• Crusader Kings III Available Now!

    The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Advisors may now jockey for positions of influence and adversaries should save their schemes for another day, because on this day Crusader Kings III can be purchased on Steam, the Paradox Store, and other major online retailers.


    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

Capibara

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It's back!:D:D:D Good to see you back, RGB. Good comeback update, great to see an Italian overview. Politics of that age there are very interesting, as well as the conflicts that appeared because of them.
 

Deamon

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I can rest in peace now...
 

Milites

Not a Sahib
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Boy what have I missed...
 

Pirate Z

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I just spent three days reading up on this AAR, from the very beginning of A Year's Education (I'd lost track of it since I first saw it in 2007), and I gotta say: you've done a great job at alternate history. Real great. The Europe-wide look is a great addition which I found kinda lacking in your earlier AAR. I'm really looking forward to more.
 

ComradeOm

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So we're back on track. How's the conversion going? You can't keep feeding us all these appetisers (even at a rate of once per annum ;) ) and then not produce the goods!

As for Italy, it looks like a mess. A lot like Italy in fact. Where are those pesky Normans when you need them...

And Santa Anna will return very shortly. I've an update 99% ready so, based on past performance, I'll have it posted sometime within the next month :)
 

unmerged(59077)

Tzar of all the Soviets
Jul 17, 2006
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The World in 1393 and How it Got There

Anatolia and the Balkans

“vedi come storpiato e` Maometto!
Dinanzi a me sen va piangendo Ali`,
fesso nel volto dal mento al ciuffetto.
E tutti li altri che tu vedi qui,
seminator di scandalo e di scisma
fuor vivi, e pero` son fessi cosi`”


Dante, Inferno, Canto XXVIII​



The Osman Empire: The fortune of the heirs of Osman would have no doubt surprised the old Turkish warlord himself had he seen them; a tribal unit, they’ve survived the Mongols, the re-unification of the Byzantine Empire and the Polish Crusades. They gained political power in the 1340s after Seljuk unity collapsed, and their statelet outlived the illustrious ‘abd al-Malik Sulayman and his attempt at reconquering Rum and Levant for Islam. Having gained access to the sea, they expanded to the Aegean, capturing Lesbos, Chios, Naxos and finally Euboea right under the noses of the Christians who were distracted with internecine warfare. Ahmed Baghadur and Egypt briefly threatened them, but soon died; a naval war with Jerusalem had gone in their favour. They forced the Prince of Krete to acknowledge their mastery. The first Turkish state to establish itself in mainland Greece since the collapse of the Doukas Empire, they were soon strong enough to resist their neighbours, while expanding both in Greece and in Thrace. Newfound power allowed them to strong-arm the increasingly splintering Turkish Beyliks, establishing pre-eminence in Anatolia. Their greatest moment to date was the complete defeat of Venice in a five year war and subsequent agreement to cooperation and eternal peace from the Most Serene Republic. Though beset by enemies and rivals at all sides, the Osmans’ rising star seems well on its way to the summit of the firmament at the turn of the 15th century.






Byzantine Empire: The dynasty currently in charge of Europe’s oldest state first rose to greatness under the Monomachs, eventually betraying and opposing them in the Civil War, and was subsequently defeated by yet another faction. Fleeing to Nikaea, they held court there, keeping their claim to the diadem even as history seemingly forgot them. Then, when Monomachs were history and the Cypriot Elegemitoi who held the throne were weak, they struck and took the Empire back. In the subsequent years they resisted the Turks with mixed success, but were not prepared for Bulgaria’s seizure of Constantinople while the army was on campaign. Having retreated to Rhodes, they await, and plot, their return to greatness. Eastern Rome has seen its share of highs and lows, and often its fortunes changed so rapidly that later historians could only shake their heads at vagaries of history. Although things look bleak for the Petzikopouloi Emperors – with their capital in Rhodes and their possessions only held together by the strength of their aging navy – it’s not out of the question they could bounce back provided they play their cards right.


Bulgarian Tzardom: Bulgaria’s sovereignty is a relatively new development, even if the nation itself is old. Considered (since it then included both Macedonia and Wallachia) an equal third of the Byzantine Empire under the Monomachoi, it later was separated into a Tzardom first under the Chervens and finally under the Monomachs, who held on to it even as they lost the Diadem. The Tsardom is centered around Vidin, a Monomach stronghold and a former Imperial City, with extensive workshops and craftsmen’s districts, relocated mostly from Syria; Vidin is thus truly the smithy of the Balkans, something the Tsars eagerly exploit. A respectable army, an aggressive policy on the borders and a good deal of luck and opportunism allowed Bulgaria to gain strength over time, culminating in the (almost bloodless) take-over of Constantinople itself during one of the Greeks’ 14th century civil wars. Holding the city, however, can prove to be a challenge as more than a few opponents of equal or better strength eye the capital of the East. Likewise, the hold over the city is by no means firm, and the Tsar continues to reside in Vidin, in a situation both similar and quite unlike the one at the dawn of the Barbarian Empire.


Latin Empire: The remaining Crusader state of those founded by the “Polish” crusades of the late medieval era, the “Latin Empire” openly claims Imperial honours and has aspirations on Constantinople, even though the actual city remains out of reach for now. Poland remains sympathetic to its Crusader state despite the latter claiming a Lordship greater than that of the Polish King. In fact, Carthage and its success may serve as an inspiration. If one could build a strong Kingdom in Muslim North Africa surely one could build a better one in Christian Anatolia? In truth, however, the Latins are on the defensive. Having provoked a potential Mongol ally into action that resulted in devastation of Eastern Europe, they also opened up the possibility of Turkish expansion North and West while the Blue Horde was otherwise occupied. Now the Latins are surrounded by minor Turkish states subordinate to the rising star of the Osmans, and will have to overcome Bulgaria and its aspirations to the Imperial title if they want to claim Constantinople. It’s best allies, ironically, are the Romans in Rhodes, who are willing to overlook the Latins’ claims in order to get a temporary strong stance against Turk expansionism.


Croatia: Croatia is an old state, recognized by the Byzantines and the Papacy since at least the 8th century; initially leaning towards the West, it fell firmly within the Byzantine orbit under Theodore II and Basil IV, who supported a pro-Greek candidate in the Croatian civil war. The Trpmirovic dynasty’s ruling branch eventually merged with the Greek Choniatoi, which gave it a distinctly Orthodox outlook, favouring the Byzantine “Kaisar” title over the Latin “Rex” and officially adopting Eastern religious practices. Within a generation the Croatians conquered Serbia (another Byzantine puppet state, with the consent of the Emperor), and maintained dominion over Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia (but not Dalmatia or Slavonia) until the weakening of the State following the Byzantine Civil War. The Mongol invasions of the early 14th century were initially devastating, but the Croatians were left in a stronger shape than Hungary, whom they were able to conquer Slavonia from. They’ve established a tentative protectorate over Krain, and are a potential claimant for the Imperial honours should Roman Rhodes fall, alongside Sicily, Bulgaria, Jerusalem and Kiev. The question of what constitutes Orthodoxy in the country is still unresolved, however, since both the Orthodox and the Catholics write in Glagolithic and say mass in Croatian, and recognition of Papal supremacy is the foremost difference between the two. However, since Papal alliance with Bavaria brings it directly into conflict with Croatian designs, it is unlikely that the Tsardom will re-orient itself westwards of its own volition.


Bosnia: Bosnia achieved autonomy from Croatia only recently; the Croatian state, busy with reducing Magyar influence in Slavonia and plotting against the Teutonic Knights as well as Austrian Duchies, is content with only nominal suzerainty. The Bosnian princes rule over a land that defies unity, with Orthodox Slavs co-existing the Greek settlers, and a sizeable Catholic population only slightly outnumbered by surviving Bogomil communties. Because of this, the Princes rule with heavy reference to traditional governance, a system sure to prevent any attempts at expansion.


Serbia: Serbia has a history riven with factionalism, competing principalities, and invasions – by the Greeks, the Croats, the Mongols and the Hungarians. Recently having defended their independence, the Princes of Serbia proclaimed themselves Tzars in the Croatian manner, if only to distance themselves from lesser princes that hold other parts of Serbia and owe them allegiance. The restoration of the Serb royal title is a direct threat to both Croatia and Bulgaria, a situation that has temporarily pushed Serbia into a distasteful alliance with the Turks.


Dalmatia: Dalmatia is only nominally Byzantine; in reality the power is in the hands of the Paleologoi, a wealthy dynatoi clan that has held large parts of the area since the late 1200s. Like most of Croatia, the Latin and the Greek versions of Christianity co-exist in an uncertain manner, and likewise the Paleologoi occupy a convenient middle ground. The Pope considers them Catholic, and the Emperor in Rhodes considers them Greek. At heart, however, they’re regional princes and their foremost rivals are not Imperial claimants but nearby Slavic principalities.


Istria : Istria is the westernmost possession of the Osmans. An area disputed between the Byzantines, Croatia, Venice and Carinthia it had seen several waves of forced settlement during the 1100s and onwards, including Bogomils, Orthodox Turkish converts, Serbs and Slavonian Hungarians. The potential for trouble in the region remains commensurate with the complexity of settlement, but that does not mean that it isn’t a valuable area to hold. For the Osmans and their Venetian vassal, this could be the perfect staging ground against the Western Balkans and the Bavarians.


Athens: The Empire of Athens is a small and rather insignificant holding ruled by the Philanthopenoi. Dating back from the early 1200s, it has lived by trade and piracy and avoided conquest and annexation due as much to greater concerns of their neighbours as to the defensive strength of their capital. Its alliance with relatives in Epirus allowed it to hold off the Turks and Morea, but lately Morea has once again rejoined the Petzikopouloi, while the Turks are much more powerful than they once were. Athens’ future looks uncertain, to say the least.


Epirus and Albania: The Philanthropenoi ruled Epirus ever since the Choniatoi moved to Croatia, sometimes as part of the Empire and sometimes under their own authority. However, like many Balkan possessions of the former Empire, they have become regional princes with regional designs, a consequence of centuries of feudal outlook even during the years when the Empire was ostensibly unified. Increasingly leaning on local populations to win loyalty in the almost-certain future confrontation with the Osmans, Epirus is unlikely to set aim for the diadem or Constantinople.


Turkish Beyliks: There were two major sources to the clans now ruling Anatolia – the Rum Turks who remained in Anatolia under the Romans, and the Isfahan Seljuks who largely returned with the great 14th century conquerors Adil Mohammed and ‘abd al-Malik Sulayman; the latter still control most of Rum and are dominated by the most successful – the Osmans. Among them are the Eretnids, Germiyanoglu, Mentesoglu, Qaraman and Candar. The eastern beyliks in the Caucasus and Syria are largely Persian in origin and are mostly allied with the descendants of Hamid ibn Sulayman. The fate of small states is ever uncertain in the late 14th century, because even if neighbouring Empires try to conquer or bind them, a clever ruler may still seize a chance to pursue his own destiny. A curious outgrowth of Rum Turk integration into the Byzantine Rum and the Byzantine Army over the centuries is that the borders of former principalities are often seen as implied in the division of the land, with many beyliks roughly corresponding to Princely seats of old, even if the dynasty at the head may change, or indeed lose their homeland and conquer another, as the Aydinoglu have done more than once. For example, the Eretnids control most of mediaeval Galatia, Hamidoglu hold former Tripoli, while Ramazan is based around the medieval Armenian state of Cilicia. It will be important for the Osmans to annex at least some of these tribes, since the Turks are a minority within the lands they control in the West, and additional manpower will be required if they wish to expand any further.


Wallachia: Wallachia is yet another Rurikid-ruled principality, with Radovan Rurikovich the third voievode to hold the land since it broke away from Volhynian control. His job is unenviable for its difficulty. Bulgaria regards the north as a wayward province, especially the towns of Severin and Grigoriopolis, both part of the original Grand Principality of Vidin. Naturally, the Vlach rulers disagree. To the west, they are threatened by the Teutonic Knights and the Hungaro-German settlers in Transylvania, as well as the Hungarian kingdom, while within the country itself there is occasional unrest from Besenyici (former Pechenegs) and the Gagauz (Orthodox Pontic Turks). To the North lies Kiev, ambivalent but mighty, Poland – with longstanding designs on the region, acting mostly through the Knights – and the Steppes, full of Tatars, unpredictable and belligerent despite shared faith.


Krete: Krete has been held by the Katakaloi since Nikolaios Botaneiates was Emperor, and the small principality, like many others, survives by fishing, trade and piracy while remaining unthreatening to larger powers. Sometimes it does not work as intended, as a raid on the Osmans fifty years ago has brought severe retaliation that stopped only when the Prince swore allegiance to the Turks. For now, the Kretans are the Osmans’ reluctant allies, but may change sides if the situation presents itself.


Teutonic Order: The Order of the German Knights of St.Mary has a mixed history. They joined the crusades into the Holy Land and, besides running a hospital in Jerusalem, they also controlled some castles in Syria before being forced out in less than twenty years. They were subsequently commissioned by the German Emperor to act against the Baltic Pagans, an attempt that likewise failed over a generation, with the Knights retreating to Poland. There they were used to fight against the Mongols, suffering several defeats but also successfully defending a few castles in Pomerelia against Mongol raids. After the Mongol state collapsed and pulled out of Europe, Poland regained its power, and the Knights fought alongside them against Kiev. Though the war ended indecisively they were rewarded with their own land and mandate in the Krajina Banat centered on Temesvar. This has antagonized the Hungarian King initially, but in the end Poland and Hungary came to an arrangement about whose policy the Knights enforce. As it stands, the Knights are likely to be the first to attempt stopping Osman extension into the Danube basin.


Transylvania: Following the devastating Mongol invasions in the 14th century, the Magyars have attempted to restore their Kingdom to its former glory; however, the eastern reaches were severely depopulated, and due to Tatars favouring Eastern over Western Christianity, the regained regions have an Orthodox majority, of Vlachs, Slavs and Pechenegs. The Hungarian crown counteracted this by inviting Germans (also severely displaced from all over eastern Europe by the Mongols) to settle the country. This backfired, and now Transylvania is independent. The German-Magyar state is in competition with the other German settlement in the region – that of the Knights, a rivalry that has occasionally led to bloodshed.


Moldavia: Moldavia’s princes owe their allegiance to the princes of Vladimir-Volynski, who also happen to be the Tsars of Kiev; the area has been disputed between the Empire and Hungary for centuries, briefly held by Volhyn, overrun by the Mongols, and finally settled with Christian refugees from Anatolia. It is unlikely that Kiev will lose the region without foreign meddling, but Poland, Hungary or the Tatars all stand to benefit from it, so it is not out of the question.


Montenegro: The Prince of Montenegro is also its Archbishop, and the title is hereditary. Although somewhat common during the early Monomach years, this arrangement had definitely declined in popularity. Montenegro has narrow access to the sea, but no skills or abilities to exploit that, unlike its main rival, Ragusa, which is currently ruled by the Paleologoi (themselves vassals to the Emperor in Rhodes), and since currently expansion against Serbia or Epirus is unlikely, Montenegro will have to wait patiently for its chance to settle scores and gain power.


Cyprus: Cyprus is much reduced in importance since its heyday in the 12th and 13th centuries, when the Cypriot Elegemitoi dynasty twice took the Imperial Throne due to their excellent navy, and around whose banners Greek resistance to the northern dynasties rallied time and again. As Christian possessions in the Middle East shrank and dwindled, Cyprus lost much of its trade-derived wealth and the Elegemitoi were finally ousted by the Nicaean Petzikopouloi from Constantinople. Jerusalem’s revival in the wake of Hassanid collapse didn’t restore Cypriot fortunes, instead bringing the Elegemitoi into the orbit of the Jersusalem branch of the hated Monomachs.
 
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unmerged(59077)

Tzar of all the Soviets
Jul 17, 2006
5.575
7
comagoosie - wow! I did not know that. That is truly a curious thing. it got my brain-cogs whirling.

And since you were the first to reply, you're hereby Kaisar of South-Western Kaliopolis and Sebastos of the Most Holy Empire.

canonized - I suppose I should have. I thought of it but I had little to say...can I make up by inserting an Inferno quote in the Turk update?

And yes, Guelf and all, and no doubt a great influence on Florentine politics even 80 years after his death :D

Capibara - yes, back then you didn't get impeached, you got beheaded. Beheadings trump impeachments since they're less fruity.

Deamon - nooooooo! Please don't die! I've got so much more to give! :rofl:

Milites - only my Magnum Opus apparently :eek:

Welcome and thanks for the comment!

Pirate Z - I measure my success in days of life stolen from readAARs!

Thank you enormously. That is very, very encouraging and flattering!

aldriq - I think that's going to be a long time before you can gain any money from that bet. Eternal conflicts tend to be that way.

Delex - thank you!

ComradeOm - good to hear about Santa Ana. And previews will be more common than annual now. I hope.

asd21593 - like a Balkan Vampire!

------

UPDATE: Conversion.

I'm afraid my conversion skills are vastly overrated by myself.

After deployment of my Indonesia update, the game crashes upon scenario load. I thought I fixed it, but it popped up again. During the time, MM team deployed a fix to MMP-Christmas.

So...sigh. I need to update before I tackle Indonesia, or (like so many other things) I will need to schedule Indonesia into a later release, post-game start.

I've done a lot of work on it so that makes me somewhat sad.

Other than that, I've got a ready 1393 map with historical monarchs for most nations up until roughly 1480 (and there's no intention of adding more).

I need a few really important decisions (unfortunately I can't rely on them, since the AI eats up lots of game resources making them, slowing everything to hell) coded so they don't crash, and I need to code the AI behaviour, which is easy since it's soft-coded but takes a while (lots of typing!).

This is the barest minimum I need and I can do it while I put up previews. The rest of my planned things (new religions, colony events, and eventually the great big MAP MOD that will fix MMPs horrid North Russia, Siberia, Caucasus and Alaska - working on that with varied success, btw) - will have to come out bit by bit, perhaps well after I start on the actual story and maybe even after I finish.

The fact that I have actual work to do now certainly slows things down a bit.

But it's almost there. I just need to find the CTD sources.
 

Pirate Z

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Great new update. By the way, you've mentioned this ‘abd al-Malik Suleiman multiple times before, and even included him in a part of a post in A Year's Education, but you've never really told us what made him so illustrious and great. Any chance we might find out (about him and Adil Mohammed) in the future?
 

comagoosie

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Kaisar of South-Western Kaliopolis and Sebastos of the Most Holy Empire.
Sig worthy! :D

And it seems that Cyprus isn't fairing that good, a pity. What they really need is Cyprus the Great ;)

I partly echo Pirate Z, shall we find out anything about the great men that either made or broke an empire?
 

Deamon

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Deamon - nooooooo! Please don't die! I've got so much more to give! :rofl:
Satan gave me another chance.. I had to sell my soul, small price to pay..
 

unmerged(31881)

Field Marshal
Jul 13, 2004
2.882
1
From Rus to Russia... is not a path to a door, but a road leading forever towards the horizon, as a wise man once said.

Translation: w00t! Update! Yeehaw! Woohoo! Yippee! Yay!

Meandering observation: It'll be interesting to see the various CK dynastic cookies crumbling and/or turning into unstoppable blobs. Especially with the altAARnative history each has. Hrvatska + Glagolitic = übercool.

Minor technical question: how do/did you handle the conversion of CK realm -> EU country tags?

Best of luck squishing those pesky bugs, btw. Oh and a shameless "moose oot and aboot in the hoose!" bumpage: bump!
 

Devin Perry

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Good to see you updating this again.

edit: isn't San Marino Europe's oldest state?
 
Last edited:

unmerged(59077)

Tzar of all the Soviets
Jul 17, 2006
5.575
7
The World in 1393 and How it Got There

Men of the Sword and the Book

The integration of the Orthodox Rus, the Slavs and the Greeks into a single “Roman” Empire arose out of Vladimir Monomach’s usurpation of Basil Skleros’ rebellion. It proved serendipitous to the fortunes of Christians. After almost a century of consolidation even as Catholic crusades floundered, the Romans moved against first the Fatimids and then the Seljuks, taking over most of Syria, Palestine, Sinai and Eastern Anatolia. Shocked by the decisive successes of the Christians, the Muslim world was subsequently invaded by Christian nations of every stripe, including Crusaders and Mongols. The great conquerors on the Roman side are well known – the Emperors Theodore, Alexander and Nikephoros, demestikos Andronikos Philanthropenos, Kaisar Michael, and the Turkish general Salah Mansur. However, the tide had changed by the 14th century. Mongol power was on the wane and the Romans had grown splintered and complacent. The successes of the Muslims in retaking lost lands are often looked at as an outcome of population pressures and perhaps an inevitable narrative necessity for the inexorable cycle of rise, decline and fall that all great Empires (the Eastern Roman, in this case) must follow. The individuals that lead these efforts, however, are not discussed in great detail in Byzantine history, nor does the grand narrative allow for examination of the numerous expansions and contractions in wars of no more than a single generation. These three short biographies are thus meant to remedy at least some of the shortcomings and lend greater nuance and personality to the wars of the fourteenth century.​

I

The Last Great Seljuk: Adil Mohammed
(1290-1357, reigned 1328-1357)


Adil Mohammed is most often remembered as the last Sultan of Sultans of the unified Seljuks, a true Empire that arose out of a largely tribal entity in defiance of common historical trends. That this great failing in death arose mostly out of his great success in life is less commonly mentioned. While the other two notable leaders that we discuss have a reputation for wisdom and mercy, Adil Mohammed is in many cases seen as a warrior and conqueror first. Needless to say, his life obtains far greater complexity when examined more closely, but it is the conquests that we must concentrate on here, due to the brevity of the account.​

His early years are not well known; one of the many sons of Selim Mohammed, the Sultan, he first appears in history as a figure involved in a palace coup that deposed his brother and put his uncle Ibrahim on the throne in Isfahan; shortly thereafter he was part of another coup that failed, and he was forced to flee to Egypt, to Emir Ghazan Mahmud, a descendant of the royal Mongol house. In 1322, with Ghazan’s help, Adil Mohammed overthrew Ibrahim and put yet another brother on the throne. When the latter died suddenly in 1328, Adil Mohammed finally became Sultan of Sultans, and got tokens of submission from his vassals in Herat and Cairo. With his power completely consolidated by 1330, he launched on a northward path.​


No longer than a generation ago, the Crusaders had utterly wiped out the gains of lifetimes of Seljuk Sultans in Anatolia, while the Byzantines, formerly split between Nicaea and Constantinople, finally reunited following a civil war. The Mongols, unable to conquer all of the Near East, had settled in smallish, but fierce states that for most part professed a Christianity of some kind (Syrian in Damascus, Assyrian in Tabriz and Byzantine in Tbilisi), while being under overall protection of the great Blue Horde Khagans in Sarai. However, in the 1330s, a conflict with the Polish Crusader state had lead to a wider clash between the Mongols and the Europeans that lasted several decades, devastating Europe and keeping the Mongols too occupied to defend their clients in Kartli and Azerbaijan against Adil Mohammed. Although the resistance in the mountains was very fierce, Adil completed his campaign successfully. The probing action left him knowing the Mongols would not likely support other Christians in Anatolia.​

The next few forays against the Byzantines were surprisingly difficult, with the mobile Seljuk force met by the Turks of Rum in Byzantine service. Retreating from pointless operations, the Seljuk Sultan directed his attention Southward, into the Arabian Gulf, forcing Emirate after Emirate into alliance or subjugation, and receiving tribute from the tribes of the Najd in 1341, unifying most of the Muslim world under him. These seemingly opportunistic actions were a way to impress the Turks of Rum; as a unifying figure to all Muslims he could gain more than by being an unsuccessful rival of the Romans. Over the years, the plan worked. With the Mongols were still occupied elsewhere and the Crusaders weakened, the highly mixed Byzantine armies saw their first string of defections and betrayals on the battlefield in many decades, and every preceding defeat made the subsequent one more likely. By the time of his death, Adil Mohammed had wrested the loyalty of the Rum Turks from the Eastern Emperors and whetted their appetite for conquest and plunder. The many tribes of Anatolia organized themselves into semi-independent Beyliks, one of which was founded by Osman, whose descendants later carved out an eponymous Empire in both Europe and Asia.​


Adil Mohammad’s death came in 1357; scant years later, the Mongol Blue Horde lost its standing with its sister Khaganates, and retreated from Europe to fight an unsuccessful internecine war in Central Asia. Their power reduced, the Sarai Mongols once more focused on their immediate surroundings – including the lands gained by the last Great Seljuk. Without his leadership, his descendants proved unable to withstand the might of a vengeful Mongol horde, and following several devastating defeats in the Caucasus the central authority of the Sultans of Isfahan collapsed, nowhere so dramatically as in their newly-gained lands. The Mongols themselves, however, were unable to establish themselves in the new territories and once again retreated. In the aftermath, several factions emerged, with the greatest – in Baghdad – lead by Adil Mohammed’s son Hassan. The end of a unified Sultanate, ironically, proved to have a positive effect on Muslim expansionism; unlike the fundamentally conservative, defensive and centralized Seljuk Empire, the new factions expanded in all directions. In Anatolia, the front ranks were filled by the newly-independent Rum Turks, aimed once again towards the generations-old dream of conquering defiant Konstantiniyye. Meanwhile in Iraq, Hassan’s line was about to produce yet another great unifier and conqueror worthy of history books…​
 
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