minister of the Treasury: Wilhelm H. von Donnersmarck (DkP)
Minister of Justice: Hans Friedrich von Röhm (PVP)
Minister of Education: Hans von Klopp (PVP)
Minister of Labour: Heinrich Hartmann (NLP)

While Birnbaum promised reform, many feared that he had given the keys to government willingly to the reactionaries of the PVP and thus effectively ensured this government to be as ineffective in bringing reform as the previous ones. But behind closed doors, the gears of history started turning. The Chancellor got to work and met with the Kaiser to propose three major reforms: one economical in nature, one social in nature and one political in nature. In combination with Minister von Hoth's reform for minimum wage, 14 hour work day and minimal safety regulations, the stage was set for perhaps the most important Reichstag session in decades.



Chancellor Birnbaum at the 1875 Reichstag Session.

During the Reichstag session, the coalition already looked as if it was falling apart, with Herr Hartmann (NLP) constantly bickering with Herr von Röhm (PVP). Nonetheless, the reforms still passed due to widespread support across all parties. The following bills were passed:

Worker Improvement Act (by Alexander von Hoth, DkP)
The common German worker has been breaking his back just to feed his family and it’s upon the state to act in order to preserve the well-being not only of the German worker but the preservation of the established industrial buildings and complexes. This bill introduces :
Minimum wage
While the common German worker has been working day and night, he and his family make barely any money and some of them don't even meet their everyday needs. It is upon the state to act and enforce what the people have needed in a long time - a minimum wage. With a minimum enforced, both the German worker and the industrialist will benefit. One, pleased by a workable environment, and the other by hard-working people that bring profits.
Effect: Trinket Minimum Wage
Safety regulations
In order to protect the lives of everyone working in a factory, the state must pass regulations concerning the safety of every German in the factory. Not only saving someone's job but his investment also. Most importantly, it does not save only the workplace, but many lives that could be lost by a small mistake due to tiredness. The idea is that an employer is obligated to provide a safe working environment, required safeguarding of moving parts as well as mill gearing, as modeled by the British.
Effect: Minimal safety regulations
Work hours
Even if they are protected in the workplace, they still work for very long periods of time. Thus, not only tiring themselves but also losing productivity, and some even their lives. In addition, according to the latest research, people who work for longer may cause more productivity but for a short period of time and not only that, the major matter is that by working longer they increase the risk of making even a small mistake which could cost people their lives. The least they deserve is for the state to regulate their work hours.
Effect: 14 Hour Work Day
Minimum wages are enforced by the Ministry of Labor and paid by the factories, while Work Hours and Safety Regulations are enforced by the Ministry of Labour and it’s the duty of the factories to act in accordance with the Ministry in order to safeguard both the lives of the working German and the investor of such an establishment - the industrialist.


Imperial Customs Act of 1875 (by Karl Birnbaum, NLP)
Under the current law, German cities can implement so called octroi duties, these are local taxes imposed on various articles brought into a district for consumption. The various articles that are affected by these local taxes are often basic stuff like bread, fruit, meat and other goods that are usually produced outside of the city. For this reason, prices for these basic food stuffs are artificially increased by the octroi duties and make life in the city cheaper than life on the country side. It is no surprise then, that when the prices of food are on the rise, the cities are hit extra hard. It is the poorest and the weakest that are often the victim of this outdated policy and therefore, this bill will abolish the system of octroi duties on food products. Upon implementation, local governments will no longer have the authority to tax the import of food products and the freedom of trade of these products will be guaranteed within the borders of the German Empire. To compensate for the income loss cities will suffer from, a part of the income from tariffs will be diverted to local administrations. This bill will ensure that whether you live in the city or in the countryside, you will have an equal access to basic life needs.
Effect: Research Market Regulations


Old Age and Disability Insurance Act (by Karl Birnbaum, NLP)
To protect those who have worked all their life and have made Germany a prosperous country, the government shall grant those who are above the age of 70 and who worked for at least 40 years in total, a pension funded from government taxes. This program will cover industrial as well as agrarian workers, both artisans and servants, and anyone who at one time was employed by the government. Those who are permanently disabled also will have access to this pension regardless of their age. The Ministry of Labour will be granted supervision over the pension system.
Effect: Trinket Pensions

Amendment to Parts 4 and 5 (Point 8) of the Constitution (by Karl Birnbaum, NLP)
Point 8 of Part 5 will be transferred under Part 4 as following:
1. When running for elections, candidates must swear an oath of loyalty to the Kaiser and to the Constitution. Breaking this provision will be punished as determined by Part 2, Section 9 of the penal code.
2. Political parties, as defined by paragraph 3, shall participate in the formation of the political will of the people. They may be freely established. Their organisation must conform to the Constitution. They must publicly account for their assets and for the sources and use of their funds.
3. A political party is an organized group of people who have the same ideology, or who otherwise have the same political positions, and who field candidates for elections, in an attempt to get them elected and thereby implement the party's agenda.
4. Parties that, by reason of their aims or the behaviour of their adherents, seek to undermine or abolish the Constitutional order or to endanger the existence of the German Empire shall be unconstitutional. The
Imperial Constitutional Court shall rule on the question of unconstitutionality.
5. The Imperial Constitutional Court shall rule on the question of unconstitutionality within the meaning of paragraph (4).
Effect: Gerrymandering

Doctrine Advancement Act (by Wolfgang zu Eulenburg, PVP)
Currently, we are lagging far behind our neighbors in the Doctrines of warfare.While they have moved further, we are still using the same military tactics that were found in the aftermath of the Napoleonic. We must put our top generals to the task in order to further move on from old military doctrines, and develop new strategic doctrines.
Effect: Research Strategic Mobility, Point Defense System and Army Risk Management

Investment in New Industry Bill (by Wolfgang zu Eulenburg, PVP)
The German Empire prides itself on being on the very forefront of science and new technology, with our universities among the finest in the world in such matters. With this in mind, the time has come to invest further in the new technical developments and industry that our world class scientists are developing, to ensure Germany remains the finest scientific nation in the world.
Effect: Research Electricity

Police Funding Act (by Hans Friedrich von Röhm, PVP)
The recent Socialist uprisings have shown the requirement of a well trained and funded police force to quell the spread of dissidents and hostile agents through our great nation. This bill proposes a 5% year-on-year increase in police funding until 1880, with 10% of this ring fenced for the newly established Abteilung V force.
Effect: increase administrative spending 5%

Critics of Birnbaum outside of the Reichstag were seemingly proven wrong as all reforms passed with relative ease and the PVP didn't succeed at pushing its own political agenda in the Reichstag. However, minutes after the end of the Reichstag session, the Gendarmerie discovered something that would shake up politics in the capital once again. After getting a hint from an informant, Abteilung V investigated a house in the Sommerstraße where they found a tunnel, that was being dug in the basement. The diggers, who were surprised by the officers, quickly surrendered, though one of them died, when he tried to charge the team. Upon further investigation, they found several crates of explosives hidden behind a false wall. From the direction the tunnel was being dug it was suspected that the suspects tried to undermine the Reichstag building and plant the explosives there, to what end was as of yet unknown, as none of the suspects had told anything. The only tangible hint that they had on them was a letter which promised a powerful position within the USPD as payment for blowing up the Reichstag, however it was yet to be authenticated. Further investigation discovered that Lutz Müller, born Lutz Bauer, known associate of Josef Müller and member of the Voices of Müller, had orchestrated the entire thing. No proof was found to prove the connection between the Voices of Müller and the USPD. Following the discovery, those involved with the Voices were arrested for questioning.



The Reichstag building as it stood in 1875, if history had taken a different course the building could have been destroyed that year.

Following these events Hans von Klopp, leader of the PVP, made a statement that caused widespread unrest in Berlin and beyond, giving new ammunition to critics of Chancellor Birnbaum:

"
People of Germany, I have said this before, and I will say it again and again and again until it gets through: we must take immediate, crushing action against the socialist and communist threats. They have terrorized our nation for too long. Enough is enough! We cannot bear it any longer! I call for three measures to be taken immediately, and afterwards further action must be taken to prevent these threats from rising again. Firstly, I call for the immediate reintroduction of censorship to the press. Had the terrible act of 1843 never been passed, perhaps we would never have gotten ourselves into this mess in the first place. These organizations thrive on the spreading of their vicious ideas through the press, and the time has come to ensure once more that traitorous ideas are not spread amongst the people by the press. Censorship against the socialists and the communists must be implemented, we must protect our people! Free press leads to nothing but chaos and treason against the state!
Secondly, all socialist and communist organizations must be immediately banned, and this must include political parties. Abteilung V must enforce these bans, and they must act with fire and fury. Absolute, brutal force is the only answer to these horrible plagues on our society. After these organizations are banned, any member who continues to associate with socialist or communist ideas are to be arrested and executed for treason. There can be no mercy! The third essential step must be the dissolvement of the Reichstag for the remainder of this term. The kaiser must seize his executive, rightful power, and act alone to take decisive action for the next 3 years. This reichstag, mark my words, will prove itself incompetent and unable to deal with these threats. The kaiser must act alone, and without the interference of this farce of a government. These measures are extreme, but so are our enemies. We must crush them, and we must crush them now! There is no time to wait, we cannot endure this any longer! Down with the socialists! Down with the Communists! Down with the traitorous press! Death to traitors!"

Hans von Klopp's words caused immediate unrest and led to a sit-in in front of the Reichstag organized by Leopold von Hofmeinster, who had stepped down as leader of the NLP in the wake of his meeting with the Kaiser. Leopold was quickly joined by his friends and family, as well as members from the SPD, PKW and the German suffragette movement. While von Hofmeinster's actions were intended as a peaceful protesting, the entire situation grew out of hand when the Gendarmerie arrived on orders of Minister von Hoth, who had also called for a General Staff meeting with neither the Kaiser, nor the Minister for War present.
The protest in front the Reichstag led to a mass outrage and a mob then proceeded to storm the PVP Headquarters in Berlin and attacked the Gendarmerie when they moved in. This led to small scale street fights between Gendarmerie and the protesters, many referring to Leopold von Hofmeinster as their leader and claiming his retirement was forced upon him to oppress the masses. Leopold von Hofmeinster was swiftly arrested by Abteilung V for inciting and leading this violent incident.


A riot quickly erupted out of Leopold von Hofmeinster's peaceful sit-in.

While von Hofmeinster personally blamed Chancellor Birnbaum for allowing this to happen, the Chancellor at the time of the events wasn't even in Berlin. As soon as he arrived back and learned of the situation, he wrote a letter to the Kaiser, calling for the dismissal of Ministers von Klopp and von Hoth for their reckless behavior and for insubordination. Kaiser Friedrich III thereafter dismissed both Ministers and summoned Herr von Klopp to the palace. The Kaiser gave no mercy to von Klopp, forced him into retirement, effectively ending the existance of the PVP in the process. Realizing his mistake of calling in the Gendarmerie on a peaceful sit-in and thus also escalating the situation, but also realizing his insubordination for calling a General Staff meeting and giving orders to a fellow General, Alexander von Hoth retired from the DkP leadership, triggering a crisis within the DkP as well. An internal election was held between Herr von Donnersmarck and Herr Hartmann who had left the NLP during these events. Heinrich Hartmann was elected as the DkP's new leader, upon which Herr von Donnersmarck left the DkP to join the NLP. The members of the PVP, now without a proper leadership and a Kaiser hostile to their existance, either sat out their term as independents for the time remaining or joined the DkP. Chancellor Birnbaum was also summoned to the palace and told to get his party in line again. After all, it was a member of his party who had started the sit-in and was thus partially responsible. Nonetheless, the Kaiser reaffirmed his trust in the Chancellor to implement the reforms that the Reichstag had just passed and provided him with replacements in HM's Cabinet:
Minister for Foreign Affairs: Otto von Bismarck
Minister of the Interior: Heinrich Hartmann (DkP)
Minister for War: Heinrich Berg (NLP)
Minister of the Treasury: Wilhelm H. von Donnersmarck (NLP)
Minister of Justice: Hans Friedrich von Röhm (Independent)
Minister of Education: Friederich Ritter von Coesfeld (PKW)

1875 was a turbulent year to say the least. It had seen the rise of a new party, the USPD, whose goals were still unclear and achievements even more so. It had seen a liberal Chancellor being elected into office with the support of both the SPD and the PVP, almost polar opposites in the Reichstag on every issue. It had seen a cabinet fighting amongst itself in the Reichstag. It had seen a peaceful sit-in escalate into a violent riot and looting. It had seen the dismissal as Minister of a member of arguably one of the most influential families in Germany, the von Hoths. It had seen the rapid disintegration of the PVP and a struggle for leadership within the DkP. Yet Chancellor Birnbaum was still in office, now leading a new government of NLP, DkP, independents and one member of the PKW, a government with the important task of implementing the reforms the German people so desperately needed.
 
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Gameplay 1875-1877

SibCDC

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Gameplay 1875-1877
Despite the chaos of 1875, HM's Cabinet and the Chancellor both remained in place to govern the country. With reactionary forces in the Reichstag seemingly scattered, no hinderance in regards to implementing the reforms were expected. As the call of the workers for a minimum wage was responded, pensions for the old were being made available and bread prices dropped across the country due to lower city taxes on imports, the unrest which had plagued previous years, died down. While the Ministries of Interior and of the Treasury were busy overseeing these reforms, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs under Bismarck was continuing German Africa policy by incorporating Oyo into the German sphere of influence in Nigeria. Bismarck further increased German presence in the Nigerian hinterland by ensuring the local African tribes adopted a favorable stance to German traders and by getting local rulers to hire German advisors into their courts. Bismarck's efforts were criticized by the Anti-Colonial League, who denounced what they saw as the government's endorsement of theft, larceny and murder to achieve its goals in Nigeria.


In June, the Ministry of War began implementing a new doctrine as it was high time that modernization in the army was implemented. Strategic Mobility would become the new standard. Railroads were used in previous wars to get troops to the front quickly, and this tactic had proven vital to beat countries like France and Austria, but it had always been used in an unorganized and streamlined way. Minister Berg made work of Railroad Transport Groups to streamline the process in the future, while advancements in fortification technology would allow for more flexibility in the field, allowing a more mobile army in the end.


In August of 1875, the German suffragette movement had organized another leaflet campaign, this time in the Rheinland. The call for property and marriage rights, as well as the right to vote, became ever louder. Yet, still no one in the Reichstag took the movement serious enough to propose any meaningful reforms.


In September of '75, the Ministry of Education, under Minister von Coesfeld, worked towards a more modern understanding of biology in the state curriculum for German schools. This more modern understanding included the teachings of Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution. While the Catholic Church and reactionary elements in society were still opposed to Darwinism, it was widely accepted by the German intelligencia and liberal circles.


In December of 1875, as the composer Richard Wagner completed the construction of the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, news arrived that the Ottoman Empire had declared war on the Netherlands over Kuwait and requested that their allies, the Germans, assisted them in this war. Chancellor Birnbaum called a meeting with the Kaiser, Minister of Foreign Affairs Bismarck and Minister of War Berg. The outcome of the meeting was the decision to refuse the Ottoman call to war. The reason for this was that the Dutch had called in France and Spain against the Ottomans. As Spain was an ally of Germany and in a vital position against the French, the decision was made to not risk the alliance with Spain by joining the Ottomans. While the alliance with the Ottomans was ended as a result, relations with Spain improved.



In June of 1876, the issue of women's rights once again showed up in the media when a group of women held a sit-in at a university lecture, demanding the right to attend higher education. Once again, no one in the Reichstag listened to their call, despite the fact that it was becoming an ever louder movement.


That same month, the Ministry of Treasury began the implementation of the Imperial Customs Act, effectively fading out the many different city taxes that were imposed on grain, fruits, meat, vegetables and many other basic food supplies. While the initial effects on city funding could be felt, problems were soon resolved due to an amended budget from income from tariffs.


In September of 1876, an archaeology time of the German Archaeology Association uncovered a mummy in the Egyptian Valley of Kings. The mummy is reportedly an Egytian High-Priest from the 19th dynasty and will make a fine addition to the Egyptian collection in the Neues Museum in Berlin.


In November of 1876, a crisis occurred in Neuchatel which would see the German government butt heads with the Swiss government. In the Swiss canton of Neuchatel, there had been an unsuccessful pro-German uprising which led to the imprisonment of prominent members of the Pourtalès family. Kaiser Friedrich negotiated for their release and the Swiss agreed to release them if the Royal House of Prussia finally revoked its claim on Neuchatel. And thus, the small canton was finally completely integrated into Switzerland.



1877 Newspapers




 
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Gameplay 1877-1879

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Gameplay 1877-1879

In the 1877 Reichstag Session several bills were passed which would influence German policy in the next few years (you can find a written record of the procedures here). Perhaps most important of all was the ratification of the Geneva Convention in Germany's name. While Germany itself had been at peace since 1857, the government at the time of the Geneva Convention had not sent a delegation to Switzerland. Minister of Justice von Röhm, however, deemed it important to participate in the international community and motioned the Reichstag to approve the Conventions of Geneva. In March, the Ministry of Education under Friederich von Coesfeld approved a new university curriculum for social sciences, a new field of studies which would influence many great thinkers in the future.


In April, the Kaiser would be faced with a difficult decision. Germany's ally, Serbia, had declared war on Romania to liberate Moldova. Romania's ally Austria-Hungary thereafter declared war on Serbia. Serbia now requested Germany for help in this war against the overwhelming Austrian-Hungarian army. The Kaiser accepted and moves his chess pieces into position. 5 army groups quickly moved into Bohemia, while the rest of the armies took a defensive position in Bavaria and Silesia.


On June 21st, the VII. Korps under Generalleutnant von Heidelberg and the VI. Korps under the command of Minister of War Heinrich Berg defeated the Austrian enemy at the Battle of Landshut in Bavaria. It was a costly battle and saw many more Germans than Austrians die. Perhaps years of peace had made the German army's tactics outdated.


As the I. Korps under General Hartmann, brother of the late Alexander Hartmann, moved in to Prague, several Austro-Hungarian forces had penetrated the German defences in both Silesia and Bavaria.


An important battle was won by General von Stockbrünn and his V. Korps at the Battle of Waldenburg on the 14th of August 1877. While only 4400 casualties were reported in the German ranks, 22 939 casualties were counted among the Austro-Hungarian ranks. By the end of August, General Hartmann had captured Prague and now made his move towards Vienna to end this war and prevent further death. Another major victory occurred, however, when the II. Korps under General Elric Helmke caught a leaderless Austrian army by surprise at Olomouc and utterly decimated it.


In the meantime, the Austrians were causing trouble in Silesia by circumventing the German defence forces. Eventually they were dealt with by several armies from the Heeresgruppe Röhm which had been stationed on the French border. It took several more battles until the Austrians were finally beaten in October, when they sued for peace. While General Hartmann did not succeed in taking Vienna, he came close enough to make the Austrians capitulate. Peace was signed and Moldova was liberated, but their independence would be of short duration.


In November, news arrived from the Somalian coast about terrible practices such as slavery and slave trade. In reaction, the German Empire declared war to establish a protectorate and abolish slavery in Geledi. Around the same time, another major European war broke out when Portugal declared war on the Netherlands, thereby triggering a war between Britain and France.


In February of 1878, while German forces had successfully landed in Mogadishu and destroyed local forces, the suffragette movement in Germany once again came to the forefront as the call for higher education for women became louder than ever. At the same time, the Germans woud take lessons from the high losses against Austria and invested into a new war doctrine.


On June 1, native resistance in Geledi had stopped and the region was formally integrated as a colony of the German Empire. The process of abolishing slavery in the region could begin. By the end of August 1878, great news arrived from the Ottoman Empire. A German archaeologist by the name of Heinrich Schliemann had uncovered the remnants of the mythical city of Troy. Schliemann's discovery was the result of careful planning by Elouise von Märchenlied, funding from the German Archaeology Association and careful diplomacy by its leader, Herr von Donnersmarck. All archaeological treasures were quickly put on display in the Neues Museum in Berlin.


In September of '78, the Ministry of War continued its effort to modernize the army and implemented several reforms to manage risk in future armed conflicts. Wargames, alternative plans and saddle orders would all have to assure a flexible and risk-reducing army doctrine. In December of '78, the German army proudly paraded through Berlin with several colonial brigades participating to celebrate the German colonial empire.


In February of 1879, Berlin was the theater of another big international event when women from all across Europe convened in a "parliament" to discuss the suffragette movement. The outcome of the two-day convention was a public statement calling for equality for women in matters of family law, education, property rights, jobs, religion and morals.


In April, the United Kingdom got involved in a brief war in Siam and called Germany's assistance in the conflict. While Germany agreed, they did not commit any effort to the war. The war for a concession in Siam had large consequences for the British at home, however. While opposition to the war grew at home, it did much more so in Ireland. An open revolt threatened to end British rule on the Emerald Isle and the House of Commons in London was forced to accept Home Rule for their Catholic neighbours in Dublin.


In July of 1879, the Ministry of the Treasury under Minister von Donnersmarck finally made work of extending funding to mines across the country to integrate modern drilling and blasting techniques into their mode of operation. Several new advancements in the field would revolutionize the output efficiency of the mines and allow Germany to make full use of its natural resources.


In September, a revolt in Finland against Russia prompted the Swedish government to make use of the situation and take the Aland Islands. Sweden thereby called upon Germany to grant support in their war effort. The German Kaiser accepted this request and ordered the I. Flotte to sink the Finnish fleet in the Baltic to protect German shipping. In the only German naval victory against a European navy thus far, the entire Finnish fleet was destroyed without damaging a single German vessel.


By the end of September of 1879, Minister of Foreign Affairs Otto von Bismarck had succeeded in reeling the Danish into the German sphere of influence. It became ever more clear that Germany's friendship with the Germanic countries was a guiding line for its foreign policy. By December, the war in Finland had come to an end and the Aland Islands became part of Sweden. The end of the month also saw another major victory for Minister Bismarck as he was able to get Persia to grant extraterritoriality to Germany.


With the 1880 elections fast approaching, many questions came over Germany. Most prominent was the question of Germany's army and the fact that in the war against Austria-Hungary, many more soldiers were lost than were necessary.

1880 Newspapers


 
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Elections of 1880

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Elections of 1880:
It is time again. The last five years have been eventful for the German Empire and its Reichstag. Now all German men flock to the polls, to elect their representatives.


National Liberal Party (NLP)
Nationalliberale Partei

Current Leader: Karl von Birnbaum
Founding Year: 1848
Ideology type: Liberal

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Laissez Faire
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro Military
Welfare: Populist Welfare

Description:
Formed In 1848 after the March Revolution from Many liberal Philosophers and economists wanting to start their own Party . It wishes to Pass liberal and Democratic Reforms to modernize Germany and is able to reach a compromise with the conservative elements within the Landtag and the royal court.

The NLP is the biggest Liberal party in Germany at the moment. Despite the Berlin Riots of 1875, they have successfully led a reform movement in government with Chancellor von Birnbaum at its helm. The NLP is the main party behind the Free Trade consensus and has always worked together across party lines to achieve reform and economic prosperity.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands

Current Party Leader: Konstantin Brenner
Founding Date: 14th of June 1860
Ideology: Socialist
Motto: "Einigkeit macht stark"

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: State Capitalism
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Full Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Welfare State

Description:
The Social Democratic Party of Germany was created by Lutz von Sommer with the help of Gustav Schwarzmann and Benedict Eichwald to help move Germany towards a brighter, more equal future with its main goals being giving more power to the Reichstag and gaining reforms especially when it comes to voting rights for women and poorer men.

The SPD has had a quiet year after it wasn’t included in the government. They reorganised after the loss or retirement of some of their senior members are now looking for the next young generation to lead it forward. Their main action points were supporting the proposed social reforms and creating a contract for their members, obliging them to work towards progress using the parties legal and nonviolent ways…something not all members could sadly accept and who have had to leave the party.

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German Conservative Party (DkP)
Deutschkonservative Partei
Current Party Leader: Heinrich Hartmann
Founding Date: 1st January 1860
Ideology: Conservative
Motto: “In Treue Fest”

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Pluralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Populist

Description:
The German Conservative Party, formerly known as the Free Conservative Party, has grown to a party of moderates who wish for extremism and far-left and far-right propaganda to be subdued. This party was renamed and reformed just before the 1860 elections.

The DkP has remained a steadfast rock of conservatism over the last five years, that was able to protect tradition while supporting necessary reform. Its new leader Heinrich Hartmann has sworn to continue the policy of the DkP to be a party for all.

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Free-Minded Union (FV)
Freisinnige Vereinigung
Current Party Leader: Karl Jürgen von Krieger
Founding Date: 1880
Ideology: Liberal
Motto: “Für Deutschland und seine Menschen”

Ethics
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Jingoism
Welfare Policy: Welfare State

Description:
The FV is a center-left party that believes in a free market economy with some regulation. It believes it is the government's duty to assist the people, hence why it deviates from NLP in it's welfare and economic policies. It is also a nationalist party, and firmly believes in a strong military, both at land and at sea.

The FV was formed in 1880 out of some members if the PKW who thought it better to forge their own party rather than join a pre-existing one. The reason for not joining with the NLP was due to a general belief that the NLP had begin to become corrupt and stop caring about Germany's citizens. Mainly from only being populist welfare, allowing the rich to have any power they want via laissez-faire, and the recent drug smuggling scandal. The FV is also a little more militaristic than the NLP, partially due to the carry over if officers from the PKW.

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German Center Party (DZP)
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
Current Leader: Adalwolf von Märchenlied
Ideology: Conservative
Founded: October 31st, 1875
Motto: “Deus lo vult”

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Moralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Welfare state

Description:
The DZP is a christian, centrist party that aims to bring stability back to the Empire. The Center party aims to be pragmatic and moderate. Both of the extremes are against the interest of Germany and her people, the Socialists want a godless state, and the reactionaries want a feudal state unfit for the modern world. The center party aims to keep Germany great by not letting it fall to extremism.

The DZP is a reaction to the increasing secularism and extremism in the German Empire, trying to return christian values to politics, while breaching gaps between the left and the right.

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German Paternal Noble Party (DvA)
Deutsche väterliche Adlige Partei
Current Party Leader: Wolfgang zu Eulenburg
Founding Date: 1880
Ideology: Reactionary

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: State Capitalism
Religious Policy: Moralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Populist

Description:
The death of the old ways is upon us. Morally corrupt socialist and backstabbing liberals are leading this country into ruin and destruction. For the common man, a return to the old ways force a sigh of relief. The old ways include a return to the empowerment of the nobility, an end to the liberalization of Germany and a secure position in society for the lower classes, through the increasing of workers prosperity.
It is the death of tradition, the death of the old, which has caused such strife in past years. The DvA will ensure that the traditional way of life, the German way of life, the noble way of life, is returned to.

The DvA is an attempt of many former members of the PVP to return to the core values of what it means to be German. Something that was lost over the last 5 years. They fear that with all of this reform that the liberal and socialist powers may try to steal power from the Kaiser.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Liberal Party Germania (LPG)
Liberale Partei Germania
Current Party Leader: Friedrich Ritter von Coesfeld
Founding Date: 1880
Ideology: Liberal

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Protectionism
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Secularism
Military Policy: Pro Military
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
Welfare Policy: Populist Welfare

Description:
Times are changing as Germany asserts herself as a major player on the world stage. Our state, built with the purpose of uniting the German people and giving them room to live and prosper, has fallen behind in these goals. Together, we will work to create a safe and stable economy to develop the industry of the nation while working for the betterment of Germans everywhere, including those not presently within our borders. The Habsburgs lead a backwards and overly conservative regime that restricts their german people from prospering. Liberal partei Germania commits itself to the development of local industry by way of tariffing foreign imports to reduce competition and increasing subsidies for factories.

The LPG is a party that came to be from many members of the Alldeutscher Verband. A club, which seeks true German unity with the German lands of Austria-Hungary integrated into the Reich. They firmly believe that this is the only way for all Germans to prosper.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The Deutscher Reichs-Anzeiger also publishes its election special with speeches of all the party leaders:




Polls are now open and will remain so until Wednesday July 8th 2020!
(@SibCDC is going on vacation, hope you enjoy yourself!)

vote_now.png
 

Crimson Lionheart

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The dream of a Pan-Germanic state can only be attained by the LPG. A Pan-German Reich could easily become the master of the old world, but only through support among the people and minds who must seek to make it a reality! True prosperity awaits!
 
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1880 Elections results and the 1880 Reichstag Session

SibCDC

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1880 Elections results and the 1880 Reichstag Session

The elections of 1880 saw many new parties enter the arena and close electoral races across the country. Hot topics were as always social reforms, but this time foreign policy came under the attention as well. With the Liberale Partei Germania's primary focus on Germanic unity in Europe and beyond, the question of how to achieve that became dominant in both intellectual debates and bar rants. In the end, however, the elections were mainly fought out between the Nationalliberale Partei and the Deutschkonservative Partei, the two biggest forces in German politics at the moment. When the results were made public and the seats in the Reichstag were divided, it was clear that a struggle between the two would errupt over the Chancellorship, with the main question being whether or not Karl von Birnbaum would be able to secure his re-election.


Distribution of seats in the Reichstag:
SPD: 95
NLP: 123
FV: 34
LPG: 61
DZP: 51
DkP: 107
DvA: 29

While leading figures of all parties were engaged in burdening negotiations with either the NLP or the DkP, or even both, it became ever clear that the DkP wanted their leader, Heinrich Hartmann, to become Chancellor, while the NLP wanted Karl von Birnbaum to remain in his position. To everyone's surprise, neither would have their way, because while everyone was busy demanding minister posts from the DkP or the NLP, Karl von Birnbaum had a meeting with the Kaiser at his palace in Berlin.


The Berliner Stadtschloss, the Kaiser's palace in Berlin.

The reasoning behind von Birnbaum's audience with the Kaiser was driven by fears of a repeat of past events. Birnbaum feared that the Reichstag would once again become the stage of antagonization between the NLP and DkP over the Chancellorship, with both parties dragging the rest of the Reichstag down with them in their constant insults and partisan politics. Such a situation would neither benefit the country, nor the parties involved. And so he proposed to the Kaiser that a coalition between NLP and DkP would be possible, but only with a member of a third party leading it as Chancellor. Karl von Birnbaum, in an unexpected move, thus barred himself from re-election, while simultaneously preventing Hartmann from becoming Chancellor. The Kaiser agreed to von Birnbaum's proposal and promptly invited Hartmann of the DkP, and Friederich von Coesfeld of the LPG to be the third party to lead the government.


Doktor Friederich Ritter von Coesfeld, leader of the Liberale Partei Germania.
The three men, under the watchful eye of the Kaiser, thereafter began negotiating to form a coalition. Herr Hartmann, however, almost blew up the entire thing by demanding minister posts right off the bat. It took an intervention from the Kaiser and Karl von Birnbaum suggesting they'd first talk about policy before things were back on track. In the end, the NLP, DkP and LPG agreed on the following points:
- Herr von Coesfeld would be Chancellor
- Investment in new and upgraded railroads
- Extending subsidies to factories
- Modernizing the army
- Improving Berlin's infrastructure
- A shift in education policy towards sciences and German history

The men thereafter briefly discussed minister posts and agreed on the following list, which was later confirmed by the Kaiser:
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Otto von Bismarck
Minister of the Interior: Heinrich Hartmann (DkP)
Minister of War: Heinrich Berg (NLP)
Minister of the Treasury: Karl von Birnbaum (NLP)
Minister of Justice: Hans Friedrich von Röhm (DkP)
Minister of Education: Fynn Vogt (LPG)



Otto von Bismarck would continue his Realpolitik as Minister of Foreign Affairs.

As soon as von Coesfeld was elected as Chancellor, HM's Cabinet began to work on legislation to propose to the Reichstag in the session of 1880. However, poor communication from Cristoph Hagelstein (NLP), who proposed several bills without consulting his coalition partners, would ensure another chaotic session. These tensions were only increased when Heinrich Hartmann arrogantly invited individual members of the NLP to his home to yell at them about Hagelstein's bills. During the session itself, members of the DkP and LPG would leave mid-session to go drink at a bar while important bills were being discussed and Chancellor von Coesfeld was having trouble keeping the members of the Reichstag under control. You can read the procedures of the Reichstag here.


The 1880 Reichstag session would enter history as yet another chaotic gathering of rambling bearded men.
After the session, Karl von Birnbaum realized his mistake. Hartmann and other members of the DkP were so set on antagonization of the NLP, and he himself had barely any control over the actions of his fellow party members, so much so that the gap between the two parties became too much to repair. Arrogance, miscommunication and partisan politics once again entered the political scene and the question whether this coalition would survive became ever more prominent. Recognizing his mistake and estranged from the Reichstag he joined as a younger man, Karl von Birnbaum resigned as leader from the NLP and wrote his letter of resignation to the Kaiser, firmly denouncing Hartmann's actions and admitting Hagelstein's mistake. While Ernst Krüger took over as leader of the NLP, Martin von Labiau of the DvA was appointed as Minister of the Treasury in von Birnbaum's stead.

While Germany was heading into the 1880s, the chaotic and sometimes incompetent nature of the Reichstag had caught the attention of the Kaiser, but also of the people. As unrest was increasing across the nation, many wondered whether structural change would be needed to get rid of the culture of arrogance, incompetence and corruption that was undoubtedly going on behind the scenes. Perhaps it was time for the Kaiser to once again step in and remind the members of the Reichstag what their job was.
 
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Gameplay 1880-1882

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Gameplay 1880-1882

Early on in 1880, shocking news arrived from Russia. The headlines were full of it: "Tsar's absolute power restored". Tsar Alexander III had successfully restored his absolute power through a reactionary coup d'état against Russian democratic forces. With Alexander's power consolidated, he established his control over the Zemstvo's, the regional governments, and confirmed Russia's identity as an Orthodox nation. To what extent this will influence Russia's relations with Germany remains unknown. The question also remains whether this 'new' regime will be able to restore Russia's greatness and end the almost constant state of rebellion the country has known for the past few decades.


In April of 1880, the government finally started working on the Kiel Canal. With new drilling and blasting technologies available on the market, the costs are expected to be lower than initially estimated. However, with Germany's Treasury in a bad state, the construction of the Canal was primarily financed by private corporations and investors, with only a minimal amount of 500 thousand marks being invested by the government itself. At the same time, the Ministry of War also began experimenting with new ways to engage in warfare. A system of deep defence was adopted, with trenches and flexible counterattacks being major components.


With the chaos of 1880 in everyone's mind, many wondered whether this LPG-NLP-DkP government under Chancellor von Coesfeld would even survive. Whatever partisan politics may plague the other ministries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs under von Bismarck continued its policy of Realpolitik: a kind of diplomacy dictated by pragmatism and given circumstances, not by ideology or partisan politics. It had allowed Germany to take advantage of outcries against the Arab slave trade to establish a presence on the East African coast and now it would allow Germany to exponentially increase its control over Africa. While Bismarck himself was relunctant in regards to colonialism, he could not deny the fact that it had only benefitted the country so far. And so when the French government invited all major European nations to a conference in Paris on the fate of Africa, Bismarck did not hesitate to travel to France and negotiate good terms for Germany. While several protocols and rules were established for the occupation of Africa and the abolition of slavery, Bismarck negotiated fiercely with the Spanish behind the scenes.


Germany had long established its control over the Moroccon Sultan, but Spain had always had historical claims in the area, discouraging Germany to annex Morocco into their colonial empire. Now, in the context of the Paris Conference, Bismarck entered negotiations with the Spanish delegation about the fate of Morocco. Spain proposed to partition the country so that Spain would control the northern coast and Germany would control the rest. As this would finally allow the annexation of Morocco, Bismarck agreed, further strengthening the alliance with Spain in the process. A protectorate was established in Morocco and the Sultan was exiled to Tangiers, which became sort of a free city.


At the same time, the rules surrounding effective occupation allowed Germany to formally annex the rest of the Ivory Coast and its holdings in Nigeria. While Sokoto proved to be stubborn, surely they would soon cave to German pressure in the face of occupation by other European powers. Furthermore, the III. Kolonial Korps was ordered to connect German Zanzibar to the German colony in Somalia, while in the Ivory Coast, the I. Kolonial Korps moved in on Wattara.




In September of 1880, the Colonial Charter granted to several individuals to establish a German colony in the Congo Basin faced difficulties as French influence in the region prevented them from making a safe landing in the Kongo. The French had effectively extended their protection to both Loango and Kongo, turning the charter into a danger for national security. Not wanting to instigate a war with France, the Kaiser decided to overrule the Reichstag's approval of the charter, forcing the company's assets to return to Germany and disband. This entire venture turned into a loss and one shareholder, Elouise von Märchenlied who is also the leader of the suffragette movement, even went into debt.


On the homefront, things were more peaceful and cultural in nature. In October, Konrad Duden published his dictionary, quickly becoming an influential figure in the process of language standardization in Germany. The Ministry of Education under Fynn Vogt soon began distributing copies to schools across the country.


In that same month, the Zanzibari's were finally defeated and put under definitive German control. In December, Wattara followed and Germany had extended its colonial empire further inland. In the Horn of Africa, the III. Kolonial Korps engaged in the occupation of Majeerteen, while the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was still working on influencing Shewa.


In January of 1881, the government made work of improving its understanding of railroads and looking into the possibility of upgrading the existing infrastructure to iron railroads, using standardized tracks across the entire country. That same month, however, unrest across the country reached a new boiling point with strikes and protests being very common. The Kaiser called an emergency session of the Reichstag to alleviate the situation and a higher minimum wage was agreed upon.


In March, the occupation of Majeerteen was completed and German Somalia was expanded. However, the Italians had entered the region and established a colony on the Eritrean coast. With eager eyes, they looked towards the Ethiopian hinterland and a war with Shewa would soon follow. In Egypt, rumor of the Pharaoh's curse had reached the ears of several prominent Germans who brought the story back to Germany. Panic soon ensued in Berlin when it turned out several people who had visited the Neues Museum, where the mummies were being displayed, had died under mysterious circumstances.


In July of 1881, the government made work of replacing gas lighting with electric lighting in several cities, including Berlin. The policy was part of establishing infrastructure for electricity and allowing German industries to make use of this more efficient form of energy.


In August of 1881, the I. Kolonial Korps began the invasion of Dahomey to further establish a German presence in West-Africa. This, however, led to increasing tensions with the United Kingdom who looked to do the same in the region. On August 17, the long standing alliance between Germany and the United Kingdom was formally ended when British diplomats informed the German ambassador in London that the Scramble for Africa had revealed incompatible goals between the two countries. They cited the war against Dahomey, but also the aggressive use of colonial charters in the Congo Basin. Minister of Foreign Affairs Otto von Bismarck quickly began to look for a replacement for the British and eyed the Italians as being the ideal country to oppose both France and Austria-Hungary, Germany's natural enemies. Work quickly began on improving relations. By February, the war in Dahomey had ended and German West Africa was once again expanded.



1882 Newspapers


 

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form Grossdeutschland and make the Hohenstaufen proud!
 
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1882 Reichstag Session and its aftermath

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1882 Reichstag Session and its aftermath

The 1882 Reichstag session was much more orderly than previous sessions and fairly productive given the way it was abruptly ended. During the session, a protest by so called 'New Chartists', who among other things demanded a lower voting age and an end to the Kaiser's veto, erupted into violence. What started out as a peaceful protest calling for a lower voting age, the right to a secret ballot and the power for the Reichstag to override a veto quickly escalated as militant socialists participated in the protest and started attacking the police officers with guns and rifles, as well as destroying private property around Berlin Mitte and damaging public memorials such as the Victory Column. This new level of violence caused the Kaiser to authorize the mobilization of the I. Korps and the Gendarmerie who proceeded to disperse the revolt. Their leader, Wilhelm Jakob Leibl, has been apprehended together with over 100 other protestors who could be identified. They are now facing trial. An investigation thereafter cleared the SPD of any involvement.


The New Chartist protest erupted into a violent riot.

In the aftermath of the violence that swept Berlin, Minister of Interior and General of the I. Korps, Heinrich Hartmann, was sacked by the Kaiser for helping to create the atmosphere which allowed the protests to turn violent. He was replaced as Minister by Karl von Birnbaum, who was forced out of retirement, and by Hermann zu Muskau as General of the I. Korps. Hartmann was furthermore voted out as leader of the Deutschkonservative Partei and replaced by Minister of Justice Hans Friedrich von Röhm. In the meantime, Chancellor von Coesfeld kicked off a plan that would further create chaos in the German Empire.


Heinrich Hartmann in 1865 at the age of 28.
In the wake of the protests, Chancellor von Coesfeld had an audience with the Kaiser, also attended by Minister von Röhm. In the meeting, von Coesfeld brought up the idea of reforming the Chancellorship to be once again appointed by the Kaiser and have extended authority over the Reichstag, essentially turning it into a symbolic institution with little power. While the Kaiser did not explicitly approve of the idea, he simply told von Coesfeld that if he was able to get the other parties on board, he would not stand in the way of this reform. After the meeting with the Kaiser, von Coesfeld invited several prominent figures such as Karl von Birnbaum, Ernst Krüger (NLP), Konstantin Brenner (SPD), Karl Jürgen von Krieger (FV) and Fynn Vogt (LPG). In the meeting, he claimed that the Kaiser had revealed to him a plan to get rid of the Reichstag and told the other people that it was time to act against the Kaiser to protect German freedom. Karl von Birnbaum, who had known the Kaiser for much longer than any person in that room, did not believe von Coesfeld and left the meeting, soon followed by Krüger, Brenner and von Krieger.


Karl von Birnbaum in 1882 at the age of 66.

Following the meeting, Krüger informed the Kaiser about this event by letter. The Kaiser then summoned von Birnbaum, Krüger and Brenner to the palace. With the LPG's name discredited and the SPD previously cleared of any involvement in the New Chartist protest, the Kaiser said it was maybe time to allow the SPD back into government. He thereafter instructed the men to elect a new Chancellor in the Reichstag. In the meantime, Chancellor von Coesfeld realized his plan to plot against the Kaiser had failed and fled the country to Switzerland after having resigned as Chancellor. In the emergency Reichstag session that followed, three candidates stepped forward: Hans Friedrich von Röhm (DkP), Ernst Krüger (NLP) and Fynn Vogt (LPG). Krüger won a narrow majority of two seats, similarly to how Ruprecht Birnbaum was elected Chancellor after Wilhelm von Hoth's death. After the Reichstag session, Fynn Vogt gave a dangerous speech in front of a crowd, calling for an end to the Kaiser's tyranny. He was thereafter arrested for lèse-majesté and high treason, further discrediting the name of the Pan-Germanists of the LPG and possibly leading to a case for the Constitutional Court.


Fynn Vogt in 1882 at the age of 35.

You can read the procedures of all Reichstag session between 1880 and 1882 here.
 
1882-1884 Gameplay

SibCDC

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1882-1884 Gameplay

The treason of Chancellor von Coesfeld and his replacement by Chancellor Krüger had little effect on the colonial policy of HM's Government. In February, The III. Kolonial Korps started the invasion of Warsangali in the Horn of Africa. They faced no real opposition and by the end of May they had conquered the entire area. At the same time, the Italians were waging a successful war against the Ethiopians, who had recently been united under the Shewa. The region was finally annexed on May 30 1882, confirming German hegemony in the Horn of Africa and much of East-Africa.




In June, the Ministry of War set out to make an updated inventory of Germany's naval assets to determine its striking capability and whether or not any changes had to be made to the deployment around the globe to assist in the expansion of Germany's colonial empire. Naval statistics would prove vital in delegating private companies to set up transport networks between Africa and Germany.


In July of 1882, news came from Russia that a civil war had broken out. As a result of Tsar Alexander III's recent reactionary coup and a disastrous war against Finland, large segments of the army and the navy mutinied. In combination with a worker's revolt in Moscow and the declaration of the Moscow Commune on the 6th of July, the stage was effectively set for a civil war. The Tsarist forces were confined to Saint-Petersburg, where they were effectively being held captive by the Finnish army. A pragmatic alliance between the Tsarists and the Finnish eventually came about when the Moscow Commune and the defecting Russian armies declared the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, known to the rest of Europe as the Soviet Union. Karl Marx, near the end of his life now, wrote in The Civil War in Russia (1882) that "the dawn of the great social revolution which will liberate mankind from the regime of classes forever" had begun. While he did admit that he did not expect Russia to be the country to fall first, he did say that Germany would probably soon follow to overthrow their feudal aristocracy. Upon the declaration of the Soviet Union, Tsar Alexander III signed a treaty with the Finnish, recognizing their independence and allowing the Tsar to fully focus his forces on the communist threat.


In Germany, the Kaiser and the government had become anxious about this whole situation. On the one hand there were men like the Kaiser himself and Minister of Foreign Affairs Otto von Bismarck who saw the time was ripe to intervene in Russia and claim some of its western holdings for Germany, on the other hand there were those who were afraid that fighting against the communists would inspire militants at home to rise up against the Kaiser. While the former opinion was strengthened by the fact that Japan had invaded and taken control of Sakhalin with help from the United Kingdom, the latter opinion was strengthened by the fact that Germany's ally, Italy, had declared war on Austria-Hungary and now found itself in a war against France as well. With the possibility of Italy calling upon Germany to help them against the French and Austrians, Germany could not afford to go to war with Russia. However, the decision in the end lay in the hands of the Kaiser.


While the Russian Civil War was raging and Italy still did not call for Germany's help, a German named Adolf Lüderitz had established a colony in South-West Africa, now seeking protection from the German government. The government was quick to extend this protection to further expand Germany's foothold in Africa. Around the same time, the Ministry of War invested in new artillery technology to update its arsenal with the prospect of an upcoming war dominating meetings.


In March of 1883, prominent members of the Polish nobility reached out to the Kaiser for protection. Describing the horrible atrocities of the Soviet dictatorship against Polish Catholic priests and against members of the Polish aristocracy, they were able to convince the Kaiser to go to war with the Soviets. Norway, who was allied to Russia before the Civil War and had opportunistically recognized the government in Moscow as the legitimate government of Russia, joined in against Germany, but had to pay the price on April 20th when their fleet was sunk off the coast of Morocco.



The German army quickly moved in to Poland to liberate their allies from communist oppression. In the first months of the war, they encountered little opposition from the Soviet side, most likely the result of skirmishes between the Tsarist forces and the communists near St.-Petersburg. On May 17th, the German navy sank the entire Soviet fleet, which consisted of defecting ships from the Russian ports in the Baltic.



The liberation of Poland went smoothly and only encountered Russian resistance in June of '83, when most of the Polish territories had already been liberated by the German army. In July, the first big encounters between the German army and the Soviets occurred. On July 13, the III. and X. Korps were led to a victory by General Rodl at the Battle of Grodno, where they ambushed a disorganized communist force. That day, around 21 000 Soviets were killed, wounded or captured, while only around 9 000 Germans suffered the same fate. At the Battle of Gumbinnen, on German soil, General zu Muskau defeated a Soviet force led by Viktor Azarov and managed to keep his casualties below 300 while inflicting over 11 000 casualties on the Russians. On August 1st, Azarov was finally defeated at the Battle of Marijampole when his 12 000 men were forced to surrender to General zu Spitzbergen.



While the war was still raging in August, another mummy was discovered by German archaeologists in the Valley of Kings. As more and more species of exotic flora and faune were also being discovered, the proposal to construct a Colonial Museum of Natural History was sponsored by a a Royal gift and construction soon began in Berlin.


In the meantime, several more engagements occurred with the Soviets, which lost more and more men by the day. At the Battle of Palanga on the 24th of August 1883, General von Stettin inflicted 15 000 casualties on the Russians, while only sustaining slighlty below 2 000 casualties himself. But while the months since the start of the war through August were still relatively calm in terms of combat, September would break all records and several decisive battles would eventually put an end to the war.


In early September, several more battles occurred, most notably at Brest-Litovsk where General von Labiau defeated and captured Soviet General Grigoriy Nebogatov and at the Battle of Suwalki where General zu Spitzbergen inflicted over 20 000 casualties on the Soviets, while only suffering just under 3 000 himself. But Germany's biggest victory undoubtedly occurred on September 19th 1883 at the Battle of Baranovichi. A force of around 86 000 Germans led by General Helmke moved bravely defended against an overwhelming Soviet force of more than a 100 000 men. In the end, General Helmke was able to completely wipe the Soviet army force of the map while only suffering around 19 000 casualties within his own ranks.


Two smaller battles occurred at Pinsk and Grodno before the Soviets finally accepted their defeat at the hands of the Germans. With their forces heavily dwindled in the war, they were now also losing ground against the Tsarist forces with their stronghold in St.-Petersburg. On October 18 1883, the Soviet government in Moscow officially recognized Polish independence and ended hostilities with the Germans. The Polish nobility, thankful for the help the Kaiser had provided in their time of need, decided to elect Friedrich III's cousin, Alexander, as King of the newly independent Kingdom of Poland. Around the same time, the Ministry of War implemented the findings surrounding military logistics which they had made during the war against the Russians. Most important among these findings was that a prolonged war with Russia would have been very costly and would have most certainly led to an economic crisis in the heart of Germany.


In December of 1883, German presence in the Sokoto Caliphate had reached the point where it was a protectorate in all aspects but in name. Bismarck thus finally decided to completely integrate Sokoto into German Nigeria, completing a process that had been started decades ago.


By April of 1884, the Tsarist forces in Russia were able to advance to Moscow, where they made quick work of the traitors who had proclaimed the Moscow Commune a year ago. With Moscow retaken, Tsar Alexander III's authority was restored and the Soviet Union was dissolved. The Moscow Commune would be remembered as a failed experiment of Marxism and would further push socialists in Europe towards reformism.


In June, the Department of Labour set out to improve the management of factories by encouraging scientific methods of factory management. In July, Norway, who had fought at the side of the Soviets, had realized its mistake in recognizing the Moscow Commune as the legitimate government of Russia and sought rapprochement with Germany. The Kaiser accepted Norway's request to establish an alliance, but several conditions were attached, including sacking military officers who were supportive of the war against Germany.


By the end of the year, the German government could look back on successful army reforms, an upgrade of its railroad infrastructure, a successful containment of communism and further expansion of its colonies in Africa. It seemed that peace had finally returned to the European continent, but tensions between the British and the French in Central Africa escalated in to a war by the end of December, putting Europe on the path of war once again.



1885 Newspapers



 
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Elections of 1885

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Elections of 1885:

National Liberal Party (NLP)
Nationalliberale Partei

Current Leader: Ernst Krüger
Founding Year: 1848
Ideology type: Liberal

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Laissez Faire
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro Military
Welfare: Populist Welfare

Description:
Formed In 1848 after the March Revolution from Many liberal Philosophers and economists wanting to start their own Party . It wishes to Pass liberal and Democratic Reforms to modernize Germany and is able to reach a compromise with the conservative elements within the Landtag and the royal court.

The past five years have seen a change of hats for the NLP leadership, as its leader Karl von Birnbaum resigned in his post as Party Leader and co-Leader Ernst Krüger was elected to succeed von Birnbaum. The first two years of the coalition with the DkP and LPG were rather tumultuous, as the first Reichstag session was chaotic due to a lack of communication on all sides of the coalition, compounded by DkP attitude of seeking all power under its former leader Hartmann. The NLP continued to push for reforms at the Reichstag sessions, and accomplished in supporting legislation to benefit workers’ safety, minimum wage, and pass an amendment to fix the issues of members in the Reichstag constantly abstaining on bills. The NLP also passed several research bills, including bills for improving Germany’s railroads and industry. After the Coesfeld incident, it was the NLP that first left the meeting and the first to notify the Kaiser of the treason that was being committed. With Krüger being elected as Reichskanzler in late 1882, the NLP once again found itself holding the Chancellorship. The period from 1883-1885 was very stable for Germany, with a successful war with Russia and the expansion of German colonies in East Africa putting Germany on the path to continued greatness and prosperity before the elections of 1885.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands

Current Party Leader: Konstantin Brenner
Founding Date: 14th of June 1860
Ideology: Socialist
Motto: "Einigkeit macht stark"

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: State Capitalism
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Full Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Welfare State

Description:
The Social Democratic Party of Germany was created by Lutz von Sommer with the help of Gustav Schwarzmann and Benedict Eichwald to help move Germany towards a brighter, more equal future with its main goals being giving more power to the Reichstag and gaining reforms especially when it comes to voting rights for women and poorer men.

During these 5 years the calm around the SPD was broken due to a protest turned violent orchestrated by a fresh member Wilhelm Jakob Leibl.
However the SPD was quick to denounce him and remove him from the party.
A while later they were approached by the treacherous chancellor Friedrich von Coesfeld . His crazy plan of going against the Kaiser with zero support was rejected by all including the SPD.
With these troubling times the SPD hope they have once again proven their commitment to political non violent reforms and progress.

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German Conservative Party (DkP)
Deutschkonservative Partei
Current Party Leader: Hand Friedrich von Röhm
Founding Date: 1st January 1860
Ideology: Conservative
Motto: “In Treue Fest”

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Protectionsims
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Pluralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Populist

Description:
The German Conservative Party, formerly known as the Free Conservative Party, has grown to a party of moderates who wish for extremism and far-left and far-right propaganda to be subdued. This party was renamed and reformed just before the 1860 elections.

The DkP has gone through a lot in the past five years, but has come out of it stable and unscathed, with a lot of young talent filling the party ranks. Heinrich Hartmanns tenure came to an ignominious end in 1883 as his inflammatory performances sparked a rebellion that could have ruined the Reich. Since then, the DkP has been led by long serving member Hans Friedrich von Röhm, who immediately distanced himself from his predecessor, denouncing the personality cult that he attempted to establish. Röhm has since attempted to rebuild the image of the party, unsuccessfully running for Chancellor in 1883 on a platform of stability and cooperation, and it is this platform that the DkP continues to champion in the 1885 elections.

The DkP has shifted its focus on economics, pushing for greater protections for German producers, which inherently protects the workers. They were the first to openly support von Labiaus Bill for the nationalisation of the armaments industry, and have been working closely across the house to ensure the Bill shall pass in the next session. The DkP has also pushed for a strengthening of our police department, to help destroy rebellious groups such as the New Chartists before they manage to cause trouble. They have promised to be an open and honest governing party, willing to cooperate with their rivals in the interests of German prosperity.

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Free-Minded Union (FV)
Freisinnige Vereinigung
Current Party Leader: Karl Jürgen von Krieger
Founding Date: 1880
Ideology: Liberal
Motto: “Für Deutschland und seine Menschen”

Ethics
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Jingoism
Welfare Policy: Welfare State

Description:
The FV is a center-left party that believes in a free market economy with some regulation. It believes it is the government's duty to assist the people, hence why it deviates from NLP in it's welfare and economic policies. It is also a nationalist party, and firmly believes in a strong military, both at land and at sea.

The FV found itself out of the governing coalition in 1880 due to forces it could not control (the Kaiser). Trying to remedy this, the FV decided to still work closely with the coalition members closest to it's ideology, the NLP and LPG. Initially there were plans to merge the LPG and FV, but when the LPG's treason was revealed the party leader, Karl Jürgen von Krieger, told the Kaiser of this treachery right away, and denounced the LPG's actions. The FV voted in favor of Ernst Krüger's chancellorship in 1882 as part of their rhetoric of working closely with the other liberal parties.


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German Center Party (DZP)
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
Current Leader: Adalwolf von Märchenlied
Ideology: Conservative
Founded: October 31st, 1875
Motto: “Deus lo vult”

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Moralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Welfare state

Description:
The DZP is a christian, centrist party that aims to bring stability back to the Empire. The Center party aims to be pragmatic and moderate. Both of the extremes are against the interest of Germany and her people, the Socialists want a godless state, and the reactionaries want a feudal state unfit for the modern world. The center party aims to keep Germany great by not letting it fall to extremism.


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German Paternal Noble Party (DvA)
Deutsche väterliche Adlige Partei
Current Party Leader: Wolfgang zu Eulenburg
Founding Date: 1880
Ideology: Reactionary

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: State Capitalism
Religious Policy: Moralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Populist

Description:
The death of the old ways is upon us. Morally corrupt socialist and backstabbing liberals are leading this country into ruin and destruction. For the common man, a return to the old ways force a sigh of relief. The old ways include a return to the empowerment of the nobility, an end to the liberalization of Germany and a secure position in society for the lower classes, through the increasing of workers prosperity.
It is the death of tradition, the death of the old, which has caused such strife in past years. The DvA will ensure that the traditional way of life, the German way of life, the noble way of life, is returned to.

In the past 5 years, the DvA has been attempting to do many things. They have attempted to build up better relations with our fellow factions and improve their standing in the Reichstag. They have attempted to decrease the electoral deadlock that would sometimes occur by changing the rules for which an absent is counted. Lastly, they have been in talks with other faction in an attempt to pass a bill that both increases the power of the state in the economy and would also increase the average workers salary in said factories.

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Many of the Party Leaders have held speeches to present their platform:

FV:
Krieger gives a speech to a crowd outside the FV headquarters

My fellow Germans. We have for the past decade had turbulent government after turbulent government. Coalitions refusing to work together. Insults hurled at each other on the reichstag floor. People leaving reichstag sessions simply because they don't want to hear what others have to say. The FV will fight this chaos, for a stable Germany. For you! The people! We stand for common sense of what a government should be, and how it should help it's citizens!

When a man has no access to the proper education, it is unacceptable. When a man can't get enough money for he and his family to survive, it is unacceptable. When a man is unfairly punished for crimes they did not commit, it is unacceptable. When a man is worked to literal death, unable to love the end if his life in peace, it is unacceptable. When a man is injured or killed in preventable workplace accidents, it is unacceptable. When a man fils to get the treatment they need for ailments -treatment which is widely available-, it is unacceptable. The FV cannot and will not allow such grievences on the German people!

We cannot allow the exploitation of workers in laissez-faire. We cannot allow the choking of the flow of goods from protectionism. The economy affects all, and it must do good for the citizens of the German Empire! Not only good for those at the very top, but everyone, young old, of whatever class of society! This is what the FV stands for.

When looking outward upon the world, how should they view Germany? Should they see a weak state, unable to push forward and assert it's right to dominate the world?! No! Look towards the war with Russia, see the power of our military, at land and at sea, see the true German might at its finest! That is the German destiny! That is what the FV stands for!

Germany must lead the world! It is the most innovative nation! The most powerful nation! For a stronger economy! For a stronger military! For a government that works for it's people, rather than bickering amongst itself!
For a stronger Germany!
For the Kaiser!
Vote FV!

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NLP:
Reichskanzler Ernst Krüger addresses a crown in Essen
"It is always a pleasure to be back in my hometown, and among the people who initially chose me to be their representative in the Reichstag. I am further humbled to be the Reichskanzler, allowing me to represent all Germans, from Straußberg to Memel, from Flensburg to Munich! And let us not forget our colonies in Afrika, which add further prestige and glory to our great Reich led by our devoted Kaiser. I stand here today very much like I have in prior election years, asking not only for your vote, but also for your trust. This year is no different. The NLP continues to fight for your rights, and continues to fight for your freedom and liberty. My late father and I have devoted our whole lives to public service, to serving the great people of Essen and ensuring that they are properly and fairly represented in Berlin. Winds of change are blowing all across Germany, both technologically as well as politically. Modern inventions such as the telephone allow an individual here in Essen to talk in real time to someone in Königsberg or Berlin or Munich, all without having to wait for a telegraph! Politically, the standard of living for Germans under the NLP has increased drastically. Since 1848, the NLP has made it its primary goal to fight for you, the German people! Our party is the oldest party in Germany not because of patronage and backroom deals, but rather it is because we hold onto two simple goals, which are sewn into our party banner: ‘For Freedom and Prosperity!’ That is what the NLP stands for: the Freedom of the German people and their current and future Prosperity!

With these elections fast approaching after a decade of political instability and chaos, this next election shall prove to be one of the most essential in our lives. In times of crisis, when the freedoms of Germans are threatened or if our beloved Kaiser is under attack from the enemies of Germany, it is the NLP that is the party that stands firm, it is the NLP that is the party that the leadership of the Kaiser and the Constitution are never infringed upon, it is the NLP that is the party that has provided in the past and will continue to be the steady hand in German politics that can weather the storm. The NLP has always held to its values and it shall never rescind on them, for it is because of their commitment to their principles that the NLP has stood as a beacon in German politics for much longer than any other party. Vote NLP for a Free Germany! Vote NLP for a Prosperous Germany! Long Live the Kaiser! Long Live Sacred Germany!"

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DkP:
Hans Friedrich von Röhm pens the DkP election statement.
Voters of the German Reich, the past five years have seen yet more chaos across our great country. Rebellions, insurrection, and treason has been the order of the day and we are still reeling from the disturbing actions of men who claimed to act in the name of the German people. This country needs, now more than ever, a dose of stability and strong leadership. We must do away with the petty squabbles over matters that the ordinary man has no interest in, we must start governing in the interests of the people, not in the interests of those who live in ivory towers and look down with scorn on the people who make Germany the finest country on Earth. This is only possible under a DkP government.

It is time for your Reichstag to defend your interests. The DkP promises to protect your livelihoods from cheap, low quality foreign imports; we promise to keep taxes low, so you can keep bread on your table; we promise to increase the police on our streets to ensure that Germany is never again at risk from extremist rebels; we promise that the Reichstag under the DkP will be a peoples Reichstag that is open and honest, that will work together in the name of the people. The DkP offers you, the German people, strong leadership, a clear economic plan, and a brighter, more secure future. Let us put the past years of chaos behind us, let us work together for a brighter future. And above all, dear voters, don't just wish for a better German future, vote for one.
Vote DkP!

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DvA:
Wolfgang gives a speech in Konigsberg
"For Glory!
For Nobility!
For Heritage!


We in the DvA are the ones who are fighting for you! Yes, you! From the smallest labours to the largest landowners, we are the ones fighting for you. We honor our great soldiers, who fought and killed for Germany and our Polish ally. We showed those communist where our strength lay. Our strength is in our heritage, which they foolishly rejected! Our Brave soldiers are our greatest allies against the tyranny of socialism, both at home and abroad. We honor our Kaiser, the great man who leads us through all these trying times. It is only through his wise leadership that we have survived the past few years. From rioting in the streets to high treason from our chancellor, he has reminded a figure in which we can turn to when we need stability. Lastly, we honor you, our proud listener. Without your service to the Reich, none of the progress that has been made in past years would’ve been possible. It is only through your continued service to the nation that we are able to progress and you should not ever forget that.

Now say it with me one last time, my brothers and sister!
For Glory!
For Nobility!
For Heritage!
"

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SPD:
Brenner holds a speech in the industrial district just after work hours
“Friends, as you had no doubt known a shadow had ben cast on the SPD lately. A violent protest in order to win you more rights. Where did that protest lead to? NOWHERE!
After that we were approached in order to violently overthrow the government. Where did this hairbrained scheme go? Nowhere except for the dissolvement of the LPG! However what did was achieved during these tumultuous times? Security in the workplaces and a better care for your families when an accident does happen! These are the fruits of our peaceful and lawful lobbying that we have done for you the people!
And it is the sort of lobbying that we will continue to keep doing. However in order for us to do this we require your support good workers. When you all go to that voting booth remember that the SPD has always looked out for your best interest and have made sure that your problems and concerns are heard by everybody in the Reichtag! Vote for new reforms! Vote for Equality and progress!
Vote for the SPD!”

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Polls are now open and will remain so until Tuesday July 14th 8:99 PM CEST!
vote_now.png
 
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Crimson Lionheart

The House Always Wins.
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Just when Pan-Germanism was appearing to look promising, the ideals of the movement are murdered by ambitious leaches within the LPG.

You guys had ONE job! :p
 
1885 Election Results, the Government Formation and 1885-1886 Gameplay

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1885 Election Results, the Government Formation and 1885-1886 Gameplay

When the results came in for the 1885 elections, the Reichstag looked as following:


The party leaders and other Reichstag members immediately began talking with each other to form a coalition. The cards had been shuffled and dealt to all the players and several different coalitions were possible, ranging from NLP-FV-SPD to simply NLP-DkP. In a private meeting, the NLP, FV and SPD agreed to a coalition and were ready to announce this, but their meeting was put in the balance when Ersnt Krüger, sitting Chancellor and leader of the NLP, was summoned to the palace. In fact, Kaiser Friedrich III had summoned Herr Krüger, but also Herr von Röhm, leader of the DkP, in hopes of getting them to form a coalition, just as the previous two governments had been formed on a NLP-DkP axis. To the Kaiser's dissapointment, however, Herr Krüger informed him that an agreement had already been reached with the FV and the SPD. The Kaiser did not hide his displeasement with this fact, but nonetheless, Krüger was re-elected as Chancellor in Reichstag. However, the Kaiser did show his discontent with the coalition by appointed a Cabinet almost entirely consisting of DkP members:
Minister for Foreign Affairs: Otto von Bismarck (Independent)
Minister of the Interior: Hans Friedrich von Röhm (DkP)
Minister for War: Heinrich Berg (Independent)
Minister of the Treasury: Martin von Labiau (DkP)
Minister of Justice: Volker von Geishof Jr. (DkP)
Minister of Education: Otto Hessler (DkP)



Chancellor Ernst Krüger in his younger years.

In the 1885 Reichstag Session, several bills were proposed, most notably a bill by Herr von Röhm to denounce the Chancellor's actions in regards to the previous meeting at the palace and a bill by Minister von Labiau to nationalize Elbmetall KG. Despite these two controversial bills, the session remained calm and debate civil. You can read the Reichstag Proceedings here.

And so Germany entered 1885 on a relatively peaceful note, despite the underlying conflicts that were once again about to show their ugly heads. In April, the Ministry of the Treasury began implementing the expansion of major railroads to steel railroads, making them sturdier and allowing trains to reach higher speeds without damaging the tracks or derailing completely.



In June of '85, troubling news came from Belgium where Militant Socialists had revolted in the industrial heartland of Wallonia and in the capital, Brussels. The V. Korps under General Jonas von Stockbrünn was dispatched to Belgium to aid the German ally and keep a strategic country from falling to the socialists. Throughout June and July, several skirmishes occurred between Belgian rebels and German soldiers, including in Brussels, Charleroi, Liège and Luxembourg. All in all, General von Stockbrünn sustained a negligable amount of casualties.


On July 27, even more troubling news arrived, once again, from Russia. Still recovering from a bloody civil war, the Tsar's armies were unable to prevent another coup d'état. This time, Militant Socialists stormed the Winter Palace in St.-Petersburg and made an end to Tsar Alexander III's life. No news has been received about his family, but they have most likely gone into hiding, or even exile. A republic was soon thereafter declared, with a new institution, the Duma, being called into life. Elections have been announced to determine a president to lead the Russian Republic.


In October of '85, Ethiopia was reeled into Germany's sphere of influence, extending the reach of German colonial power from Suez all the way to Zanzibar. This ambition would soon result in several companies striving to connect the two regions by railroad. Positive news arrived from the home front in early 1886, when constructions on Schloss Neuschwanstein were finally completed. The castle had been commissioned by the King of Bavaria, Ludwig II von Wittelsbach, who died not long after.


Around that same time, the Ministry of the Treasury also started working on inclusion of new economic theories, coming from the most prominent German universities, in its official policy. However, the luxury of thinking about economics would soon be cut short as the Swedes needed the help of Germany in its most recent war against the Fins. The Kaiser accepted their request and thus Germany declared war on Finland.


One of the first events in the war was the Hochseeflotte going out into the Baltic Sea to protect German trade from Finnish ships, sinking their fleet in the Battle of Alands Hav. Once again, the might of the German navy proved its worth. The fleet was thereafter positioned in the Gulf of Finland to prevent supplies going to Helsinki.


On March 7, as the war with Finland was still raging, a report was published in a major European newspaper about the wrongdoings of the German colonial administration in the Ivory Coast. The report spoke of corporal punishment, as well as mutilation and other forms of brutality with the sole purpose of maintaining colonial authority. Recognizing his responsibility in appointing the local governor, the Kaiser did not hesitate to accept responsibility and sacked the governor of Ivory Coast, replacing him with a more gentle soul.


In April, the Ministry of the Treasury continued implemented the Commerce Improvement Bill of 1885 and started working on the possibility of ad-hoc money bill printing. It seemed as if Minister von Labiau was multitasking, as his I. Korps moved to Northern Sweden to end the Finnish invasion and to start pushing them back. In the Battle of Umca, he ambushed a small force, while a naval blockade prevented the bulk of the Finnish forces from leaving Aland.


Throughout June and the beginning of July, the I. Korps under General von Labiau continued its advance through the harsh Scandinavian terrain. In the meantime, the Swedes had occupied Southern Finland, including the capital, Helsinki. On July 5, Finland admitted defeat and Sweden annexed Northern Finland in the peace deal that followed. General von Labiau and the I. Korps returned victorious to Berlin, gifting several reindeers to the Kaiser.


In August of '86, von Labiau further implemented clauses from the Commerce Improvement Bill, working on economic responsibilities such as bankruptcy procedures and annual rapport procedures. As Germany's economy was growing, legislation followed to meet the demands of capitalists, big investers and small businessmen alike.


However, on the 16th of November 1886, Germany was rudely awakened by a Militant Socialist revolt. The rebels' demands most prominently included higher minimum wages. Also, for the first time in Germany's history, the revolt of the metropole extended to the colonies, where the European report on brutal colonialism was still fresh in the native mind. The 1887 session of the Reichstag was rescheduled to occur in November of 1886, so that the revolts could be dealt with immediately.


 
Gameplay 1886-1889

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Gameplay 1886-1889

The 1887 Reichstag session was held in November of '86 to deal with the urgent question of minimum wages. The different parties could agree on an acceptable minimum wage and passed several other reforms to stem the militant socialist tide. You can read the proceedings of the 1886 Reichstag Session here.


By January 1st 1887, all militant socialist revolts had been dealt with and the threat was over. Peace had somewhat returned to Germany, but Europe would soon be shaken up again by an international crisis. On March 1st, news arrived from the Ottoman Empire that the Armenians had risen up and that the Austro-Hungarians had called for an intervention on behalf of the Ottomans. On April 1st, the French decided to back the Armenians, going against their Austro-Hungarian allies. When the German ambassador in Vienna was asked where Germany would stand, the Kaiser, the Chancellor and the Minister of Foreign Affairs agreed on supporting Austria-Hungary and the Ottomans against the French.


In May, while the crisis in Armenia remained unresolved, good news arrived about the Kiel Canal. After years of construction, the canal was finally completed and ready for use. Just as the Suez Canal all those years ago, the canal was first traversed by the flagship of the German navy, the SMS Arminius.


In July of '87, the Prime Minister of Sweden requested Germany to hold a conference on the Congo. The Congo basin had recently been conquered by the British, causing somewhat of an outrage in the rest of Europe. Minister of Foreign Affairs, Otto von Bismarck, led the conference and suggested that the other powers recognized Swedish rule over the entirety of Congo as a way of giving a neutral country control over the region instead of making it the location of a colonial race between Britain, Portugal, France and Germany. In return, trade on the Congo River would be free for all great powers. The other powers agreed and the Swedish King was granted control over the Congo Free State, as it would be known. As Sweden was in Germany's sphere of influence, all of the Congo was now firmly in Germany's grasp, even if the Swedish King owned it in name.


That same month, Austria-Hungary and France reached an agreement over Armenia, agreeing to let the matter go and sign a white peace. Peace and diplomacy had won over war and hate once again. In August of '87, the Ministry of War started working on new navy doctrines with the introduction of the concepts of blue and brown water navies in naval academies across the country. Eventually, this would lead to an effort to expand Germany's ports in Europe, but also abroad, to extend the reach of the German navy.


In March of 1888, the Scramble for Africa continued for Germany as war was declared on the Tukolor Empire, north of German Nigeria. The Tukolor capital of Niamey was quickly occupied, yet the African kingdom did not seek piece and would continue to fight from the countryside in a bloody guerilla war.


In August of '88, the Ministry of the Treasury invested in better steam turbines for the recently acquired artillery and steamer factories previously owned by Elbmetall KG, now under supervision of Kaiserliche Werke, a state owned company. The weaponry produced at those factories, in combination with equipment produced by Krupp, would form the main ingredients of the German war machine for the years to come. In September of '88, the German army and navy would both be tested in a punitive expedition to the Qing Empire. After several Germans had been killed in the Shanghai region by a Chinese militia, the cry for punitive action against them reached a boiling point in Germany, resulting in a declaration of war on the 22nd of September.


The campaign began when the I. and III. Kolonial Korps landed in the Shanghai area. The Qing reacted by sending a considerable amount of militias to prevent the Germans from reaching the port of Shanghai. In the meantime, the Hochseeflotte engaged with the Chinese fleet off the coast of the Ryukyu Islands, resulting in the destruction of the Qing fleet without a single German ship being sunk.


In the first Battle of Shanghai, the I. Kolonial Korps was able to drive a defending Chinese force out of Shanghai and started laying siege to the city. In an attempt to relieve the city, the Chinese sent another army to drive away the Germans, but failed and lost the second Battle of Shanghai with a considerable amount of losses compared to the Germans.



In the meantime, the III. Kolonial Korps lay waste to the countryside surrounding Shanghai, driving many Chinese farmers away from the region and prompting the Chinese to try and cut off the III. Kolonial Korps from the I. This resulted in the Battle of Jiaxing, where the III. Kolonial Korps attacked a Chinese army and successfully defeated them.


On December 11th, two days after the Battle of Jiaxing, a peace treaty was proposed to the Qing Emperor, who was forced to sign away Shanghai as a treaty port to the Germans. And so the century of humiliation continued.


In January of '89, Germany extended its influence in the Middle East by adding Hedjaz to its sphere of influence. Furthermore in March, the war against the Tukolor Empire finally came to an end when several guerilla leaders were apprehended and killed.


The next several months would be relatively peaceful and would see new improvements in the fields of industry and commerce, such as Pneumatics and Hydraulics, but also new regulations surrounding Investment Banks, making it easier for banks to invest and hold shares in companies and factories. By the end of the year, the Scramble for Africa had reached a new point when new technologies made it possible to enter in several areas that had previously been dangerous for Europeans. As a result, the Saharan frontier north of German Nigeria was put under German control and several trading posts were being established in Kenya and Tanzania.




1890 Newspapers


 
Election of 1890

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Election of 1890:


National Liberal Party (NLP)
Nationalliberale Partei

Current Leader: Ernst Krüger
Founding Year: 1848
Ideology type: Liberal

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionist
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro Military
Welfare: Populist Welfare

Description:
Formed In 1848 after the March Revolution from Many liberal Philosophers and economists wanting to start their own Party . It wishes to Pass liberal and Democratic Reforms to modernize Germany and is able to reach a compromise with the conservative elements within the Landtag and the royal court.

The past five years have seen the NLP, under its leader Ernst Krüger, push for and accomplish more reforms for the German people. The election of 1890, however, will be a major turning point in the party’s history. With increased membership in the DkP, the NLP will need to fight even harder to ensure that the rights of Germans are continued to be respected, and that sensible reform is still proposed and passed. With the Kaiser appointing a cabinet full of DkP members, which isn’t even in the governing coalition, Ernst Krüger and the NLP have had to walk a thin line between ensuring the party’s survival and ensuring that the Constitution is respected. As Reichskanzler Krüger enters his 8th year in office, he will undoubtedly be seeking re-election for a second term, which would make him the longest-serving Reichskanzler in history. It is on this backdrop that the NLP must seek to survive and not perish in the elections, else the house of cards that the NLP has built up may as well perish.


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Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands

Current Party Leader: Konstantin Brenner
Founding Date: 14th of June 1860
Ideology: Socialist
Motto: "Einigkeit macht stark"

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: State Capitalism
Religious Policy: Secularism
Citizenship Policy: Full Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Welfare State

Description:
The Social Democratic Party of Germany was created by Lutz von Sommer with the help of Gustav Schwarzmann and Benedict Eichwald to help move Germany towards a brighter, more equal future with its main goals being giving more power to the Reichstag and gaining reforms especially when it comes to voting rights for women and poorer men.

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German Conservative Party (DkP)
Deutschkonservative Partei
Current Party Leader: Volker von Geishof
Founding Date: 1st January 1860
Ideology: Conservative
Motto: “In Treue Fest”

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Protectionsims
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Pluralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Populist

Description:
The German Conservative Party, formerly known as the Free Conservative Party, has grown to a party of moderates who wish for extremism and far-left and far-right propaganda to be subdued. This party was renamed and reformed just before the 1860 elections.

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German Center Party (DZP)
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
Current Leader: Adalwolf von Märchenlied
Ideology: Conservative
Founded: October 31st, 1875
Motto: “Deus lo vult”

Ethics:
Trade Policy: Free Trade
Economic Policy: Interventionism
Religious Policy: Moralism
Citizenship Policy: Limited Citizenship
War Policy: Pro-Military
Welfare Policy: Welfare state

Description:
The DZP is a christian, centrist party that aims to bring stability back to the Empire. The Center party aims to be pragmatic and moderate. Both of the extremes are against the interest of Germany and her people, the Socialists want a godless state, and the reactionaries want a feudal state unfit for the modern world. The center party aims to keep Germany great by not letting it fall to extremism.


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The parties have also held speeches to convince people to vote for them:

NLP:
Reichskanzler Ernst Krüger addresses a crowd in Hamburg

"It is always a pleasure to be here in Hamburg, which has been and will continue to play a major part in expanding our Reich across the globe. It is ships made here that aided in our acquisition of Shanghai and in Africa, and I have no doubt that this great city will continue to play a major role in our colonial affairs. I am here to ask your continued support for the NLP in these coming elections. It may be perhaps the most important election in the party’s history, where there is a very real chance that we may cease to exist if the numbers show us anything.

I stand here today very much like I have in prior election years, asking not only for your vote, but also for your trust. This year is no different. The NLP continues to fight for your rights, and continues to fight for your freedom and liberty. You can see that in the Reichstag, it is the NLP that constantly pushes for reform, to better you, the German people. Whether it be the dockyard worker here in Hamburg, the factory worker in Essen, or the farmer in Posnan, the NLP fights for you!

As I have said before, the NLP is truly in dire straits. The increase in DkP membership can mean that you, the German people, will suffer more than anyone else. You have members in the DkP who are happier killing you all in the streets than passing common-sense reform and seeking to better you all. We cannot allow a DkP majority. The NLP has for the past forty-two years stood as the safeguard of the Constitution, of the people, and these next five years will be no different. I encourage all of you to come out and vote, even if you have never done so before! Ensure that your voice is heard! Ensure that your freedoms do not get trampled upon for the next untold number of years! The NLP can only survive so long as you, the German people, continue to trust in us and believe in us.

Politically, the standard of living for Germans under the NLP has increased drastically. Since 1848, the NLP has made it its primary goal to fight for you, the German people! Our party is the oldest party in Germany because we hold onto two simple goals, which are sewn into our party banner: ‘For Freedom and Prosperity!’ That is what the NLP stands for: the Freedom of the German people and their current and future Prosperity!

In times of crisis, when the freedoms of Germans are threatened from the enemies of Germany, it is the NLP that is the party that stands firm, it is the NLP that is the party that the importance of the Constitution is never infringed upon, it is the NLP that is the party that has provided in the past and will continue to be the steady hand in German politics that can weather the storm as we begin to enter the last decade of the 19th century.

The NLP has always held to its values and it shall never rescind on them, for it is because of their commitment to their principles that the NLP has stood as a beacon in German politics for much longer than any other party.

Vote NLP for a Free Germany!

Vote NLP for a Prosperous Germany!

Long Live Sacred Germany!"

DkP:
Minister Volker von Geishof makes a speech in Berlin

"In september of 9 AD, a glorious victory was won for the german people at the teutoburg forest. On August 27 1618, Brandenburg-Prussia was established, spelling the begining of a new era for Germany. On january 12th 1857, Wilhelm I was crowned Kaiser of Germany, and the most extraordinary empire in the history of the world was founded. All these examples of german greatness, were acheived through unity. Unity of the tribes, unity of the duchies, unity of the states. Unity of the people.

In 1885, another great feat was acheived through unity. The DKP became the largest party in the reichstag, with men from the DVA, The DZP, and the NLP all joining to partake in the greatness.

Now, we stand at the forefront of a new epoch, one that we will define. We germans, we men of honour and virtue. Come now, Join us! Usher in the new greatness! Unity of the reichstag! Unity of all german people! Unity of magnificence.

Vote DKP."

DZP:
Joseph von Klopp gives a speech to his constituents before the 1890 elections.

“My dear constituents, we now stand on the brink of another election, one which shall prove once again to be essential to the future of this nation.”

Joseph holds up a copy of the latest issue of the Reichs-anzeiger.

“I have here in my hand a copy of the latest issue of the Reichs-anzeiger, and I would like to discuss this issue, regarding the nightmares which many of the people of Germany have been experiencing over the past months. These are the result of ever more partisan politics, the further radicalization of all factions of the Reichstag which seek to play on the supposed attacks or the supposed weaknesses of the opposite side to accomplish their goals. They believe that the source of good governance can be accomplished through the demonization of enemies of their platform. But this is not true.

My dear constituents, the source of good governance is found through honor, through compromise, and through a willingness to defend the freedoms and rights of Germans. It is found through a profound belief in the purpose of government to honor the will of the people and to ensure that the voice of the people can be heard so that they are defended from assaults against their liberties. I stand before you today before you today as a member of Zentrum, and I can assure you that we shall find a voice for moderation, a voice for freedom, a voice for honor, in the coming government. Myself and my party, god willing and with the support of our great kaiser, shall guide this nation far from partisan attacks towards greater, more honorable, more free governance.

Long live the Kaiser!
Long live Germany!”

SPD:
Konstantin Brenner gives a speech to a gathering of SPD members and working class citizens

"We once again find ourselves at the start of a new election. We of the SPD together with our coalition allies passed a lot of laws to help you, the common people, live a decent life in these turbulent times. If you vote for the SPD we will continue to lobby for these reforms, no matter which person or what institution might try to stop us.

There is nothing more that I can say that has not been said before, so...

Never forget that your friend, the SPD, has your back!"


The Polls are now open and will remain so until Tuesday June 21st 8:00 PM CEST
vote_now.png