Class Syllabus

Dunaden

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History 303 – The Third Kingdom

As many of you have expressed interest in origins of the de Cognac dynasty as well as that period in the Middle East when it was an unstable region, rife with war and conflict, not the stable region it is today, I have agreed to offer a short course on the founding of what the historians call the Third Kingdom of Jerusalem, which will be available this spring as part of the curriculum at Estrid Junior College here in Damascus. Attached is the course syllabus:


Hist 303 – The Third Kingdom - This short course will provide you background on
the founding of our great nation, some 600 years ago and the historic figures that
made it possible.

  • Day 1 - Course Introduction and Historic Sources
  • Day 2 - On Dating the Three Kingdoms of Jerusalem
  • Day 3 - The de Cognac family tree
  • Day 4 - Philip de Cognac
  • Day 5 - Princess Ingeborg Estrid
  • Day 6 - Richard 'the Blessed'
  • Day 7 - Richard 'the Crusader'
  • Day 8 - Richard ‘the Just’
  • Day 9 - Amice ‘the Lionheart’
  • Day 10 - Anselm ‘the Lion’
  • Day 11 - Godfrey of Lucano
  • Day 12 - Anselm ‘the Apostle’
  • Day 13 - Matthew ‘the Monk’
  • Day 14 - Course Summary and Conclusions


I hope to see you all in class.
 

stnylan

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Already I can tell I am probably going to like this course :)
 

RossN

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Very interesting start! :)

*enrolls*
 

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I'm definitely enrolling. :)
 

Dunaden

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Already I can tell I am probably going to like this course :)
Very interesting start! :)

*enrolls*
Hmm... interesting aar. Subbed.
I'm definitely enrolling. :)
Bring it on.

Welcome all to History 303, encouraging to see such a good turnout. The first day of a new semester can be hectic, so I'm sure we'll see a few more stragglers wander in later.
 
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Day 1 - Course Introduction and Historic Sources

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Day 1 - Course Introduction and Historic Sources

This short course is about the Founding of the Third and Present Kingdom of Jerusalem.

When Dean Hassan asked me to prepare a short course on the Middle East during the late Medieval period leading up to the founding of the Third Kingdom of Jerusalem, I originally considered doing a straight forward timeline following first members of the de Cognac dynasty up until the crowning of Matthew the Monk.

But rather than just retelling the history of the early de Cognac dynasty, of which I, and most of you, as citizens of Jerusalem some 600 years later, already have some passing familiarity with, I decided instead to go into the “why”. Why did Matthew the Monk usurp the crown of Jerusalem from his cousin, King Rajmund of Bohemia and England? Why did he declare his independence from the Holy Roman Empire? And why did he steal the Holy Grail from His Holiness the Pope and why has the Royal family refused to return it for the last 600 years?

The simple answer can be found in the beginning of Psalms 146:3 of the King James Version of the Bible. “Put not your trust in princes...” As you all know, a version of this has been the motto of de Cognac dynasty since before that translation of the Bible was even created in the early 1600’s.

Many today are still surprised that the personal motto of the de Cognac family is “Put not your faith in Princes” as they have been Kings and Princes ruling from Damascus for over 600 years. But that motto dates back to the very founding of the dynasty, and for the first two hundred and fifty years of their existence that motto was proven true to the various de Cognac members time and time again throughout that period, until they were finally able to free themselves from subservience to another ruler for good. (Though some members of the lesser and cadet branches of the de Cognac dynasty in the past 600 years have shown that they still believe in that motto and have tried to overthrow the main branch of the family from time to time.)

We will discuss throughout the duration this course, how that motto has proven true to the de Cognacs more often than not in this time period and that it is the fundamental underlying “Why?” that drove Matthew the Monk and the Founding of the Third Kingdom.



References:

Much of the background material on the founding of the de Cognac dynasty and the earlier heads of the family, comes from the “Records of the de Cognac” completed in 1330 by Amice the Lionheart, just before she went to war to reclaim her birthright, the title of Emira of Oultrejourdain. This history covers the founding of the dynasty by Philip de Cognac and Princess Ingeborg Estrid of Denmark, the Lady of Negev, as well as the lives of the three Richards and much of Amice’s own rule.

Many more mundane details of Countess Ingeborg of Negev's life come from some of her own personal correspondence that survives, relating to her membership in the Hermetic Society. But the more detailed accounts come from her former apprentice in the Hermetic Society, the noted French scholar, Magus Arnoul, who for over 30 years served Countess Ingeborg as Steward of Negev and later her son, Richard the Blessed, as Steward and later Court Chaplain of Negev until his imprisonment for embracing the Cathar heresy. Portions of his books, "La Dame du Néguev" and "Sang du Couer de Lion", still survive detailing Countess Ingeborg's rivalry with King Guy II of Jerusalem and the first Richard's exploits in the 5th Crusade that made his fortune. (Arnoul is also the main source regarding Richard's sister, Mahaut, the tragic figure known to history as the Lady of Cappadocia. She is the very inspiration for the title character in Shakespeare's own tragedy of that name.)

The history of the later de Cognacs, Duke Anselm the Lion, Godfrey of Lucano, Archduke Anselm of Austria, and Matthew the Monk, himself, come from a much larger, but less detailed collection of sources first compiled in the reign of King Walter de Cognac of Jerusalem, Matthew the Monk’s great-grandson. For example, much of the history of Anselm of Austria’s rise to the Archduchy of Austria comes from Imperial records of the Holy Roman Empire from 1350 to 1400. The Jerusalem collection also includes the letters and writings of Matthew the Monk himself, including "The Failure of Faith, The Crusade for Byzantium" which outlined his disappointment with both the Holy Father in Rome and the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

The exploits of the de Cognacs in the various Crusades as well as details of the honors, rewards, and titles they collected, come from Papal Archives of the Roman Catholic Church at Vatican City. The Royal Al Jawfian Museum also has extensive records as well as many of the artifacts that the de Cognacs were awarded in the various Crusades, including the English Lance of the Cross that the first Richard, Richard the Blessed, received from the hands of Pope Benedictus XI after the Catholic victory in the 5th Crusade, the Crusade for Anatolia against the Sultan of Rum in 1242.

Lastly, I abjure you to not read Thurlow's "The Lion and the Lamb" that postulates that Philip de Cognac's unknown mother was of the bloodline of Jesus Christ, possibly through the Merovingians, and therefore Matthew the Monk's claim on the Holy Grail was justified and came from him being descended from the blood of the Lamb. As I said don't read this, Thurlow is a quack.
 
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Cora Giantkiller

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This looks interesting. I hope I haven't missed the drop-add deadline.
 

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*Opens copy book, begins taking notes*

Fascinating background... :)
 

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Don't read Thurlow, got it.
 

Cora Giantkiller

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Crap, I already bought Thurlow!
 

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I really like the format you’ve gone for - takes me back to my own days on a Middle Eastern history course at uni!
 

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It's true, that is a very interesting motto.
 

Dunaden

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This looks interesting. I hope I haven't missed the drop-add deadline.
*Opens copy book, begins taking notes*

Fascinating background... :)
Don't read Thurlow, got it.
Interesting format.
Crap, I already bought Thurlow!
I really like the format you’ve gone for - takes me back to my own days on a Middle Eastern history course at uni!
It's true, that is a very interesting motto.

Thank you all for attending (and always room for more, Cora). Now that we have whet your appetite, there's a little more background to lay out before we get into the meat of the course.
 
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Day 2 - On Dating the Three Kingdoms of Jerusalem

Dunaden

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Day 2 - On Dating the Three Kingdoms of Jerusalem


All scholars and historians agree that the first Kingdom of Jerusalem was established by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when Jerusalem under King Guy I de Lusignan fell to Saladin Ayyubid, the Sultan of Egypt.

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Some scholars argue that the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem was first established in 1192 following the Third Crusade. The Third Crusade did secure a foothold in the Holy Land, however, despite the best efforts of Richard the Lionheart and the other Crusaders, the City of Jerusalem remained in Saladin’s hands at that time. Most scholars date the actual start of the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem to the following Fourth Crusade in 1203 when King Amaury ‘the Holy’, brother to the late Guy de Lusignan, reclaimed the remaining de jure territories of Jerusalem and the Holy City itself from Saladin's nephew, Sultan Al-Mu'zzam of Egypt. The kingdom in the Holy Land between the Third and Fourth Crusades, is now often referred to as being the short-lived Kingdom of Acre.

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The founding of the Third Kingdom of Jerusalem, is even more hotly contested, with many different opinions as to which date actually marks the true starting point of the Third Kingdom. This is further confused by the differing opinions as to when the Second Kingdom actually fell.

In 1293, the Kings of Jerusalem were driven into exile by a Jihad led by the Abbasid Caliphate. This left the last Christians in the Holy Land, mainly Sheik Richard ‘the Just’ de Cognac of Al Jawf as vassal to the Athanasoisid Empire and Emir Payen ’the Monk’ Berthune of Ascalon as vassal to the Sultan of Rum. Some consider this the end of the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem. However, after the King of the Second Jerusalem was driven from the Holy Lands, the Kingdom title itself was preserved in exile by various heirs of the de Lusignans.

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In 1321, the 8th Crusade for Jerusalem was called against the Emir Shaiban of the Musaid Emirate. Within a year, the Crusade was won by Shaykah Amice de Cognac of Al Jawf who was a Christian vassal of the Muslim Ayyubid Empire, who was called the 'the Lionheart' and 'King Richard reborn' ever after. Niki de Lusignan, the heir to Jerusalem, was restored as the Sultana of Jerusalem, but that only included territories in the Duchy of Galilee as well as the provinces of Ascalon and Acre. Six years later in 1327, Sultana Niki of Jerusalem was defeated and reduced to the Shaykah of Asqalan, a vassal under the Mansurid Emirate, and the crown of Jerusalem was vacated completely. Most consider this the true end of the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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In 1354, the 9th Crusade was called against Badshah Ablarion 'Son of Shaytan' of the Ayyubid Empire. Two years later, the Pope claimed victory in the name of King Mikulas Přemyslid, the King of Bohemia and England. King Mikulas granted the Kingdom of Jerusalem to his heir, Bretislav ‘the Guardian’ Přemyslid. This new Kingdom included only the Duchy of Galilee, and the provinces of Jerusalem itself and Ascalon. By 1362, this Kingdom had lost the Duchy of Galilee to the Sultan of Rum, leaving only Jerusalem and Ascalon. In 1369, Bretislav inherited Bohemia and England and made Bohemia his Primary title. The Bohemians maintained a toe hold in the Levant until they were driven out in 1393 following Bretislav’s death, as the rest of the Levant coast was reclaimed by the Sultan of Rum. The devastating and bloody failure of the 10th Crusade in 1399 ended any hope for a restoration under the Bohemian Kings, though Bretislav's heir, King Rajmund Přemyslid, still retained the empty title of King of Jerusalem. This period is not considered either part of the Second Kingdom or the Third Kingdom. Most consider this whole period as an extension of the Kingdom of Bohemia into the Holy Lands, rather than the founding of a true Kingdom of Jerusalem. (The greatest benefit Jerusalem provided to Bohemia was that with Bretislav’s inheritance of his father’s titles, Bohemia and England became independent from the Holy Roman Empire).

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But the 9th Crusade had had a secondary effect. During the chaos of that Crusade, the de Cognacs, who, even while remaining English and Christian, had grown in power while vassals to the Badshahs of Ayyubid, becoming the Emirs of Oultrejourdian and holding extensive lands in Arabia under first Emira Amice the Lionheart and then Emir Anselm the Lion, had managed to gain their independence, as the Duchy of Oultrejourdain under the now Duke Anselm the Lion. Once again there was a free Crusader state in the Middle East. The newly free Duchy of Oultrejourdain joined the 9th Crusade immediately, but it ended the very next day. It is said that as soon as Badshah Ablarion heard that his former vassal had joined the Crusade, he surrendered out of respect and fear of the Lion of Oultrejourdain.

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While Bohemia’s power in the Holy Land quickly faded, the Duchy of Oultrejourdain grew more powerful, expanding northward into Syria and seizing the Emirate of Damascus. This power base, further supplemented by the inheritance of a strategic port on the Adriatic under Godfrey of Lucano and the inheritances of the Duchies of Austria and later Steiermark that led to crowning of Anselm the Apostle as the Archduke of Austria, became the foundations for the Third Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Most scholars argue that the Third Kingdom began on March 15, 1415 when Matthew 'the Monk', then Archduke of Austria and vassal to the Holy Roman Empire, usurped the crown from King Rajmund of Bohemia, England and Jerusalem and returned the title to an actual Christian ruler with lands and titles that included much of the de jure territories of Jerusalem.

Others feel that the date of the founding of the Third Kingdom was July, 20, 1436 when King Matthew de Cognac won the Holy War for Ascalon against the child Sultan Kemal of Rum driving the last of the infidels from the de jure territories of Jerusalem leaving it all in Christian hands.

Still others count the true date of the Founding was November 10, 1444 when King Matthew won his war for independence and freed the Holy Land from the rule of Kaiser Emelrich of the Holy Roman Empire and gained independence for the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Archduchy of Austria.

But a few scholars, including King Matthew himself in his treatise "The Failure of Faith, The Crusade for Byzantium", claim the true founding of the Third Kingdom of Jerusalem began when the Holy City of Jerusalem was wrested from King Nestore Scripari of Italy on April 7, 1447 and the last bit of the Holy Land was freed from the corrupting influences of the western Christian Kings, who had allowed the rape of Constantinople by the Papacy, and finally came under King Matthew's control.

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But whichever date you choose from the early to mid 15th Century as the founding of the Third Kingdom, that is only the endpoint. To truly understand how the Third Kingdom came to be you need to go all the way back to the last gasp of First Kingdom and the Rise of the Second at the start of the 13th Century. Because it is here that the de Cognac dynasty was born.
 
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stnylan

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What an interesting evolution of the Kingdom
 

RossN

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A fascinating series of rises and falls. I suppose it shows that the armies may be scattered, the city walls breached and the streets and markets under enemy rule but the idea of a kingdom can survive anything.