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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

vyshan

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Hello and Welcome, as you might have guessed from the title this is a Canadian AAR. I am using the Historical Flavor Mod, HFM for short. Now as Canada doesn’t exist at the start of the game, I will be playing as the United Kingdom first and then switch over to Canada once the dominion has been created. Till then I will try to play as historical as possible.

This will be a historical book based AAR, that said I probably will include experts from speeches and other documents to help guide the AAR along. For the most part I have no real goal of this AAR beyond getting Alaska for Canada and supporting the British Empire as Canada, unless things in that department end up changing

So with that welcome and hope you enjoy.

Table of Contents
Prologue - Conflicts with the Americans
Canadian Colonies in 1836
Chapter 1: The rebellions of 1837 and 1838
Chapter 2: The Aroostook War
Chapter 3: The Durham Report
Chapter 4: The Columbia Border dispute
Chapter 5: Refugees, Railways, and Alaska
Chapter 6: Canadian Confederation
Chapter 7: Developing the Frontier
Chapter 8: Developing the Industry
Chapter 9: The North West Rebellion
Chapter 10: Sports, Books, and Reform
Overview of the world in 1900
Chapter 11: The Boer War
Chapter 12: the 1908 Imperial Conference
Chapter 13: The Festival of the Empire
Chapter 14: The Powder Keg Erupts
Chapter 15: The Great War begins
Chapter 16: Canada Goes Forth
Chapter 17: Heart of Oak
Chapter 18: Worthy Sons of the Empire
Chapter 19: The guns fall silent
Chapter 20: Peace of Peaces
 
Last edited:

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Will follow
 

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Canada seems an interesting choice! :)
 

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subbed
 
Prologue: Conflicts with the Americans

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Conflicts with the Americans

The fall of Quebec in 1759 to the British marked the end of the French rule in Canada and cementing of British Rule in Canada. Though the British did have a presence in Canada before then with some of their maritime colonies and Prince Rupert Land, it wasn’t until the Fall of Quebec that they had a large presence in Canada. However it would not be long after that numerous conflicts would erupt both in North America and across the ocean in France.

Invasion of Quebec


When the American War for Independence began, quite a number of Americans had figured that the Canadian colonies would join them. In particular, Congress was hoping that Quebec would join with their rebellion, and while men joined the rebels to form 2nd Canadian Regiment(also called Congress' Own or Hazen's Regiment), Quebec itself refused to join. To that end the Continental Army would march in 1775 to take the region.

While the Americans would try to spread their propaganda about joining their cause, various catholic priests were able to counter that the British had been good to them and moreover it was the Quebec Act that had given the people of Quebec what they had asked for. An act that had been derided within the Thirteen colonies as one of the so called ‘intolerable acts’.

The Invasion of Quebec would be the first major military initiative taken by the newly formed Continental Army during the American war of Independence. Two forces were sent to the region, one under the command Richard Montgomery that left from Fort Ticonderoga and captured Montreal and the other under Benedict Arnold who traveled from Maine through the wilderness to Quebec City where both forces would link up to try and take the city.

The battle of Quebec City was a disastrous defeat for the Continental Army. Montgomery was killed and Arnold wounded, while the cities defenders suffered few casualties. The siege it self would boost the Loyalist cause, which was further helped by how the Americans handled the city of Montreal when they had taken it.

The British would send several thousand troops, including general John Burgoyne and various Hessian allies to reinforce these colonies. In may of 1776 General Carleton would launch a counter-offensive, driving the smallpox infected and disorganized Continental Army back to Fort Ticonderoga. Though Arnold was able to harry and harass the British to prevent them from mounting an attack on Fort Ticonderoga.

This invasion would mark the end of the Americans attempt to gain control of the Canadian colonies during their war for independence militarily. Though they would still try and seek to gain control, including trying to get Quebec during the treaty of Paris though that attempt would ultimately fail. It would however make America believe that the Canadian colonies should be part of the United states.

United Empire Loyalists



When the British signed the treaty of Paris ending the American war of Independence, it would signal a shift for Canada. Thousands of loyalists that fought for Britain in the war or supported the war would immigrate to Canada fleeing the persecutions that they faced for backing the British.

Most of these loyalist would settle in lower Quebec and the Nova Scotia. The influx of such a vast number of refugees and immigrants would lead to the creation of the colony of New Brunswick. New Brunswick was split off from Nova Scotia and named in Honor of King George who ruled Brunswick.

The size of the immigrants also impacted the language of Canada. Before the influx French was the dominant language in both Upper and Lower Canada that would not be the case after the war. The influx of the loyalists made English more common in Upper Canada would become Ontario.

Of more darker note, is the fact that slavery was still legal in the colonies and thus loyalists from what is now the southern United States brought their slaves with them to Canada. Most of the slaves would be brought to the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island.

Though it should be pointed out, that more blacks that went to the Canadian colonies were free men, quite a number accepted freedom from the British in exchange for military service in the war. So it was not just slavery that brought Africans to the Canadian colonies. Still Slavery would become an issue within the colonies and abolition movements started up in earnest.

Several colonial acts would be passed against slavery, the most famous being the Act Against Slavery that Upper Canada. That act in particular would help to lead to the end of the slave trade in 1805 and the full abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1834.

Napoleonic wars

The colonies that would make up Canada were not part of the battlefields of the Napoleonic Wars, however that did not mean they were not impacted. The foremost was economic as the British needed Canadian lumber for their navy. Thus the Napoleonic wars greatly stimulated the economy of the Canadian colonies principally in the timber industry particularly in New Brunswick, there also was growth in the grain trade.

While some might assume that Napoleon would be popular in the french colonies, that was not the case. The people nostalgic for France in Canada were nostalgic for the Bourbons and the Ancien Regime. They were horrified at the execution of the king and the revolutionaries treatment of the catholic church. When Napoleonic wars began, the French Canadians wholeheartedly supported the war against Napoleon. Anti-Napoleon songs, poems and plays appeared in Quebec. French Canadians contributed to voluntary public subscriptions to financially support England when she was threatened with invasion, and Montreal would build their own Column of Trafalgar in 1809, decades before the one in London. French Canadians feared that if Napoleon beat the British he would pillage Canada and then do what he had done with the Acadians in Louisiana – sell them to the United States.

This all would help increase the power of the Catholic Church in Quebec as well as strengthen the ties between the French Canadians and the British. The economic impact of the wars would further help improve the standing of the Canadian colonies in the eyes of the British.

The War of 1812



While the Napoleonic wars had a smaller impact, the War of 1812 would have a massive impact on the Canadian colonies. Tension had been growing between the British and Americans ever since the War of Independence which saw the Americans leave the empire.

“The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching; & will give us experience for the attack of Halifax the next, & the final expulsion of England from the American continent.” - Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson’s words echoed the sentiment in America that Canada would join part of America. He figured that the Americans would be able to beat the British in part due to the Napoleonic Wars but also because America beat them before in the American war for Independence. There was also the assumption that the people of British North America would gladly welcome the Americans as liberators.

This would prove to be untrue in part due to the actions of the Americans when they invaded the colonies. The Americans would burn and loot communities along the frontier. It was the Americans that sacked York. It was the Americans that burned Newark and sent its inhabitants out into the blistering cold of Winter. All these actions helped convince the people of the colonies particular in Upper Canada that they were not Americans.

The British Army would come in from Europe who were trained from fighting in the Napoleonic wars and they would help support local bands of militiamen and frontiersmen. Moreover the British would work with a number of indigenous tribes who were willing to fight with the British against the Americans, notably the Shawnee and their leader Tecumseh.

These attacks would result in retaliation by the British who decided in 1814 to attack the United States itself. The British army would burn the city of Buffalo, and more famously, they would burn the White House. However the British army would be forced to retreat from their invasion into America.

The British would meet in Ghent to sign a treaty that affirmed the status quo ante bellum. The Americans came wanting to finish what they started in their Independence war and annex Canada into the United States, and thanks to the combined forces of the British Army and the Canadian Militia and Frontiersmen their invasion had failed. The failure of the Americans to take the Canadian Colonies would help to foster a shared identity between the colonist and an identity that was different from the Americans.

The Indigenous first nations though would fare far worse. As the peace treaty was more of a ceasefire, their dream of a confederacy would never come to reality, and their lands would be overtaken by the Americans. Despite their help and bravery in holding back the Americans, the British did not press their cause and the Americans were in no mood to discuss it.
 

stnylan

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A good round-up of the history
 
Canadian Colonies in 1836

vyshan

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1836 Colonial Report
January 1836
London, England



Here is the report about our colonies in British North America. The biggest issue with the colonies is that the colonist need more bureaucratic secretaries. We have far too few bureaucrats for the vastness of British North America. Moreover, we need to update the bureaucracy, as many of the secretaries are using methods and techniques from over several decades ago. With the rate that technology is advancing today, we should make sure that in addition to more bureaucrats that we bring the most modern technology from the Home Islands to the colonies.

Note: the report on Prince Rupert Land is in another report as it governed by the Hudson Bay Company itself.

Colony of Lower Canada




Lower Canada is the most populous of our North American colonies. Most of the population is located within Montreal and Quebec City, while the rest of the colony is largely empty. The vast majority of the population are French Canadians, descendants of the french colonists. The rest of the population are Anglo-Canadians, descendants of British colonist that went overseas. There is also a small number of Cree. While there can be no mistake of their savage nature, they are our savages.

It should be noted that the cities of Montreal and Quebec City are currently experiencing an immigration boom. So it is expected that the population will change in the future, weather this will make the population more anglicized though is unsure, but God willing that will be the case.

The Governor of the colony, Earl Archibald Acheson, has arrived to the colony this year to handle the administrative matters. His findings as per the Royal Commission should hopefully be made available I trust that it should be of use. Still he has assured me that matters are well in hand within the colony.

Colony of Upper Canada




The colony Upper Canada is a civilized colony. It is not as populous as Lower Canada, but it is the second most Populous colony. By far the dominant group are Anglo-Canadians, descendants of the Loyalists that fought for the Empire in our wars with the Americans as well as other British colonists that have went overseas. There is small community of French-Canadians here as well as a slightly larger size of Cree savages here then in Lower Canada.

A note for the records in case it has not been noted down. The the Legislative Council for the city of York, by far the most popular part of Upper Canada, have decided to rename the city to Toronto. The new name is rather popular with the local residents.

The cities of Toronto and Kingston are currently experiencing an immigration boom. This should be kept in mind when evaluating the next demographic update from the colonies.

Maritime Colonies



While the Colonies of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia are separate colonies, I have grouped them together here for better administrative purposes due to their smaller size and similar nature.

Most of the people here are Anglo-Canadians, though we have a decent number of Americans seeking to migrate here seeking the promise of a better land. There is also a sizable community of French-Canadians here as well. Of final note on demographics are a small community of Afro-Americans, most of whom are either ex-slaves or more likely the descendants of loyalists that fought King and country against the Americans.

In contrast to the other colonies in North America, where most people are farmers, this is not the case in these colonies. Here there is far more people are Laborers and Artisans then farmers. Most of these people are involved in either the timber trade or the shipbuilding industry.

Of special note is the county of Aroostook, part of our New Brunswick Colony. There is tension with the United States as they are claiming that this county is theirs. Such arrogance seems to be common from them. However, nothing has yet to come of this, that said, sir, I would be careful, and file this particular note away for the future should change.

Colony of Newfoundland



Finally we come to the last colony in British North America, The Colony of Newfoundland. It is the most distant of our colonies in British North America, be located further north then all the others. It is thus of no surprise that this colony has the smallest population of all the colonies in British North America.

The population here is largely divided between Anglo-Canadians and Irish immigrants. Most of the Irish immigrants have settled in St. Johns. Considering that we have had trouble with the Irish the past, it would be best to keep an eye on this colony, particularly if the Americans decide to stir up trouble like they always tend to do.
 

RossN

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Very nice overview. :)

Did you know Newfoundland once had its own dialect of Irish?
 

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Nice overview of where things stand at the start.
 

volksmarschall

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This should be fun. I have an odd relationship with Canada and this forum. I stumbled into the Paradox Forum via playing as Canada in Hearts of Iron 2. So this should be fun and engaging to watch. Let's so what our English cousins in the land up north can do! :cool:

Cheers!
 

vyshan

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RossN: Thanks, and I actually did not know that it had its own dialect of Irish.

Stnylan: Thanks, I tried to make it a little bit more interesting then just pictures of demographics.

Specialist290: Thanks and welcome aboard.

Volksmarschall: Neat. Canada is fun, plus it has I think, the most decisions and events of the British colonies. So Welcome aboard.

AvatarOfKhaine: Thanks, I am hoping it will be. Though it shall take a bit of time to get to Canada proper since we start out as Colonies.
 
Chapter 1: The rebellions of 1837 and 1838

vyshan

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The Rebellions of 1837 and 1838

Starting in 1837 a series of rebellions would break out in Upper and Lower Canada that would impact the the development of the colonies and of British North America in general. While short lived and ultimately not that threatening to British, they did force things to change and are a key step in the political development of British North America.

Lead up to the Rebellions
Conditions have begun to change in the two colonies since the end of the War of 1812. Notably there was the domination by Quebec Politics of the Château Clique and politics of Upper Canada by the Family Compact. In Quebec the Château Clique wanted to assimilate into English culture and society, for a variety of reasons be it political or economical. What both groups shared was their conservatism and their opposition to reform or responsible government.

Many people who would join the rebellions, and even many that did not, resented their influence and control of the politics of Upper and Lower Canada. This would be one of the more principal driving forces of the rebellions beyond ideological desires. Though the ideals of reform and republicanism should also not be discounted.

There also was the fact that many in the colonies wanted to follow in the footsteps of the Chartist and the Reform movement in Great Britain which brought about the Great Reform Act of 1832 which expanded suffrage and democracy. This in particular was brought on by colonist emigrating from Britain to the Canadian colonies. While some sought more gradual reforms, others particularly the Americans that were immigrating to the canadian colonies sought more radical and republican reforms.

Finally there is the matter of the French Canadians, due to the Château Clique which sought to promote english ties for their political and economic benefits it would result in French Canadians being discriminated against. This would result in the Ninety Nine Resolution, a list of 99 demands by Louis-Joseph Papineau to bring reform to Quebec,but were ignored if not outright refused by the Clique.

The rebellion in Lower Canada



Papineau would constantly seek to do reform yet, refused at every turn by the British government within the colony he would eventually turn to rebellion. His followers are often called Patriotes in reference to his political party, Parti patriote. When it eventually became clear that it would have to be won by violence, he and his supports in the Société des Fils de la Liberté(Society of the Sons of Liberty) would begin their rebellion.

While the Patriotes would defeat a British force at Saint-Denis, the Patriotes would be soundly defeated at the Battle of Saint-Eustache, which would be a decisive British victory and end their rebellion.

The rebels would try again later in 1838 with the help of Americans, but this too would fail. It would also lead to Papineau going into exile in Paris and leaving 325 people dead with the vast majority of them being rebels.

The Rebellion in Upper Canada



News of the conflict in Lower Canada would trickle down to Upper Canada and this would be the catalyst for their own rebellion. This became clear as the British troops moved north to defeat the Patriotes. This rebellion would be lead principally by William Lyon Mackenzie, the mayor of Toronto.

Mackenzie took the opportunity of the British army that left to go north to declare Independence and began the process for a constitutional convention which was to be held on December 21s 1837. This would lead to the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, named after the tavern that Mackenzie and his supporters regularly met at in Toronto. They tried to march from the tavern down Yonge street on December 5th but would be stopped by British forces there. They would after several days of fighting be driven out of Toronto and into the woods of Upper Canada.

Here they would work with American Hunter’s Lodges to try and fight for an independent republic of Canada. This period of the conflict is sometimes referred to as the Patriot War. During this part of the conflict, one of the more important events occurred called the Caroline Affair. Mackenzie and his rebels would take the ship Caroline to an island on Niagara River with some support from nearby Americans. the British would then board the ship and in the process kill one american. They then burned it and sent it over Niagara falls. This caused a diplomatic incident with between the British and Americans. The President of the United States, Martin Van Buren would even then protest to London himself, and a British officer would be arrested by Americans. However diplomacy would eventually win out and the issue would be resolved peacefully.

Still, like with the other rebellions of this period, the rebels would fail here and the British government would ensure order after the Battle of the Windmill. This would bring about an end to the fighting and the rebellions, though not their grievances.

Aftermath
In the aftermath of the Rebellions, a good number of them were sent into exile or penal colonies to Australia. The vast majority of the rebels were executed.

However, more than punishing the rebels the biggest aftermath of these rebellions was that it gave strength to moderate reformers both within the Canadian colonies and back home in Britain. Two men that would symbolize this more moderate reform police would be Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine who would later be critical supporters of Lord Durham. Lord Durham, or more formally John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, would be sent to write up his recommendations as to how to improve the running of the Canadian colonies.

Finally as a side effect of the Caroline Affair the principals of the Caroline test would be established. The Caroline Test states preemptive self-defense self-defense must be instant, overwhelming, and leaving no choice of means, and no moment for deliberation. This description comes from Daniel Webster's letter to the British ambassador where he wrote:

necessity of self-defense was instant, overwhelming, leaving no choice of means, and no moment of deliberation ..., and that the British force, even supposing the necessity of the moment authorized them to enter the territories of the United States at all, did nothing unreasonable or excessive; since the act, justified by the necessity of self-defense, must be limited by that necessity, and kept clearly within it.
 

Crimson Lionheart

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Subbed. Will be following this with great interest
 

stnylan

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Definitely a note of warning