GoukaRyuu

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I am a rather beginner player of CK2; I got the game on Steam about a week and a half before Christmas while it was on sale. This is my first AAR. I have a bachelors degree in history and have loved playing the game looking at it as an alternate history. I will pause my game many times to look at the various maps or leaders lists of various countries and just imagine how the history of the world would be taught in its 2015. After finding these forums and AARs I realized instead of imagining I could do. I am not the best writer so if there are any grammatical errors or confusion in how i wrote something please let me know. I also have to ask, how do I make a Table of Contents, because that would be helpful. In any case, let's get this class started.

Chalkboard-backgroundAARFinal_zps860236af.jpg



Syllabus

Class Introduction
Class One, Lesson One: King Anselm I of Frisia
Class One, Lesson Two: King Anselm II of Frisia
Class Two, Lesson One: King Stegut I of Lithuania
Class Two, Lesson Two: King Geirr II of Danmark
Class Three, Lesson One: King Lucjan of Pomerania
Class Three, Lesson Two: Petty King Beorhthelm of Mercia
 
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GoukaRyuu

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An Introduction to the class:

Welcome to History 350: Rulers of Europe from 760 to 1453. This class seeks to highlight many of the important men and women of this era. Some you will know, but I also tend to cover some individuals who may not be as well known. Their progeny though can be much more known to the general public as well as you my burgeoning historians. You can see from the syllabus that we will be going over many different areas of Europe over the course of this time period. I have left the names of the various rulers off the syllabus; I personally have more fun trying to let you, my students, figure it out. Based off of the difficulty of the individual in question I may even give a small amount of extra credit towards one of the two papers I will have you write this term. There will be a midterm and final, of course, and a participation/discussion portion of the class that will be roughly the last 15-30 minutes. I want participation on your part where we try to synthesize what I talked about during that particular day with what you read in your readings and have learned previously to come to a better understanding. I also hold the right to provide extra assignments at my own discretion though my office will always be open and you have my address and number should you need me for any questions. If I do provide extra assignments I will provide a new grading rubric as needed, so no worries.

This class is, if you couldn't tell by it being 300-level, an advanced history class. Your introductory classes and other companion classes to this course as well as the readings will provide a much wider context for the history we will be talking about. Not that I won't provide context too, but the scope of this class and the breadth of information that would entail would be staggering for you to learn and for me to even attempt to teach. Are there any questions, comments, or concerns? Ask away about the syllabus, schedule, my grading, your assignments and other responsibilities, or anything else you think is important. Now is the time to. Once we are finished with that I think we'll jump right into a lesson.
 

GoukaRyuu

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Now, can anyone guess based off of the, in my opinion magnanimously small, pre-readings for this class where this first part will be taking place?

No one, that won't do at all, but because it was the first question I will let it pass. You all better be ready for my next however!


The History of Gaul Since the Roman Fall (the heavily abridged version):

Gaul made up much of Western Europe north of the Pyrenees. It had been divided by the Romans into the provinces of Gallia Aquitania north of the Pyrenees; Gallia Belgica containing lands South of the Rhine; and Gallia Celtica, which was made up of the Breton Pennisula and the middle territories of Gaul. It was once part of the Roman Empire, but the Franks conquered the last Roman state in the area, the Domain of Soissons, in 486. The Merovingan dynasty founded by Childeric I would rule much of Gaul in the coming centuries. His son Clovis I was able to unite the whole of Gaul and all the Frankish tribes under his dynasties' rule. Clovis I was also the first Frankish king to convert to Christianity. The Merovingian Kings ruled Francia, named for the Frankish peoples, until the 750s near when we will be coming in. Pepin "the Younger" (also called the Short though that is a mistranslation), the son of Karl (or Charles) Martel "the Hammer" who won the Battle of Tours against the Muslims in 732, became the first Karling (or Carolingian) to become king. He had had King Childeric III, the last Merovingian ruler, forced into a monastery so that he could take the throne. He did this and took the throne with the complete support of Pope Zachary in 751. Pepin's family had until this point been de facto rulers under the Merovingians though not de jure. With such a quick rise to this much power many in his family rebelled but he was able to defeat them all and keep the throne. He ruled over all of Francia until his death in 768 when his sons Karl and Karloman each gained half of Francia, West Francia and Middle Francia respectively.


Now, with this brief context and your readings, does anyone know who will be the first individual I will be detailing?

Correct, we will be talking about:

DukeAnselmofHollandandBrabant769_zpsd96b559e_1.png

CoatofArmsforFrisia_zps2ead9d8b.png
deChaumantoisCoatofArms_zps2155f769_1.png


Anselm I de Chaumontois "the Wise"
Lived: c. 720 - 792

Duke of Holland: 760 - 792
Duke of Brabant: 775 - 792
Steward of West Francia: c.750 - 775
Regent of West Francia: 773 - 775
King of Frisia: 778 - 792​

Anselm, to historical knowledge, married later in his life, 769 at age 49, after Karl had taken the throne. It was his only marriage and it was to Hilciperga Tachipertingi, the daughter of the Count of Ancona and Urbino on the Italian Peninsula. Together they had three children:

* Fredegunde b. 771
* Creada b. 775
* Anselm b. 782


Early Life and Family History:

Anselm was a relative of the Karlings. His grandfather, Duke Drogo Karling of Burgundy, had been the older brother of Karl Charles Martel. This made him a second cousin of both Karl and Karloman Karling. His father was Arnoul de Chaumontois. Arnoul was born from Drogo and an unknown mother. It is believed he was a recognized bastard of Drogo, hence the different dynastic name, though his younger half-brother Godfrei was also a bastard but was still part of the Karling dynasty. It is also unknown who Anselm's mother was. You all have to remember this was the later part of the Dark Ages and not many people were educated, so most records we do have from these times come from those with ecclesiastical schooling and professions. This is why we have such gaps as to the parents of individuals. Though, speaking of education, it is believed that Anselm received an education from someone in the church, much like his relative Pepin "the Short" had.

After coming of age Anselm was acknowledged as being very skilled in stewardship, an important ability for running a realm because it dealt with the taxes and tithes that went to the liege of a realm. First Pepin and then his son Karl made him steward of the kingdom, Francia and then West Francia respectively. It is believed that through his services to his family and realm Pepin rewarded Anselm with the Duchy of Holland around 760.

A Political Map of Gaul 769
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Duke Anselm of Holland and Brabant's Holdings 769
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Vassal to King Karl and King Pepin of West Francia:

Anselm was loyal to Karl, who had acknowledged his skill and kept him in the inner circles of the kingdom and on his council. Anselm even for a short time regained the full responsibilities as steward of Francia when Karloman Karling, King of Middle Francia, died suddenly in February 771 at the age of 20 with what was in various documents from the period referred to as a "natural death." I see the skepticism on your faces. Remember, history is written by the winners. It is known Karl and Karloman's mother largely favored Karl and, with Karl being Karloman's heir even in spite of having children, there was an individual with a lot to gain with his death. It is largely believed today that Karloman was probably poisoned and most likely on his brother's orders. Karl spent two years making sure the reunification of the realm went smoothly before looking to not only expand his empire but also spread Christianity further. He declared a holy war against High Chief Vojen of Bohemia. And, while documents tell us Karl was a man with great military prowess, this war was the mistake that brought Karl down so soon after ascending the throne. He was killed in battle by the High Chief himself on 10 May 773. He was only 31 years old. He was succeeded in West Francia by his nephew, Karloman's son, Pepin, who later gained the nickname "the Blind," then a 5 year old boy. Middle Francia, due to the way succession was done among the Frankish peoples at the time, went to Theoderic Nibelunging, Theoderic I of Middle Francia. Given his skill and loyalty to Karl, Anselm was made steward as well as the powerful position of regent to King Pepin of West Francia.

Now, while Anselm was always loyal to Karl, he did not like Karloman or Pepin nearly as much or being a vassal of a 5 year old. He had also been a rather ambitious man. So, being Pepin's regent and with the boy having acquired more titles than could be effectively administered, Anselm offered to dispense the excess titles. Some of these titles, like Maine to Prince Grifo of Bavaria (which is why Maine became a county counted as part of Bavaria when Grifo ended up becoming King) and Artois, were dispensed to proper administrators. However, several lands in the de jure kingdom of Frisia or close to it, including much of what would be the Duchy of Brabant, found there way under Anselm's control either directly or granted to his own vassals. This dispensation of lands happened between spring 773 through to the spring of 775. This is one of the first indications of what was brewing on the horizon. But back to that in a moment.

During the year 774 we know from records that Anselm went on a pilgrimage to Rome. Given his ambitions and the use of his position and authority in Pepin's court to grow his own power some suspect that this pilgrimage was a way to truly have some introspection and maybe see if God and his faith would give him an answer to the path he should take. He left early in the year and returned near the end of summer of the same year. And, given the way events unfolded it is clear which path Anselm ultimately decided to take.


Factionalism and the West Francian Civil War for Independence:

After the death of King Karl of West Francia, and in some cases even before his death, there had arisen to our knowledge several factions in the kingdom. Factionalism was a way for vassals of like mind to gather and if they felt powerful enough make demands of their liege. This has existed through history and I can say with some authority we will see factionalism in a kingdom come to the forefront again in this class. Many factions, for example, dealt with putting alternate pretenders onto a throne or changing succession of a realm to weaken a liege or strengthen those in the faction. In this case, there was an independence faction that started up when Pepin received the throne. It is hard to go into a lot of detail about factions, especially at this point so early in history because they were borderline if not outright treasonous affairs. If there were written communications between members, they were probably not kept and destroyed as soon as possible. However, from after the fact and writings looking back on events in retrospect we know who the members of this particular faction were at the time it rose up. The leader was Loup, the Count of Dax, Beárn, and Marsan, with both Duke Hugh "the Fat" of Auvergne and Anselm of Holland as the other members. It was estimated that by 775 Anselm himself held forces equaling roughly 30% - 50% of the power of Pepin at the time, making him a sizable threat to the boy-king and an asset to the faction. Eventually, the faction gained enough power to act. Early in 775 Anselm resigned as regent and steward of West Francia. Within days of his resignation the faction led by Loup made its demands, which were outright rejected by Pepin. Civil War had come to West Francia.

The armies of both sides mobilized, though Pepin also had the added wrinkle of a war with the High Chiefdom of Saxony, the precursor to the Kingdom of Saxony, in the North; another revolt in the country demanding elective succession for the crown; and pagan raiding in the East. Anselm himself was made steward for the revolt's lands by the head of the revolt, and his "liege" during the war, Count Loup. This meant that Anselm was leading troops with Loup during the war, though many of his own troops would rise up and assist as well; we know one of Anselm's vassals led his troops during the conflict but whom it was has sadly been lost to history. It is thought it may have been a mayor or baron in his demesne; any of his vassal counts, or their families, would have made it as well known as possible given the prestige it would have granted given the consequences of the war.

King Pepin, even though he was 7 and too young to lead troops himself, had demanded he go with his armies. If you are wondering, this is the conflict that would give him the trait that earned him the moniker "the Blind." During a conflict in the Eastern part of the realm, some skirmishers were able to break through into the camp. Pepin was able to defend himself competently, for a then eight year old, until some more of his forces arrived to drive them off, but a sword slash across his face badly injured him. His left eye was still intact but would never be able to usable again. Some reports say it had become white and milky. The wound itself never completely healed and from a few accounts that survive left a nasty scar over much of his face. Anselm himself would also bear physical scars from this war for much the rest of his life.

Anselm and Count Loup, other then fighting in some battles and skirmishes, mostly spent the war sieging the county of Thouars. Anselm's own troops sieged the West Francian capital at Évreux. After taking over the whole capital county in 777, what remained of the forces traveled South to help reinforce the rebel troops there. Whether they reached their destination or not really does not matter. Both sides were reaching exhaustion in troops, morale, and funds. However, Pepin's forces, even being reinforced by his ally King Grifo of Bavaria, had lost battles and had not been able to siege and take control of rebel holdings. In October 778, the boy-king offered surrender. By winning the war, the Dukes of Auvergne, Holland, and the newly created Duke of Gascogne, were independent. It is said that the first thing Anselm did was have a messenger sent back to his territory immediately with the news as well as three very important proclamations. The first, that his realm forever after would not be divided and split among the children of a ruler but would pass whole to the first born son, or daughter if no son were born. In other words, agnatic-cognatic primogeniture. Good news for his 7 year old daughter Fredegunde who was at the time his heir. His second proclamation ordered greater authority of Anselm over his vassals. This was an order that his vassals would need to bend knee to him more than they had been; before this point they had been largely autonomous. One key point laid out was that they were to give him more troops if he ever called for them. The third and final proclamation was the most important. He declared himself the new King of Frisia, recreating a kingdom that had been destroyed 20-30 years earlier. A coronation, even a making or a crown to coronate with, would have to wait for him to return from the South to his lands, now his kingdom.

What? Oh, yes, that is the famous Frisian Three Part Proclamation. All of it had been written down, and it is heavily believed to have been done so by Anselm himself, and is still kept in relatively good condition in Brugge today. It is in a museum and view-able by the public.


Actions and Policy as King of Frisia:

For the last nearly 12 years of his life Anselm ruled over the kingdom he had won the right to create. However, that is not to say that he couldn't see his situation either. West Francia bordered nearly all of his realm, the rest being bordered by Middle Francia. Pepin had claims on his territory and saying he was not happy with this turn of events would be an understatement. We know that for the rest of his life Anselm had a diplomatic policy that could only be described as West Francia-centric; Anselm was wise enough to know the he could not take all of West Francia by himself in a straight fight. A few bureaucratic notes from Pepin's court that have survived show that the various men who were chancellors of Frisia over these next 12 years spent most of their time visiting Pepin's court and working to turn the King's opinion of the Frisian King into a positive one.

This outlook of possible invasion or reprisal by West Francia colored all the major initiatives of his reign. Anselm married his eldest daughter Fredegunde, who was also his heir until 782, matrilineally to a son of the then Kingdom of Asturias, though this prince himself was far down the lines of succession. Anselm's second eldest, his daughter Creada, was given a regular betrothal and later marriage to the son, heir, and later King, of Middle Francia securing an alliance on that border as well. Alliances by marriage were the only way to form alliances between countries at this time. Securing alliances with a powerful immediate neighbor and a relatively close kingdom were viewed as brilliant masterstrokes.

The last important thing is the build-up of several of the already existing castles in the country. The castles in Anselm's personal demesne in the Duchies of Holland and Brabant say the walls and fortifications increased in case of war and siege. The same is true for several of the cities and major bishoprics in the realm as well. These same castles and bishoprics would also see small villages and towns start to form around them, mostly for the valuable trade and craft opportunities but also for some measure of protection these new defenses could give. It would be under Anselm's son that fortifications would be expanded upon significantly and, with the threat of raiders during the rise of the Viking Age, many of these castle towns would grow into cities in their own right, and significant ones at that.


Later Years and Death:

It would not be until 782 that Anselm would have his son and heir, also named Anselm. Anselm I was already in his 60s by this point. We know that in the last few years of his life his body started getting hit hard by age, infirmity taking its toll. However, Anselm didn't die a natural death per se. His death, listed at around February or March 792, is from late stage leprosy. Leprosy is a horrible condition that comes from bacterial infection and can be developed from a fairly poor hygienic life style. Leprosy had been an ailment for centuries. It is something that is treatable today, but back then there was no cure. It could be a highly disfiguring disease and can create deformities as extraneous parts of the body fall of. It is hard to say how long Anselm had the disease, though given the records and chronicles that have been past down to us it can be guessed he only had it a few years. While the leprosy probably did a number on his health, and is what is traditionally listed as his cause of death, it was probably helped along by his advanced age. His passing left his son Anselm II on the throne at the age of 10. An irony given that Anselm I gained his power against the then boy-king Pepin in similar circumstances.


KingAnselmItoKingAnselmII_zpsf16475f2_1.png


Legacy:

Anselm I "the Wise" is a highly remembered individual today, both by historians and the general public. There has been a decent amount of popular culture over the centuries depicting Anselm's life, especially showcasing the personal turmoil he went through in making the decision to stay loyal to his liege or take up the sword for his own freedom as well as the tragedy of such a great figure wasting away in mind and body at the end of his life. The Dutch hold him as one of their national icons with his face being on their One Guilder note. Some feel this is a rather apt tribute given his abilities in stewardship and money management. Even in his own time he was regarded as one of the most intelligent and educated men of his day and even if disliked at least respected for brains and skills. Gascogne and Auvergne respected Anselm enough that they held him as a founding father of their independent countries while they lasted. Anselm's actions while king guaranteed two powerful allies for Frisia in the immediate future, at least until Asturias' fall to the Muslims and the heretical soon-to-be-Kings of Galicia. His efforts to fortify his realm and increase the amount of troops a Frisian King could draw on would greatly benefit Anselm II; whether it be against the successor states of West Francia, France and Germany, or the pagans and vikings from the North and East.


Political Map of Gaul at the time of King Anselm I's Death, 792
PoliticalMapMarch18792_zps001981b4_1.png


So, that was the first of many individuals we will be going over. Before we move on to Anselm II, are there any questions, comments, concerns?
 
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GoukaRyuu

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Okay, now that we're back from that 10 minute break here is how the rest of the class-time will breakdown. I will lecture about our second individual. Then we will have a brief discussion on what we talked about today. Before I forget, I will also want a short two paragraph piece due next class on how some of the items in your readings tied into what I lectured about.

Oh quit complaining! Two good quality paragraphs are something you can knockout in half-an-hour. Now, let's begin.

KingAnselmIIMiddleAged_zps1969d87f.png

Anselm II de Chaumontois
Lived: 782 - 840

King of Frisia: 792 - 840
Duke of Holland: 792 - 840
Duke of Brabant: 792 - 820
Duke of Flanders: 823 - 840​

Anselm married twice in his life. His first marriage, which occurred soon after he came of age, was to Arianhod ferch Brochfael Morgannwg, the daughter of Petty King Brochfael "the Chaste" of Deheubarth and the sister of the then Petty King, Gwriad "the Just." Together, the two of them had eight children:

* Adallina b. 799
* Anselm b. 800
* Arcambald b. 804
* Theutbald b. 804
* Pharamond b. 805
* Hubert b. 810
* Ellijnore b. 818
* Antoon b. 823

There are also two bastards that he recognized during his life from two different lovers. With Ladina de Holland, a courtier of his court, he had one daughter:

* Ladina Anselmsdochter b. 826

His other lover was Theodorada de Sarno, the daughter of Baron Hucpert of Sarno in the county of Salerno. She had originally been married to Anselm's nephew Guillabert de Chaumontois, the son of Anselm's sister Fredegunde. He had died in battle with vikings in 811 at the age of 18. Anselm then married her to Sinop de Ath, a courtier in his court. When Sinop died of old age around May 823, Anselm married her to Walter van Nieuwpoort. The man has become rather famous in his own right in dutch history and culture and was even rather well-known in his day. He was was a little person, at the time called a dwarf, but was known to be skilled in martial pursuits and was even Anselm's Marshal until his death in 828. As you can clearly see, Anselm used all the power at his disposal to keep Theodorada in his court. According to the few accounts we have of her, she was known to be a very beautiful woman as well as one that was very charming and charismatic, which are probably the reasons Anselm was attracted to her. Anselm's wife Arianhod's known break with sanity later in life probably helped spur his extramarital affairs. I do not condone Anselm's actions, but that is how the events have been read by historians for centuries. We don't know how early their affair started, but Anselm was an honest man and like with Ladina openly acknowledged his daughter from his relationship with the woman:

* Ansa de Chaumontois b. 838

However, given their relationship and how early she had been at his court and made to stay with the numerous marriages, some wondered if one of her other children may also have been fathered by Anselm. It was speculated for centuries that Theodorada's son Count Sinop de Ath of Artois was also Anselm's son. There have been several accounts of the slight resemblance between the King and the Count, as well as the even more marked resemblance between the Count and Anselm's grandson and successor Anselm III. It was also noted that Anselm rarely gave out titles, but he only did so to family. The only three exceptions being to Theutbald de Dorestad granted Ostfriesland, Robrecht van Loon granted the county of Jülich and Sinop de Ath the County of Artois in 839. Sinop himself was known to be rather cynical and was considered a genius for his day. There are several comments that have made it to us though the years attributed to him that hint at the truth. He had either figured it out or had it revealed to him by his mother. DNA testing in the last decade has shown definitively that Sinop was directly related to Anselm in such a close match that he must be his son. Even though he was known for his honesty, it is thought that Anselm and Theodorada kept the matter secret to protect both her and her husband's honor; Ansa being born after all of Theodorada's husbands were dead did not need the truth of her parentage hidden. As such:

* Count Sinop de Ath of Artois b. 823

After the death of Arianhod in 835 Anselm married Waldrud Theudebaldsdochter de Namur, the daughter of Duke Theudelbald of Gelre. While no children came from this union, it is thought that he married her to tie one of his vassals into a closer relationship with the crown.


Early Life and Regency:

Anselm had been important to his father, being the only son and heir. It is known that King Anselm I himself began fostering and teaching the boy when he first became old enough. However, with the death of Anselm I from leprosy, Anselm II both lost his father and tutor and came to the throne at the young age of 10. The regency was first taken by Mayor Gadulf of Hoorn, a trusted vassal of Anselm I, as well as a loyal one. In honor to his services to the crown, Anselm II had a plot of land set aside for Gadulf and his family's burial needs. This plot of land is still the main cemetery of Hoorn today and is named Gadulf Cemetery in his honor. Anselm had since the age of 6 been tutored and fostered by his father. With his father's death he was first tutored by Creada, his second eldest sister, until her marriage to Sicland Nibelunging (the later King Sicland of Theoderingia). Creada would leave just across the border for Middle Francia, which would within Anselm's lifetime change to become the Kingdom of Theoderingia. The country being named for the successor of King Karl to that throne, King Theoderic. Afterwards, he was raised by his eldest sister Fredegunde, with whom he continued to hold a good relationship until her death years later. When Mayor Gadulf died at the end of 797 it was Fredegunde herself who became regent for her younger brother. Anselm's mother was remarried to King Guillaume I of Middle Francia/Theoderingia helping to cement the alliance between the two countries. The short regency ended at the start of the year 798 when Anselm reached his majority.

KingAnselmIIComesofAge27January798_zps0d381468.png


The Start of the Viking Age:

StartoftheVikingAge22April793_zpsebed80c4.png

It was early into the reign of Anselm II that the Viking Age began. Due to the rising populations in Scandanavia, the rise of boat building technologies and skills among the peoples, and the need for resources (especially gold), an explosion of raiders left the north in droves to plunder the coasts of Western Europe down into even the Mediterranean. Frisia's location, just south of Sjælland and west of Saxony, meant that it was a prime target for Viking raiders. The two counties of Brugge and Gent were especially lucrative. The various accounts of the time give a dreadful idea of what Anselm II had to deal with from a young age until the days of his death. Every county of Frisia, save Brabant, Hainaut, Orléans, and later Artois suffered the scourge of viking raiders during his reign. Unlike some other states at this time, Anselm was able to effectively stave off attacks rather well. Only the general countryside would suffer in these attacks while the more well defended castles, cities, and bishoprics would remain unscathed, needing to be sieged and breached to gain the treasures within. The only castle to be sacked and looted by vikings in Anselm's whole reign was Évreux, of the county of the same name, in September 836. Count Pharamond de Chaumontois of Évreux, Anselm's son, was unable to gather up enough forces to break the siege and Anselm himself was at war and unable to assist his son until it was too late.

The thousands of men in the near 100 raids that took place over Anselm II's 48 year reign came from many different areas across Scandinavia. From some documents, we know that a few vikings were even captured. A Holmger of Alva, which is thought to be his dynastic name and not a place, had been captured and then ransomed in the spring of 798. Þorstein Skjöldung the Chief of Slesvig, located on the Jutland Peninsula, was captured in the summer of 799. These were just the first of many. It has been determined that these viking attacks originated from all across Jutland and the Southern Scandinavian Peninsula and as far away as Iceland.

The constant raids saw Anselm II continue the policies of his father by constructing and expanding the fortifications and keeps of the already existing castles in the country. The need for protection also saw the beginning of several new castle-towns and church-towns or the growth of ones that existed from Anselm I's era. The castle-town Vlaardingen, built around the castle of the same name, grew into a big city in its own right. The first documents supporting this date back to around 812. This was probably helped by the fact Vlaardingen was Anselm I's capital and Anselm II's for much of his reign before moving it to Sluys in Brugge. Like Vlaardingen before it, Sluys would develop into a major city around the 830s.


The Rise of Dutch Culture:

EmbracingDutchCulture808_zpsbcc88c67.png

Dutch Culture, by which I mostly mean a distinct Dutch language and customs, first started appearing in Anselm I's reign in the counties of the Duchy of Gelre, which belonged to Princess Frotlina of France, King Pepin "the Blind's" daughter. Dutch can be viewed as a melting pot culture and language. A mix of the Frisian and Frankish cultures. Frankish is a Central Germanic culture and Frisian a West Germanic one related to the Saxon and Anglo-Saxon cultures in the nearby area. Dutch was a mix of these languages and cultures into something new. Anselm II could see that the population of his country was slowly transitioning to Dutch. Early on in his reign, as early as 808, it is believed he fully embraced Dutch language and culture. It was under his guidance that most of his sons became Dutch as did most of his personal demense around the Rhine River. The transition of Frankish and Frisian to Dutch would be a lengthy one, yet this is the reason why the Dutch consider him to be the first Dutch king.


The First Dutch Pope:

I briefly want to mention to that during Anselm's reign Frisia and the Dutch saw a rise in prominence on the religious front. In 809, a lowborn bishop, Tancrad of Beauvais was made the country's first Cardinal. Anselm had a good relationship with the man and was happy for him and what it meant in the growing importance of Frisia in Christendom. This became even more important because after a small Papal Interregnum Tancrad was elected Pope on 23 July 811. He took the regnal name Julius II. He only ruled for a little over a year, until his death on 2 August 812, but if that isn't an example of the growing influence of Frisia on the world I don't know what is.


Expansion:

King Pepin "the Blind" died in the summer of 801 of an infection to the wound he had suffered in the Independence Wars. With his death, West Francia split into the kingdoms of France, under King Sigobert "the Fat" of the Leudoni dynasty, and Germany, under King Hermeneld I of the Hermenelds dynasty, with Theoderingia in the middle. Unlike the borders of countries today, the map of Gaul at the time was a hodge-podge with different counties and even entire duchies being owned by various powers or even being independent of the major kingdoms. With West Francia's final collapse a power vacuum formed. Everyone not only jockeyed for position as to who would be the preeminent power of the area, but states warred over de jure provinces of their realms or just over grudges and opportunities for expansion. Anselm joined in opportunistically to gain de jure parts of his realm held by other powers.

Anselm fought several wars for territory in his life. The first with France in 802. King Sigobert "the Fat" had declared war on Gascogne over the county of Tours, he was at war with his vassal trying to revoke the county of Évreux, and was facing a two pronged attack by the Chief of Onsbruck in Saxony and the Jarl of Sjælland over the county of Ostfriesland. With his armies and attention so divided, Anselm declared war for the county of Friesland, a de jure part of Frisia. Anselm was able to capture the county handily and even went and mucked around in Sigobert's war revoking Évreux by forcibly taking the holdings in the county the King had taken control of. This ended up prolonging as small dispute between vassal and liege into a war that would last for over a decade.

After the war with France was won, Anselm saw Sjælland had been able to take Ostfriesland from France. The pious zealot that he was, Anselm declared a holy war for the territory in 806 against Alfgeir Skjöldung. Yes, that Alfgeir Skjöldung. In fact, he would crown himself King of Noregr soon after this war was finished. And, don't worry, we will be getting into the pagan invasions after this segment. It was a short war and a victorious one for Anselm, who had added all of the Duchy of Gelre to his realm save the titular county itself. With the viking raids still being a constant and needing to replenish his troops after two consecutive if brief wars, Anselm took a break from aggressive expansion. Of course, you then had the Noregr/Danmark and Saxon invasions of France and Germany but I will cover them in a moment.

In March of 810, Anselm inherited Jülich from his cousin, Countess Ermengardis. She had been the daughter of Agnerald, the younger brother of Anselm I. She had been Duchess of Luxembourg with all the territory of that realm. Unfortunately, she had rebelled against King Guillaume I of Middle Francia and lost. Her ducal title and the county of Luxembourg were stripped from her; the Kings of Middle Francia/Theoderingia keeping it for themselves. She remained Countess of Jülich even though she was imprisoned by her king. She was between the age of 10 - 13 when she was imprisoned. She died in March 810 at the age of 38 having spent over 25 years under her king's hospitality. She had never married and never had children. Anselm I and later Anselm II had been her direct heirs.

Anselm II's next expansion war was against both France and Germany. Fought between the years 817 and 826. This war was for Gelre and Artois respectively. He was able to knock Germany out of the war first with his prize in hand. He had declared war on Germany because King Hermeneld II, King Hermeneld I had died of poor health in the early months of 815, was imprisoned by King Alfgeir Skjöldung "the Victorius" of Noregr and Danmark at the time. The war with France ended abruptly when, in the spring of 826, King Sigobert himself was captured by Anselm in battle.

This next piece of expansion requires some backstory first. A religious uprising had taken place in France specifically in the duchy of Orléans around the year 824. By the year 826 they had won their war against King Sigobert and gained their independence. There is a misconception that this and the successful uprising in Asturias a few decades previous were Fraticelli heretics. This is not true, or at least not completely. Fraticellism came about from a religious order of monks in the 12th and 13th centuries. However, it would not be wrong to say that the ideas of Faberism and Orléanism or Rohanism were not precursors to the later movement. The former was named for the Faberi family that espoused these beliefs in Asturias and later the Kingdom of Galicia. Orléanism or Rohanism, there is some contention among historians as to which term should be used, is named for the location of the uprising and its powerbase or the leader of the revolt and later Petty King of Orléans, Huiarabili de Rohan, respectively. After a brief war in 834, the county of Évreux was taken from Petty King Huiarabili.

The final war was another with Germany, started in 835 and lasting until 839, a year before Anselm II's death. This was fought over the county of Boulogne, which was actually the capital of Germany at the time. Germany called in many allies including Venice. We know this specifically because Patrician Encagilio of Antenoreo was one among many captured at the devastating Battle of Montreuil. Another important figure captured during the war was Hermut Hermenelds, King Hermeneld's brother. However, having gained control of the county, captured important figures on the opposing side, and bested Germany and its allies on the battlefield; Frisia won the war. The outcome of this war saw all Frisian de jure territory under its control save for the county of Guines still under control of France, and saw Germany lose it's last territory outside of Central Europe save for the county of La Marche in South Central Gaul.


The Pagan Invasions:

After the creation of the Kingdom of Noregr in 806 it is clear King Alfgeir wanted to expand his realm further. He already possessed Noregr and was King of Danmark in all but name. However, he gazed enviously at the rich realms of the Christian lords to the South. There was fear in much of the area about the vikings and if the raids may become something worse. A major drop off in viking raids in 808 by all accounts had Anselm believing this was a calm before a storm. While it wasn't directed at him, he was right. In 809, King Alfgeir made it known he was going to invade the areas of Burgundy, which belonged to France at the time. It was mostly the area East of the Rhône River and West of Lombardy. King Alfgeir called on several allies, as well as gathering many men hoping for glorious battle, and landed in Provence with what estimates put at nearly 10,000 men. King Sigobert did get help in the war. The various Breton Counts all raised troops. King Hermenld I of Germany joined the war as well. Anselm II offered to join early on, but the sudden upsurge in viking raids after the calm year of 808 had him staying home in his territories most of the war to defend them from the looting and sieges. It would not be until 814 that Anselm could send troops, but by then it was much too late. Most of the area had been captured by the Norse and even with the added troops of Frisia and Theoderingia, which had been dealing with a civil war for independence as well as a revolt by some vassals for more privileges and could not spare troops until then, were still heavily outnumbered. A French peasant revolt in 815 only added to Sigobert's problems. By the end of 816, King Alfgeir Skjöldung won his war and gained his nickname of "the Victorious." Not that it would matter too much. He died not that long after and his siblings and children warred over who should sit on the throne. His son Borkvard would create the Kingdom of Danmark in 817 becoming the first King of Noregr-Danmark. Still, it was a turbulent time for the Norse who had at least 4 kings in 4 years.

LoseofBurgundy24February817_zps083f87cb.png

In the late 820s it became known that the then Grand Chief of Saxony, Wolter Theodericing, was going to invade all of Germany. The invasion began in 827. Many of the same states that had allied with France during the Norse invasion allied with Germany in this war. This time, Anselm made sure he was not going to lose to the heathens because he hired mercenaries. With his troops and mercenaries as well as the other allied forces he was able to face the opposing armies head-on. It is said that the Saxon forces and their allies were being led by the legendary Norsemen, of questionable historicity, Ragnarr Loðbrok. Regardless of who was leading the forces, it was estimated that roughly 20,000 men met in battle. The May 830 Battle of Nassau has gone down as one of the greatest battles of the Medieval Period. The Saxon-Norse coalition lost over half of their men with the rest of the war, going into 831, being the pursuit and routing of the remaining forces. The whole tempo of the war changed with Anselm's intervention. While King Hermeneld II would hate Anselm for taking Artois and later Boulogne, both having been personal holdings of the King, Anselm is viewed much more positively by the German peoples today. As for Grand Chief Wolter of Saxony, the devastating defeat led to multiple revolts and civil wars and the eventual conquest by a Slavic Pomeranian Count who would make himself the first actual King of Saxony.


Death:

Anselm II died a natural death in April 840 at the age of 58. It was known that he was planning yet another war with France in the hopes of taking Guines. His son and original heir Anselm had died after a period of illness in May 835 at the age of 35. He had been married to Countess Bertrada of Maine, a daughter of King Grifo II of Bavaria and younger sister of Queen Audofleda of Bavaria. Bertrada herself had died earlier in April 824 at the age of 22. Their son Anselm (b. 824) became Count of Maine months after his birth with his father as steward and later his tutor. It would be just months after coming of age that Count Anselm of Maine would receive the news of his grandfather's death and would be crowned King Anselm III of Frisia.

KingAnselmIItoKingAnselmIII_zps2f57b63b.png


Legacy:

Anselm II is considered to be every bit the equal of his father as well as an example to live by when it came to monarchs of the Middle Ages. The Dutch venerate him just as much for his successes as they do for him being the first Dutch King. The Germans hold him in high esteem for saving them from the Saxon pagans. While he built off of his father's start, he left behind a well protected realm with several large cities and fortified castles. The military might of Frisia, counting all his vassals, was estimated to be at the time of his death the 8th largest army West of China. Here is a printout of that chart:

ListofLargestArmiesWestofChinaattimeofKingAnselmIIsDeathApril840_zpscb426e8e.png

Anselm is fairly well known by the general public as well as historical circles today. Over the centuries he has appeared in several pieces of popular culture, but in more recent years the subject matter of such fare has generally come to be dominated by his life behind closed doors instead of out on the battlefields. Not that this is new given at least two plays from the 17th century detailing his love life with Queen Arianhod and Theodorada. Anselm was an honest and zealous man but also a scholar. What is believed to be a correspondence between him and Pope Julius II is owned by the Papacy and has been translated and made available to the public, though it is mostly theological discussion. Whether it be as a scholar, lover, or warrior, Anselm II is considered to have been a great King. A future Frisian monarch has said that, "Unlike other rulers, Anselm II needs no nickname. The greatness of his actions and character show that if you are speaking of an Anselm it will be assumed it is him."

Political Map of Gaul at the Time of King Anselm II's Death, 840
PoliticalMapofGaulattheTimeofKingAnselmIIsDeathApril840_zpsa41bfb6c.png


This marks the end of the Frisian/Dutch portion of our lessons, at least for now. We may see the Kingdom of Frisia again, even if only in a peripheral fashion. Please read the chapters assigned in your syllabus for next time. I will be here for a few more minutes, plus in my office for the next hour or two, if you have any questions.

OOC: Hi everyone! If you are liking what I am doing please let me know! I really don't know where exactly I want to go next so if you have any suggestions please post them. I'm personally thinking either the British Isles, one of the now free Burgundian Counts, or a pagan realm but we'll see. I do need to go into Theoderingia and change the name (and make sure it doesn't become a theocracy with them going after Reims which is revolting against King Sigobert..
 
Last edited:

Dayni

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It's been nice to see someone taking advantage of their situations to rise out of that chaotic mess that is 800s central europe.

But I have to ask, what is going on with that Hispania? I noticed it formed and I'm curious about it having a pagan coa.
 

GoukaRyuu

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The Umayyads were able to effectively take Mauritania and with that power took out Asturias, who also lost a lot of land to the Faberi family that eventually became the Kings of Galicia for about 10-20 years. Barcelona did come about too but it's now down to two counties. Really, any of the countries listed in the ledger or listed by country or empire name and Muslim countries are known by the dynasty name. So, that is really Umayyad.
 

Jorlem

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I'm interested in seeing what is going on in southern Europe, since we've been focusing mainly on the north. If we could cover something bordering the Mediterranean (or Asturias, if they still exist), I'd enjoy that.


(Also, keep an eye on the Norsemen that took Burgundy. I've seen that happen a few times recently, and it usually results in them converting far earlier than they would otherwise, which spreads back into Scandinavia as well.)


Edit:
So you know, one of the images under Anselm I's portrait is broken.

Also, if I may make a request, would it be possible to include a few more screenshots of the map? Usually around major conquests or border shifts, to illustrate the changes.
 

GoukaRyuu

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I'm interested in seeing what is going on in southern Europe, since we've been focusing mainly on the north. If we could cover something bordering the Mediterranean (or Asturias, if they still exist), I'd enjoy that.


(Also, keep an eye on the Norsemen that took Burgundy. I've seen that happen a few times recently, and it usually results in them converting far earlier than they would otherwise, which spreads back into Scandinavia as well.)


Edit:
So you know, one of the images under Anselm I's portrait is broken.

Also, if I may make a request, would it be possible to include a few more screenshots of the map? Usually around major conquests or border shifts, to illustrate the changes.

Thanks for reading! Asturias has been gone for awhile and the Duchy of Barcelona has been reduced down to a two county state in the ducal lands of Aragon. I could always try to do someone in the Duchy of Gascogne forming the Kingdom of Navarre and bringing the fight to those Muslims, we'll see. I may go to Lithuania next.

I can post a map I have of religion at Anselm II's death and one of the counties Denmark still possesses in Burgundy has gone Germanic. Actually, at this point there is more a risk of Svithjod going Orthodox. the Jarl of Ostergotland for some reason matrilineally married an Orthodox woman, probably from his time in the Varangrian Guard, and converted himself. Thanks for the warning, and while I do want Germanic to reform, I am still willing to let what I don't control play out.

The screenshots are all working for me. I don't know which one appears broken.


As for the request for more maps to show changes, I was thinking this myself. I usually just get so wrapped up in playing and writing down observations I forget to take the screenshots. I will try to improve.
 

blklizard

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This looks very promising. I just hope we don't get graded or tested for anything :p. I've only read a bit of the first update but will try to catch up in the next few days. I'll tag along to see where this go.

The image not working is under the ruler portrait and left of the crest. It says it's removed or deleted by the ruler.

As I read, I might borrow some ideas for one of my AARs so I hope you don't mind :p.
 

Jorlem

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I think the conversion risk comes from being surrounded by Catholics. They are much more likely to be holy warred, as there is so much more border, and if they start to loose, they can convert.
 

GoukaRyuu

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This looks very promising. I just hope we don't get graded or tested for anything :p. I've only read a bit of the first update but will try to catch up in the next few days. I'll tag along to see where this go.

The image not working is under the ruler portrait and left of the crest. It says it's removed or deleted by the ruler.

As I read, I might borrow some ideas for one of my AARs so I hope you don't mind :p.

No promises. :p Thanks for your patronage!

I moved the image to another folder, should have realized it would stop working because the location would be different.

Go right ahead. I really enjoy the History Book style AARs, but I felt no one had really done a History Class.


I think the conversion risk comes from being surrounded by Catholics. They are much more likely to be holy warred, as there is so much more border, and if they start to loose, they can convert.

Yeah, I can see how that would be the case. Given that it is only 3 counties in the current Noregr-Danmark King's possession I don't know. We'll see. They are all currently getting warred on.
 

blklizard

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No promises. :p Thanks for your patronage!

I moved the image to another folder, should have realized it would stop working because the location would be different.

Go right ahead. I really enjoy the History Book style AARs, but I felt no one had really done a History Class.

Darn, I know for sure my grades won't be doing well. :)

I've attempted History Book style but failed miserably. The style is a lot tougher than I first thought. Instead, I got something that's more of a narrative style AAR. I think people avoid history class since most are just glad they got out of school. No need to remind themselves of those days. There are indeed a few very good History Book style AARs.
 

Crimson Drakon

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A very interesting AAR approach! I especially like how you justify religious heretical movements that happened way later in history as predecessor uprisings!

As of suggestions, perhaps you can go for the Frisian Coast is long achievement? Otherwise, a Frisian expansion to southern England could be a nice sight to see, but whatever the choice I am sure it would be interesting!
 

Nikolai

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Loving the history book/lecture format you're doing! :) Consider me subbed.

As for your question on how to make a table of content, this is how I do it, just substitute { and } with [ and ]:

{center}
{b}Table of Contents{/b}
{b}Chapter I - {/b} {url=http://link.com}Name of Ruler{/url}
{/center}

Should be looking like this then:


Table of Contents
Chapter I - Name of Ruler
 

GoukaRyuu

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I liked the first chapters a lot, subbed.

Thanks for the patronage!


Darn, I know for sure my grades won't be doing well. :)

I've attempted History Book style but failed miserably. The style is a lot tougher than I first thought. Instead, I got something that's more of a narrative style AAR. I think people avoid history class since most are just glad they got out of school. No need to remind themselves of those days. There are indeed a few very good History Book style AARs.

I loved history classes. Favorite classes in high school, which is why I majored in it. Not the best decision, but I did have a lot of great classes and still have many of my old books.

I'll have to check out your AARs when i get the chance.

And yes, there are very good History Book AARs, a few of the writers have posted in the thread.

A very interesting AAR approach! I especially like how you justify religious heretical movements that happened way later in history as predecessor uprisings!

As of suggestions, perhaps you can go for the Frisian Coast is long achievement? Otherwise, a Frisian expansion to southern England could be a nice sight to see, but whatever the choice I am sure it would be interesting!

I'm not playing Iron Man so no achievements. I'm also switching to something else. The class is Rulers of Europe not Frisian/Dutch History. :p But, who knows. If the AI doesn't completely destroy it I may come back to them again, if only to save it.

Loving the history book/lecture format you're doing! :) Consider me subbed.

As for your question on how to make a table of content, this is how I do it, just substitute { and } with [ and ]:

{center}
{b}Table of Contents{/b}
{b}Chapter I - {/b} {url=http://link.com}Name of Ruler{/url}
{/center}

Should be looking like this then:


Table of Contents
Chapter I - Name of Ruler

I'm really glad you like mine given i am such a fan of your AAR!

Thanks for the ToC info!
 

BanishTheSpleen

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Maybe you could have an opportunity for character development and interaction for the teacher and the students? That would be an interesting way to take advantage of the format that your AAR is in.
 

GoukaRyuu

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Maybe you could have an opportunity for character development and interaction for the teacher and the students? That would be an interesting way to take advantage of the format that your AAR is in.

I wasn't really planning on it. I haven't really said it, but I think we all understand that whatever language these people are speaking isn't English. And, even if somehow English does come about it would most likely be incomprehensible to what we know. Hell, even other languages that would have less divergence, like German and Greek, would still be fairly different. I just don't want to go into that and I would need names if I were to characterize people better. It's just the perfectionist in me.


I also want to say that I have edited both posts to be a bit more grammatically correct, and I completely didn't mention the war in the second part that the heretic context was setting up. Additionally, as I continue playing through and the timeline goes on I may come back and edit earlier posts to be more consistent. For example, if I don't mention someone as a I/first before I will make sure they are if a II appears.

I've been trying a few places seeing where I may want to play next so it will be a bit before a proper update. Also need to make sure I get my new graphics card installed properly and that may take time. In the mean time please go read Norgesveldet - A history of the Norwegian kings by Nikolai, the link is in the sig of his post up thread. It is a more history book-like AAR and details of his world's Norwegian Kings.
 

Nikolai

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Thanks for the plug, mate. :) For potential readers, I updated a few hours ago and the update was a big one. :)
 

fabiolundiense

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Am enjoying very much the History Class format. I hope all goes well installing the graphics card!

You will be covering developments in the Eastern Roman Empire in this class ?