• Crusader Kings III Available Now!

    The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Advisors may now jockey for positions of influence and adversaries should save their schemes for another day, because on this day Crusader Kings III can be purchased on Steam, the Paradox Store, and other major online retailers.


    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

MastahCheef117

Genro
44 Badges
Jul 1, 2009
1.164
73
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Ship Simulator Extremes
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Rome Gold
  • March of the Eagles
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Prison Architect
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Stellaris
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Pride of Nations
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle

Greetings, one and all, and welcome to World in Revolution: 1900 Mk. II! This is the next installment in the popular World in Revolution forum game series, and the first that I will be hosting. The concept of this game was created and developed, and with most iterations hosted by, the wonderful Frymonmon, who passed away a little over a year ago. This game – in all its glory and all its abject failure – is dedicated to him. We miss you, Fry.

The game itself is quite simple. A v̶i̶r̶g̶i̶n̶ ̶s̶a̶c̶r̶i̶f̶i̶c̶e̶ willing forum member will take the helm of one country of any in existence in the year 1900. Through player choices and interaction, these players will guide their country through the turbulent first half of the twentieth century. Will history repeat itself? In many situations, it is likely. Will a new path be taken in others, creating new possibilities only hypothesized of today? No doubt. Modern world history is, quite effectively, in the hands of the players.

A few days ago a thread was created and a signup period conducted, where we determined who exactly would play each [listed] nation. A detailed list of our initial roster will be provided below in the national statistics. Before the game begins, however, we must lay the groundwork of a few rules, and how exactly the game will function.

Rules & Procedures

Each player is required to roleplay the government of their assigned country. If this confuses you, read at least a few pages of any other World in Revolution thread. Players are expected to have at least a basic knowledge of their country's politics and governmental structure in this period.

The game will be conducted in turns. Each “turn” constitutes one in-game year. The game begins on 1 January, 1900, and the first year will encompass the entirety of 1900. After every turn, I will [try to] set a deadline for the next update, to keep the game somewhat quickly-paced.

Players affect history through both their IC (in character) statements and their orders. Each turn, I require players to send in a batch of “orders”, which describe their intent for that year: it can be anywhere from “raise business taxes” to “begin construction on two new battleships” to domestic politicking. The number of orders allowed to each country will vary on their importance. If a country is going to experience an election in a given year, an election order may be sent on top of the normal orders, detailing what the player wishes to happen in the election. Once all orders are received by the deadline, I will roll dice on each order, which will, along with the feasibility of the order itself, determine its overall outcome. All orders for successive years will be sent in the same Paradox Forum conversation, which could be titled something like this: “WiR 1900 – United Kingdom orders”.

I will do my best to write as many “mini updates” as possible. Mini updates are smaller than main updates, and generally have to deal with major events in the world: wars, major technological inventions, major elections, revolutions, assassinations, and others. I may occasionally ask certain players to send in orders for a mini; the exact number of your orders, and what you can do with them, will vary from mini to mini.

One key requirement of this game is that you play realistically. I don't want players saying stupid things just to say stupid things. I want people to behave as a government of the period would behave. No stupid stuff. Seriously. Ever.

Which brings me to another thing. If your government is openly overthrown in a revolution, you will be kicked from the game, period. This isn't as a punishment, but rather to simulate the exchange of power between the party that was removed from power and the party that has just seized it. It is also to prevent metagaming by the player who has had to experience it. The booted player will be allowed back into the game at any time, so long as 1. they are interested in doing so, and 2. a spot remains open.

Next are nation tiers. For the purposes of this game, there are three tiers of nations: the great powers, the secondary and minor powers, and semi-stat nations. The great powers are the eight most powerful and influential nations in the world with the highest degree of diplomatic and military prestige. Secondary and minor powers are lesser nations who may or may not have regional influence and power projection capabilities. Semi-stat nations vary, but are generally the least-influential of these countries, and are given a condensed set of stats for their country. All countries, save for British Dominions and direct vassals, will have 2 war orders should they be at war. War orders cannot be used for construction or recruitment. They can only deal with intelligence activities, military deployment, rules of engagement, and actual military plans.

Great Powers (3 normal orders, 2 war orders) as of 1911:

United States of America
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
French Republic
German Empire
Russian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Ottoman Empire

Secondary & minor powers (2 normal orders, 2 war orders) as of 1911:

Kingdom of Spain
Kingdom of Portugal
Greater Japanese Empire
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Empire of the Great Qing
Empire of China
Republic of China

Other secondary & minor powers (1 normal order, 2 war orders) as of 1911:

Great Korean Empire
Principality of Bulgaria
United States of Brazil
Argentine Republic
Kingdom of Greece
Chilean Republic
Kingdom of Romania
United Mexican States
Sublime State of Iran
Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Albania
People's Republic of Macedonia
Rebel movements (2 war orders) as of 1911:
Armenian liberation movement
Macedonian republicans and monarchists
Ma clique
United Mexican States (rebels)
British Dominions (1 normal order, 1 war order) as of 1911:
Dominion of Australia
Union of South Africa

IRC Channel

We have an IRC channel at #WiR_Main on The Airlock server. It is very highly recommended that you join this channel if you are a player, or even a prospective player. It is good to get to know everyone here. Bulletins and information may be given here that is not posted in the thread. It is also easier to ask questions and communicate with me and other players here.

I would also like to take this time to thank @Noco19 for helping in working on the map – he is an immense help.

Stats key

Here is a brief description of the meanings of each separate part of nation stats for reference.

Quality: Failing – Poor – Average – Good – Excellent

Economic status:

Boom: over 3% annual GDP growth
Expansion: 1 – 3% annual GDP growth
Stagnation: 0 – 1% annual GDP growth
Recession: -2% – 0% annual GDP growth
Depression: under -2% annual GDP growth

Nation name – the official name of your country's government.
Government – the type of government currently ruling the country.
Leader(s) – the title and name of the current ruler(s) of the country.
Ideology – the political ideology of the ruling party or faction.
Alignment – a list of any current alliances that your nation is a member of.
Capital – the city that serves as the center of government of the country.
Political stability – the trust in government and overall condition of public relations expressed as a percentage.
Population – the total population of the country, with colonial population expressed in parentheses.
GDP – the total economic output of a country in millions of dollars
Economic status – the overall development of the economy, whether it's growing or shrinking, the current type of economic system, and the current GDP per capita.
Receipts – the total amount of money the government takes in, expressed in millions of dollars.
Expenditures – the total amount of money the government spends in millions of dollars.
Balance – the net amount of money the government makes or loses each year in millions of dollars.
Treasury – the total amount of money the government has in reserve or owes in millions of dollars.

Infrastructure – the current standing of hard and soft infrastructure throughout the country.
Administration – the efficacy of the government's bureaucracy in general.
Education – the degree to which a country's education system is modern and wide-reaching.
Health & Welfare – the strength of labor laws, health regulations, and government investment in healthcare.
Literacy – the percent of your population that is at least basically literate.
Manpower – the pool of men (and/or women) the government can mobilize for military service.
Army – the quality of soldiers, the age of technology, and the size of the army.
Navy – the quality of sailors, the age of technology, and the size of the navy.
Air Force – the quality of pilots, the age of technology, and the size of the air force.
Player – the forum name of the person playing this country.

Military unit sizes:
1 infantry/cavalry/marine/mountain division: 12,000 men
1 battalion (uncommon): 2,000 men
All ships: 1 ship
1 aircraft squadron: 50 aircraft and necessary crew

Unit descriptions:
Infantry – the backbone of any standard army; the jack of all trades in warfare.
Cavalry – mounted infantry skilled in maneuver, reconnaissance, and harassment of enemy units and supply lines.
Mountain infantry – light infantry that specialize in mountain combat.
Marines – infantry that specialize in amphibious landings and warfare, and operations overseas far from home.
Dreadnought – the most modern capital ships with an "all-big-gun" layout and heavy armor, meant to duel with the strongest enemy vessels.
Battlecruiser – capital ships equal in size and strength with dreadnoughts, though more lightly armored to capitalize on greater speeds so as to chase down older battleships and cruisers.
Pre-dreadnought – outdated by the rise of dreadnoughts, smaller and less-heavily armed battleships.
Armored cruiser – made obsolete by the advent of battlecruisers, they are large and heavily-armed cruisers.
Light cruiser – smaller than their armored cousins and more lightly armed and armored, generally performing screening and reconnaissance duties.
Destroyer – small vessels armed with several small guns and torpedoes, made to harass larger capital ships and to screen friendly capital ships.
Submarine – submersible vessels capable of scouting enemy positions virtually undetected and striking enemy warships and commerce vessels alike.
 
Last edited:

MastahCheef117

Genro
44 Badges
Jul 1, 2009
1.164
73
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Ship Simulator Extremes
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Rome Gold
  • March of the Eagles
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Prison Architect
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Stellaris
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Pride of Nations
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle

1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910




1900
A New World Under the Waves
The End of an Age
Nothing But Sadness and Horrors
The Boxer Rebellion of 1900
The United States Presidential Election of 1900

1901
The Death of One Era, the Birth of Another
1902
The Child of Ambition
Restorations, Revolutions, and Dangerous Reactions

1903
The Burning East
The Conquest of the Skies

1904
Dark Continent Rising
The Orchid Revolution of 1904
Unbridled Capitalism and the United States Presidential Election of 1904

1905
Fear God and Dread Nought
For King and Fatherland

1906
A Doctrine Defied
A Second Compromise?

1907
Government of the People, Government for the People, and Welfare for the People
The Day the Strength of Men Failed
Some Damned Foolish Thing in the Balkans

1908
Unprecedented
1909
An Empire Reborn
China Aflame

1910
An Imperial Presidency
1911



1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907

(European war stats, June 1907)
1908
1909
1910
1911



Russo-Japanese War (Two Emperors' War)
8 February 1902 – 22 March 1904
Conflicting interests over influence in Korea and, more broadly, East Asia as a whole, led to a Japanese sneak-attack on the Russian Pacific Squadron in Port Arthur. Public opinion kept other great powers out of the war, until Russia claimed the Japanese government broke several provisions of the Treaty of Inchon, signed in 1900, embroiling other nations diplomatically. After Vladivostok fell, the Japanese offensive stalled, and a failed American naval intervention did little to bring the war to a decisive end. No country gained the upper hand until the Second Battle of Tonghua resulted in a Japanese defeat. The Japanese siege of Port Arthur failed in late 1903, and the Combined Fleet was virtually destroyed at the Battle of Dadohaehaesang shortly thereafter. Ended by the Treaty of Vladivostok.
Russian losses: 129,308 k/w/m; 1 battleship, 2 armored cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 5 destroyers
Japanese losses: 134,221 k/w/m; 6 battleships, 6 armored cruisers, 7 light cruisers, 18 destroyers
[incl. 2 battleships, 4 armored cruisers, 4 light cruisers, 12 destroyers captured]
American losses: 1 light cruiser, 1 destroyer
Up to 70,000 Chinese civilians k/w/m

Rebellions in German Africa (Herero & Maji Maji Rebellions)
January 1904 – November 1906
In response to brutal German colonial rule and repeated famines, the Herero people of German West Africa and the Maji Maji of German East Africa rose up in rebellion to white rule, burning the crops of colonial farmers, attacking colonial villages, and slaughtering soldiers and civilians alike. Berlin responded in kind, dispatching tens of thousands of troops to each colony and exacting a brutal vengeance on the local population. Despite orders to contain the violence to enemy combatants in 1905, the violence against native tribes and peoples continued and worsened into 1906, by which point resistance had been all but extinguished. The human toll was incalculable and remains not precisely known to this day.
German losses: 1,833 k/w/m
Native losses: Likely upward of 400,000; modern estimates posit up to 600,000

Orchid Revolution (Taiwanese Revolution)
8 March 1904 – December 1907
With the Russo-Japanese War having left Japan both politically vulnerable and militarily exhausted, Tongmenghui agents on Taiwan took their chances and inaugurated open revolt against Japanese colonial rule. While initially it seemed that fresh Japanese reinforcements would close out the rebellion and restore order, the skill of General Liu Yongfu helped secure legitimacy for the United People's Council and the Provisional Revolutionary Government. A British blockade of the whole island persisted despite Taiwanese victories, poor Japanese morale, and a deadly encounter between the British China Station and a portion of the American Asiatic Fleet. After the Japanese 4th Army was virtually annihilated in an encirclement campaign near Kagi and Tainan, the revolutionaries declared the founding of the Republic of China. The British responded with a direct intervention, landing Royal Marines and Gurkhas on the island, reversing revolutionary gains and all but extinguishing the rebellion by the end of 1907. Despite this victory, news of the declaration of the Republic reached the mainland, inaugurating the Shuangsi Revolution on 4 April that year.
Japanese losses: 23,191 k/w/m
Taiwanese losses: 28,100 k/w/m
British losses: 2,648 k/w/m; 1 destroyer
Up to 90,000 civilans from "various causes" during the war according to a British report (Japan listed civilian k/w/m at 3,859
)

Balkan War
13 January 1907 21 February 1908
Heightening tensions between Austria-Hungary and the Ottomans, due largely in part to the election of the Hungarian nationalists in the 1906 elections, brought militarism to a fever pitch and resulted in a declaration of war by the Austro-Hungarians against the Ottoman Empire. Quickly afterward, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria joined Vienna and Budapest in their war against the Turks. Initial victories in Bulgarian Rumelia were reversed by June; Bulgarian, Serbian, and Montenegrin incursions into Ottoman territory were largely unsuccessful early on. With Novi Pazar fully occupied in just several weeks, Hungarian troops were sent into Albania, securing it and later guaranteeing its independence in the post-war treaty. A successful defense of Skopje by Turkish troops under Shevket Pasha denied enemy occupation of the Western Balkans, and a series of great victories, capped off by the bloody Battle of Pazardzhik, guaranteed an Ottoman victory in the east. The war is viewed as the direct cause, and one of the most important causes, of the Great War, which began just days later. Dr. Nikolay Arzamastsev, noted historian of 20th century Europe, called it "the most defining moment in the post-seventeenth century history of the Balkans." Ended by the Treaty of Edirne, Treaty of Sarajevo, and Treaty of Ankara.
Austro-Hungarian losses: 1,276 k/w/m
Serbian losses: 24,997 k/w/m
Montenegrin losses: 6,931 k/w/m
Bulgarian losses: 60,923 k/w/m; 1 light cruiser, 3 destroyers
Ottoman losses: 78,186 k/w/m; 1 destroyer
Between 9,812 and 24,000 Ottoman and 18,000 Bulgarian civilians k/w/m

Twelve Months' War
28 January 190712 January 1908
A dispute over the control of Southern Dobrudja, and particularly the strategically-important city of Silistra along the Danube, ignited war between Romania and Bulgaria. Intent on defending its smaller ally already embroiled in war with the Ottomans, the Russian government declared war on Romania, triggering a mobilization from Germany. When negotiations failed, Germany declared war on Russia, which in turned brought Italy and France into the war. Stalemates in the west were contrasted with enormous battles in the east. The fall of Warsaw in November 1907 after a brutal and extended siege campaign brought Russia to the negotiating table, even after parts of Elsaß-Lothringen had come under French occupation. The war resulted in nothing more than an exchange of several colonies and war reparations to Germany paid by Russia. Ended by the Treaty of Warsaw.
German losses: 803,614 k/w/m
Italian losses: 35,839 k/w/m; 1 armored cruiser, 1 light cruiser, 1 destroyer, 1 submarine
Romanian losses: 153,774 k/w/m
Russian losses: 1,068,963 k/w/m; about 200,000 taken prisoner
French losses: 286,634 k/w/m; 1 pre-dreadnought, 3 light cruisers, 6 destroyers, 1 submarine
Bulgarian losses: 34,006 k/w/m
Up to 89,000 Romanian, 37,000 Bulgarian, 5,000 German, and 150,000 Russian civilians k/w/m

Macedonian Revolution (Macedonian War of Independence)
6 October 1907 28 April 1910
Amid the final destructive months of the Balkan War, Macedonian nationalists revolted against Ottoman rule, declaring the National Republic of Macedonia. Though the republican character of the revolution (with even some of its socialist tinges) put off many of the Macedonian populace from supporting it, the revolutionaries fought well against the exhausted Ottomans in the postwar months and were unable to crush them entirely. Revolutionaries were aided largely by monetary and manpower means by Josef Dzhugashvili and his communist allies in Bosnia. The war was ended by the Treaty of Berlin, which forced the Macedonian revolutionaries to form the so-called Kingdom of Moesia with a Romanov as its monarch. Differences between republicans and monarchists, and eventually Stalin and his supporters, led to the outbreak of the civil war that December.
Macedonian losses: 11,906 k/w/m
Ottoman losses: 11,447 k/w/m
Between 20,000 and 22,586 Macedonian civilians k/w/m

Hispano-Moroccan War
17 May 23 June 1909
Rebellion by the Rif tribes on Morocco triggered a Spanish intervention. Spanish Marines were landed around Tangier while troops in Melilla rushed across the border. Though the advance was swift because of the poor quality of the Moroccan army, Spanish casualties were exorbitantly high, due mostly to the aging doctrine of the Royal Army. After Rabat fell on 7 July, the Moroccan government began negotiating with the Spanish, and an armistice was hammered out on 23 June. The country was annexed shortly thereafter. Ended by the Treaty of Marrakesh.
Spanish losses: 7,859 k/w/m
Moroccan losses: 9,113 k/w/m
Around 4,600 Moroccan civilians k/w/m


Boxer Rebellion (Yihequan Movement)
August 1899 August 1901
Hatred toward Western influence in Chinese affairs, coupled with a lasting and devastating drought and resulting famine in northern China, gave rise to the Boxer Rebellion. Bands of roving "Boxers" harassing Westerners and Chinese Christians escalated into a full-blown armed rebellion following the Battle of Tientsin and the murder of Korean and American nationals. After both the Forbidden City and Legations Quarter were saved by Generals Ronglu and Yuan Shikai, the rebellion dwindled as rebels, poorly-armed and even more-poorly equipped, were handily defeated by the comparatively elite Qing troops by the summer of 1901.
Qing losses: approx. 45,000 k/w/m
200,000+ civilians k/w/m

Young Turk Revolution
17 March 28 April 1900
After months (potentially years) of planning, young and liberal-minded officers in the Ottoman Army staged a coup to oust Sultan Abdul Hamid II from power. This was achieved that very day, and he was replaced with the more apathetic Mehmed V. The old liberal constitution of the 1870s was reintroduced (though it was later replaced by a British-style document), triggering a countercoup in the Army on 3 April, which, after the Battle of Konya, was decisively defeated.
Ottoman losses: 639 k/w/m
Fewer than 500 civilians k/w/m

Brazilian Restoration
11 March 1902
As the republican government of Brazil struggled to put down a rebellion led by a confederation of wealthy warlord-oligarchs, President Campos Sales planned and announced the invitation of Isabel, Princess Imperial -- the daughter of the late Emperor Pedro II -- to return to Rio de Janeiro. She arrived on 10 March to great fanfare, and the following day was named Empress. A new liberal constitution was written and put in place shortly thereafter. The restoration, while sharply criticized by the United States, helped to weaken the oligarchs' war effort.

February Coup
8 13 February 1905
After several erratic actions taken by King Alexander of Serbia -- from cozying up to Austria-Hungary to then suddenly appointing a Russophile as Prime Minister and, several months later, removing him from office -- several junior army officers with a love of Russia took matters into their own hands. They assassinated Alexander, hoping to trigger the coronation of Peter Karađorđević, a known sympathizer with the Russophiles, but the Germanophiles in the court and suspended National Assembly asked Milan, Alexander's father and abdicated King, to take the crown once more, which he did. With the coup thus defeated, Russophile Nikola Pašić fled the country.
Serbian losses: 1 King killed

Brazilian Revolution
2 29 April 1906
Scandal broke out in American-Brazilian relations when documents detailing negotiations between the Brazilian government and various European nations were revealed to President Roosevelt. The scandal quickly turned into a crisis when republican revolutionaries seized control of Porto Alegre and riots broke out in Rio de Janeiro. American Marines, previously sent to the region with a US Navy squadron to dissuade European intervention, were sent into the city to restore order as Imperial authority began to collapse across the country. When revolutionary troops reached the outskirts of the capital on 28 April, organized resistance by the Imperial Army and local and federal police completely collapsed. The Republic was restored the following day, and Empress Isabel fled back into exile in Paris.
Brazilian losses: 1,732 k/w/m
American losses: 106 k/w/m
Between 19,000 and 53,395 civilians k/w/m (Brazilian government estimate 20,233)

Russian Revolution of 1908 (February and July Revolutions)
5 February – 7 March, 9 – 15 July 1908
The Russian Empire's defeat in the Twelve Months' War and the national humiliation that followed was only part of the reason for great social strain: the other was the virtual neglect of the conditions and rights of the industrial workers throughout the country, coupled with the difficult living conditions many imperial subjects faced during the rationing and mobilization period of the war. Viktor Chernov and Leon Trotsky led worker's demonstrations in St. Petersburg, inspiring movements elsewhere, but after Bloody Friday there was a nationwide crackdown and martial law declared in various cities. In July, the crew of the battleship Potemkin mutinied and sailed for St. Petersburg, inspiring similar mutinies on various warships of the Baltic Fleet. A quick response by the Army, anticipated since the February Revolution, put down the revolt. Amid the February crisis, Sergei Witte proposed to the Tsar his plan for a liberal constitution to assuage the anguish of the revolting people; after seeing that his proposal had little support, he and his own supporters resigned from government.
Between 1,482 4,000 civilians k/w/m

Argentine Revolution of 1910
18 March – 8 July 1910
Discontent with President Alcorta's conservative government and general corruption, the Radical Civic Union orchestrated a series of protests in Buenos Aires. The government reaction sending in the army, which resulted in numerous deaths triggered a nationwide rebellion orchestrated by the RCU and composed largely of factory workers and other angered citizens. Eventually, President Roosevelt intervened to restore order after large numbers of civilians were killed in the fighting. Alcorta's government mostly collapsed in the opening days of July, and he resigned the presidency on the 8th.
Argentine losses: 1,482 k/w/m; 1 pre-dreadnought, 2 armored cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 2 destroyers
American losses: 172 k/w/m
Up to 2,000 civilians k/w/m
 
Last edited:

MastahCheef117

Genro
44 Badges
Jul 1, 2009
1.164
73
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Ship Simulator Extremes
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Rome Gold
  • March of the Eagles
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Prison Architect
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Stellaris
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Pride of Nations
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
1900

Argentine Republic
Government: Federal constitutional republic
Leader(s): Presidente Julio Argentino Roca
Political stability: Good
Population: 5.793 m.
Economy: Small, agrarian, boom, market economy
Spending: Huge deficit, large debt
Manpower: 92,603
Army: Average, semi-modern
5 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: Average, modern
2 battleships, 4 armored cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 7 destroyers
Player: Arrowfiend


Austro-Hungarian Empire
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Kaiser und Koenig Franz Josef
Political stability: 62%
Population: 51.356 m.
GDP: $ 99,239 m.
Economic status: Semi-industrial, expansion, market economy
Infrastructure: (2/5) Average
Receipts: $ 3,549 m.
Expenditures: $ 4,981 m.
Balance: $ - 1,433 m.
Treasury: $ - 41,396 m.
Manpower: 248,107
Army: (4/5) Poor, 1895 technology
38 infantry divisions, 9 cavalry divisions, 0 marine divisions, 4 mountain divisions
Navy: (1/5) Average, 1899 technology
5 battleships, 1 armored cruiser, 6 light cruisers, 12 destroyers [+3 battleships in 2 turns, +1 armored cruiser in 1 turn, +2 light cruisers in 1 turn]
Player: Dadarian

Brazilian Republic
Government: Presidential dictatorship
Leader(s): Presidente Campos Sales
Political stability: Excellent
Population: 17.936 m.
Economy: Small, agrarian, boom, market economy
Spending: Huge deficit, small debt
Manpower: 200,059
Army: Poor, semi-modern
9 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: Poor, modern
3 battleships, 0 armored cruisers, 4 light cruisers, 6 destroyers [+1 battleship in 1 turn, +1 light cruiser in 1 turn, +5 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: bakerydog


Principality of Bulgaria
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Knyaz Ferdinand/Ministar-predsedatel Todor Ivanchov
Political stability: Good
Population: 3.154 m.
Economy: Very small, agrarian, expansion, market economy
Spending: Small deficit, large debt
Manpower: 36,171
Army: Poor, semi-modern
4 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: Failing, semi-modern
0 battleships, 0 armored cruisers, 0 light cruisers, 1 destroyer
Player: sealy300

French Republic
Government: Unitary constitutional republic
Leader(s): Président Émile Loubet
Political stability: 66%
Population: 40.598 m. (50.294 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 116,747 m. ($ 36,152 m. colonial)
Economic status: Industrial, recession, market economy
Infrastructure: (2/5) Good
Receipts: $ 5,837 m.
Expenditures: $ 9,028 m.
Balance: $ - 3,191 m.
Treasury: $ - 49,406 m.
Manpower: 267,438 (389,077 colonial)
Army: (2/5) Good, 1897 technology
31 infantry divisions, 8 cavalry divisions, 1 marine division, 3 mountain divisions
Navy: (1/5) Good, 1898 technology
8 battleships, 8 armored cruisers, 26 light cruisers, 49 destroyers [+1 battleship in 2 turns, +1 battleship in 3 turns, +2 battleships in 4 turns, +4 armored cruisers in 3 turns, +1 light cruiser in 1 turn, +2 light cruisers in 2 turns, +5 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: Gorganslayer


German Empire
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Kaiser und Koenig Wilhelm II/Reichskanzler Chlodwig von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
Political stability: 70%
Population: 54.592 m. (11.594 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 162,335 m. ($ 6,495 m. colonial)
Economic status: Industrial, boom, market economy
Infrastructure: (3/5) Good
Receipts: $ 4,871 m.
Expenditures: $ 7,075 m.
Balance: $ - 2,204 m.
Treasury: $ - 78,983 m.
Manpower: 398,544 (95,170 colonial)
Army: (4/5) Good, 1898 technology
42 infantry divisions, 10 cavalry divisions, 1 marine division, 3 mountain divisions
Navy: (3/5) Average, 1897 technology
5 battleships, 0 armored cruisers, 5 light cruisers, 19 destroyers [+3 battleships in 1 turn, +1 battleship in 2 turn, +1 armored cruiser in 1 turn, +3 light cruisers in 1 turn, +5 destroyers in 1 turn, +3 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: Sneakyflaps

Kingdom of Greece
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leaders(s): Basiliás Geórgios/Prothypourgós Georgios Theotokis
Political stability: Good
Population: 4.962 m.
Economy: Very small, agrarian, expansion, market economy
Spending: Small deficit, small debt
Manpower: 74,152
Army: Average, Semi-modern
3 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: Average, Semi-modern
0 battleships, 3 armored cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 2 destroyers
Player: Mikkel Glahder


Kingdom of Italy
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Re Umberto/Presidente Luigi Pelloux
Political stability: 55%
Population: 33.026 m. (1.247 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 60,144 m. ($ 2,462 m. colonial)
Economic status: Semi-industrial, expansion, market economy
Infrastructure: (4/5) Average
Receipts: $ 2,105 m.
Expenditures: $ 3,947 m.
Balance: $ - 1,842 m.
Treasury: $ - 19,026 m.
Manpower: 289,057 (66,127 colonial)
Army: (2/5) Average, 1894 technology
25 infantry divisions, 4 cavalry divisions, 1 marine division, 4 mountain divisions
Navy: (3/5) Average, 1896 technology
3 battleships, 0 armored cruisers, 10 light cruisers, 11 destroyers [+2 battleships in 2 turns, +1 armored cruiser in 1 turn, +2 armored cruisers in 2 turns, +4 destroyers in 2 turns, +3 destroyers in 3 turns]
Player: jacob-Lundgren

Greater Japanese Empire
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Meiji Emperor/Prime Minister Yamagata Aritomo
Political stability: 67%
Population: 44.285 m. (2.864 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 52,020 m. ($ 1,106 m. colonial)
Economic status: Semi-industrial, boom, market economy
Infrastructure: (2/5) Average
Receipts: $ 2,180 m.
Expenditures: $ 4,676 m.
Balance: $ - 2,496 m.
Treasury: $ - 43,058 m.
Manpower: 390,196 (106,564 colonial)
Army: (3/5) Average, 1899 technology
19 infantry divisions, 4 cavalry divisions, 1 marine division, 0 mountain division
Navy: (1/5) Good, 1899 technology
2 battleships, 6 armored cruisers, 8 light cruisers, 12 destroyers [+2 battleships in 1 turn, +1 battleship in 2 turns, +1 battleship in 3 turns, +1 light cruiser in 2 turns, +3 destroyers in 1 turn]
Player: Riccardo93


Korean Empire
Government: Absolute monarchy
Leader(s): Emperor Gwangmu
Political stability: Average
Population: 12.016 m.
Economy: Small, agrarian, expansion, market economy
Spending: Small surplus, small debt
Manpower: 188,349
Army: Poor, antiquated
3 infantry divisions, 0 cavalry divisions, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: Failing, obsolete
0 battleships, 0 armored cruisers, 0 light cruisers, 0 destroyers
Player: Duke Dan “the Man”

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Koningin Wilhelmina/Minister-President Nicolaas Pierson
Political stability: 67%
Population: 5.016 m. (42.746 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 17,604 m. ($ 31,748 m. colonial)
Economic status: Semi-industrial, expansion, market economy
Infrastructure: (1/5) Good
Receipts: $ 2,406 m.
Expenditures: $ 2,135 m.
Balance: $ 271 m.
Treasury: $ - 149 m.
Manpower: 117,236 (564,519 colonial)
Army: (3/5) Average, 1895 technology
11 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 1 marine division, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (1/5) Good, 1897 technology
0 battleships, 4 armored cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 2 destroyers [+2 armored cruisers in 1 turn, +3 light cruisers in 1 turn, +6 destroyers in 1 turn, +4 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: TJDS


Ottoman Empire
Government: Absolute monarchy
Leader(s): Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Political stability: 48%
Population: 30.860 m.
GDP: $ 38,027 m.
Economic status: Semi-industrial, expansion, market economy
Infrastructure: (3/5) Poor
Receipts: $ 951 m.
Expenditures: $ 1,094 m.
Balance: $ - 143 m.
Treasury: $ - 29,482 m.
Manpower: 391,213
Army: (3/5) Poor, 1896 technology
20 infantry divisions, 4 cavalry divisions, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (4/5) Failing, 1897 technology
0 battleships, 1 armored cruiser, 0 light cruisers, 5 destroyers [+3 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: Ab_Ovo


Kingdom of Portugal
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Rei Carlos/Presidente José Luciano de Castro
Political stability: 51%
Population: 5.404 m. (10.199 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 7,037 m. ($ 10,243 m. colonial)
Economic status: Semi-industrial, recession, market economy
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average
Receipts: $ 246 m.
Expenditures: $ 375 m.
Balance: $ - 129 m.
Treasury: $ - 1,482 m.
Manpower: 127,348 (159,883 m colonial)
Army: (4/5) Poor, 1896 technology
4 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 2 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (3/5) Poor, 1898 technology
0 battleships, 1 armored cruiser, 3 light cruisers, 1 destroyer [+1 light cruiser in 2 turns, +4 destroyers in 1 turn]
Player: DutchGuy


Empire of the Great Qing
Government: Absolute monarchy
Leader(s): Guangxu Emperor/Dowager Empress Cixi
Political stability: 39%
Population: 415.001 m.
GDP: $ 218,154 m.
Economic status: Agrarian, stagnation, mixed economy
Infrastructure: (4/5) Failing
Receipts: $ 4,363 m.
Expenditures: $ 5,851 m.
Balance: $ - 1,489 m.
Treasury: $ - 4,275 m.
Manpower: 6,783,106
Army: (3/5) Failing, 1894 technology
47 infantry divisions, 12 cavalry divisions, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (4/5) Failing, 1895 technology
0 battleships, 7 armored cruisers, 5 light cruisers, 6 destroyers [+3 destroyers in 1 turn]
Player: Rolman99

Russian Empire
Government: Absolute monarchy
Leader(s): Tsar Nicholas II
Political stability: 57%
Population: 123.546 m.
GDP: $ 154,049 m.
Economic status: Semi-industrial, expansion, market economy
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average
Receipts: $ 12,764 m.
Expenditures: $ 9,058 m.
Balance: $ 3,706 m.
Treasury: $ - 105,396 m.
Manpower: 812,734
Army: (2/5) Average, 1898 technology
56 infantry divisions, 12 cavalry divisions, 1 marine division, 2 mountain divisions
Navy: (3/5) Average, 1899 technology
8 battleships, 3 armored cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 4 destroyers [+3 battleships in 2 turns, +2 battleships in 3 turns, +4 battleship in 4 turns, +2 armored cruisers in 2 turns, +4 light cruisers in 2 turns, +2 light cruisers in 3 turns, +4 destroyers in 1 turn, +9 destroyers in 2 turns, +6 destroyers in 3 turns]
Player: Noco19

Kingdom of Spain
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Rey Alfonso XIII/Ministro de Estado Francisco Silvela
Political stability: 44%
Population: 20.750 m. (0.430 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 33,164 m. ($ 183 m. colonial)
Economic status: Semi-industrial, expansion, market economy
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor
Receipts: $ 985 m.
Expenditures: $ 1,408 m.
Balance: $ - 423 m.
Treasury: $ - 24,879 m.
Manpower: 235,047 (17,841 colonial)
Army: (2/5) Poor, 1896 technology
13 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 0 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (4/5) Poor, 1897 technology
1 battleship, 1 armored cruiser, 4 light cruisers, 12 destroyers [+1 light cruiser in 1 turn]
Player: Olligarchy

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Government: Constitutional monarchy
Leader(s): Queen Victoria/Prime Minister Lord Salisbury
Political stability: 76%
Population: 41.155 m. (383.611 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 184,861 m. ($ 270,031 m. colonial)
Economic status: Industrial, stagnation, market economy
Infrastructure: (1/5) Excellent
Receipts: $ 12,636 m.
Expenditures: $ 13,835 m.
Balance: $ - 1,199 m.
Treasury: $ - 64,458 m.
Manpower: 513,276 (1,006,365 colonial)
Army: (2/5) Good, 1898 technology
47 infantry divisions, 9 cavalry divisions, 2 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (3/5) Excellent, 1900 technology
21 battleships, 13 armored cruisers, 4 light cruisers, 42 destroyers [+3 battleships in 1 turn, +3 battleships in 2 turns, +9 battleships in 3 turns, +1 light cruiser in 1 turn, +5 light cruisers in 2 turns, +8 light cruisers in 3 turns, +6 destroyers in 1 turn, +10 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: Maxwell500

United States of America
Government: Federal constitutional republic
Leader(s): President William McKinley
Political stability: 81%
Population: 75.994 m. (8.982 m. colonial)
GDP: $ 312,499 m. ($ 8,740 m. colonial)
Economic status: Industrial, boom, market economy
Infrastructure: (2/5) Good
Receipts: $ 9,351 m.
Expenditures: $ 8,905 m.
Balance: $ 446 m.
Treasury: $ - 21,875 m.
Manpower: 410,676 (88,931 colonial)
Army: (4/5) Average, 1898 technology
14 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions, 1 marine divisions, 0 mountain divisions
Navy: (2/5) Good, 1899 technology
5 battleships, 2 armored cruisers, 7 light cruisers, 18 destroyers [+4 battleships in 1 turn, +2 battleships in 2 turns, +2 battleships in 3 turns, +1 battleship in 4 turns, +1 light cruiser in 1 turn, +6 destroyers in 2 turns]
Player: etranger01

French Colonies:
French Africa
Population: 27.919 m.
GDP: $ 18,460 m.
French Caribbean
Population: 0.279 m.
GDP: $ 1,674 m.
French Indochina
Population: 22.096 m.
GDP: $ 16.018 m.

German Colonies:

German Asia
Population: 0.513 m.
GDP: $ 285 m.
German Africa
Population: 11.081 m.
GDP: $ 6,210 m.

Japanese Colonies:

Japanese Taiwan
Population: 2.864 m.
GDP: $ 1,623 m.

Italian Colonies:

Italian Africa
Population: 1.247 m.
GDP: $ 2,462 m.

Dutch Colonies:

Dutch East Indies
Population: 42.746 m.
GDP: $ 31,748 m.

Portuguese Colonies:

Portuguese Africa
Population: 9.602 m.
GDP: $ 9,182 m.
Portuguese India and Asia
Population: 0.597 m.
GDP: $ 1,061 m.

Spanish Colonies:

Spanish Africa
Population: 0.430 m.
GDP: $ 183 m.

British Colonies:

British India and Asia
Population: 310.396 m.
GDP: $ 203,692 m.
British Africa
Population: 64.105 m.
GDP: $ 39,015 m.
British Arabia
Population: 3.571 m.
GDP: $ 6,056 m.
British Oceania
Population: 4.548 m.
GDP: $ 18,483 m.
British North America
Population: 0.991 m.
GDP: $ 2,785 m.

American Colonies:

American Cuba
Population: 1.658 m
GDP: $ 4,169 m
American Philippines
Population: 7.324 m
GDP: $ 4,571 m

 
Last edited:

DutchGuy

Swampman
56 Badges
Jan 19, 2013
1.064
65
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • 500k Club
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Europa Universalis IV: Dharma
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cradle of Civilization
  • Mount & Blade: With Fire and Sword
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Surviving Mars
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Digital Anniversary Edition
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mandate of Heaven
  • Crusader Kings III
  • War of the Roses
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Golden Century
  • Imperator: Rome
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rule Britannia

Riccardo93

Field Marshal
84 Badges
Mar 28, 2009
2.704
93
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Rome Gold
  • Sengoku
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Cities in Motion 2
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • Knights of Honor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Third Rome
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
  • Tyranny: Gold Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Field Marshal
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Stellaris
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Crusader Kings III
  • 500k Club
  • War of the Roses




大日本帝国
Dai Nippon Teikoku

富国強兵 - Fukoku kyōhei

君が代– Kimigayo

History of the Empire since 1900
Form of Government : Constitutional Monarchy (Prussian Constitutionalism)
Head of State : His Majesty the Emperor (the Meiji Emperor), reigning since 1867
Capital : Tokyo
Legislature : Imperial Diet (House of Peers and House of Representatives)


Foreign Correspondence and Treaties
Excerpts from the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1900
Regarding the Ottoman Empire and Balkan Stability
On the Reneging of the Treaty of 1900
In Response to Russian Provocations
In Response to the Russians

In Response to the Russians
In Response to the Russians
The Treaty of Inchon, 1900
A Series of Letters
Sympathy for a Departed Prince
On the Recalcitrance of the Korean Empire in Regards to the Treaty of Inchon
Regarding the Boxer Uprising
Awards and Recognition Regarding the Battle of Peking
A Series of Deals
Congratulations to President McKinley
Concluded Deals
In Regards to the Balkan Crisis and Its Resolution
Unofficial Thoughts on the Ottoman Parliamentarianism
Regarding Russian Policies in Korea
On the War in Africa
On the Death of Vladimir Muravyov
Regarding the President's Assassination and British Elections
Regarding the Treaty of Paoting
Further Remarks Regarding the Above
In Response to Russia
A Condemnation of Qing Rhetoric
Regarding the Korean-Belgian Treaty
In Regards to an Arms Agreement Between France and China
In Response to the Belgians
On the Resolution to the Korean-Belgian Treaty Crisis
Responding to Needless Austrian Prattle
A Second Response to Austria-Hungary
Excerpts from the Anglo-Japanese Treaty
On the Above Treaty and German Relations
In Response to the Russian Empire
On the Death of Victoria and the Sino-French Arms Deal
Regarding the Boer War, the Attempt on Wilhelm II's life, and on the Success of Yuan Shikai
Declaration of War Upon the Russian Empire
In Response to the Americans and Russians
In Response to Portuguese Paranoia
In Response to Spanish Sensibility
In Response to Russian Madness
In Response to More Russian Lies
In Response to American Aggression and Russian Slander
More Replies


Internal Affairs
Regarding Contracting and Agreements in the Interest of Fulfilling the Japan Korea Treaty of 1900

Collapse of the Yamagata Government and Other Matters
Expansion of the Imperial Shipyards and the Transfer of Several Officers
A Letter to General Arisaka
Announcing the Death of Kuroda Kiyotaka
Review of Meiji 33 (1900)
An Imperial Heir Is Born
War Games, the Combined Fleet, and a Letter
Watanabe's Austerity Measures
On Potential Elections in 1902
Review of Meiji 34 (1901)
The announcement of Elections and Electoral Reform
More Internal Issues


Miscellanea
A Brief History of the Empire of Greater Japan Since the Conclusion of the Boshin War, etc.
A Concise Biography of His Majesty the Emperor
The Formation of Rikken Seiyūkai and a Brief Sketch of the Parliamentary Parties, 1900
On the Genrō
Japanese Folklore and Legends, Vol. 1
Education in Japan
The Envoy to the United States Explaining the Causes of the War with Russia
More Fluff


 
Last edited:

Riccardo93

Field Marshal
84 Badges
Mar 28, 2009
2.704
93
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Magicka
  • Majesty 2 Collection
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Rome Gold
  • Sengoku
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Cities in Motion 2
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • Knights of Honor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Third Rome
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
  • Tyranny: Gold Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Field Marshal
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Stellaris
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Crusader Kings III
  • 500k Club
  • War of the Roses

大日本帝国
Dai Nippon Teikoku

富国強兵 - Fukoku kyōhei
君が代– Kimigayo

A Brief History of the Greater Japanese Empire since the Conclusion of the Boshin War

The Empire of Japan has, since setting off on its directed course of westernisation and modernisation at the dawn of the seventh decade of the last century, become the preeminent power of Asia, and one of the rising powers in the world.


Saigo Takamori leading the Imperial Forces at Shiroayam during the Boshin War

Following the end of the Boshin War in 1869, wherein the supporters of the Imperial Restoration bested the adherents of the old Tokugawa Bakufu, Japan entered a period of rapid modernisation and centralisation under the Meiji Emperor; the political and military power of the old feudal lords was gradually broken, and the old domain system replaced by modern prefectures with local, elected, representatives advising a strong central government based in Tokyo.

The Imperial Diet, or Teikoku-gikai, first met nearly a decade ago on 29 November 1890, slightly over a year after the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution. Like many parliaments, it is bicameral, with the House of Representatives and House of Peers acting in much a similar fashion to the British House of Commons and House of Lords, respectively (though perhaps a more accurate comparison would be to the German Bundesrat and Reichstag, upon which much of the Japanese Diet is based upon). The House of Representatives is composed of three-hundred members elected from the forty-seven prefectures of the Empire – though as of this year, there is debate over whether or not to reform the electoral process, with a potential to expand the number of seats in the lower house to 376. As of the 1898 elections, Kensei Hontō is the leading party in the diet, with 124 seats, followed closely by Kenseitō with 120. Kokumin Kyōkai was 21 seats (having lost eight), whilst the Hiyoshi Kyōkai has nine seats. There are also 26 independents. The electorate of the Japanese Empire is quite small, perhaps only one percent of the populace in total can vote as of 1900, though presently efforts to expand it have been made; whether or not these will come to fruition over the next few years remains to be seen.


The Imperial Diet

His Excellency the Prime Minister, Marshall Marquis Yamagata Aritomo, himself an independent, has held the office since elections – his second tenure as Prime Minister (the first being the end of 1889 to the middle of 1891). The Marquis served with distinction during the Boshin War, as well as the Satsuma Rebellion, and was commander-in-chief of the Army during the Sino-Japanese War, for which he received his present rank (during the war, he also served as War Minister); he also received the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Blossoms, as well made a member of the Order of the Golden Kite, Second Class. Yamagata was also the one who prompted His Majesty the Emperor to pen the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, which has served as the moral compass and code for the Imperial Army and Navy since its introduction. Lastly, he is considered one of the Genrō, the seven most influential statesmen of the Empire, all members of the now-defunct Sangi, or Imperial Council, and all hailing from the similarly defunct Satsuma or Chōshū Domains; the other six are Marquis Itō Hirobumi (himself a former, and first, Prime Minister, and former President of the Privy Council), Count Kuroda Kiyotaka (the second Prime Minister and present President of the Privy Council), Marquis Ōyama Iwao (the former War Minister), Count Inoue Kaoru (ambassador and former minister, notably Foreign Minister), Marquis Saigō Jūdō (the incumbent, and long serving, Navy Minister), and Count Matsukata Masayoshi (twice Prime Minister).


Marquis Yamagata Aritomo, Prime Minister of the Empire of Japan

The Privy Council of the Empire of Japan – or Sūmitsu-in – is, theoretically at least, the single most powerful governmental organ, with both certain executive and judicial (though no legislative) functions. Modelled off the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, it also has the power to, amongst other: propose amendments to the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, propose amendments to the 1889 Imperial Household Law, discuss matters of constitutional interpretation, proposed laws, and ordinances, issue proclamations of martial law or declaration of war, determine treaties and other international agreements, decide on matters concerning the succession to the throne, issue declarations of a regency under the Imperial Household Law, and discuss all matters submitted by the emperor, generally on the advice of the cabinet. It is presently headed, as mentioned previously, Count Kuroda Kiyotaka.


The Privy Council

Industrially, the Land of the Rising Sun boasts a burgeoning manufacturing sector, exemplified and typified in its large conglomerations of business groups that span multiple industries known as zaibatsu (though the term itself isn’t commonly used). Chief among these would be Mitsui, known for its involvement in banking, finance, and recently chemicals; Mitsubishi, another, which like the former is also heavily invested in banking and finance, but also has extended its grasp into shipbuilding, mining, warehousing, trade, and industry (particularly glass, paper, and steel). The remaining zaibatsu of the so-called “Big Four” would be the Sumitomo and Yasuda groups, the former being the oldest and involved in mining and machinery, the latter the newest and one of the largest banking firms in all of Japan, with strong ties to the insurance market. Other, lesser zaibatsu include Asano (which dominates cement), Fujita (industry and construction), Furukawa (copper and wiring), Okura (construction and engineering), and Shibusawa (banking).


The Imperial Capital, Tokyo

However, whilst these groups form the backbone of the Japanese industrial base, the vast majority of her workforce is still in agriculture. Rice paddies dominate most of the arable land of the Japanese islands, and have since their introduction during the Yayoi period nearly two-thousand years ago. The highly acidic soil of Japan, due to its many volcanoes, make rice paddies the most productive method of farming. Nevertheless, the Japanese diet is further supplemented, domestically, by wheat, barley, sweet potatoes, and various vegetables, all typically grown using the terrace method to compensate for Japan’s mountainous terrain. The fishing industry, too, is one where Japan’s position, like that of the British, comes to the fore. The island nation has a burgeoning fishing industry, amongst the most robust and expansive in the world, with thousands of fishing ports dotting the shoreline from Abashiri in Hokkaidō to Nagasaki in Kyūshū.


Japanese rice paddies

Prior to the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution in 1889, the de facto Imperial Constitution was the Charter Oath of the Empire, or Gokajō no Goseimon (more literally, the Oath in Five Articles). Proclaimed shortly before the enthronement of the Emperor, 7 April 1868, the Charter outlined the overarching goals of Japan’s modernisation, as well as the general course of action to be followed. It also coincided, and worked in conjunction, with efforts to set up a process of urbanization as people of all classes were free to move jobs so people went to the city for better work. Even after being superseded by the official constitution, it remains an influential document, if less for governing than inspiring.

Charter Oath of the Empire

By this oath, we set up as our aim the establishment of the national wealth on a broad basis and the framing of a constitution and laws.
Deliberative assemblies shall be widely established and all matters decided by open discussion.
All classes, high and low, shall be united in vigorously carrying out the administration of affairs of state.
The common people, no less than the civil and military officials, shall all be allowed to pursue their own calling so that there may be no discontent.
Evil customs of the past shall be broken off and everything based upon the just laws of Nature.
Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundation of imperial rule.

Society of the Japanese Empire Since the Boshin War
さくら– Sakura

Japanese society is, by and large, conservative in nature, with deep seated sense of reverence for the old ways, in particular towards the Emperor and the Imperial Family. Even amongst the more liberal and educated elite, despite adopting some more Western sensibilities – many of the most affluent in Japan have European-style pavilions or reception rooms called yōkan or yōma (which are often featured in magazines) – there is still a sense, perhaps a conflicted one, of being Japanese, or more specifically a sense of wonder over Japan’s place in the world. Such feelings were partially the inspiration for “Leaving Asia,” an essay written in 1885, most likely by author and educator, as well as founder of Keiō University, Fukuzawa Yukichi, who is best known, amongst other reasons, for his staunchly pro-Western values and ideals. Other leading thinkers in Japan are certainly more moderate in their views, and, as the case has been thus far, their perspective of blending what is Western and what is Japanese has been the prevailing methodology of the Empire.

Notably, during the transition from the Edo period, that is the fall of the Bakufu, to the Imperial Restoration, a series of festivals, called Ee ja nai ka, took place. The term Ee ja nai ka itself is fatalistic, perhaps reflective of the national mood at the time – violence and disorder for the first time in centuries had of course disrupted Japan and affected the national spirit – and can be translated, with varying degrees of poetic fluff into “Who cares?”, "Why not?", or "What the hell?", along the lines of "'Who cares if we take our clothes off?" "Who cares if we have sex?"


Ee ja nai ka

A complex of carnivalesque religious celebrations and communal activities, often coinciding with social and political protests, occurred for nearly a year until May 1868. These carnivals first emerged in western Japan, in the form of dancing festivals, often related to public works, rain magic, or dances for the dead. Gifts were exchanged, youth groups organized mass dancing including cross-dressing, wearing costumes, or not wearing clothes at all. Pilgrimages to local or regional shrines and sanctuaries customarily followed, largely to give thanks to the gods or buddhas who were said to give sacred amulets during such events. The more specific reasons behind these events are more vague, though they are often understood "as a form of political protest when other ways were blocked," in reaction to the crumbling Tokugawa Shogunate, and often fuelled at disappointment regarding the lack of governing political leadership and disgust at Western and Christian foreigners, amongst other reasons. Before finally dissipating with the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, these events began to descend into mob violence.


Ee ja nai ka

The Japanese largely follow their native religion, Shinto (also known as kami-no-michi), though various other religions are practised to lesser degrees (most notably the Roman Catholicism as practised by the kakure kirishitans, or “hidden Christians,” who continued to follow the Church in Rome even after Christianity’s ban during the Bakufu). Shinto is itself a rather vague and vacuous idea, and is quite dissimilar from Buddhism, Christianity, and other organised religions, and often varies from region to region, even village to village, throughout Japan. The most commonly practised form of the religion known as Shrine Shinto (Jinja-Shintō) , which consists of taking part in worship practises and events at local shrines; prior to the Meiji Restoration, the shrines were disorganised institutions that were typically attached to nearby Buddhist temples, though since the Restoration, they have become independent, systematised institutions in and of themselves. The Imperial Family itself has its own particular brand of worship, known quite plainly as Imperial Household Shinto (or Kōshitsu-Shintō) performed by members of the Imperial Family at the Three Palace Sanctuaries.

Another commonly practised form of the religion, Folk Shinto (or Minzoku-Shintō), is also quite common, particularly in the more rural areas of Japan, and includes the numerous but fragmented folk beliefs in deities and spirits. Its practises include divination, spirit possession, and shamanic healing, some of which come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism; most come from ancient local traditions, however. Yet another variety, known as Sect Shinto (Kyōha-Shintō) is more of a legal designation originally created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities. Though the formal distinction is less than a decade old, these communities originated especially in the Edo period. The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a later development and grew self-consciously. They can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and even sacred scriptures, and thus are far more structured and organised than the traditional and more commonly followed forms. There are, of course, many other sects and styles, traditions and conventions, and the like, along with many other schools of thought, some tied to variant strands of Buddhism, others practised by certain families, and some, like Shugendō, are based around key ideas, in this particular case, asceticism.


The torii (literally, bird abode), which symbolically marks the transition from the profane to the sacred

Aspects common to most forms of Shinto include:

The concept of kami or shin, defined in English as “god” or “spirit,” or even “spiritual essence.” Trees, rivers, animals, places, and even people can be said to possess the nature of kami, which are believed to exist with people in the same world and share its interrelated complexity. This notion made early anthropologists consider Shinto animistic, though such an interpretation has been considered inaccurate. Kami can also be understood as any natural phenomena that inspire a sense of wonder and awe in the beholder (the sacred), testifying to the divinity of such a phenomenon. As such, qualities of growth, fertility, and production can all be considered kami, as can natural phenomena like wind and thunder. Natural objects like the sun, mountains, rivers, trees, and rocks, as well as some animals, can be regarded as kami. Ancestral spirits are kami, and included within the broader designation of ancestral spirits are spirits of the ancestors of the Imperial House of Japan, but also ancestors of noble families as well as the spirits of the ancestors of all people, which when they died were believed to be the guardians of their descendants.

The kami reside in all things, but certain objects and places are designated for the interface of people and kami: yorishiro (simply put, an object capable of attracting kami, which can range from a number of things: mirrors, swords, large rocks, and sacred trees being amongst the most common), shintai (physical objects worshipped at or near Shinto shrines as repositories in which kami reside, Mount Fuji being the most obvious example), shrines, and kamidana (household altars). There are natural places considered to have an unusually sacred spirit about them, and are objects of worship.


The most famous Shintai, Mount Fuji

Another near universal concept of Shinto is kannagara, which means “path of the kami” or “kami just as they are,” and refers to the law of the natural order. It is the philosophical basis from which the ethical dimensions of Shinto derive, with a focuson sincerity, honesty, and purity. Much like many western philosophies, however, there is no singular school of thought, and various sects will have differing thoughts on other aspects of kannagara.

A third aspect common to most Shinto is Amenominakanushi (All-Father of the Originating Hub) which is, according to the Kojiki (the oldest known chronicle of Japan, dating back to the early eighth century, and includes a vast collection of myths from across the archipelago, specifically to the origins of Japan itself and of the kami), the first kami, and the source of the universe in Shinto. In mythology he is described as a “god who came into being alone” (hitorigami), the first of the zōka sanshin (three kami of creation), and one of the five kotoamatsukami (distinguished heavenly gods). Originally thought to have been a concept developed under the influence of Chinese philosophy, most modern scholars now believe otherwise. The early-nineteenth century theologian Hirata Atsutane identified Amenominakanushi as the spirit of the North Star, master of the seven stars of the Big Dipper. Since the beginning of the Meiji era, the kami has received greater emphasis, and is worshiped by some Shinto sects. Amenominakanushi further manifests in a duality, a male and a female function, respectively Takamimusubi and Kamimusubi. In other mythical accounts the originating kami is called Umashiashikabihikoji (God of the Ashi, or Reed) or Kuninotokotachi (God-Founder of the Nation), the latter used in the Nihon Shoki, itself the second oldest chronicle of Japan, and only slightly younger than the Kojiki.

A final aspect shared by most all sects and schools of Shinto would be the founding of Japan itself, which was the action of two gods: Izanagi (He-who-invites) and Izanami (She-who-is-invited). The interaction of these two principles begets the islands of Japan and a further group of kami, and is described in the Kojiki:

After the formation of the universe (by Amenominakanushi), the Heaven was above and Earth was still a drifting soft mush. The first five gods named Kotoamatsukami (Separate Heavenly Deities) were lone deities without gender and did not procreate. Then came the Kamiyonanayo (The Seven Divine Generations), consisting of two lone deities followed by five couples. The last couple, Izanagi and Izanami, were given a precious stone-covered spear named Ame-no-nuboko (heavenly jewelled spear) and told to to reach down from heaven and give solid form to the earth. Standing over the Ame-no-ukihashi (floating bridge of heaven), they churned the chaotic mass with the spear. When drops of salty water fell from the tip, they formed into the first island, Onogoroshima. In forming this island, both gods came down from heaven, and spontaneously built a central support column called the Ame-no-mihashira (heavenly pillar) which upheld the "hall measuring eight fathoms" that the gods caused to appear afterwards.


Izanami and Izanagi

They then initiated conversation inquiring of each other's bodily anatomy, leading to a mutual decision to mate and procreate:

Izanagi: How has your body been made?
Izanami: My body is fully formed, except for a part which has not quite grown.
Izanagi: My body is fully formed, except I have a part that has grown too much. If I place the part of my body that has grown too much, and plug the part of your body not yet grown, we will procreate lands and dominions. What say you to this?

Izanami accepted the offer and Izanagi proposed that both should circle around the column Ame-no-mihashira in opposite directions, Izanami going right and Izanagi left and on meeting each other would perform sexual intercourse (maguwai). However, when they met on the other side of the pillar, Izanami was the first to speak, saying “Oh, indeed you are beautiful and kind youth!” to which Izanagi replied “Oh, what a most beautiful and kind youth!” Izanagi then rebukes Izanami saying “It is wrong for the wife to speak first.”

However they mated anyway and later fathered a child Hiruko (leech child), who was placed in a reed boat dragged by the current. Afterwards they gave birth to Awashima (island of foam). Neither Hiruko nor Awashima were considered legitimate children of Izanagi and Izanami.

Izanagi and Izanami decided to ascend to heaven and consult the primordial gods at Takamagahara about the ill-formed children that resulted from their union. The gods through divination determined that the woman speaking first during the ceremony was the cause. So the couple returned to Onogoroshima iand repeated the ritual encircling column, only making sure the male-god was the first to speak out greeting. When finished they performed the union successfully and lands began to be born.

According to the legend, the formation of Japan started with the procreation of eight large islands by Izanagi and Izanami. In order of birth these islands are the following: Awaji-no-ho-no-sawake-no-shima (Awaji Island); followed by Iyo-no-futana-no-shima (Shikoku), which had four faces (Ehime (Iyo Province), Ihiyorihiko (Sanuki Province), Ohogetsuhime (Awa Province), and Takeyoriwake (Tosa Province); then came Oki-no-mitsugo-no-shima (Oki Islands); afterwards Tsukushi-no-shima (Kyūshū), which also had four faces (Shirahiwake (Tsukushi Province), Toyohiwake (Toyo Province), Takehimukahitoyojihinewake (Hi Province), and Takehiwake (Kumaso); then came Ikishima, followed by Tsushima and then Sadoshima. Lastly, came Ohoyamatotoyoakitsu-shima (Honshu).


Izanami and Izanagi

Traditionally these islands are known as Ōyashima (eight large islands) and as a whole are what is currently known as Japan. In the myth neither Hokkaidō nor the Ryukyu Islands are mentioned as these were not known to the Japanese at the time of compiling the Kojiki.

Additionally, Izanagi and Izanami then gave birth to six islands: Kibi-no-kojima (Kojima Peninsula), Azuki-jima (Shōdoshima), Oho-shima (Suō-ōshima), Himeshima, Chika-no-shima (Gotō Islands), and Futago-no-shima (Danjo Archipelago).

After the islands, they gave birth to the other Kami. Izanami-no-Mikoto died in childbirth, however, and Izanagi-no-Mikoto tried to revive her. In the myth, the birth of the god of fire (Kagu-Tsuchi) causes the death of Izanami, who descends into Yomi-no-kuni, the netherworld. Izanagi chases her there, but runs away when he finds the dead figure of his spouse. As he returns to the land of the living, Amaterasu (the sun goddess and ancestor of the Imperial Family) is born from his left eye, Tsukiyomi (the moon deity) from his right eye, and Susanoo (the storm deity) is born from Izanagi's nose.


Amaterasu

The Rikugun and Kaigun
雪の進軍 - Yuki no Shingun


Militarily, the Empire of Japan boasts the most modern and powerful force in the Orient, something thoroughly asserted during the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5, during which Korean independence was assured by the Japanese and the Beiyang Army and Navy, the two most modern forces of the Qing Empire, were roundly beaten. Such crushing victories were made possible by a concerted effort by the Japanese to adopt western military policies – particularly learning from the Germans in most matters related to ground warfare, and a (temporary) adoption of the French Jeune École in naval matters (this was later superseded by the thoughts of Alfred Thayer Mahan, particularly his thoughts on “Sea Power” and “Decisive Battle,” both of which necessitate battle fleets composed of larger warships).


The Imperial Army

The Imperial has recently adopted (only shortly after the Sino-Japanese War), a new rifle, the native-made Arisaka, replacing the older Murata rifles.


The Arisaka Type 30, adopted in 30 Meiji (1897)

Presently, the Imperial Navy has two battleship at the ready, the Fuji and the Yashima, with several ships undergoing repairs and retrofitting (namely, the Chin’en, seized following the Sino-Japanese war, the Shikishima and the Hatsuse – the former nearing completion and the latter expected to be ready by next year – the Asahi, completed but waiting to be formally commissioned, and the Mikasa, expected to become the pride of the fleet for several years to come, is similarly slated to launch this year.


Mikasa

The fleet has also recently acquired two armoured cruisers, the Asama and Tokiwa, with four more (the Izumo and Iwate, the Yakumo, and the Azuma) expected to launch over the next two years. Included in this group is the increasingly elderly ironclad Fusō. The fleet also boasts a large number of protected cruisers, such as the Saien (yet another prize ship from the Sino-Japanese War), the Izumi, the Naniwa and Takachiho, the Unebi, the Yaeyama, the Chiyoda, the Chishima, the Matsushima, Itsukushima, and Hashidate, the Akitsushima, the Yoshino, the Suma and Akashi, the Takasago, and the Kasagi and Chitose. As per the provisions of the 1897 budget, three more protected cruisers are planned, though as of yet, they remain just that – planned.


Azuma

The Imperial Navy also has several unprotected cruisers, notably the Tsukushi, the Takao, the Yaeyama, the Tatsuta, and the Miyako, with the Chihaya launching later this year, as well.



Miyako

Within the Imperial Navy are also several destroyers and torpedo boats, including the six Ikazuchi-class vessels (the Ikazuchi, Inazuma, Niji, Akebono, Oboro, and the Sazanami), five Murakumo-class ships, with a sixth to launch this year (the Murakumo, Shinonome, Yūgiri, Shiranui, Kagerō, and the upcoming Usugumo). There are also two Akatsuki-class destroyers set to begin construction at the end of the year and the start of 1901, as per the provisions of the 1897 budget (these ships being the Akatsuki and the Kasumi). There are also an older torpedo boat in the navy, the Kotaka.



Kasumi

Lastly, of the notable warships, there are several gunboats presently in service; the Banjō, the four Maya-class ships (the Maya, Chōkai, Atago, and the Akagi), the Ōshima, and the Heien, another prize ship from the Chinese.


Heien

The Imperial Army can levy a force of nearly 400,000 men presently, and is commanded on behalf of the Emperor by Marshall Marquis Ōyama Iwao, who was Commander-in-Chief of the Second Army during the Sino-Japanese War, in which he captured Port Arthur and the fortress of Weihaiwei. He was also the man who selected the verses for the national anthem of the Empire, Kimigayo.


Marshall Ōyama

On 4 January 1882, the Meiji Emperor issued the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, the most important document in the development of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy. All military personnel are required to memorize the 2700 kanji document, which serves as the official code of ethics for military personnel.

It was primarily written by Inoue Kowashi and Yamagata Aritomo, with some stylistic flourishes added by journalist Fukuchi Gen'ichiro, and was presented to Army Minister Yamagata Aritomo directly by Emperor Meiji in person in a special ceremony held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace. This unprecedented action was meant to symbolize the personal bond between the Emperor and the military, making the military in effect, the Emperor's personal army. Coming shortly after the Satsuma Rebellion, the Rescript stressed absolute personal loyalty of each individual member of the military to the Emperor. The Rescript also cautioned military personnel to avoid involvement with political parties or politics in general, and to avoid being influenced by current opinions in the newspapers, reflecting Yamagata's distrust of politicians in particular and democracy in general. The Rescript also advises military personnel to be frugal in their personal habits (reflecting back to the samurai tradition), and respectful and benevolent to civilians (reflecting on European traditions of chivalry).

The Rescript also contains a number of Confucian themes including "proper respect to superiors," and also draws upon Buddhist influences in that, "The soldier and the sailor should make simplicity their aim." A famous precept in the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors states that "duty is heavier than a mountain; death is lighter than a feather."

Excerpts from the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors
Duty is weightier than a mountain, while death is lighter than a feather

…Soldiers and Sailors, We are your supreme Commander-in-Chief. Our relations with your will be most intimate when We rely upon you as Our limbs and you look up to Us as your head. Whether We are able to guard the Empire, and so prove Ourself worthy of Heaven’s blessings and repay the benevolence of Our Ancestors, depends upon the faithful discharge of your duties as soldiers and sailors. If the majesty and power of Our Empire be impaired, do you share with Us the sorrow; if the glory of Our arms shine resplendent, We will share with you the honour. If you all do your duty, and being one with Us in spirit do your utmost for the protection of the state, Our people will long enjoy the blessings of peace, and the might and dignity of Our Empire will shine in the world. As We thus expect much of you, Soldiers and Sailors, We give you the following precepts:

I. The soldier and sailor should consider loyalty their essential duty. Who that is born in this land can be wanting in the spirit of grateful service to it? No soldier or sailor, especially, can be considered efficient unless this spirit be strong within him. A soldier or a sailor in whom this spirit is not strong, however skilled in art or proficient in science, is a mere puppet; and a body of soldiers or sailors wanting in loyalty, however well-ordered and disciplined it may be, is in an emergency no better than a rabble. Remember that, as the protection of the state and the maintenance of its power depend upon the strength of its arms, the growth or decline of this strength must affect the nation’s destiny for good or for evil; therefore neither be led astray by current opinions nor meddle in politics, but with single heart fulfil your essential duty of loyalty, and bear in mind that duty is weightier than a mountain, while death is lighter than a feather. Never by failing in moral principle fall into disgrace and bring dishonour upon your name.

The second article concerns the respect due to superiors and considerations to be shown inferiors.

3. The soldier and the sailor should esteem valour …. To be incited by mere impetuosity to violent action cannot be called true valour. The soldier and the sailor should have sound discrimination of right and wrong, cultivate self-possession, and form their plans with deliberation. Never to despise an inferior enemy or fear a superior, but to do one’s duty as soldier or sailor – this is true valour. Those who thus appreciate true valour should in their daily intercourse set gentleness first and aim to win the love and esteem of others. If you affect valour and act with violence, the world will in the end detest you and look upon you as wild beasts. Of this you should take heed.

4. The soldier and the sailor should highly value faithfulness and righteousness.… Faithfulness implies the keeping of one’s word, and righteousness the fulfilment of one’s duty. If then you wish to be faithful and righteous in anything, you must carefully consider at the outset whether you can accomplish it or not. If you thoughtlessly agree to do something that is vague in its nature and bind yourself to unwise obligations, and then try to prove yourself faithful and righteous, you may find yourself in great straits from which there is no escape….Ever since ancient times there have been repeated instances of great men and heroes who, overwhelmed by misfortune, have perished and left a tarnished name to posterity, simply because in their effort to be faithful in small matters they failed to discern right and wrong with reference to fundamental principles, or because, losing sight of the true path of public duty, they kept faith in private relations. You should, then, take serious warning by these examples.

5. The soldier and sailor should make simplicity their aim. If you do not make simplicity your aim, you will become effeminate and frivolous and acquire fondness for luxurious and extravagant ways; you will finally grow selfish and sordid and sink to the last degree of baseness, so that neither loyalty nor valour will avail to save you from the contempt of the world.

These five articles should not be disregarded even for a moment by soldiers and sailors. Now for putting them into practice, the all important thing is sincerity. These five articles are the soul of Our soldiers and sailors, and sincerity is the soul of these articles. If the heart be not sincere, words and deeds, however good, are all mere outward show and can avail nothing. If only the heart be sincere, anything can be accomplished. Moreover these five articles are the “Grand Way” of Heaven and earth and the universal law of humanity, easy to observe and to practice. If you, Soldiers and Sailors, in obedience to Our instruction, will observe and practice these principles and fulfil your duty of grateful service to the country, it will be a source of joy, not to Ourself alone, but to all the people of Japan.


 
Last edited:

Mikkel Glahder

Robespierre Reborn
47 Badges
Jun 27, 2012
1.204
45
  • Cities in Motion
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • March of the Eagles
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris Sign-up
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Shadowrun Returns
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • 500k Club
  • Warlock 2: The Exiled
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
Last edited:

etranger01

Sphinx of the Tuileries
85 Badges
Aug 18, 2010
1.125
86
  • 500k Club
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Crusader Kings III
  • Crusader Kings III: Royal Edition
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel
  • Imperator: Rome Deluxe Edition
  • March of the Eagles
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Surviving Mars: Digital Deluxe Edition
  • Tyranny: Gold Edition
  • Victoria 2

The United States of America
Hail, Columbia
Form of Government: Federal constitutional republic
Head of State: Theodore Roosevelt
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Legislature: United States Congress (Senate and House of Representatives)

History of the United States since 1900
 
Last edited:

Mikkel Glahder

Robespierre Reborn
47 Badges
Jun 27, 2012
1.204
45
  • Cities in Motion
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • March of the Eagles
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris Sign-up
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Shadowrun Returns
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • 500k Club
  • Warlock 2: The Exiled
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete

Brief history of the Kingdom of Greece from 1821 - 1900


Bishop Germanos blessing the Greek revolutionary flag

The origin of modern Greece began when Greeks in Peloponnese openly revolted against Ottoman rule and soon after, revolts in Crete, Macedonia and Central Greece (even though they were quickly supressed). The makeshift navy that the revolters had put together proved immediately useful as it prevented Ottoman supply from arriving by sea. Even though the revolt was supressed by the Egyptian general Ibrahim Pasha in 1826. Even though the Greeks had lost, the Great Powers of Europe decided to make an autonomous Greek state, named the Hellenic Republic in 1829 and became fully independt in 1830. Two year after however, Ioannis Kapodistrias, the govenor of Greece was assasinated and plunged the republic into civil turmoil. This was ended in 1832 when Greece was declared a kingdom by Russia, Great Britain and France.


King Otto, the first King of the Hellenes

During the first years of his reign, Greece was ruled by regents who quickly made themselves very unpopular by trying to impose German ideas of rigid hierarchical government on the Greeks, while keeping most significant state offices away from them. Even though unpopular they managed to lay the foundation of the Greek administration, army, judicial system and education system. After the Bavarian regents left in 1837 Otto began appointing Greek ministers even though Bavarian officials ran most of the administration and army. Greece still had no legislature or constitution and discontent grew until revolt broke out in 1843 where the king agreed to a constitution, with a bicamerial legislature. Otto reign would come to an end after 30 years when he sacked the prime minister. This would trigger a military revolt and King Otto fled out of the country.


King George, the Second king of the Hellenes

King George was a Danish prince who was "elected" by an assembly and by choosing a pro-British king the British granted Greece the Ionian islands. Also at the urging of Britain, Greece adopted a more democratic constitution which limited the king's power and gave all Greek men the vote. Nevertheless, Greek politics were and still are heavily dominated by politcal dynasties who often held the office of prime minister.
Throughout the 19th century, Greece was a very poor country with a lack of infrastructure, raw resources and capital and by the 1890s Greece was virtually bankrupt and in 1893 they declared public insolvency and had to accept the imposition of an International Financial Control authority to pay off the country's debtors.
Even though the upper class saw the language the lower classes spoke, called Demotic, as a peasant language and were determined to revive ancient Greek language. Thus were many government documents and newspapers published in a purified form of Greek called Katharevousa. All Greeks were united in the thought of liberating all Greeks from the hands of the Ottoman Empire. After the Berlin conference, Greece recieved Thessaly and small parts of Epirus in 1881.


The battle of Velestino

The Greeks in Crete staged regular revolts and in 1897 the liberal government bowed to popular demand and declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The ensuring Greco-Turkish of 1897 would put the Greek army to a test and was the first armed conflict that Greece fought in after gaining their independence. Greece, unsuprisingly, lost but were only forced to cede minor border territories and pay heavy war reparations. Crete was also made into an autonomous state under Prince George of Greece and Denmark.
 

Gorganslayer

Second Lieutenant
59 Badges
Sep 29, 2014
131
86
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Stellaris
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Steel Division: Normandy 44
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • Cities: Skylines - Mass Transit
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mandate of Heaven
  • Prison Architect
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Europa Universalis IV: Dharma
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Cities: Skylines - Green Cities
  • Stellaris: Distant Stars
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Stellaris: Humanoids Species Pack
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rule Britannia
  • Steel Division: Normandy 44 -  Back to Hell
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Stellaris: Lithoids
  • Victoria 2
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Europa Universalis IV: Golden Century
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Stellaris: Ancient Relics
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Stellaris Sign-up
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Stellaris: Digital Anniversary Edition
  • Cities: Skylines - Natural Disasters
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
République française
"Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
Form of Government: Parliamentary Republic
President of the Republic: Émile Loubet
President of the Council of Ministers: Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau
Capital: Paris
Legislative: Parliament

Foreign Correspondence:

Internal Affairs:

Misc:

 

Dadarian

King of Queen's
73 Badges
Mar 4, 2011
5.021
349
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Rome Gold
  • Penumbra - Black Plague
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Age of Wonders III
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris Sign-up
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Shadowrun: Dragonfall
  • Cities: Skylines - Mass Transit
  • Europa Universalis IV: Third Rome
  • BATTLETECH
  • Surviving Mars
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Stellaris: Synthetic Dawn
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Imperator: Rome
  • Imperator: Rome - Magna Graecia
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Stellaris: Distant Stars
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • BATTLETECH: Flashpoint
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rule Britannia
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • Shadowrun: Hong Kong
  • War of the Roses
  • 500k Club
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass

The Attempts of a Century.
The History of Austria-Hungary in the Twentieth Century.
By: Samuel Elternteil
Chapter 1:
 

Rolman99

Private
48 Badges
Feb 13, 2016
18
4
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Pride of Nations
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings III
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Tyranny: Archon Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Crusader Kings Complete
  • Stellaris: Synthetic Dawn
  • Age of Wonders III
  • Crusader Kings II: Jade Dragon
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • Prison Architect
  • Stellaris Sign-up
  • Stellaris
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Magicka: Wizard Wars Founder Wizard
  • War of the Roses
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle

大清帝國
Dà Qīng Dìguó
The Empire of the Great Qing


Shortened: The Qing Empire, the Qing Dynasty, or China

Form of Government: Absolute Monarchy

Head of State: Guangxu Emperor

Anthem: None

Capital: Peking


The Century of Humiliation
China is no stranger to both growth and decline. A cycle of the two saw the rise and fall of a little over a dozen imperial dynasties, who were strong at their start before descending into ruin. This pattern has remained unchanged for around 3,000 years, and the Qing Dynasty is no exception. Since their rule began 256 years ago under the ethnically Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, China has seen many highs and lows under their reign. Arguably the most troubled time of Qing rule, and perhaps one of China’s most darkest hours, is the ongoing string of defeats that future Chinese would christen as “The Century of Humiliation.”


The Century of Humiliation began in the 1830’s. An epidemic of opium abuse was ravaging the nation, which was largely brought about by trade with the United Kingdom. The Qing government, dismayed by the thousands of addicts roaming the country, began to deal harsh punishments -- usually death -- upon traffickers of opium. In 1839, the bureaucrat Lin Zexu was tasked by the Daoguang Emperor to put an end to the opium epidemic at all costs. Zexu began destroying confiscated opium in large quantities, as well as blocking off the port of Canton to trade.

This saw escalating tensions between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire, which resulted in the British merchant Charles Elliot, who was working closely with the crown, order a blockade of Canton by the Royal Navy. On November 2, 1839 the first shots of the First Opium War were fired between British and Qing naval ships outside of Canton. Over the next three years, the Qing were handily defeated on both land and sea which resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.


The Treaty of Nanking was the first of a few dozen treaties signed between the Qing, Japan, and various western powers. These treaties were later referred to by the Chinese as the “Unequal Treaties” due to their terms that were favorable to the west and Japan and damaging to the Qing.

The 14-year long Taiping Rebellion, in which a Christian sect attempted to gain control of China in a bloody war which killed millions of soldiers and civilians, further devastating the country which had been riddled with opium abuse, banditry, and crippling corruption. With the Qing particularly weak, this gave the British the opportunity to attempt to dictate further demands to the Qing Empire.

After a misunderstanding between Chinese marines and British merchants grew violent, the British Navy took military action against the Qing. This Second Opium War saw the British and French battle the Chinese in two separate campaigns, one in 1856-1858 which saw another unequal treaty signed, and the other campaign continuing in 1858 after a brief interlude. By 1860, Franco-British forces had soundly defeated the Qing, forcing more unequal treaties upon them.

In 1883, a confrontation between France and China over France’s expansion in Indochina, especially spurred on by China’s support of forces opposing the French, boiled over into the Sino-French War in 1884. Between 1884 and 1885, Vietnamese and Chinese forces battled the French in Vietnam and Southern China, along with sea battles and raids up the Chinese coast and in Formosa. The war was brought to a close by the unequal Treaty of Tientsin, which saw the end of Chinese influence in Indochina, adding another Chinese failure to the increasingly long list of defeats that the Qing had suffered at the hands of western nations.

The Qing’s most recent, and perhaps most painful defeat thus far of the Century of Humiliation, was the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95. Japan, culturally influenced by China and once frequently considered to be within the sphere of the various Chinese dynasties modernized shockingly fast in the second half of the 19th century, quickly outpacing the Chinese and becoming equal in military and industrial strength to Europe and the United States. The Qing had been modernizing as well, but progress was slow and constantly hindered by conservatives, and Qing military units equipped with modern weapons were still considered mediocre when compared to the armies of the Great Powers. But when the Japanese declared war in August 1894, most analysts predicted the Qing’s powerful European-built fleet and large, overwhelmingly-sized army would defeat the Japanese with ease. What wasn’t accounted for, however, was the lack of skill in Chinese officers and a woeful lack of training and discipline amongst the enlisted men. This was made worse by widespread, systemic corruption and constant conflicts of interests between generals and the government. As a result, the Qing were defeated in battle after battle in Korea, and their great fleet was torn to pieces by fast-moving, well-built Japanese ships commanded by skilled officers. The war, which came to an end April 1895, saw the end of Chinese influence in Korea as well as the loss of Formosa and the Liaodong Peninsula.

The Empire of the Great Qing in 1900 is in a sad state. Many officials are at least somewhat corrupt and the concept of legalism and just rule as been exchanged for personal pacts and the gain of money. Bandits, cults, and secret societies ravage the countryside as the apathetic local administration turns a blind eye. In the north of the country, the militant anti-foreign and anti-Christian Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, better known as the “Boxers,” enjoy popular support as they clash with government forces and massacre Christian Chinese. The army and navy are in shambles, its officer corps riddled with corruption and incompetence, and the regiments’ equipment quality and loyalty to the Empire all vary wildly from region to region as a result.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Affairs of the Empire of the Great Qing In the 20th Century

Internal Affairs

The Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900, Qing Government Victory, Boxers Quashed in Most Areas

Boxer Insurgency, 1900-PRESENT
Announcement of Prince Zhong (Zaitao) as Heir to the Throne, 1900

Foreign Affairs and Correspondences

Official Statement Regarding Russo-Japanese Tensions and the Treaty of Incheon, 1900

Official Statement Thanking the American and Japanese Governments for Commending Chinese Generals, 1900
Official Response Regarding Italian Concerns in the Wake of the Boxer Rebellion, 1900

A Private Dispatch to the French Government, 1901
The Treaty of Paoting, 1901

History, Biographies, and Other Miscellanea
 
Last edited:

Sneakyflaps

Lt. General
64 Badges
Sep 16, 2011
1.335
9
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • March of the Eagles
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • Victoria 2
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Fury
  • War of the Roses
  • 500k Club
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mandate of Heaven
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cradle of Civilization
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Third Rome
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Golden Century
  • Crusader Kings III
  • Imperator: Rome
  • Europa Universalis IV: Dharma
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rule Britannia
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Crusader Kings II: Jade Dragon
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic

Ab Ovo

Merchant of Venice
23 Badges
Oct 2, 2012
2.655
52
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Darkest Hour
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Divine Wind
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • March of the Eagles
  • Rome Gold
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • 500k Club
  • Victoria 2
  • Semper Fi
  • Heir to the Throne
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
Last edited:

Duke Dan `the Man`

Major
1 Badges
Dec 12, 2015
519
107
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up


Great Korean Empire

Anthem of the State: Korean Empire Aegukga
Form of Government: Absolute Monarchy
Head of State: Emperor Gwangmu
Capital: Hanseong (Seoul)


Brief History of Choson Kingdom


The Choson Kingdom was born out of the collapsing Goryeo Kingdom, which at the time of the rebellion by Taejo, weakened from the invasions of the Mongols and losing support from the falling Yuan Empire in China. Taejo, who would become the First Choson Monarch, initiated a coup in the northern fringes of the state, where he was commandeered to lead a force to attack the northern barbarians, which they, setting themselves as heirs of a state that ruled Manchuria down to Central Korea, had a claim. While at first, he had the king's young child on the throne, but leaving himself as the effective ruler of the Korean state.

As the Princes of Goryeo rebelled against the king, Taejong reacted with the centralization of his power, greatly strengthening himself, the king, and by extension his power over the Korean state. Choson power was also increased by the rule of Sejong, who instituted a number of reforms in the government, expanding the military and introducing Hangul, the Korean script for writing, as well as other reforms with him being granted the epithet of 'the Great'

After the death of Sejong, the Choson Kingdom underwent a series of crises that would occupy the history of Choson until the invasion by forces of Shogun Hideyoshi. The grandson of the Sejong, Danjong, ruled for three years, until his deposition by Sejo, in a bloody coup on the advice of his minister, Han Myung-hoi. He ruled ably for the next 13 years, although attempts to restore Danjong to power persisted during his reign, forcing him to kill six of his ministers, whom conspired against the king in a coup, as well as Danjong himself. One of Sejo's grandchildren, Seongjong, ruled over a prospering economy and established a code of law that was left unfinished by Sejo, but his reign also marked the rise of factionalism and of the Sarim, a faction of Confusion scholars whom enter court politics at the behest of the king. Their power lead to the bloody Literati Purges being imposed apon them by sovereign and the division of the Sarim itself in smaller and smaller cliques in the court. The decades after the Literati Purges, the former remains of the Sarim would alternate the throne between themselves, with kings supported by one clique purging the other. Many thousands were killed in the power struggle between the factions of the court, and the growing corruption of the Choson state. This perpetuating system of corruption and revenge for earlier purges led the Koreans to be caught off guard by the coming storm to the east.


On the isle of Japan, forces under the Shogun had gathered to invade Korea, although that would not be the ultimate goal. Hideyoshi wished to conquer the Ming Empire in China, although Korea was included in the Asian Empire he wished to carve out. Hideyoshi would carry out his strike on Korea, fighting with great success against the disorganized Choson Army, who were no match for the trained and skilled Japanese army. While the situation on land were going horrible, at the sea was a different. Admiral Yi won victory
and victory after the often-times larger Japanese fleet. While the Japanese continued their conquests on the land, taking over Hanseong, the Choson capital, and forcing the Choson north, Yi continued his military genius against Japan, becoming a thorn to the side of Hideyoshi, leading him to cease all land attacks until Yi is found, knowing that without supremacy over the seas, the supply lines could be cut short. While the Japanese waited on land, Ming forces arrived to help the remains of the Korean army and guerrilla forces to help turn back the tide of the war. With the help of Chinese forces in both the land and sea, the Japanese were driven off battle by battle off until they were left only with Busan. The Ming would sue for peace with the Japanese and negotiations went on for three years.

The invasion by Japan was one of the leading factors for the country's slide into an isolationist stance, one that would survive until the 19th century. While the West did try to get Korea to open up their ports, they were opened up to the world not by the Imperialist powers of Europe, but by Japan. The treaty led to increased Japanese interest in the peninsua, which coerced Japan into freeing Korea from the Tribute system of the Qing. Two years later, in 1897, Gojong has declared the beginning of Korean Empire, officially marking the end of the tributary system of China. Yet the sovereignty of this new nation, reforged from the Choson dynasty, is yet to be tested. In the middle of the three great powers of East Asia, Korea finds itself a latecomer to the Industrial Revolution. The country has just begun the process of Modernization, supported by the Emperor of the nation. The country's path in history has yet to be decided, whether they will end up like their Japanese counterparts or left behind in the midst of a new century is unknown. Perhaps a modern Korea could be great, if it ever occurs, or maybe it find itself in identity crisis, unsure whether to cling on to past traditions, or to join the civilized world. The path they have chosen is unknown as of yet, but the year of 1900 will be a turning point in the history of Korea, but whether the path it will tread will lead to ruin or glory is a story for another time.




 

TJDS

Schout-bij-Nacht
45 Badges
Mar 7, 2012
1.313
86
  • A Game of Dwarves
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Semper Fi
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • March of the Eagles
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • East India Company Collection
  • Commander: Conquest of the Americas
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Cities in Motion
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Victoria 2
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife Pre-Order
  • Cities: Skylines - Parklife
  • 500k Club
  • War of the Roses
  • Warlock 2: The Exiled
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Europa Universalis III

Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Kingdom of the Netherlands


Wien Neêrlands bloed
Form of Government: Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
Head of State: Koningin Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau
Head of Government: Minister-President Pieter Jelles Troelstra (Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders' Partij)
Capital: Amsterdam
Seat of Government: The Hague
Legislature: States-General (House of Representatives and Senate)

Foreign Correspondence and Treaties
Treaty of Amsterdam, 1901
Treaty of The Hague, 1904
Dutch Communique regarding the Serbian Febuary Coup d'État


Internal Affairs and Histories
A Brief Introduction of the Dutch Status Quo at the end of the Century
Dutch Liberalism and the Post-Mortem of Cabinet-Pierson I

The Peaceful Revolution: Kuyper, Troelstra & the Dutch Election of 1909



 
Last edited:

Maxwell500

dictator perpetuo
62 Badges
Aug 9, 2010
679
24
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Supreme Ruler: Cold War
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Rome Gold
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • March of the Eagles
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Divine Wind
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Together for Victory
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
  • Crusader Kings III
  • Steel Division: Normand 44 Sign-up
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Death or Dishonor
  • Stellaris: Synthetic Dawn
  • Crusader Kings II: Jade Dragon
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Expansion Pass
  • Stellaris: Humanoids Species Pack
  • Stellaris: Digital Anniversary Edition
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Stellaris
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: With Fire and Sword
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • 500k Club
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
God Save the Queen

Form of Government: Constitutional Monarchy
Head of State: Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India
Capital: London


Victoria (1837- )

Viscount Melbourne (1837-1841)
Sir Robert Peel (1841-1846)
Lord John Russell (1846-1852)
Earl of Derby (1852)
Earl of Aberdeen (1852-1855)
Viscount Palmerston (1855-1858)
Early of Derby (1858-1859)
Viscount Palmerston (1859-1865)
Earl Russell (1865-1866)
Earl of Derby (1866-1868)
Benjamin Disraeli (1868)
William E. Gladstone (1868-1874)
Earl of Beaconsfield (1874-1880)
William E. Gladstone (1880-1885)
Marquess of Salisbury (1885-1886)
William. E Gladstone (1886)
Marquess of Salisbury (1886-1892)
William E. Gladstone (1892-1894)
Earl of Rosebery (1894-1895)
Marquess of Salisbury (1895-1900)
Earl of Rosebery (1900-Present)

Events
Nothing But Sadness and Horrors (1900)

Foreign Correspondence

The Death of the Prince of Wales: Government Response, Queen's Response (1900)
On the Boxer Rebellion; Congratulations on William McKinley's Re-Election (1900)

Internal Affairs

The General Elections of 1900: A New Era

Miscellany

Lord Rosebery's Government II
 
Last edited:

Olligarchy

Grand Prince
93 Badges
Dec 19, 2011
1.361
1.079
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Crusader Kings II: Monks and Mystics
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Rome Gold
  • Semper Fi
  • Sengoku
  • Sword of the Stars
  • Sword of the Stars II
  • Knights of Honor
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Warlock: Master of the Arcane
  • Crusader Kings II: Jade Dragon
  • War of the Vikings
  • Stellaris: Apocalypse
  • Europa Universalis IV: Third Rome
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Stellaris - Path to Destruction bundle
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Magicka 2
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • For the Motherland
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Magicka
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense


Reino de España
The Kingdom of Spain
"Plus Ultra." (Further Beyond)
Anthem : Marcha Real
Form of Government : Constitutional Monarchy
Head of State : Rey Alfonso XIII (Under Regency by Maria Christina)
Head of Government: Francisco Silvela y Le Vielleuze (Conservatives)
Capital : Madrid
Legislature : Cortes Generales (An Upper and Lower chamber)


History

The history of Spain is a long and tumultuous one, beginning from the ancient Iberian tribes of antiquity, leading up to the Roman rule and eventual series of conquests and settlements by Goths, Moors and many others peoples whom eventually became the Kingdoms of Castille, Leon, Galicia, Navarre and Aragon. It was these five states that would come to have the greatest influence on the history of modern Spain; forging the greatest colonial Empire in history.

The past century and a half has seen the once mighty Spanish Empire dwindle into scant few holdings in Africa and some rocks in the oceans of the world, leaving the once wealthy and powerful nation with a dwindling treasury and precious little power to their name. Not only were they defeated by the Americans only a few years prior, the Conquest of Mellila was a resounding failure as well. This has left the young King Alfonso XIII whom is still under regency by his mother in a precarious position... for can a man so young guide his homeland onto safer waters and regain glory for España?

Game Events:

TBD

Internal Affairs:

Wine and Cheese (Agricultural Reform)
Coming of Age of Alfonso XIII
A Look at the Spanish Navy of 1902
Army Reform of 1902
The Turno System
A look of at the Marines of 1903
The Life and Death of Queen Isabella
Cabinet of 1906
Christmas Peace of 1906

Foreign Affairs:
Iberian Special Economic Zone
Russo Japanese War Pt 1, Pt 2
Instability in China


 
Last edited:

Noco19

Little Creole
66 Badges
Nov 20, 2011
835
41
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Semper Fi
  • Rome Gold
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Darkest Hour
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Divine Wind
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Stellaris
  • Crusader Kings III
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Hearts of Iron IV Sign-up
  • Stellaris Sign-up
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Mount & Blade: With Fire and Sword
  • Mount & Blade: Warband
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Crusader Kings II: Holy Knight (pre-order)
  • 500k Club
  • War of the Roses
  • Victoria 2
  • Europa Universalis III Complete

Nicholas II
His Imperial Majesty, The Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Born May 18th, 1868, Nicholas was destined to succeed his grandfather and father, to ascend to the high office of leadership over the Russian Empire, and thus, become a vital component to the geopolitical landscape that spanned multiple continents and affected millions of peoples. Of proper stock, Nicholas would be related to many of the highest European monarchs, from the British King to the German. His childhood would be spent attending family gathering across the European courts, and it was said that he entertained flirtation with one of his English cousins, Princess Victoria.

On March 1st, 1881, Nicholas would be elevated to Tsesarevich, heir-apparent, in the wake of the assassination of his grandfather Alexander II. Such a tragic sight was witnessed firsthand by the young Nicholas, an event which shaped him into a man suspicious of the masses and who sought the security of absolutism above all else. His father, Alexander III, would prove to be of a similar mind, and would shift Russia back towards autocracy. Notably, Nicholas was left absent from much responsibility, and while Sergei Witte, finance minister, appealed for the inclusion of the heir-apparent in state matters, Alexander III saw his son as not mature enough to be entrusted with state affairs. This was founded on the assumption that Alexander III would rule for many years to come, however ill health would come unexpectatedly. During this period, Nicholas would embark on a world tour, wherein he would be subject to an attempted assassination in Otsu, Japan, yet again solidifying his belief in absolutism, a monarch would could stifle insurrection and terrorism through force.

By 1894, Alexander III was dying, and on November 1st, Russia heralded in its new Emperor and Autocrat - Nicholas II - a relative youth at 26 years old. Writing to his cousin and brother-in-law Grand Duke Alexander, Nicholas confided his uncertainty for Russia, saying, "What is going to happen to me and all of Russia?" Nevertheless, Nicholas acted studiously in exercising his powers, and from the beginning, he pursued a clear continuation of his father's policies, bringing the restoration of the gold standard and maintaining the supremacy of imperial power.

But ill omens have stained the reign of Nicholas from the beginning, from the deaths of his Coronation Event, to the growing unrest of his disparate realm of subjects, and as the world enters into this modern century, it had yet to be seen if Nicholas would prove an able figure in ensuring the health of his beloved empire.