• Crusader Kings III Available Now!

    The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Advisors may now jockey for positions of influence and adversaries should save their schemes for another day, because on this day Crusader Kings III can be purchased on Steam, the Paradox Store, and other major online retailers.


    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

Firehound15

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NOVUS ORDO II: HARDRADA
- An 1816 Map Game with a 1066 Point of Divergence -

Seeing as it's been about a year since the last major map game on here, I figure it's time for a sequel to our last very, very successful one. I hope that you all enjoy this sequel to Novus Ordo, as well as the prospect of going far beyond what the first did.

For those who are unfamiliar with the concept, this map game is very similar to the sort ran on the Alternate History Forums, and as such, the goal is to create a historically plausible world. Please follow the rules at all times, and you'll be fine - just don't forget to have fun!

RULES:
1. Be civil OOCly. The last thing we need is a big scuffle between players.
2. Respect other countries' histories. This is a game about creating a plausible world, and as such, it is my request of all players that you work together to make something great instead of grinding gears. Please look at the histories of your neighbors before you start making region-changing historical claims.
3. Follow all the rules of the Paradox Forums.
4. You may make a maximum of two claims every 48 hours. In the interest of preventing land claims from overlapping, there will be a Google Doc (look down) in which you will make your nation claim. Please put the time and date, since claims last a maximum of 48 hours. If you put your country up before the 48 hours are up, feel free to make another, but make no more than two every two days.
5. The golden rule of every forum game that I run: Be realistic. I am normally not opposed to general silliness, but I insist in this sort of thing that players stick with a plausible historic setting and pursue a genuine degree of realism.
6. I have the first and final say in all matters of rule infringement.

Nations should be posted using the include the following points as a guideline, although you should feel free to add any additional information that you think is worthy of sharing with other players:

Map: (I will supply shortly, released with the setting information. Please make sure that any rivers that you use as borders are done in black, since it looks more consistent that way, and the maps we are using will have many rivers and tributaries.)
Official Name: (What the country refers to itself as in government documentation)
Common Name: (What most people refer to the country as)
Capital: (The capital city)
Head of Government: (The most powerful political figure)
Head of State: (The figurehead)
Major Political Parties: (Please include how many seats they have if the country has elected representation/a parliamentary body)
Demonym: (What people refer to the country's inhabitants as)
Languages: (Please include approximations of what percentage of the population speaks each language and, if it's unevenly distributed, where each language is predominant)
Ethnic Groups: (The same as with languages)
Religions: (The same as with languages and ethnic groups)
Population: (Please include an approximation of the nation's population. Remember that the date of this map game is 1816)
Location: (Please give a description of the nation's location)
History: (Please do not post a nation without some semblance of a history, as it will bog the game down. It is better to wait slightly longer and use more of your 48 hours than to post something with no history that you most likely will not come back to.)
Flag: (Optional, but always appreciated)



 

Firehound15

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What if...

Harald Hardrada and Tostig Godwinson had continued their successes in England toward a victory at the Battle of Stamford Bridge and a heroic conquest?

How would European history have changed?

How would it look 750 years later?

Everything before is the same.

Everything after is unknown.

The future is here. You decide.





GM'S NOTE:
We will be going continent by continent so that we may use more detailed maps and have a more organized history. As such, we will begin with a map of Europe. All claims should be in Europe at this moment, since no other maps have "unlocked" at this time. Thank you, and have fun!
 
Last edited:

Firehound15

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Official Name:
Emirate of Sicily; إمارة صقلية; Imarat Siqilliyya

Common Name: Sicily
Capital: Balarm
Head of State and Government: Ahmed VI al-Fiera

Demonym: Sicilians
Languages: 8% Arabic, 89% Siculo-Arabic, 3% Other
Ethnic Groups: 97% Sicilian, 3% Other
Religions: 80% Sunni Islam, 10% Roman Catholic, 8% Shi'a Islam, 2% Eastern Orthodox
Population: 4 Million
Location: Sicily, Malta

History:
The Emirate of Sicily is a very old nation with an even older concept. The small Islamic state has writhed against its neighbors for centuries, increasingly hanging on by little more than a thread. It is a nation which owes its current existence and continued survival to two factors: luck, and a history of ecumenism. Through the first of these, the nation managed to turn the tides of an effort by Norman conquerors in adjacent Apulia to conquer Sicily. The decisive Battle of Jilaan resulted in the death of the enemy commander, Roger de Hauteville, as well as breaking the opposing army. On that day in 1086, Sicily had maintained its independence, and warded off the first of many attempts to reclaim the island from the Muslim families who controlled it.

In spite of its successful self-defense, Sicily faced increasingly sour relations with the Zirid Sultanate, of which it was technically a vassal. While historians debate the precise cause of the increasingly strained relationship, many point to both the short-lived attempt by a Zirid usurper to rule the Emirate, as well as the failure of the Zirids to aid them in their defense against the Norman invaders. Regardless of the precise cause, after Emir Isma'il al-Kalbi - who had led the successful defense of the island - restored himself to power and executed all rival claimants, he ceased paying taxes to the Zirids (themselves locked in their own civil war) and began to rule his Emirate as an independent fiefdom.

Much of Sicily's strength came in two forms: the first, an unwritten promise on behalf of the Emirs not to enforce Islam (although most public mechanisms would continue to favor the religion all the way to 1816), and the second, Sicily's location as a hub for Mediterranean trade. Through these adaptations, they faced relatively little attention by the Papacy (although to say he was pleased about a powerful Islamic state to his south would be a falsehood) and developed exceedingly good relations with merchants from Amalfi and other Italian city-states.

Facing the danger of Christianity in nearly all directions, however, the Emirate was forced to stagnate, and although there had been efforts to expand (such as the temporary capture of Sardinia), they had ultimately failed to expand in Europe, permanently, for the greater part of 800 years. Their success in trade and the continued growth of their navy, however, would ultimately see them maintain a trade network throughout the world.

At present, Ahmed VI al-Fiera, the eighteenth Fierid ruler of the Emirate, is seen as a decadent and self-interested monarch, gifted in diplomacy, but who has left the bureaucratic infrastructure of his country become rotten with corruption. At present, there is an increasingly well-organized movement to oust him, although there is little agreement on the part of such underground clubs as to who - or what they should replace him with.

Flag:
 

Korona

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Official Name:

States of the Church, Status Pontificus, Stato della Chiesa

Common Name: The Papal States, the Papacy
Capital: Roma
Head of State: Pope Innocent XIV (de facto Head of Government)
Head of Government: Ercole Consalvi, Cardinal Secretary of State (de jure)

Demonym: Papal
Languages: 83% Italian, 7% French, 10% Latin (used for all official documents)
Ethnic Groups: 85% Italian, 15% French
Religions: 100% Roman Catholic
Population: 4.8 Million ((Ballpark estimate))
Location: Central Italy

History:
The Papal States is the bastion of the Church, the home of the Pope. In the early days of Pepin, and the Franks, the Duchy of Rome was ruled by the leader of the Catholic Church, the Pope. Weak, and relatively defenseless, the Papacy desired more land to reinforce the Church's power, for the Pope was the representatives of God, and it was only fitting that he be granted lands due to that divine status. Seeking more lands, Pope Zachary named Pepin Patrician of the Romans, in an attempt to bribe the Frankish ruler into forcing the Lombards into giving the Pope more land. It worked, and the Papacy was expanded to include Ravenna, Pentapolis, and parts of Tuscany and Corsica. In return for this honor, Pope Leo III crowned Pepin's young son, Charlemagne, Emperor in 800 Anno Domini.

For the next three hundred years, the Papacy was in a state of limbo with the Holy Roman Empire. While de jure, the Papacy was independent, they were also servants of the Emperor, an issue that caused great resentment from within the Church. This conflict was at it's worst when the Guelphs and Ghibellines fought over investiture, and the status of the Pope within the Holy Roman Empire. Eventually, the Concord of Worms and the subsequent Treaty of Venice saw the Papacy finally become independent. It was during this time that Pope Urban II began the Crusades, a series of holy wars that would result in the formation of a fierce anti-Muslim sentiment by the Holy See. These Crusades would have a lasting impact upon the Church, and the whole of Europe, as Muslim knowledge and technology began to filter into Europe.


((Not sure if I should talk about the Reformation, or if it should be someone else's job. Firehound, leaving that up to you.))

After a series of wars and annexations, the Papal States grew to be a regional power by the year of 1650. Under Pope Paul IV, the Papacy expanded it's wealth and prestige, annexing Parma, which later became independent in 1753. The Papacy survived through a series of tumultuous events in the 18th Century, most notably the Revolution of 1767. A series of Italian revolutionaries, spurred by republican sentiment in the area. The revolution was successful, and the Papal States lost most her Northern territory. The Papal States was weakened, and the current Pope, Innocent XIII, called a new Concord in Perugia to address the failings of the Church. Moderate liberalizations were adopted, and the Church also took a more aggressive stance towards Muslims. The current Pope, Innocent XIV, has returned the church to conservatism, with his iron fist and domineering will ensuring total obedience to him, and him alone. He seeks to expand the Papal States to reclaim Sicily from the Muslims, and to destroy any and all who would oppose the Pope.

Flag:




 
Last edited:

sealy300

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Map: [None atm, needs the 'western Scotland claims' of another player. Insert the rest of Scotland, Cumbria and all north of Modern Yorkshire County]
Official Name: Kinrick o' Scotland [Scots] Rìoghachd na h-Alba [Gaelic]
Common Name: Scotland, Scotia, Caledonia, Alba.
Capital: Edinburgh
Head of Government: Laird Chancellor Francis Stuart, 10th Earl of Moray
Head of State: King Duncan IV Stuart
Major Political Parties: Whigs, Tories, Crofters.
Demonym: Scots.
Languages: ~80% Scots. ~15% Gaelic (95% Highland Gaelic, 5% Norse-Gaelic) [localised in the North] ~10% Suthran [localised in Northumbria] 4%>= Aenglic There is overlap between these groups, and in cultural border regions bilingualism is common.
Ethnic Groups: ~99% 'Scottish' [Some argue that the gaels and Norse-gaels are a separate race, this will be an issue in the years to come. If so, they are between 10-20% of the population.]
Religions: ~15% Catholic [localised in the gaelic regions], ~85% Kirk o' Scots [union of Caldonicans*, Baptists, Anabaptists, Presbyterians & the like], 3%=> Cathar
Population: ~2m
Location: Northern Great Britain.
History: Scotland is an Old Kingdom, being founded by Gaels in the 900s. However, over its many years it has evolved and moved South. In 1066, it possessed most of the British Mainland north of old Hadrian's wall; and after several border wars over the next few centuries with the Aenglish to the South, the border stabilised and became what it is today. Scotland was a hotbed of reformation activity, due to its diverse religious history. In 1560, the Kirk o Scots was founded to unite the various protestant strands together and create a doctrine of "unity despite diversity". The Kirk remains the established church, to the annoyance of the catholic population. Scotland is a constitutional monarchy, with the Clans and Lairds' "Bloodless Revolution" of 1714 establishing the power of the Pairlamant. A House of Lords exists with the various Clan Chiefs, Peer titles and ministers of the Kirk present. There is also a House of Commons (Which has the most power) which takes 3 MPs from each county and various others from the New Towns. Scotland also posses a modest colonial empire, focused around the cold north of North America. It maintains uneasy relations with its southern neighbour: who seeks to take the Suthran lands, and with the Kingdom of the isles; with whom it has fought with for centuries.
Motto: [God Defends me; in my defence]
Anthem: Scots Wha Hae

((*TTL equivalent of Anglicans))
 
Last edited:

Arrowfiend

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Official Name: Kingdom of Aquitaine

Common Name: Aquitaine, Occitania
Capital: Bordèu
Head of State and Government: King Pèire de Peitieus-Tolosa

Demonym: Occitan
Languages: 57% Occitan, 14% French, 23% Catalan, 2% Basque, 2% Breton, 4% Arabic
Ethnic Groups: 78% Occitano-Romance, 14% French, 2% Basque, 2% Breton, 4% Iberian Arab
Religions: 73% Catholic, 17% Cathar, 4% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 4% Sunni ((WIP depending on status of Protestant Reformation))
Population: Approximately 18 Million
Location: Medieval Duchy of Aquitaine and County of Toulouse, Catalonia

History: In 1066, the Duchy of Aquitaine, along with many other French vassals, were already de-facto independent. The Capetian Kings never truly controlled France outside of their homelands of Paris. While Aquitaine was usually a loyal subject, the Duchy finally declared its de-jure independence during the reign of the ambitious Eleanor of Aquitaine (1137-1204), who secured Aquitaine's independence and joined the County of Toulouse with the Duchy through marriage. After her death, the Duchy and County would be merged, with Eleanor's son, Ramon, declaring the Kingdom of Aquitaine. Wars would continue to be fought over the next eight centuries in the northern reaches of the Kingdom, but Aquitaine would largely win most of these conflicts. Meanwhile, in the south, war would be waged against Muslims in Iberia, with Catalonia being the battleground between the two religions. In 1816, everything north of Barcelona (including Barcelona itself) is securely under control of Aquitaine, while the rest of Catalonia is disputed.

In the absence of a strong, unified France, Catharism would flourish in southeastern Aquitaine. While several attempts would be made to root out the heresy, most notably the Albigensian Crusade in the early 13th century, Catharism would never be fully extinguished, with the religion still forming the majority in some rural parts of the Kingdom, especially in Catalan speaking regions. Following the discovery of the New World, many Cathars would immigrate, hoping to form their own colonies free of religious persecution.

Meanwhile, the Catholic Kingdom itself would have to deal with a new enemy: the Protestants. While the Cathars eventually gained a grudging acceptance by the Catholic administration, Protestantism was heavily persecuted by the Kingdom. At the zenith of the Protestant persecutions, Protestants were treated worse than the Mohammedans of Iberia, with the inquisition killing thousands in the name of Catholicism. This bloody civil conflict would last for nearly a century, with most Protestants being either expelled, executed, or deported to one of the fringe colonies in the growing Aquitanian overseas empire. Religious peace would finally come in the mid 17th century with the Edict of Tolosa granting the Protestants (as well as Cathars and, to a lesser degree, Jews) substantial rights, nearly equal to the Catholic majority.


 
Last edited:

DutchGuy

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Map : See above
Official Name : Rouantelezh Breizh (Kingdom of Britanny)
Common Name : Britanny (Breizh in Breton)
Capital : Roazhon (Modern Rennes)
Head of Government : His Royal Majesty Erispoë III
Head of State : His Royal Majesty Erispoë III
Major Political Parties: Not yet applicable. Britanny is an absolute monarchy with no legislative assembly so far.
Demonym : Breton
Languages : Breton - 87%, Aenglish - 12% (Mostly in the border region with (Insertenglishstatehere), many people are bilingual. Occitan - 1% (a few isolated communes on the border with Aquitaine)
Ethnic Groups : Breton - 85%, Breton-Aenglish mixture - 2 %, Aenglish - 10%, Occitan - 1%
Religions : Catholicism - 94% Protestantism - 5 % Cathar - 1% (In the south and in secret groups all over britanny.)
Population : 3,545,761 as of January 1st 1816
Location : Historical Britanny and a large Cornwall with some forays into neighbouring counties.


History : The Breton lands had never been fully subjugated by the Capetian dynasty. When Aquitaine declared its independence, so did the Breton lords, rallying around Conan III, duke of Britanny. A charismatic leader, he would lead the Bretons into independence. By papal bull he was allowed to reclaim his ancestral right (his direct paternal ancestor had been the first king of Britanny some five centuries earlier) and became King of Britanny in 1148, months before his death. To prevent future french aggression, he erected great defensive works and allied himself to what would become the Kingdom of Aquitaine.

In that timeperiod, Britanny flourished. The pinnacle of Breton might came in 1457, when the last Cornish duchess of Cornwall (Demelza the Cunning, a most interesting female ruler) died and Alan VI inherited the Duchy.(Cornwall had gained independence several centuries prior and only provided lipservice to the Aenglish King. The Dukes of Cornwall had for several centuries acted independently and moved closer to their relatives across the sea.)

The duchy of Cornwall would later be expanded late in the second golden age of Brittanny in 1750, when a multi-nation coalition decisively beat Aengland, and divided the spoils of war. These lands are still largely Aenglish speaking, the crown has however made decisive steps towards integrating and assimilating them. As such, the area has become largely bilingual.


Flag :

 
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Firehound15

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Official Name:
Grand Duchy of Provence; Gran Ducat de Provença

Common Name: Provence
Capital: Marselha (Political); Aix (Religious)
Head of State and Government: Florentin I d'Arnaud
High Perfectus of the United Church: Anaïs Aliénor Soler

Demonym: Provencal
Languages: 98% Provencal (Occitan), 2% German
Ethnic Groups: 98% Provencal (Occitan), 2% German
Religions: 63% United Church of Free and Poor Brothers, 37% Roman Catholic
Population: 1.8 Million
Location: Provence

History:
The Grand Duchy of Provence began its long and tumultuous history as a county of the Holy Roman Empire, under the Kingdom of Arles. The Kingdom, however, was a decaying and weak entity, and seeing such an opportunity to increase their power, the Counts of Provence became independent of its structure, establishing the first iteration of the modern entity of Provence, and for a time, the county flourished under the rule of this First Dynasty.

Such matters, however, could not last, and a succession of diseases, cultural decay, and poor rulers resulted in the County becoming extremely weak by the 12th Century, and while it managed to maintain its territory, the local nobility had built their power on such tenuous foundations that at any moment the house of cards they had constructed could collapse. And while it did collapse, it did not fall apart in the precisely the manner which they feared it would.

In nearby Languedoc, a movement known among their members as "Good Brothers," and to others as Cathars had begun to sprout up. The group, known for their intensely pious radicalism soon caused a great deal of consternation in the Papacy, where they were seen as potential challengers to the Church's status quo. It was at the Council of Felix that they first began to organize themselves, but it was also where the first tensions within the movement would begin to appear.

A split had occurred between the so-called "Radical Cathars," (who the Catholic Church would label Albigensian) and the "Free Brothers," who disavowed many of the more questionable aspects of the Catharistic movement. This split would initially be a matter of primarily doctrinal dispute, but as the Papacy began to call for the eradication of the Albigenes, the split became more tangible.

This split would become fully solidified as the first set of losses was felt by the Free Brothers, most of whom lived nearer to Catholic communities. It was their fear of being eradicated due to their association with the Albigenes which led them to begin forming dialogues with the Waldensians of Provence, a less sizeable religious community which had also received much of the Papacy's scorn due to their unusual beliefs.

At the suggestion of the Waldensians, the Free Brothers fled for Provence - however, they arrived not only with the few belongings which they required, but also with a military force. It became exceedingly clear that the Free Brothers had no intention of being tricked by the Waldensians or by the Counts of Provence, and while they were initially accepted by the Count of Provence, a period of discomfort settled over all of the new migrants, as well as their new overlord.

Eventually, at the behest of his closest advisers, the Count of Provence decided that the growing influence of the Cathars within his lands were beginning to pose a threat to his rule. This, coupled with the urging of the Papacy, led him to begin an effort to purge the land of the Free Brothers. Initially, the effort was very successful, and the Cathars were forced out of many urban areas in Provence. In the long-term, however, he had made a fatal mistake.

The Free Brothers regrouped and reorganized in the mountains of Northern Provence, and immediately began a counter-campaign. Trained by their previous battles in Languedoc, they led a very successful series of interactions with the Counts, and by the end of the year, had executed the Count, captured his advisers, and declared a new government over Provence.

The Bishopric of Aix then became both the spiritual backbone and the de facto ruling government of Provence, which it maintained for seventy years, repelling three separate attempts by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Papacy to destroy it. Ultimately, the Treaty of Genoa would secure their religious rights and protection from further attacks, and while it would hold true for thirty of the Bishopric's seventy years, the greatest threat to their government was not external, but internal.

The City of Marselha, long given special autonomy by the Counts of Provence, was stripped of many of its historical rights by the Bishopric of Aix. Initially faced with vastly superior numbers, there was little the local burghers could do to maintain their power, but this changed considerably as the wars stopped religious fervor of the Bishopric began to fall. The Lords of Marselha, on the other hand, could raise significant mercenary armies, which they did unbeknownst to their overlords. In a sudden, unexpected move (although it was believed to have been backed by the Pope,) the City marched to Aix and declared another new government, this time becoming the Republic of Provence.

This Republic, unlike its Cathar predecessor, would last for several hundred years with its capital in Marselha, reorganizing the Cathars and Waldensians into the United Church of Free and Poor Brothers, and establishing a dual administration over the region. However, as time passed, the Republic became decreasingly democratic, with power eventually coming to rest in two major landowning families: the Catholic d'Arnauds and the Unionist Leclercs. Eventually, the two factions would erupt into open civil war, with the d'Arnauds backed by the Papacy and the Leclercs backed by the Republic's own religious structure.

The Marselhan War lasted for decades, and appeared for a time that it would never end, with the Republic's holdings effectively split in half. The war however, would be ended by the surprise elopement of Augustin d'Armand and Margarida Leclerc. Both were the only children of their respective parents, and the marriage was announced shortly after the death of Augustin's father. In order to make the marriage legitimate in the eyes of Jean Leclerc, Margarida's father, Augustin converted to Unionism, effectively ending the Marselhan War.

Following the war, Augustin declared himself the Duke of Provence, ushering in the current era of the region's history. Two generations later, the Bishop of Aix would crown the family with the title of Grand Duke, the title which the family has kept since the late 16th Century. The present Grand Duchy is led by the popular Florentin I, although rumors of tension between his efforts to centralize the administration and the interests of the Bishop of Aix are commonplace throughout the upper echelons of Marselha.

Flag:



((Claims should not be added to the map until the whole post is done, just for the sake of keeping things as orderly as possible.))
 
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Mikkel Glahder

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Official Name: Repubblica Rivoluzionaria d'Italia (Revolutionary Republic of italy)

Common Name: Italy

Capital: Bologna

Head of State and Government: Capitano del popolo Giovanni Domenico Garibaldi

Motto of the Republic: Revolution! Libertà! Repubblica!

Major Political Parties:
L'Ulivo: Liberal party formed during the revolution. Currently hold a pluraty of the seats in the chamber of deputies. Currently in coalition with Partito Radicale. Party colour: green. 178 seats.
Partito Raicale Italiano: A minor jacobin party that was also formed during the revolution. Currently in coalition with L'Ulivo. Party colour: red. 30 seats.
Partito Conservatore: A conservative party formed shortly after the revolution. Party colour: blue. 160 seats.
Chamber of deputies:


Demonym: Italian

Languages: Italian: 94%, Other Languages: ~ 4%

Ethnic Groups: Italian: 94%, Other Ethnic Groups: ~ 6%

Religions: Roman Catholic: 89%, Deism: ~ 7%, Other: ~ 4%

Population: 5.2 Million. A rough estimate made by the state.

Location: Nothern Italy

History: The Italian Revolution of 1767, or the Ravenna Revolt as it is commonly called by locals in the capital, was started by a liberal elite who came together in late 1766, as unrest had begun to arise, and crafted a document, demanding autonomy and democracy for Tuscany and Emilia. When this was rejected in early 1767 the liberals rose up, primarially in the big cities, but quickly spread to the countryside and many outside the borders volunteered to fight for a liberal Italy. Even though the forces of the Pope won several battles and even managed to take large swatches of territories, they were beaten back by 1768 when the revolutionaries became more organized and recieved weapons from several armouries and dubious sources. In 1772, both sides signed the peace of Bologna, where the Papal States recognized the independence of the republic and even though the revolution had not spread further south, the new-born state was ready to go around governing, which started with the signing of the constituion, that created a presidential system with a single legislative chamber.

In 1787, they spread the revolution to the north and during several wars during 1787-1796 they invaded and annexed several Italian states that they saw as reactionary and oppressive. Even though their offensives eventually grinded to a halt, they recieved large areas during negotiations. In 1805, a revolt in Venice led the republic to intervene and help their Italian brothers gain liberty and in 1807 it was annexed into the Repubblica Rivoluzionaria d'Italia.

By 1816, the republic is a sprawling democracy, with for example, freedom of speech, press and religion and many political exiles have arrived for various different reasons. Whilst politics and political parties are quite set in stone, nobody knows what will happen in the future.

 

Keinwyn

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Official Name: Roman Empire, Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, Basileía Rhōmaíōn
Common Name: Cyprus, Kypros
Capital: Famagusta
Head of State: Basileus Manuel VI Komnenos
Head of Government: Megas Doux Konstantinos Aoinos

Demonym: Cypriot, Greek, (rarely): Roman
Languages: Cypriot Greek
Ethnic Groups: Greek (83.7%) Others (Assyrian, Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Sicilian, Italians) (16.3%)
Religions: Orthodox (88.2%) Others (Catholic, Jewish, Nestorian, Sunni) (11.8%)
Population: ~500k
Location: Cyprus
History: During the disastrous reign of Byzantine Emperor Alexios II, Andronikos Komnenos, the charismatic, lecherous, and wiley governor of Cyprus sought to seize the throne. His attempt failed, but he was able to maintain control of his island. Cyprus has been independent - more or less - ever since. It is also, in its own eyes at least, the one true heir to the Roman Empire.

The diplomatic tightrope walked by successive rulers was by no means an easy task, but with fortune and naval laxity on the part of her foes, Cyprus was able to court and fend off the attentions of the surrounding states in equal measure. At times making common cause with religious enemies, the Cypriot Emperors - for that is what they considered themselves, Emperors - were in no position to be picky when it came to their bedfellows, and, on occasion their suzerain.
After the rise of Assyria, Famagusta's status as a trade port rapidly increased. Riding off Antioch's coat tails as the end of the silk road she cemented her place in the eastern Mediterranean trade network.
 
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MastahCheef117

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Official Name:
Roman Empire / Imperium Romanum / Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων
Common Name:
Byzantium / Byzantine Empire / Greece

Capital:
Constantinople
Form of Government:
Limited constitutional monarchy
Head of State:
Emperor Constantine XVI Palaiologos (Imperator Constantius / Basileus βασιλιά Κωνσταντίνου)
Head of Government:
Premier John Bouras (Primus Minister / Πρωθυπουργός)
Heir:
Crown Prince Michael (Caesar Michael / Διάδοχος Μιχαήλ)
Legislature:
Imperial Senate / Senatus Imperii / Γερουσία της αυτοκρατορίας

Demonym:
Roman / Byzantine / Greek
Languages:
Greek 98%, Latin 1%, Others 1% (will flesh out Others when neighboring countries are fleshed out)
Ethnic Groups:
Greek 81%, Bulgarian 6%, Albanian 4%, Ashkenazi <1%, Others <9%
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox Christianity 93%, Sunni Islam 4%, Roman Catholic 2%, Others 2%
Population:
9,384,575 (1815 census)
Location:
Greece and most of the Aegean islands

History:
The Doukas dynasty ruled over the most tumultuous period of Byzantine history to that date. Constantine X's death in 1067 passed the throne to the new husband of the widowed Empress, Romanos IV. Though dedicated to a military invigoration of the Empire's military fortunes, he got himself embroiled in war with the Seljuks. The Battle of Manzikert -- perhaps the defining battle in the history of the Empire -- caused a severe Byzantine rout, a loss of nearly all Anatolian territory, and the death of the Emperor himself in personal combat. The throne passed to his younger brother, crowned as Michael VII. His efforts to bring political stability to the Empire following the death of his elder brother did much to secure his legacy as both a charismatic and diplomatic monarch. His third son (and his only son born in the purple), Basil III, was quickly noted for his "insanity", though modern scholars believe he suffered from severe mental illness: probable psychopathy and sociopathy, as well as some claims of schizophrenia. His tyranny came to an end when Alexios Komnenos, a prominent aristocrat, led a revolt to depose Basil. The Emperor died in battle outside Constantinople, and the usurper claimed the title of Roman Emperor.

Alexios I, much like Romanos IV, took particular concern with the Empire's military affairs, though, unlike Romanos, succeeded in his efforts. Alexios reconquered swathes of land along the Black Sea coast and launched several successful campaigns against the Seljuks, retaking most of western Anatolia. His reign was marked by a flourishing in the arts and renewed vigor and strength in the Empire, a phenomenon later termed the "Komnenian restoration". His son, John II, committed himself to retaking all of Anatolia from the Turks, and to that end won several key battles in the Byzantine-Seljuk War of 1133 -- 1136, continuing the precedent set by his father by winning back more lands lost following the Battle of Manzikert.

By the mid-12th century the Byzantine Empire had largely recovered from Manzikert and was once again a solvent and powerful realm in the East. However, imperial fortunes rapidly declined toward the end of the rule of the Komnenos family. Manuel I settled on resting on his laurels, intent on building upon the successes of his father and grandfather by implanting Byzantine rule more firmly in the recently-reconquered territories. His early death from a mysterious illness, however, cast the throne to his incompetent son Alexios. Alexios II ruled through corruption and ineptness, and the political infighting that occurred in his court threatened to reverse the gains of the dynasty and tear down the Empire itself. It was around this time that Cyprus broke off from the Empire and laid claim to the title of the true Empire. As imperial authority seemed to collapse around him, the Emperor was murdered in his sleep on the orders of his cousin, Manuel, who quickly assumed the title of Emperor. In less than a year, he was deposed by a faction of generals and aristocrats led by Isaac Angelos, who was, after much bickering, crowned Emperor in 1184.

Isaac II inherited the Empire's realms as the Seljuks were retaking much of Anatolia. He led Imperial armies into battle himself on numerous occasions, though, lacking the martial skill of Alexios I and others, was unable to secure a decisive victory, and soon was forced to give most lands back to Constantinople's bitter archenemies. In 1199, he was forcefully deposed, blinded, and exiled by his son. Alexios III, upon assuming the throne, evoked the feelings of a tyranny that reminded many of the terrible reigns of Basil III and Alexios II; still, he remained in power through courting the most powerful nobles and officials in the Empire, handing out gifts to his allies to ensure he stayed on their good side. His twelve-year reign came to an end after being murdered by an intruder inside his house, who managed to escape.

Alexios IV, the young (and estranged) child who succeeded upon his father's death, was never able to fully restore the majesty and prestige of the throne following the intrigue of his decadent father. Still, the young Emperor was much-loved by the bureaucrats and aristocrats of the Empire. He managed to retake small slices of territory in Anatolia, but his most notable achievement was refilling the imperial coffers after his father's unending sprees of spending. John III was the longest-reigning Byzantine Emperor post-Justinian until the 17th century; though his reign was relatively uneventful, he maintained the peace both within and without, and died aged seventy-nine. John IV's energetic (and hapless) character resulted in his early death, just three months into his reign, in an attempt to reconquer "all of Anatolia". His son, Leo VII, hoped to mirror Alexios I's imperial restoration with an "Angelid restoration", but, after having a political enemy of the Palaiologos family murdered, was arrested, beaten, tortured, castrated, and publicly hanged, before being forced to make the younger brother of his earlier victim, Michael Palaiologos, his choice heir.

Michael VIII would later be revered as "Michael the Great" for his efforts to completely expel the Turks from Anatolia, though he only reconquered roughly half of the region. The Palaiologos settled into the position of imperial family relatively easily, and witnessed the greatest period of internal political stability in the Empire's history. The first period of Palaiologian rule saw another flourishing of the arts and renewed economic growth and stability.

The first three Emperors of the dynasty ruled in relative peace, save for Michael's various campaigns against the Turks. John V died in battle against Bulgarian troops in the Battle of Svilengrad, weakening Byzantine authority in the Balkans. Byzantine power was eroded externally gradually throughout the latter years of the 14th century and early 15th century, though Constantine XI's successful defense of Constantinople during a siege by the Turks in 1453 -- which ended decisively in his favor when reinforcements from the west arrived -- earned him the epithet "the Victor". His son, deemed more a playboy than a monarch, was stabbed repeatedly by a political operative working for the once-mighty Isaurian dynasty. The family quickly seized power in Constantinople, though only really ruled much of the Empire for about three years. A loyalist rebellion in Greece, aimed at the restoration of Constantine Palaiologos, the younger son of Constantine XI, caused discontent for the new dynasty to spread throughout most of the Empire Alexios VI was killed in battle against Constantine's forces, and his younger brother Michael IX was deposed after his army was beaten near Athens. Before death, he had his legs cut off, one foot shoved in his mouth, and was paraded through the streets before being thrown in to the sea. The Palaiologos dynasty was quickly restored with the accession of Constantine XIII.

Constantine and his son, John VII, restored stability in all realms to the Empire. After John was killed in battle with the Turks, his son began suffering from severe depression, resulting in his suicide at the age of twenty-two. The throne passed to his younger cousin, Manuel IV -- aged just one -- would later go on to be the longest-lived Emperor in Byzantine history, ruling for eighty-one years. His reign witnessed the last Byzantine efforts to retake Anatolia -- as the Turks soundly beat him when he was just twenty-one -- but renewed efforts to expand into the Balkans and elsewhere in the Mediterranean. His most notable achievement was the recapture of Constantinople in 1578, after it was lost in the second year of his reign. By the time of his death in 1631, the Empire had adopted gunpowder for mass use in its military. When Byzantine Albania was lost in the 1720s, Emperor Andronikos II -- who succeeded his father, Constantine XIV, who had abdicated in favor of his son -- led a campaign to retake it. His martial prowess and commitment to modernizing the Imperial Army earned him the sobriquet "the Great". His son, however, proved to be an unpredictable and even tyrannical Emperor, brutally repressing religious and ethnic minorities within the Empire and banning the practice of all religions except Eastern Orthodox. His death, and the death of his son, from the same illness just two years apart sent the Empire into a downward spiral out of which it has yet to recover -- if it will recover, after all.

Alexios VII, while not viewed as cruel or tyrannical, was certainly considered inept, consuming his time with women and drink instead of more stately affairs. His reign saw the loss of more territory in the Balkans and dissent throughout the Empire, chiefly regarding the danger an inept absolute monarch could pose to the Empire. Constantine XV, while a capable administrator, chose instead to energetically attack anti-monarchical elements in Byzantine society, notably committing a massacre of 3,000 revolutionaries that demanded land reform and representative government. His murder by a band of revolutionaries inspired -- or, more rather, forced -- his son, and current Emperor, Constantine XVI to create the post of Premier, instituting very limited voting rights throughout the Empire to determine the makeup of the now-reformed Imperial Senate. The reign of the last two Emperors has seen decreased prosperity, increased dissatisfaction with the government, and decreased military strength. Only time will tell if the Empire will bounce back -- as it has for centuries -- or if it will finally meet its end.

From the family Doukas
Constantine X (1006 -- 1067), r. 1059 -- 1067
Romanos IV (1030 -- 1071), r. 1067 -- 1071 B
Michael VII "the Kind" (1049 -- 1093), r. 1071 -- 1093
Basil III "the Troubled" (1074 -- 1096), r. 1093 -- 1096 B

From the family Komnenos
Alexios I (1056 -- 1121), r. 1096 -- 1121
John II "the Good" (1087 -- 1158), r. 1121 -- 1158
Manuel I (1122 -- 1181), r. 1158 -- 1181 I
Alexios II (1155 -- 1183), r. 1181 -- 1183 M
Manuel II (1136 -- 1184), r. 1183 -- 1184 D

From the family Angelos
Isaac II (1156 -- 1207), r. 1184 -- 1199 D/I
Alexios III "the Wicked" (1152 -- 1211), r. 1199 -- 1211 M
Alexios IV (1181 -- 1233), r. 1211 -- 1233 I
John III (1207 -- 1288), r. 1233 -- 1288
John IV (1245 -- 1288), r. 1288 B
Leo VII (1273 -- 1293), r. 1288 -- 1293 M

From the family Palaiologos
Michael VIII "the Great" (1227 -- 1308), r. 1293 -- 1308
Alexios V (1263 -- 1340), r. 1308 -- 1340
Manuel III (1309 -- 1367), r. 1340 -- 1367 I
John V (1338 -- 1371), r. 1367 -- 1371 B
John VI (1340 -- 1390), r. 1371 -- 1390 M
Romanos IV (1373 -- 1405), r. 1390 -- 1405
Andronikos I (1395 -- 1446), r. 1405 -- 1446
Constantine XI "the Victor" (1418 -- 1479), r. 1446 -- 1479
Constantine XII (1450 -- 1488), r. 1479 -- 1488 D/M

From the family Isaurian (second time)
Alexios VI (1442 -- 1493), r. 1488 -- 1493 B
Michael IX (1457 -- 1494), r. 1493 -- 1494 D/M

From the family Palaiologos (second time)
Constantine XIII (1455 -- 1527), r. 1494 -- 1527
John VII (1497 -- 1546), r. 1527 -- 1546 B
John VIII "the Melancholic" (1528 -- 1550), r. 1546 -- 1550 S
Manuel IV (1549 -- 1631), r. 1550 -- 1631
Leo VIII (1574 -- 1645), r. 1631 -- 1645
Michael X (1601 -- 1672), r. 1645 -- 1672
Constantine XIV (1645 -- 1703), r. 1672 -- 1701 A
Andronikos II "the Great" (1678 -- 1740), r. 1701 -- 1740
Manuel V "the Terrible" (1707 -- 1763), r. 1740 -- 1763 I
Manuel VI (1746 -- 1765), r. 1763 -- 1765 I
Alexios VII (1715 -- 1783), r. 1765 -- 1783
Constantine XV (1742 -- 1803), r. 1783 -- 1803 M
Constantine XVI (1783 -- present), r. 1803 -- present

Key
A -- abdicated voluntarily
M -- murdered/assassinated
B -- died in battle
D -- deposed
I -- illness
S -- suicide

Flag & Coat of Arms:

 
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etranger01

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Official Name:
The Zirid Caliphate

Common Name: Andalusia
Capital: Granada
Head of Government: Grand Vizier Uthman
Head of State: Caliph Tamim V

Demonym: Andalusians
Languages: 11% Arabic, 72% Andalusi Arabic, 6% Galician, 7% Hebrew, 4% Basque
Ethnic Groups: 9% Berber, 73% Andalusian, 9% Ashkenazi, 5% Galician, 4% Basque
Religions: 85% Sunni Islam, 8% Judaism, 4% Roman Catholicism, 3% Other
Population: ~20 million
Location: Iberia

History:
Following the disintegration of the Umayyad Caliphate in 1031, the Muslim-held areas of Iberia split into numerous feuding taifas. One of these taifas was the Emirate of Granada, founded by an exiled branch of the Ifriqiyan Zirid dynasty. In the face of growing militarism from the northern Christians, the taifas were brought into a growing confederation by the Granadan Zirids, who used the wealth of their rich trade port to create an army capable of withstanding the Castilian menace. After a series of bloody and vicious wars, the northern Christians were pushed back and the Zirid emirs grew sufficiently in power to declare themselves the new Iberian caliphs. By the end of the 14th century, Christian presence in Iberia was limited to Occitan Barcelona and the tributary Duchy of Galicia in the northwest. After a series of skirmishes, even that latter holdout no longer existed. The Conquest was complete.

Though the Zirids had consolidated their overall rule in the peninsula, the Caliphate was not a centralized state. Instead, the powerful Sultanate of Granada acted as "first among equals" of the dozen-plus emirates and numerous sheikhdoms and independent cities of the Caliphate, who collectively elected the new Caliph -- always a Zirid -- upon the death of the latter. Though the Zirid Caliphs managed to consolidate a great deal of power and authority in the following centuries, the Council of Taifas serves as a representative body for the numerous Andalusian noblemen and religious leaders seeking to exercise influence over government policy. Though the Caliphate is one state with one leader, it has many jurisdictions and almost as many different sets of laws. Only in the Emirate of Granada and in the Caliphate's overseas colonies does anything like uniform governance emerge.

Flag: In Progress
 

oxfordroyale

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Official Name:
Kingdom of Denmark

Common Name: Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Head of State and Government: Valdemar VIII Estridson
Demonym: Danish, Danes
Languages: Danish, Swedish, German, Icelandic
Ethnic Groups: 60% Danes, 18% Swedes, 12% German, 5% German Pomeranians, 2% Icelandic
Religions: Christian
Population: 2 million
Location: Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Skaneland (Skane, Halland, Blekinge), Gotland, Iceland (off map) and Greenland (off map)

History:
While its neighboring Norway would become heavily involved in England for much of the late 11th century, the Kingdom of Denmark would remain preoccupied with its own sorry internal affairs. After Danish control over England was broken in 1035 the kingdom had fallen into a state of disarray that would endure for over half a century. While periodic raids would be launched against the English until 1085, aspirations of retaking the island from their new conquerors, the Norwegians, proved to be little more than flights of fancy for a crown saddled with massive debt and plagued by division. Several attempts were made - all failed disastrously. Outright rebellion was only narrowly avoided in the late 11th century when the imposition of a tithe on Danish peasants threatened to ignite a violent uprising against the king - fortunately, Canute’s nephew, Sweyn Estridson, managed to re-establish strong royal Danish authority by forming a prosperous alliance with Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen, the Archbishop of all Scandinavia. Danish rulers began to see Christianity and the church as a powerful tool and means with which they could create a stable administration and exercise more effective control over their kingdom, greatly facilitating the spread of the faith through Denmark as well as a return to peace and calm.

This period of stability would prove somewhat brief, however. A series of violent civil wars would grip the kingdom in the mid-12th century following the assassination of prominent nobleman by another - these conflicts would conclude with the ascension of Valdemar the Great to the Danish throne in 1131. Under Valdemar the country was rebuilt, the kingdom’s administration strengthened and reorganized, and numerous fortifications constructed to wade off incursions by Norway and Sweden. Most notably, construction began of a castle in the village of Havn that would eventually lead to the foundation of Copenhagen, Denmark’s current capital. Via direct royal decree Denmark’s navy was reformed and built into a major power that would secure the kingdom great amounts of trade, territory and influence throughout the Baltic.

From the 1160s to the early 13th century the Kingdom of Denmark would expand its territory to include the Principality of Rugen, Mecklenburg and the Duchy of Pomerania. Following conquest the Danes would promote Christianity and extensive settlement in these regions, inspiring the ire of their pagan inhabitants - several revolts would flare up and were brutally crushed. While these new southern gains would be challenged in 1227 by Adolf, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, and the Hanseatic League, at the Battle of Bornhöved the Danes won a decisive victory and ensured that their new conquests would remain part of the Kingdom of Denmark for years to come - indeed, they remain part of Denmark even today.

Valdemar II would attempt to replicate this remarkable success by launching several so-called “crusades” along the southern Baltic coast, seeking to conquer pagan lands and bathe them in the light of his Christian God. Unfortunately, while the Danes did succeed in capturing extensive territory (such as Estonia) these gains would prove much more short-lived. These defeats ushered in a period of quiet consolidation and a focus on domestic affairs. Successive attempts by the Hanseatic League and the counts of Holstein to strike at Danish lands, however, would be easily repulsed.

The next several centuries saw a period of close cooperation between the Crown and the Roman Catholic Church. Thousands of church buildings were financed and constructed during this time alongside an economic boom in the 12th century spurred by the lucrative herring trade. While noble families still possessed a great deal of power, through the church and the renowned Danish fleet the royal family kept a stranglehold on trade and power in Denmark.

Under Valdemar IV Denmark once again turned to war and conquest. In 1263 he struck a deal with the Swedes - the Danes would help Sweden in its conquest of Norway. The Danish fleet inflicted a total blockade of Norwegian ports, stifling their economy and starving their people, while Sweden marched into their cities. In return they were rewarded with Iceland and Greenland, securing the kingdom more influence over North Sea and Atlantic trade. However, soon after this cooperation he embarked on a war of expansion that would bring Denmark into open conflict with the Hanseatic League and Sweden. Utilizing the Danish fleet to its full potential, Valdemar conquered Gotland and thus deprived the League of Visby, an important trading town. The Danish also managed to capture a large Hanseatic fleet and ransomed it back for an enormous sum, delivering a crushing blow to the League while also filling their own coffers. By the war’s end the Danes were the undisputed masters of the Baltic Sea, controlling trade through both the Danish home islands and Gotland.


In the 17th century several large scale wars would be fought between Sweden and Denmark, with the former seeking to eliminate the Danish presence on the northern mainland by taking Skaneland while its navy sought to surround and blockade Gotland into surrender. These wars were extremely bloody and hard-fought but ultimately resulted in no permanent territorial changes. The strong Danish fleet proved instrumental in the conflicts, providing a counter to Sweden’s superior land forces. Nevertheless there were some close calls - during the darkest days of the Second Northern War in 1668, King Frederick III convinced the nobles to relinquish many of the powers and privileges which they had enjoyed for centuries (such as their exemption from taxes and moderate levy obligations) in order to bolster the war effort. This led to an era of absolutism in Denmark and the beginning of a gradual, further erosion of noble influence over the course of the next several years.

For most of the 18th century, Denmark was at peace - exempting the complete conquest of Schleswig-Holstein in 1762 after repeated border provocations. Over time power would become increasingly centralized in Copenhagen with the king as the focal point of administration under which crown officials and new group of bureaucrats operated. Traditional aristocracy had become practically obsolete by the 1770s, and was reduced to a purely ceremonial institution by formal decree in 1804. The population of Denmark also steadily rose in this period, most likely due to expanded agricultural output and extensive reforms such as the abolition of the old open-field system and the consolidating of small farms into larger ones.

In the late 18th century new laws were passed to ensure that the military could only obtain manpower through conscription - however, this was not to say that the Danish armed forces shrunk in size. As Enlightenment ideas became popular among the middle classes of Denmark a sense of Danish nationalism began to develop, bolstered by a renewed interest in military history by the kingdom’s academics, and in turn the ranks of the military and navy swelled. Hostility increased towards the Swedish, German and Pomeranian minorities within the kingdom while pride in the Danish language and culture rose. While censorship was relaxed, other radical reforms such as freedom of the press and freedom of religion were suppressed by the crown and failed to take hold among the general populace.

Denmark maintains a colonial empire outside Scandinavia, having been the first European power to discover the New World in the late 15th century. Having gained control over Iceland and Greenland from Norway in exchange for cooperation with Sweden, the Danes used these North Atlantic footholds to embark on a colonization of the New World, obtaining a major colonial empire.

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DragonOfAtlantis

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Official Name: The United Kingdoms of Ireland and Western Scotland
Common Name: Eire, Ireland
Capital: Dublin
Head of Government and Head of State: High King Carriag Ua Conchobair.
Demonym: Gaels
Languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish
Ethnic Groups: Irish located mainly in Ireland (80% of the population), Gaels located mainly in upper Western Scotland (10% of the population), Scottish exclusively in lower Western Scotland (10%).
Religions: Roman Catholic (90%), Kirk o' Scots (10%).
Population: ~7 million persons, specifically 6 million in Ireland and 1 million in Western Scotland.
Location: The island of Ireland and the Western half of Scotland.
History:
Historically Ireland followed OTL up until 1169 when the Norman Invasion of Ireland occurred, without the threat of conquest the Irish High King Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair decided to consolidate his rule as he only had suzerainty over the others kings. The kings, really dukes, of Ireland were conquered one by one by the forces of the kingdom of Connacht. By Ruaidrí's death, the kingdoms of Mumu, Mide, and Laigan were under his control. His heir, Aed mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, continued the conquest, uniting Ireland by 1186. After that Ireland had gone through a period of relative peace, aside from the occasional peasant revolt, until the time of the Reformation. Ireland itself did not stray from the Catholic Church, but neighboring Scotland did. The High King, now just called King of Ireland, declared a religious war to claim land in which followers of the Catholic Church still resided. The armies of Ireland crossed the North Channel into Scotland and claimed the Hebrides and began a conquest of first the Highlands. The armies rampaged across Scotland, but were repulsed partway through Sutherland Shire in the battle of Dornoch, Inverness-shire at the battle of Inverness, and Lanarkshire at the battle of Lanark. The King, being satisfied with liberating the majority of Catholics in Scotland requested a peace with Eastern Scotland, now called Scotland. He reorganized the Western Scottish land he conquered into two subdivisions, the Gaelands in the North and Albann in the South. Up through to 1816, Albann had been an area of high unrest, but the Kings of Ireland, refusing to lose the land gained, constantly stationed an army to oversee the people and have consistently attempted to stamp down on those who call for the reunification of Scotland proper. The Island of Ireland itself has had very little change over time, but there are still those who desire a parliament system like in Scotland, but they do not want the Scottish to be a part of it, most Irish see the Scottish Gaels as being near equals, but the other Scots as being beneath them.

Outside the British Isles, Ireland has three colonial areas, the Yucatan Peninsula, Goa in India, and Hong Kong.
 
Last edited:

Firehound15

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((Overly specific land claims may not be honored, so please avoid making them. That's not to say you can't say you have colonies in a general area, but if you may not get what you want if it's too precise.

Also, all references to "Erie" should be "Eire."

Thank you all very much.))
 

luc124

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Official Name:
The Most Enlightened Kingdom of Holland

Common Name: Holland
Capital: Kingstad
Head of State: King Bartholomeus II Augustus of House Gerulfing
Head of Government: First Minister of State Hubrecht Akkerman

Demonym: Dutch
Languages: 87% Dutch, 10% Flemish, 2% German, 1% Other
Ethnic Groups: 97% Dutch-Flemish, 2% German, 1% Other
Religions: 90% Roman Catholic, 7% Protestants, 2% Jewish, 1% Other
Population: 10 Million
Location: Netherlands, Flanders

History:

The Kingdom of Holland is a proud nation with a long history of glory and prestige, mainly defined by their struggle for Independence from the Holy Roman Emperor. Holland was, for long, a small Duchy subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor, but that always had a strong ambition for greatness and complete self-rule, and laboured long for their independence. Before their greatly awaited release from the empire, many centuries passed, and borders changed, with the Duchy growing substantially through the means of marriage, inheriting lands that previously belonged to the Houses of Flanders and Wigeriche, and quickly becoming a force to be reckoned with within the Empire.

Long and Bloody was its struggle, but after much waiting, Holland was freed from the Empire as the Emperor's power collapsed due to the reformation, where the Dutch took advantage of the chaos caused by the religious wars to leave the empire and form its own self-ruling state, with the Duke being crowned as King.

In the last 250 years, Holland has greatly expanded itself on all thatres of political operation. It greatly developed the infustructure of its land, draining swamps and lakes to open up the way for urbanisation and agricultural development, and fully embracing Industrialisation and the establishment of manufactories, that combined with the nation's highly developed commercial system, greatly enriched the nation. Holland has also developed a large overseas empire, with colonies in the Americas, Africa and in several spots of Asia, mainly due to the Dutch Navy, that grew to become the pride of the nation, for it protected one of Hollands greatest assets: Its Powerful Trading Power.

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Firehound15

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Official Name: The United Kingdoms of Ireland and Western Scotland
Common Name: Eire, Ireland
Capital: Dublin
Head of Government and Head of State: High King Carriag Ua Conchobair.
Demonym: Gaels
Languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish
Ethnic Groups: Irish located mainly in Ireland (80% of the population), Gaels located mainly in upper Western Scotland (10% of the population), Scottish exclusively in lower Western Scotland (10%).
Religions: Roman Catholic (90%), Kirk o' Scots (10%).
Population: ~7 million persons, specifically 6 million in Ireland and 1 million in Western Scotland.
Location: The island of Ireland and the Western half of Scotland.
History:
Historically Ireland followed OTL up until 1169 when the Norman Invasion of Ireland occurred, without the threat of conquest the Irish High King Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair decided to consolidate his rule as he only had suzerainty over the others kings. The kings, really dukes, of Ireland were conquered one by one by the forces of the kingdom of Connacht. By Ruaidrí's death, the kingdoms of Mumu, Mide, and Laigan were under his control. His heir, Aed mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, continued the conquest, uniting Ireland by 1186. After that Ireland had gone through a period of relative peace, aside from the occasional peasant revolt, until the time of the Reformation. Ireland itself did not stray from the Catholic Church, but neighboring Scotland did. The High King, now just called King of Ireland, declared a religious war to claim land in which followers of the Catholic Church still resided. The armies of Ireland crossed the North Channel into Scotland and claimed the Hebrides and began a conquest of first the Highlands. The armies rampaged across Scotland, but were repulsed partway through Sutherland Shire in the battle of Dornoch, Inverness-shire at the battle of Inverness, and Lanarkshire at the battle of Lanark. The King, being satisfied with liberating the majority of Catholics in Scotland requested a peace with Eastern Scotland, now called Scotland. He reorganized the Western Scottish land he conquered into two subdivisions, the Gaelands in the North and Albann in the South. Up through to 1816, Albann had been an area of high unrest, but the Kings of Ireland, refusing to lose the land gained, constantly stationed an army to oversee the people and have consistently attempted to stamp down on those who call for the reunification of Scotland proper. The Island of Ireland itself has had very little change over time, but there are still those who desire a parliament system like in Scotland, but they do not want the Scottish to be a part of it, most Irish see the Scottish Gaels as being near equals, but the other Scots as being beneath them.

Outside the British Isles, Ireland has three colonial areas, the Yucatan Peninsula, Goa in India, and Hong Kong.
((I hate to say this, but I'm afraid I have to reject this nation in its current form. The British Isles are central to our setting, and at present this claim has trouble meeting even more general standards as to realism and quality.

Many apologies. :())
 

Duke Dan `the Man`

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Official Name: Kingdom of France
Common Name: France
Capital: Paris
Head of Government: Cardinal Alexandre de Lorraine, Cardinal-Archbishop de Treves,
Head of State: King Nicholas IV of France, Duke of Lorraine, Count of Lyon
Demonym: French
Languages: 85% French, 4% Norman, 3% German 8% Other
Ethnic Groups: 89% French, 5% German, 4% Ashkenazi, 2% Other
Religions: (Gonna wait until reformation is cleared up)
Population: Estimated to be 23 m.
Location: Northern France minus Brittany, and parts of Western Germany
History: Soon