• Crusader Kings III Available Now!

    The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Advisors may now jockey for positions of influence and adversaries should save their schemes for another day, because on this day Crusader Kings III can be purchased on Steam, the Paradox Store, and other major online retailers.


    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

Mathrim

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Hello dear readers and dear people who won't read what follows;

Welcome to this feeble attempt at making a new game based on the World in revolution format. I've long wanted to GM my own game and with Frymonmon ending Twilight Struggle, we talked about making it come to life at last. With Fry's stalwart support and continued pressure we ended up deciding to go ahead and there we are, we can proudly show you this new game. It is a new iteration of the World in revolution series and its core will be similar to other games made in the past. Each player thus play a whole nation and will have to guide it through the coming century. IC participation will be mandatory and you will find yearly updates and mini updates about the way the way the world is evolving, based on your own actions and those of all other players. In essence it will differ from other similar games, however. Simply put, Russia and the United States will no longer be overpowered, instead be prepared to see the Lower Countries set up permanent bases on Mars by the 1950s. On a more serious tone, we wish to move on from a rather rigid context to a more open one, emulating the first WiR games that had a sizeable amount of less plausible outcomes. Semi-realism remains key, all decisions need to be justifiable in context, metagaming and sheer stupidity aren't welcome, but we believe that with a more open setting players will be able to shape their country more to the way they see fit to. This why we present you World in Revolution: 1894.

Colonization has supposedly been settled in Berlin, but there is room for change and some want their piece of the African pie. Alliances keep shifting, all powers prepare for arms races and the rise of the United States, Japan, China and Russia threatens to change the Western European order. The Socialist International has been created and all conservatives see the workers' movements with fear, all need industry but Marxism could undo centuries-old systems. Alliances have just shifted and the Franco-Russian axis threatens German continental superiority and could lead to a renewed war, the Turkish hold on the Balkans is weakening, Latin American countries are progressing at a fast pace, catching up to Old Europe and everywhere, ambitious leaders seek to enhance their power and prestige. There is no certainty and you will have to thread carefully if you wish to preserve what you already have, let alone improve it.


Rules and guidelines:

Active participation is mandatory, but there will be no quota to fulfill to remain in the game. Instead each moderator will be allowed to kick the players he deems aren't active enough. The principle is that this game requires a lot of work from us and that we cannot be expected to work if you don't show consideration and implication.
Moderators are humans, with limited time on their hand and with broad but not infinite knowledge. We may make decisions that you consider don't make sense or lack information when we write updates. Nevertheless, what stands in the updates is final. You are free to discuss it with your moderator if you believe a mistake has been made, but the update won't be rewritten. You should give us the information we need beforehand, instead of complaining afterwards.
There won't be weekly updates, instead we will endeavout to bring three updates per month, with at least one week between the moment the update is posted and the orders deadline.
Orders must be sent before the deadline to the moderator in charge of your country. If you're unsure who they be sent to, they can always be sent to me. If your orders are sent past the deadline, the moderator is entitled to disregard them.
We will do our best to give you large freedom when it comes to your country. Regarding wars, please warn your moderator before declaring them, all declarations of war must be done IC. If you wish to launch a surprise attack, talk with your GM beforehand and send him orders to enable him to write a mini update. All declarations of war must take place at least 48h before the deadline.
Metagaming is banned.
IRC isn't mandatory per se, but presence on IRC is strongly advised. IRC must considered OOC, but if diplomatic talks take place on IRC, it can be assumed IC that talks took place.


IRC Channel:

Link: Coldfront
Channel: #WiR_Main
Instructions:
1) Use the link provided above.
2) Choose the Flash app or the Java app.
3) Create a screen name; it’s recommended that you use your forum name, if available.
4) Close the #coldfront channel that opens automatically.
5) In the command box, type “/join #WiR_Main” without the quotation marks.
6) You’re in the chat! Welcome!


Orders:

To simulate what happens in your country, you are allowed to send orders. Orders have a broad focus, can be government programs, private initiatives and only your imagination limits. Their effects depends on the result of your roll and on the feasibility of the order.
Each country is allowed to send two normal orders, two war orders (to be used during wartime only) and one election order, if your country has an election; and you are all allowed to tweak your taxation and spending levels with a Budget Order (don't abuse it). The Great Powers (UK, US, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, Italy) get a third normal; Austria gets two orders and Hungary a single one (meaning they're a Great Power together). France, Great Britain and Germany get a single colonization order every three turns, to enable them to expand their dominions overseas. It cannot be used to improve existing colonies, simply to expand.
 
Last edited:

Mathrim

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Sep 25, 2008
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  • Victoria 2
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order


Argentina
Overview
Government: Oligarchy, Rigged Elections, Next Election in 1898
President: Luis Sáenz Peña (National Autonomist Party)
Population: 4,107,302 Persons, £ 30 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 121,586,690 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 44% Services, 10% Industry, 46% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 66,220,147 in Debt, 2.54% Interest Rate (54.46% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 1,121,712 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 2,861,389 Spending, £ 1,681,992 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 782,494 in Taxes (1.28% Tax Rate), £ 4,319,544 in Tariffs (41.28% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average 88% Funding, £ 529,632 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 97% Funding, £ 436,375 in upkeep
Education: (4/5) Poor 86% Funding, £ 188,216 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 73% Funding, £ 17,752 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (0/5) Failing, 1887 Technology, 76% Equipment, £ 1,689,415 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 18,914 Soldiers, 1,142,084 Manpower
Navy Overview: (2/5) Average, £1,680,369 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 3 (1880, 2x 1889) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 3 (2x 1885, 1891) | Destroyers: 6 (6x 1889)
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: Stormbringer

Austria-Hungary
Overview
Government: Constitutional monarchy, Free Elections (Austria), Restricted Elections (Hungary), Next Elections in 1897 (Austria), Next Elections in 1896 (Hungary)
Emperor: Franz Joseph I
Population (Austria): 27,865,718 Persons, £ 29 GDP per Capita
Economy (Austria): £ 799,746,107 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies (Austria): 42% Services, 16% Industry, 42% Agriculture
Population (Hungary): 20,469,658 Persons, £ 17 GDP per Capita
Economy (Hungary): £ 20,469,658 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies (Hungary): Services, Industry, Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 717,524,566 in Debt, 2.80% Interest Rate (89.72% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 13,145,526 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 20,454,841 Spending, £ 20,090,688 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 17,321,255 in Taxes (3.80% Tax Rate), £ 13,764,062 in Tariffs (36.78% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (2/5) Average 80% Funding, £ 3,358,934 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (3/5) Poor 88% Funding, £ 2,428,029 in upkeep
Education: (1/5) Poor 70% Funding, £ 615,805 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (0/5) Poor 79% Funding, £ 221,130 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Average, 1886 Technology, 65% Equipment, £ 13,830,944 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 167,553 Soldiers, -167,553 Manpower
Navy Overview: (1/5) Average, £3,685,313 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 3 (1876, 2 1887) | Armoured Cruisers: 1 (1891) | Light Cruisers: 7 (2 1882, 1883, 1884, 1886, 2 1888) | Destroyers: 0 +3 Battleships (3 1893) in 5 years
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Dadarian (Cisleithania) & Haresus (Transleithania)

Bolivia
Overview
Government: Oligarchy, Rigged Elections, Next Election in 1896
President: Mariano Baptista (Conservative Party)
Population: 1,386,432 Persons, £ 08 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 10,534,598 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 27% Services, 8% Industry, 65% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 2,876,534 in Debt, 3.20% Interest Rate (27.31% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 408,970 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 545,291 Spending, £ 92,049 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 53,423 in Taxes (0.87% Tax Rate), £ 177,168 in Tariffs (42.87% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor 91% Funding, £ 28,759 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (4/5) Failing 88% Funding, £ 37,545 in upkeep
Education: (2/5) Failing 73% Funding, £ 5,383 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 86% Funding, £ 1,812 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (3/5) Failing, 1885 Technology, 40% Equipment, £ 471,791 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 8,751 Soldiers, 96,063 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £2,221 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: Oxfordroyale

Brazil
Overview
Government: Oligarchy, Rigged Elections, Election in 1894
President: Floriano Peixoto (Independent)
Population: 15,607,876 Persons, £ 09 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 136,047,201 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 31% Services, 9% Industry, 60% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 47,230,803 in Debt, 4.32% Interest Rate (34.72% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 2,491,600 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 2,388,302 Spending, £ 2,040,371 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 920,047 in Taxes (1.20% Tax Rate), £ 2,612,547 in Tariffs (38.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor 82% Funding, £ 485,280 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (1/5) Poor 78% Funding, £ 360,797 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 72% Funding, £ 78,363 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 73% Funding, £ 19,863 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Poor, 1888 Technology, 65% Equipment, £ 1,443,998 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 16,789 Soldiers, 1,163,166 Manpower
Navy Overview: (2/5) Poor, £1,595,522 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 4 (1875, 1878, 1881, 1883) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 1 (1885) | Destroyers: 5 (5x 1882)+2 (2 1891) in 1 year
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: Etranger01

Bulgaria
Overview
Government: Principality, Vassal of the Ottoman Empire, Election in 1894
Knyaz: Ferdinand I
Population: 3,802,543 Persons, £ 17 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 63,100,741 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 27% Services, 5% Industry, 68% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 21,704,567 in Debt, 4.23% Interest Rate (34.40% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 794,780 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 1,693,789 Spending, £ 918,103 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 1,122,102 in Taxes (2.96% Tax Rate), £ 708,312 in Tariffs (39.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average 84% Funding, £ 262,373 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (3/5) Poor 86% Funding, £ 187,220 in upkeep
Education: (0/5) Poor 83% Funding, £ 52,374 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing 77% Funding, £ 14,576 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (0/5) Average, 1887 Technology, 70% Equipment, £ 1,177,247 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 13,067 Soldiers, 274,405 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £13,301 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Harpsichord

Chile
Overview
Government: Parlimentary Republic, Semi-Free Elections, Next Election in 1896
President: Jorge Montt (Independent)
Population: 2,748,041 Persons, £ 29 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 78,843,873 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 32% Services, 11% Industry, 57% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 32,087,432 in Debt, 3.04% Interest Rate (40.70% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 1,285,343 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 2,024,614 Spending, £ 975,458 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 549,664 in Taxes (1.32% Tax Rate), £ 2,070,827 in Tariffs (36.87% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (0/5) Average 89% Funding, £ 326,295 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (3/5) Poor 92% Funding, £ 250,250 in upkeep
Education: (4/5) Failing 77% Funding, £ 54,639 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 87% Funding, £ 17,149 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1885 Technology, 70% Equipment, £ 1,376,281 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 16,983 Soldiers, 190,769 Manpower
Navy Overview: (4/5) Poor, £905,763 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 2 (1872, 1889) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 2 (2x 1889) | Destroyers: 0 +1 Light Cruiser (1892) in 1 year
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: m.equitum

China
Overview
Government: Absolute Monarchy, No Elections
Qing Emperor: Guangxu Emperor
Population: 385,969,246 Persons, £ 08 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 2,940,167,784 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 29% Services, 2% Industry, 69% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 34,567,093 in Debt, 12.34% Interest Rate (1.18% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 15,977,738 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 45,724,288 Spending, £ 4,265,579 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 38,397,396 in Taxes (2.02% Tax Rate), £ 239,642 in Tariffs (4.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (2/5) Failing 67% Funding, £ 4,432,303 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (1/5) Failing 89% Funding, £ 14,130,446 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 72% Funding, £ 1,693,537 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 54% Funding, £ 396,923 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Failing, 1850 Technology, 30% Equipment, £ 25,071,079 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 2,850,000 Soldiers, 26,329,275 Manpower
Navy Overview: (3/5) Failing, £4,624,909 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 2 (1881, 1882) | Armoured Cruisers: 8 (2x 1880, 1883, 2x 1882, 3x 1885) | Light Cruisers: 3 (1880, 1881, 1885) | Destroyers: 5 (4x 1883, 1886)
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Ekon

Colombia
Overview
Government:
President:
Population: 3,579,364 Persons, £ 14 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 50,956,832 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 39% Services, 7% Industry, 54% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 14,908,874 in Debt, 3.70% Interest Rate (29.26% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 970,684 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 1,842,279 Spending, £ 551,628 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 521,610 in Taxes (1.87% Tax Rate), £ 1,069,805 in Tariffs (35.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (3/5) Poor 88% Funding, £ 188,336 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 78% Funding, £ 147,061 in upkeep
Education: (1/5) Poor 65% Funding, £ 36,434 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 60% Funding, £ 7,644 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (0/5) Poor, 1888 Technology, 67% Equipment, £ 1,462,804 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 16,743 Soldiers, 253,857 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Poor, £168,191 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 1 (1879) | Destroyers: 0 +1 Light Cruiser (1880) in 4 years
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: Rare

Ethiopia
Overview
Government: Absolute Monarchy
Emperor: Menelik II
Population: 3,789,073 Persons, £ 04 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 16,904,563 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 22% Services, 1% Industry, 77% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 329,884 in Debt, 14.84% Interest Rate (1.95% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 268,617 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 276,163 Spending, £ 48,955 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 54,799 in Taxes (0.50% Tax Rate), £ 5,265 in Tariffs (32.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Failing 40% Funding, £ 14,200 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Failing 50% Funding, £ 50,291 in upkeep
Education: (0/5) Failing 32% Funding, £ 2,705 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (0/5) Failing 5% Funding, £ 85 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (2/5) Failing, 1850 Technology, 40% Equipment, £ 208,883 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 19,943 Soldiers, 266,511 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £3,563 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: jcucc

France
Overview
Government: Parliamentary Republic, Free Elections, Elections in 1898
President: Jean Casimir-Perier (Left Republican)
Population: 40,014,674 Persons, £ 37 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 1,480,374,564 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 42% Services, 22% Industry, 36% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 1,389,094,354 in Debt, 1.80% Interest Rate (93.83% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 46,030,490 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 90,179,403 Spending, £ 25,003,698 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 49,813,920 in Taxes (6.00% Tax Rate), £ 29,326,855 in Tariffs (38.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (3/5) Average 86% Funding, £ 7,065,828 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (4/5) Average 88% Funding, £ 8,011,787 in upkeep
Education: (0/5) Good 90% Funding, £ 3,997,011 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Poor 80% Funding, £ 2,190,954 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Average, 1892 Technology, 88% Equipment, £ 68,913,822 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 480,543 Soldiers, 2,544,566 Manpower
Navy Overview: (4/5) Average, £9,988,164 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 18 (3x 1865, 1866, 1869, 2x 1870, 1872, 2x 1875, 1876, 2x 1879, 1880, 3x 1882, 1888) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 5 (1886, 3x 1889, 1890) | Destroyers: 0 +1 Armored Cruiser (1890) in 1 Year; +2 Light Cruisers (1891, 1892), +3 Armored Cruisers (1888, 1889, 1890) in 2 Years; +2 Armored Cruiser (1890, 1893), +3 Battleships (3x1891) in 3 Years ; +2 Battleships (1892, 1893) in 4 Years
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Maxwell

Germany
Overview
Government: Federal Monarchy, Semi-Free Elections, Next Elections in 1898
Emperor: Wilhelm II
Population: 49,702,453 Persons, £ 36 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 1,810,378,943 Gross Domestic Product, Industrial Economy
Economic Indicies: 30% Services, 29% Industry, 41% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 932,546,843 in Debt, 2.00% Interest Rate (51.51% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 19,832,439 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 83,570,532 Spending, £ 18,650,937 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 56,060,133 in Taxes (5.56% Tax Rate), £ 38,411,283 in Tariffs (39.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Good 89% Funding, £ 10,392,480 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (2/5) Average 91% Funding, £ 8,649,085 in upkeep
Education: (1/5) Average 79% Funding, £ 3,146,439 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (0/5) Average 95% Funding, £ 4,987,594 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Good, 1893 Technology, 90% Equipment, £ 56,394,933 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 356,077 Soldiers, 3,401,428 Manpower
Navy Overview: (4/5) Average, £12,082,386 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 20 (2x 1863, 1865, 2x 1866, 1868, 1869, 3x 1871, 1872, 1874, 1875, 2x 1876, 1883, 4x 1890) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 10 (3x 1886, 1887, 1888, 4x 1890, 1891) | Destroyers: 0 +2 Light Cruisers (1892, 1893) in 2 years
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Shynka

Greece
Overview
Government: Constitutional Parlimentary Monarchy, Rigged Elections, Next Election in 1897
King: George I
Population: 2,345,754 Persons, £ 16 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 36,601,342 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 39% Services, 9% Industry, 52% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 1,095,432 in Debt, 22.00% Interest Rate (2.99% Debt to GDP Ratio) (defaulted on 53256838)
Yearly Balance: £ 4,192,963 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 4,424,070 Spending, £ 240,995 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 155,918 in Taxes (1.02% Tax Rate), £ 2,088,264 in Tariffs (42.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor 87% Funding, £ 138,518 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (3/5) Poor 76% Funding, £ 95,969 in upkeep
Education: (1/5) Poor 82% Funding, £ 33,014 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing 76% Funding, £ 8,345 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (3/5) Poor, 1884 Technology, 60% Equipment, £ 4,148,224 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 60,564 Soldiers, 277,283 Manpower
Navy Overview: (2/5) Average, £1,772,080 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 5 (1866, 1869, 3x 1887) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 1 (1878) | Destroyers: 6 (6x 1885)
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: tyriet

Italy
Overview
Government: Constitutional Parlimentary Monarchy, Free Elections, Next Election in 1897
King: Umberto I
Population: 33,672,782 Persons, £ 21 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 720,237,543 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 33% Services, 12% Industry, 55% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 713,890,764 in Debt, 2.40% Interest Rate (99.12% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 18,337,893 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 29,713,776 Spending, £ 17,133,378 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 19,119,355 in Taxes (4.78% Tax Rate), £ 15,542,278 in Tariffs (39.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average 86% Funding, £ 3,066,051 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (4/5) Poor 93% Funding, £ 2,612,302 in upkeep
Education: (1/5) Poor 89% Funding, £ 705,113 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Poor 87% Funding, £ 1,159,222 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (2/5) Average, 1889 Technology, 78% Equipment, £ 22,171,088 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 200,984 Soldiers, 2,344,678 Manpower
Navy Overview: (2/5) Average, £6,152,373 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 8 (2x 1873, 2x 1876, 2x 1881, 1882, 1884) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 19 (1882, 3x 1883, 2x 1885, 1886, 2x 1888, 3x 1889, 3x 1890, 3x 1892, 1893) | Destroyers: 2 (1892, 1893) +1 Armored Cruiser (1890), +2 Light Cruisers (1888, 1889) in 1 year; +2 Battleships (1884, 1885) in 2 years; +2 Light Cruisers (1890, 1892) in 3 years; +2 (2 1892) Armored Cruisers in 5 years; +2 Battleships (2 1893) in 7 years; +1 Light Cruiser (1893) 8 years; +1 Light Cruiser (1889) in 11 years
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Jacob-Lundgren

Japan
Overview
Government: Constitutional Parlimentary Monarchy, Restricted Elections, Next Election in 1894
Emperor: Meiji
Population: 41,775,432 Persons, £ 16 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 650,548,743 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 38% Services, 10% Industry, 52% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 143,984,784 in Debt, 2.60% Interest Rate (22.13% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 20,312,046 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 27,378,732 Spending, £ 3,743,604 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 3,680,487 in Taxes (0.98% Tax Rate), £ 10,507,165 in Tariffs (38.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (0/5) Average 82% Funding, £ 2,480,542 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (4/5) Poor 77% Funding, £ 1,953,598 in upkeep
Education: (0/5) Poor 74% Funding, £ 481,406 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing 44% Funding, £ 85,872 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1887 Technology, 69% Equipment, £ 22,377,313 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 254,095 Soldiers, 2,904,128 Manpower
Navy Overview: (1/5) Average, £3,377,362 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 3 (3x 1875) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 9 (1881, 2x 1884, 1886, 1887, 3x 1888, 1892) | Destroyers: 0 +3 (1888, 1890, 1893) Light Cruisers in 1 years; +2 Battleships (2 1893), +1 Light Cruiser (1892) in 3 years
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: XVG

Korea
Overview
Government: Monarchy, No Elections
King: Gojong
Population: 10,539,654 Persons, £ 08 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 81,543,987 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 27% Services, 2% Industry, 71% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 4,247,034 in Debt, 13.54% Interest Rate (5.21% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 1,001,032 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 803,860 Spending, £ 575,048 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 441,657 in Taxes (0.84% Tax Rate), £ 4,973 in Tariffs (2.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (3/5) Failing 48% Funding, £ 99,810 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (1/5) Failing 54% Funding, £ 237,782 in upkeep
Education: (2/5) Failing 87% Funding, £ 49,660 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 78% Funding, £ 12,721 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (3/5) Failing, 1850 Technology, 45% Equipment, £ 403,887 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 35,094 Soldiers, 761,704 Manpower
Navy Overview: (3/5) Failing, £68,755 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Scrapknight

Mexico
Overview
Government: Oligarchy, Rigged Elections, Next Election in 1896
President: Porfirio Díaz
Population: 12,447,543 Persons, £ 16 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 197,543,874 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 33% Services, 5% Industry, 62% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 98,543,876 in Debt, 4.80% Interest Rate (49.88% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 3,746,540 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 2,987,798 Spending, £ 4,730,106 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 2,892,575 in Taxes (2.42% Tax Rate), £ 1,349,093 in Tariffs (26.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (0/5) Average 90% Funding, £ 826,721 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (4/5) Failing 83% Funding, £ 664,044 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 76% Funding, £ 120,107 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 70% Funding, £ 27,656 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Poor, 1880 Technology, 65% Equipment, £ 1,349,270 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 23,043 Soldiers, 917,991 Manpower
Navy Overview: (3/5) Failing, £270,305 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 1 (1890) | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: MastahCheef117

Oranje
Overview
Government: Republic, No Elections
President: F. W. Reitz
Population: 154,985 Persons, £ 16 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 2,545,342 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 35% Services, 2% Industry, 63% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 345,876 in Debt, 5.87% Interest Rate (13.59% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 274,920 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 274,265 Spending, £ 20,303 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 20,185 in Taxes (1.22% Tax Rate), £ 00 in Tariffs (34.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (4/5) Failing 87% Funding, £ 5,647 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 65% Funding, £ 6,122 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 65% Funding, £ 1,324 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 32% Funding, £ 163 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1870 Technology, 75% Equipment, £ 261,010 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 5,987 Soldiers, 5,730 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £537 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: TJDS

Persia
Overview
Government: Absolute Monarchy, No Elections
Shah: Naser al-Din
Population: 9,065,439 Persons, £ 12 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 112,096,785 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 32% Services, 2% Industry, 66% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 8,094,396 in Debt, 13.54% Interest Rate (7.22% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 1,040,430 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 925,976 Spending, £ 1,095,981 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 944,739 in Taxes (1.32% Tax Rate), £ 60,417 in Tariffs (8.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (4/5) Failing 77% Funding, £ 220,102 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (2/5) Failing 87% Funding, £ 477,869 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 66% Funding, £ 59,187 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 56% Funding, £ 12,555 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (2/5) Failing, 1865 Technology, 50% Equipment, £ 156,263 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 6,709 Soldiers, 678,638 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £23,629 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Tufto

Peru
Overview
Government: Military Transitional Government, No Elections
President: Manuel González de Candamo e Iriarte (Civilista Party)
Population: 3,376,098 Persons, £ 07 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 24,942,675 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 36% Services, 2% Industry, 62% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 3,897,405 in Debt, 2.95% Interest Rate (15.63% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 460,419 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 785,244 Spending, £ 114,973 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 288,771 in Taxes (1.92% Tax Rate), £ 281,059 in Tariffs (41.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor 76% Funding, £ 54,026 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (4/5) Failing 70% Funding, £ 70,712 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 67% Funding, £ 13,369 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 60% Funding, £ 2,993 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (0/5) Poor, 1880 Technology, 66% Equipment, £ 644,143 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 10,986 Soldiers, 244,247 Manpower
Navy Overview: (4/5) Failing, £130,032 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 1 (1879) | Destroyers: 0 +1 Light Cruiser (1880) in 4 years
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: Arrowfiend

Portugal
Overview
Government: Constitutional Monarchy, Elections in 1894
King: Carlos I
Population: 5,178,186 Persons, £ 16 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 82,501,253 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 38% Services, 9% Industry, 53% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 60,369,803 in Debt, 4.50% Interest Rate (73.17% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 981,918 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 1,960,945 Spending, £ 2,716,641 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 3,126,473 in Taxes (6.40% Tax Rate), £ 1,060,711 in Tariffs (38.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (0/5) Average 70% Funding, £ 268,542 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 72% Funding, £ 219,783 in upkeep
Education: (0/5) Poor 67% Funding, £ 55,276 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 56% Funding, £ 11,550 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1880 Technology, 65% Equipment, £ 1,405,794 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 23,096 Soldiers, -23,096 Manpower
Navy Overview: (1/5) Poor, £491,517 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 1 (1875) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 1 (1884) | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator:
Played by:

Romania
Overview
Government: Constitutional Monarchy
King: Carol I
Population: 6,042,531 Persons, £ 18 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 109,128,110 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 44% Services, 6% Industry, 50% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 82,104,543 in Debt, 3.20% Interest Rate (75.24% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 1,812,105 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 2,035,214 Spending, £ 2,627,345 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 1,537,372 in Taxes (2.41% Tax Rate), £ 1,336,086 in Tariffs (32.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (0/5) Average 71% Funding, £ 360,286 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (2/5) Poor 78% Funding, £ 255,360 in upkeep
Education: (0/5) Poor 72% Funding, £ 78,572 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 65% Funding, £ 17,733 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (3/5) Poor, 1880 Technology, 70% Equipment, £ 1,323,262 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 20,875 Soldiers, 781,148 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £23,003 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Julius

Russia
Overview
Government: Absolute Monarchy, No Elections
Tsar: Alexander III
Population: 117,895,945 Persons, £ 16 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 1,882,096,548 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 36% Services, 6% Industry, 58% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 914,876,453 in Debt, 2.70% Interest Rate (48.61% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 28,463,294 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 58,241,550 Spending, £ 24,701,664 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 50,575,143 in Taxes (4.32% Tax Rate), £ 10,155,827 in Tariffs (33.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor 88% Funding, £ 4,720,298 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 80% Funding, £ 5,571,006 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 56% Funding, £ 843,179 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 76% Funding, £ 357,598 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Poor, 1885 Technology, 30% Equipment, £ 46,749,468 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 987,675 Soldiers, 7,925,258 Manpower
Navy Overview: (3/5) Poor, £6,251,050 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 8 (1867, 1870, 3x 1883, 1885, 1886, 1891) | Armoured Cruisers: 4 (1878, 1881, 1881, 1884) | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0 + 2 Armoured Cruisers (1890, 1893) in 2 years; +3 Battleships (1888, 1890, 1891) in 3 years; +3 Battleships (3 1892)in 5 years
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Dutchbag

Serbia
Overview
Government: Constitutional Monarchy, Restricted Elections, Next Elections in 1895
King: Alexander I
Population: 2,467,098 Persons, £ 12 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 28,371,627 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 34% Services, 6% Industry, 60% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 8,747,204 in Debt, 4.32% Interest Rate (30.83% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 721,644 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 1,222,123 Spending, £ 377,879 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 557,291 in Taxes (3.30% Tax Rate), £ 327,048 in Tariffs (36.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (3/5) Poor 84% Funding, £ 100,095 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (1/5) Poor 76% Funding, £ 73,312 in upkeep
Education: (4/5) Failing 80% Funding, £ 20,428 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing 56% Funding, £ 3,972 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1880 Technology, 69% Equipment, £ 1,024,316 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 16,098 Soldiers, 170,415 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £5,980 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Noco19

Siam
Overview
Government: Absolute Monarchy, No Elections
King: Chulalongkorn
Population: 6,948,707 Persons, £ 11 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 77,606,543 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 34% Services, 1% Industry, 65% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 2,362,442 in Debt, 10.54% Interest Rate (3.04% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 24,469 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 498,398 Spending, £ 249,001 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 698,304 in Taxes (1.40% Tax Rate), £ 40,985 in Tariffs (12.40% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Failing 56% Funding, £ 91,265 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (3/5) Failing 87% Funding, £ 300,454 in upkeep
Education: (2/5) Failing 43% Funding, £ 23,360 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Failing 66% Funding, £ 7,683 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (1/5) Failing, 1850 Technology, 20% Equipment, £ 75,636 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 10,874 Soldiers, 514,448 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £16,359 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: MagOne

Spain
Overview
Government: Constitutional Monarchy, Restricted Elections, Next Elections in 1896
King: Alfonso XIII
Population: 18,076,764 Persons, £ 24 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 434,045,789 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 40% Services, 12% Industry, 48% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 404,776,868 in Debt, 3.50% Interest Rate (93.26% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 7,670,544 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 11,584,547 Spending, £ 14,167,190 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 15,413,739 in Taxes (6.10% Tax Rate), £ 6,710,136 in Tariffs (38.98% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor 90% Funding, £ 1,699,289 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (1/5) Poor 87% Funding, £ 1,283,907 in upkeep
Education: (1/5) Poor 77% Funding, £ 367,637 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (0/5) Poor 78% Funding, £ 118,495 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (2/5) Average, 1880 Technology, 55% Equipment, £ 8,115,219 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 140,764 Soldiers, 1,225,839 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Average, £4,042,681 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 2 (1863, 1885) | Armoured Cruisers: 3 (3x 1889) | Light Cruisers: 19 (3x 1869, 3x 1881, 1882, 6x 1883, 2x 1885, 2x 1886, 1888, 1891) | Destroyers: 3 (3x 1889) +3 Torpedo Boats (3 1891) in 1 year; +1 Light Cruiser (1892) in 2 years; +1 Armored Cruiser (1892) in 5 years
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Spectre17

Transvaal
Overview
Government: Republic, No Elections
President: Paul Kruger
Population: 201,495 Persons, £ 15 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 3,049,804 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 34% Services, 3% Industry, 63% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 587,682 in Debt, 5.40% Interest Rate (19.27% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 330,048 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 371,411 Spending, £ 31,735 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 42,141 in Taxes (2.30% Tax Rate), £ 31,599 in Tariffs (36.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (0/5) Poor 83% Funding, £ 6,835 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 77% Funding, £ 8,689 in upkeep
Education: (4/5) Failing 89% Funding, £ 2,443 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Failing 66% Funding, £ 403 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1870 Technology, 75% Equipment, £ 353,042 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 8,098 Soldiers, 7,135 Manpower
Navy Overview: (0/5) Failing, £643 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 0 | Destroyers: 0
Game Moderator: Dutchbag
Played by: Bakerydog

Turkey
Overview
Government: Absolute Monarchy, No Elections
Sultan: Abdul Hamid II
Population: 18,096,532 Persons, £ 12 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 209,836,997 Gross Domestic Product, Agrarian Economy
Economic Indicies: 35% Services, 8% Industry, 57% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 204,135,309 in Debt, 5.80% Interest Rate (97.28% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 14,391,970 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 10,089,907 Spending, £ 11,839,848 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 7,934,738 in Taxes (6.40% Tax Rate), £ 1,669,174 in Tariffs (23.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor 66% Funding, £ 415,477 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Poor 67% Funding, £ 520,186 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Failing 65% Funding, £ 109,115 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing 60% Funding, £ 37,771 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (4/5) Poor, 1888 Technology, 78% Equipment, £ 9,007,357 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 88,874 Soldiers, 1,279,224 Manpower
Navy Overview: (3/5) Poor, £2,066,128 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 4 (1867, 1868, 1872, 1892) | Armoured Cruisers: 0 | Light Cruisers: 2 (2x 1881) | Destroyers: 10 (4x 1885, 5x 1886, 1887) +1 Battleship (1874) in 1 year; +2 Light Cruisers (2 1893) in 2 years; +2 Armored Cruiser (2 1892) in 5 years
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Revan529

United Kingdom
Overview
Government: Constitutional Monarchy, Free Elections, Next Election in 1895
Monarch: Queen Victoria
Population: 38,859,108 Persons, £ 56 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 2,178,903,764 Gross Domestic Product, Industrial Economy
Economic Indicies: 43% Services, 37% Industry, 20% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 983,687,542 in Debt, 1.75% Interest Rate (45.15% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 16,471,904 Deficit
Government Spending: £ 73,607,703 Spending, £ 17,214,532 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 44,408,561 in Taxes (3.90% Tax Rate), £ 58,425,466 in Tariffs (36.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Good 93% Funding, £ 13,070,154 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (0/5) Good 83% Funding, £ 11,936,035 in upkeep
Education: (4/5) Poor 83% Funding, £ 3,255,282 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Poor 80% Funding, £ 3,224,778 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (3/5) Average, 1891 Technology, 85% Equipment, £ 42,121,454 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 321,000 Soldiers, 2,616,740 Manpower
Navy Overview: (2/5) Good, £28,483,697 in upkeep
Naval Ships: "Battleships: 30 (3x 1868, 2x 1869, 1870, 4x 1873, 1874, 2x 1876, 2x 1879, 1880, 5x 1882, 2x 1885, 2x 1886, 3x 1889, 2x 1890) | Armoured Cruisers: 17 (1873, 2x 1874, 2x 1881, 5x 1885, 2x 1886, 2x 1888, 3x 1889) | Light Cruisers: 85 (2x 1875, 9x 1878, 4x 1880, 2x 1883, 2x 1884, 4x 1883, 8x 1884, 5x 1887, 4x 1888, 2x 1889, 21x 1889, 9x 1890) | Destroyers: 27 (3x 1886, 13x 1888, 11x 1890)
+4 Battleships (3 1890, 1891), +6 Armored cruisers (2 1889, 4 1890),
+12 (4 1892, 8 1893) Torpedo Boats in 1 year; +3 Battleships (1891, 2
1893) in 2 years; +9 Light Cruisers (8 1892, 1893) in 3 years"
Game Moderator: Mathrim
Played by: Watercress

United States
Overview
Government: Federal Republic, Free Elections, Next Election in 1896
President: Grover Cleveland (Democratic Party)
Population: 68,541,065 Persons, £ 47 GDP per Capita
Economy: £ 3,190,654,893 Gross Domestic Product, Developing Economy
Economic Indicies: 36% Services, 24% Industry, 40% Agriculture
Economics
Treasury: £ 252,697,897 in Debt, 1.89% Interest Rate (7.92% Debt to GDP Ratio)
Yearly Balance: £ 2,304,403 Surplus
Government Spending: £ 34,355,825 Spending, £ 4,775,990 in Debt Payments
Taxes & Tariffs: £ 4,764,318 in Taxes (0.25% Tax Rate), £ 47,199,087 in Tariffs (48.00% Tariff Rate)
Administration
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average 94% Funding, £ 14,846,117 in upkeep
Bureaucracy: (1/5) Average 88% Funding, £ 13,477,326 in upkeep
Education: (3/5) Poor 77% Funding, £ 3,930,887 in upkeep
Health & Welfare: (0/5) Poor 85% Funding, £ 949,220 in upkeep
National Defence
Army Overview: (3/5) Average, 1885 Technology, 100% Equipment, £ 1,152,275 in upkeep
Soldiers & Manpower: 10,089 Soldiers, 5,171,616 Manpower
Navy Overview: (3/5) Average, £10,527,188 in upkeep
Naval Ships: Battleships: 0 | Armoured Cruisers: 1 (1890) | Light Cruisers: 9 (1883, 2x 1884, 1887, 1886, 1888, 1889, 1891, 1892) | Destroyers: 1 (1888) + 5 Light Cruiser (1890, 1891, 3 1892) in 1 year; +1 Armoured Cruiser (1893) in 2 years, +1 Light Cruiser (1891) in 2 years; +4 Battleships (1888, 1889, 1891, 1893), +1 Torpedo Boat (1892) in 3 years
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Frymonmon

Colonial Holdings
British India
Population: 281,565,013
Gross Domestic Product: £ 2,340,325,649
French Indochina
Population: 12,067,632
Gross Domestic Product: £ 101,730,138
French North Africa
Population: 5,780,543
Gross Domestic Product: £ 72,834,841
British North Africa
Population: 7,904,521
Gross Domestic Product: £ 88,530,635
 
Last edited:

Riccardo93

Field Marshal
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دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه
دولت ابد مدت
Hamidiye Marşı



Due to the rebelliousness of Armenians peoples living within the six vilayets of Van, Erzurum, Mamuretülaziz, Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Sivas, and noting the disorder and discord that have terrorised these lands in general, and the Muslim populations there in particular, we hereby place these regions under martial law until such a time that the dissidential forces residing there are at last quelled or otherwise contained. We further decree that those affiliate with radical and dangerous nationalist movements shall be be found and be brought to justice, before the eyes of the Sultan, the World, and Allah.

We also declare that, in recognition of the greater need for modern infrastructure within the Empire, a new railways connecting the city of Bagdad to Kostantiniyye to better allow for movement of goods throughout the Empire.


His Imperial Majesty, The Sultan Abdülhamid II, Emperor of the Ottomans, Caliph of the Faithful



The Ottoman Empire in the Late Nineteenth Century

Imperial Declarations
1894: On the Suppression of the Armenian Rebellion
Correspondence​
On the Servian "Moral Crisis"
With Germany, 1894: 1, 2, 3
 
Last edited:

TJDS

Schout-bij-Nacht
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Sketch

of the

Oranje Free State


Coat of Arms of the Oranje Free State

Vrystaatse Volkslied

The Oranje Free State
The Republiek van de Oranje Vrystaat, or Republic of the Orangje Free State, sometimes refered to as Transoranje, is situated on the north-eastren boundary of the Cape Colony, and is bordered as follows: on the west and north-west, by the territoy that was formerly called Griqualand West, lead by the Waterboer dynasty, but was annexed by the Cape Colony in 1880 after nine years of British direct rule and oppression, and by the British protectorate of Bechuanaland respectively; on the north and north-east by the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek, or South African Republic, better known as Transvaal; on the east, by the colony of Natal; and on the south by British Basutoland, the Native Reserve Lands, and the Cape Colony divisions of Albert and Colesberg. Its boundary lines are as follows: Commencing from the "Montaux Sources" in the Drakensbergen range of mountains, along that range in a north-easterly direction to the source of the Vaal River, as taken by Lieutenant Governor Keate,in capicity as arbitrator between the governments of the Oranje Vrystaat and the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek, in February, 1870; thence along that river in its northerly, westerly and south-westerly direction to its junction with the Riet River; from this confluence in a south-easterly direction, along the Vetberg-line to Rmah; thence to the nearest point on the Oranje River, and along that river in its south-easterly and easterly direction to the point of confluence of the Cornet-spruit and the Oranje River thence northward over Jammerberg to the Caledon River, and north-easterly along the centre of the river to its rise in the "Montaux Sources"in the Drakensbergen.
The extent of territory situated between theselines is roughly taken to be about 70,000 square miles (~181,000 square kilometers), but no accurate computation has hitherto been made, and the probability is that the actual extent will be found considerably greater.[SUP][1][/SUP]


Districts
Oranje Vrystaat is divided into the following districts, Bloemfontein, the capital of Bloemfontein is Bloemfontein, also the capital of the entire nation, Bloemfontein also includes the following villages, Reddersburg, Brandfort, Bethany and Edenburg, Fauresmith, the capital of Fauresmith is Fauresmith, Fauresmith also includes the village of Edenburg, Caledon River, the capital of Caledon River is Smithfiield, Winburg, with the capital Winburg, Winburg also includes the village of Ventersburg, Harrismith with the capital Harrismith, Harrismith also includes the village of Frankfort, Kroonstad with the capital Kroonstad, Kroonstad also includes the village of Heilbron, Boshof, with the capital Boshof, Jacobsdal, with the capital Jacoblsdal, Philippolis with the capital Philipolis, Bethulie, with the capital Bethulie, Bethlehem, with the capital Bethlehem, Rouxville, with the capital Rouxville, Rouxville also includes the village of Wepener, Lady Brand, with the capital Lady Brand, Lady Brandincludes the village of Ficksburg and the last and fourteenth district Pniel, with the capital Pniel. Together they supply the 52 members of the Volksraad.



Physical Geography
The country consists of extensive, undulating plains, which slope from the great Watershed northward and westward respectively to the Vaal and Oranje Rivers, and is intersected at varying intevals by the Wilge River, Rhenoster River, Valsh River, Vet River, and Riet River, emptying their waters into the Vaal River; and the Caledon River,which empties iself into the Oranje River. The Wilge River and its tributary streems, Elands River, Liebenbergsvlei, and Correlis River and the Milt River drain the districts of the Harrismith and Bethlehem, taking their rise in the Drakensberg and Wittebergen ranges; the Rhenoster and Valsch Rivers run through the district of Kroonstad, the latter also rising in the district of Bethlehem. The Vet River is formed by the junction of its tributaries, the Sand River, and the great and little Vet Rivers, all of which take their rise in the mountain ranges on the borders of the Winburg district which formerly separated the Oranje Vrystaat from Basutoland, but now form part of the Winburg and Lady Brand districts. The Modder River taking its rise near Thaba-Nehu and receiving in its course Leemo River, Rhenoster-spruit, Doom-spruit, Kaal-spruit, and other minor streams, runs through the districts of Bloemfontein, and skirting the district of Boshof, forms a junction with Riet River and David's Graf, about twelve miles below, Jacobsdal, and is lost in that stream, which takes its rise near Paul Smitsberg and in the Watershed between the districts of the Bloemfontein and Smithfield. The Riet River recieve, on its course, the waters of the Kaffir River, Kromellamboog-spruit, and other minor streams, and forming a junction with Modder River, as above stated, empties itself in the Vaal River. The Caledon River recieves all the small streams arising in the new districts of Lady Brand and Rouxville, as also the tributary streams of Wilgeboom-spruit and Slik-spruit, and join the Oranje River near the village of Bethulie, on the south-east borderof the State. The courses of the larger rivers are extremely tortuous and hollow, the banks of the rivers being for the greater part very precipitous, and generally lined with water-willow, mimosa, and other trees indigenous to this country. The streams are usually fordable; during the rainy season, however, they become swollen and impassable. In every district there are small ranges of rocky hills, the highest being found in the districts bordring on the Drakensbergen and Wittebergen ranges, and on the Caledon and Oranje Rivers, but everywhere forming the Watersheds, in which various streams take their rise, and affording landmarks for the division lines of the various districts.

Vegetation
The plains and table-lands of the Oranje Free State are covered with grass, which in reainy seasons becomes rank and luxuriant, affording excellent pasture for stock of all descriptions.In the southern and eastren districts the grass is burnt off once a year, in order to destroy the old crop, which rots,by reason of the rains, and becomes injurious to sheep and cattle. In the western districts the grass is gradually becoming supplanted by a dwarf bush vegitation, such as is commonly met within the Cape Colony. On the mountain ranges are generally to be found bushes of larger growth, as well as the wild bastard olive, and several other species of trees known in the parlance of the country as the kareiboom, guarriebooom and the kiperrolete.



Agricultural
The Oranje Free State is for the greater part a grazing country, and though agriculture is everywhere attended to on a larger or smaller scale, according to the natural capabilities of the farms, still itis chiefly in the souhtern and eastren distriscts that is carried onas the principal source of production, and it is almost exclusively from the districts of Rouxville, Lady Brand, Winburg, Bethlehem and Harrismith that grain is brought into the markets of the other districts

Mineral
Neither is it altogether without mineral wealth, as diamonds, rubies and other precious stones have been discovered in various parts of the country. Coal, also of very good quality, and in paying quantities has been found in the Winburg district, as well as on the farms inthe Lady Brand and Harrismith districts. The quarrying of the minerals of the Oranje Free State has grown with enourmes speeds, creating town where before there was only dust. A geological survey would no doubt tend greatly to prove the existence of various other valuable mineral products hitherto only suspected, this would of course further expand the economic boom the Oranje Free State has been experiencing these past few years.

Animal
In the early days of Oranje Free State the distribution of animal life was a subject of great interest, from the fact of the immense variety of wild animals inhabiting the nation. Even now the lion still fequents some sectionsof it. But, owing to the advance of civilization and human industry, the larger animals, as the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus and giraffe, are disappearing. Upon its vast, undulating plains, however, a large and splendid variety of the antelope tribe roam in countless numbers. The country being favourable for the rearing of the horses, cattle and wooled-sheep, the number of the ater contained therein maybe estimated by millions. Birds abound in great variety, and among those of the larger kinds, may be emunerated the ostrich, eagle, vulture, pelican, hawk and various species of crane.


Export and Imports
The staple articles of export fromthe Oranje Free State, are wool, skins and ostrich feathers, diamonds and other precious minerals, while owing to the mining population in the disputed territories along the Vaal River, a large trade in grain and other agricultural produce, has been productive of great wealth to the country.



Commerce
From the same cause, although more indirectly, trade in all articles of import, such as ironware implements, and manufactures in woolen, cotton and silk goods, and articles for consumption, either as necessaries or luxuries, has recieved a great stimulus, and the commercial community is to all apperance in a very healthy and prosperous condition. The dividends of the Bloemfontein Bank and the Board of Executors for the past years may be taken as very fair evidence of this assertion. A statement of import and export for the Oranje Free State could only be finished with the accuracy by the merchants of the port towns of Port Elizabeth and Durban in the Cape Colony and Natal respectively,who not only recieve the produce exported, but also furnish the goods imported. However, due to the growth in calls of independence from British ports, the Oranje Free State may use the announced Lourenço Marques-Pretoria-Bloemfontein railroad, to circumnavigate British taxes and most importantly the dependence on their ports.

Climate
The average height of the Oranje Free State above NAP is about 5,000 feet (1,524 meter), and the climate generally salubrious. The winters are cold but dry, the summers usually warm and moist, though droughts are sometimes experienced during the summer months. The air, however, is healthy and dry, as a rule and this is particularly felt at Bloemfontein and its vicinity; consequently, the numbers of invalids suffering from pulmonary affections resort to Bloemfontein and experience much benefit from a residence in this part of the country.[SUP][2] [/SUP]In other reports it has been noticed that the changes of the seasons are to agreater or less degree, according to their duration accompanied by agreater liability to colds and fevers generally of a typhoid type, and inflammatory affections, especially amongst children. The rates of mortality, however, would not seem to be extraordinary, though from the absence of statistics they can only be guessed at.Foreigners do not seem to suffer after being acclimated, on the contrary, they are benifted by the change.



Population
The population of the Oranje Free State has been variously computed, but as a steady and uninterrupted stream of immigration has been flowing intothe country for years, and in very considerable numbers the white population may be 125,000; coloured or native, 50,000.[SUP][3][/SUP]

Form of Government
The Government of the Oranje Free State is Republican, and its Constitution vests the legislative powers in the Volksraad (People's council), the members of which are elected by their constituents for four consecutive years. The whole number of representatives (there being one for each chief town of a district, and one of each field cornetey,) is fifty-two. This number, the half retire by rotation every two years, and a new election takesplace to fill up vacancies. The Volksraad meets in session annually at Bloemfontein, which is both the capital of the State and the seat of Government, if no extraordinary session be convened by the State President, for the consideration of any urgent question which might demand immediate attention. The executive power in the State rests in the State President, which office is elected by suffrage of burghers throughout the whole State this term of office lasts for five years, and he is eligible for re-election. Candidates for the Presidentship are generally recommended by the Volksraad to the burghers, and a change taking place in that office does not affect the positions of the other officials in Oranje, as is the ease in the United States of America. The State President is assisted by the Executive Council, in which the Landdorst of Bloemfontein and the Government secretary have session also as official members, and three others chosen by the Volksraad from among the most influential members in the neighborhood of the chief town of the State, form the unofficial members provided for in the Constitution. The unofficial members hold office for three years, retiring successively, and are eligble for re-nomination by the Volksraad. The entire control of the affairs of the State, external and internal, rests in the hands of the State President, as far as the public service of the State is concerned, and with exceptions specified in the Constitution. The chief executive officer in each district is the Landdorst, who is tasked with the functions of both Magistrate and Civil Commossioner in his district and is assisted in his duties by the Landdorst-klerk. Each district has furthermore its Sheriff and deputy, goalar and staff of constables. Where there are no Government buildings, offices and gaol are hired by the Government. Each district is divided into the necessarty numbers of wards, each of which elects a Field Cornet, under whom it serves and who has certain judicial, and in times of war, military powers. All the wards combine in the election of a Commandant, who is military head of the whole district in the timesof war or other disturbances of the order, and takes the chief command over the burghers of his district on command. As soon as the contingent from the various districts have taken the field, and before the active operations against the enemy are commenced, the officers, namely the commanders and the field cornets of the several contingents, meet and proceed to the election of a Commandant-General from among their number, who thereupon makes over his charge to an elected successor, and takes the supreme command of the whole commando, recieving intrusctions from the State President. Burghers of the State are contituted by the following three classes: first, whites who were born in the State, secondly, whites who have resided in the State during one year and have fixed property to the amount of £150, registered in their own names, lastly, whites who have resided in the State for three succesive years; always provided the two latter classes furnish the President with good conduct certificates and written engagements to respect the law of the State, whereupon they can obtain certificates of burghership. Burghers of eighteen years of age and upwards have right of suffrage at the elections of the field cornet and commandant, but they must be of age and have sundry other Constitutional qualifications to be entitled to vote for State President.



Judicial
The administration of justice in the Oranje Free State is regulated by the local ordinanees enacted by the Volksraad from time to time, and further, according to the Roman Dutch Law. The Law Courts of the Oranje Free State are at present the following: first, the Landdorst Court, which has police and criminal jurisdiction, and can bind over in the sum of £100 for six months, fine up to £5, imprison for three months, with hard labour, and can give lashes up to twenty-five; while it has a civil jurisdiction in all cases up to £37 10s. Special laws, however, give this Court a higher jurisdiction for certain offences. Secondly, the Court of Landdorst and Heemraden, consisting of the Landdorst and two assessors, who can bind over in the amount of £200 for twelve months, fine up to £10, imprison with hard labour for four months, punish with lashes up to thirty-nine, and have a civil jurisdiction in cases from £37 10s to up to £75. This Court has also special jurisdiction under certain ordinances. From these Courts there is appeal to, thirdly, the Combined Courts of Landdorsts, the Circuit Court of the State, which has unlimited jurisdiction and can try criminally all heavy crimes and misdemeanors, and dispose of all civil cases, from £75 and upwards, brought in the first instance before it, and hears all appeals from the two lower courts. This court consists of three Landdorsts, at present it holds its sessions once annually, sometimes in each district, and sometimes for two or three districts combined, in one place. During the interval of its session, the Landdorst of each district is Judge in chambers for his district and all interlocutory orders are made by him. Fourth- and lastly, the Highest Court of Appeal, before which all appeals from various Circuit Courts are brought, holds session at Bloemfontein once or twice a year. Till 1874 the Executive Council constituted the Court of Appeal in highest resort but the Volksraadhas created a separate Court under a Chief Justice properly qualifiedand two assessors from among the Landdorsts of the districts. The State Attorney conducts the public prosecution for State in person before the Circuit Courts, but is represented by the Landdorst-klerk before lower Courts. The Law Registry Office for the Higher Courts throughout the whole State is at Bloemfontein.



Ecclesiastical
The Constitutional Church of the Oranje Free State is the Dutch Reformed Church. The chief governing body of which, the Synod, meets every three years, while the various congregations of the State are classed under two circuits or ring,and each ring meets yearly. Each congregation is governed locally by the Kerkenraad. Under this Church there are at present eighteen congregations, fifteen of which recieve State support. Besides the Dutch Reformed Church, a branch of the Anglican Church of South Africa, represented by the Bishop of Bloemfontein and a numerous staff of clergymen is established in the Oranje Free State. The capital of the diocese is Bloemfontein, where the Bishop resides, and congregations of this Church are ministered to in Smithfield, Bethuliem, Philippolis, Harrismith, Modderpoort, Thaba, Nehu and other places. The English minister at Smithfield is the only one of this body recieving State support. The Wesleyan Methodist Church also a circuit in the Oranje Free State, under a superintendent, resident in Bloemfontein, and a numerous body of ministers, and has congregations in Fauresmith, Smithfield, Harrismith, Thabe, Nehu and other places. It recieves State support for two of its ministers. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is represented in the State by superintendent and several ministers, who labour in Bloemfontein, Bethany and other parts of the State. Finally the Roman Catholic Church, under the care of a priest, is ministering to the wants of its people at Bloemfontein.

Educational
The educational department of the Oranje Free State has started recieving vital attention in 1875 to alevel that was respectable compared to other nations. Accordingly a fund has gradually been raised for educational purposes, this fund, worth a total amount of £56,000 was placed at the disposal of the Education department in 1876. In accordance with Order No. 5, 1872, an Inspector of Education was appointed in 1875,who had the task of remodeling the whole educational system. It is only right, nevertheless, to state that a Government allowance of £90 a year has for years past been given to each districttown, on the condition of its subseribing at least one-half more, and attempts to establish good schools have everywhere been made by the District School Committees, comprising the Landdrost, the Dutch Reformed Church and three elected members, with varying success insome places, but in others only to meet with failure, which is principally to be attributed to the defective system hitherto purseud The principal support hitherto affored by the Government, consists in the Liberal Allowances made for the salaries of teachers in the Grey College; but owing to the short time that has clapsed since the arrival of one of them, and the various circumstances beyond the control of the Government, the desired resulsts were still to belooked for. However, in the 1880s the Government has succeeded increating a very satisfactory result to their education policy.



State Lands
The Government lands of the Oranje Free State are still very considerable, though as nought, compared with thier original size, owing to the sales of farms which have been held from time to time. The value of fixed property of all kinds ha sincreased greatly within the last few years. Even in the districts of Harrismith and Kroonstad, where land formerly was almost valueless, farms are now eagerly sought after, and change hands at very high rates. The average price of land throughout the whole State may now be fixed at 10s per morgen. A rough estimate fixes the number of farms throughout the country as between 6,000 and 7,000. [SUP][4][/SUP] Fixed property changes ownserhip by registration.

Mode of Registration
The mode of registration of deeds of all descriptions in the State, is generally held to be a more publicly useful one than that in vogue in the colonies. Theere is a Sub-Registry Office in each district; while the Chief Deeds Registry Office is in Bloemfontein. The transfers or other deeds are passed before the Registar of Deeds, or Landdorst of the district, as the ease may be, and after registration at the head office, are also registered in the district offices, so that an intending purchaser can at once satisfy himself as to the title of any property at its districts office, thereby sparing borth time and expense.

Historical
The Colonisation of the Transoranje region to the Residency
(1816-1854)​
The earliest traditionary records concerning the territory now known as the Oranje Free State, would convey the idea that is was not inhabited by any definite race, but rather that marauding bands from tribes of Kaffirs, Bushmen and Corannas from time to time in fested it, either to secure pasture for their flocks, or to escape destruction from the hands of some stronger race, and it was only about the years 1816 to 1820 that these records became definite, as determining the facts that about that time an immigration of Griquas, under Adam Kok, settled at Griquatown, and that bodies of Dutch Farmers used first to cross the Oranje River with their flocks, during times of drought in the Cape Colony, and afterward settled in the new territory, more especially in the vicinity of the Riet River. These pioneers were afterwards followed up by whole bodies of immigrants; one body settling in the present ditrict of Boshof, on lands purchased by them from Chief Dautzeo, and another settling on what was afterwards known as the Vaal River District, on the lands bought from Chief Matagnan. While many more either leased or bought lands in the territory of the Griquas, who, under Adam Kok, in 1820, established themselves at Philippolis, along the Oranje River up to the junction of the Roschjas-spruit. The numbers of the immigrants were greatly increased by the influx of the Dutch colonists, who felt themselves aggrieved by the emancipation of the slaves, in 1839, and left the colony in large numbers, in order to place themselves beyond British control. A great example for the Boer point of view is this passage: "It is not slave emancipation, but the fact that blacks are being placed on an equal footing with Christians, contrary to the Laws of God and the natural distinction of race and religion." This was a statement of Anna Steenkamp, one of the Voortrekkers and niece of Pieter Retief, a Boer Trek Leader, who would be murdered by Zulu Chief Dingaan, which ultimately lead to the Battle of the Bloedriver and the creation of Natal. These settlers formed a Government for themselves, after the model of the old Dutch Government of the colony, and matters went on quietly up to 1845, when, in consequence of some skirmishes between the Boers and the Griquas, which resulted in hostilities, the British Government intervened, assisting the Griquas with British troops, defeated the Boers at Zwart Koppies; and to prevent a like occurrence, a British Resident was established in the country, with a small force to support his authority. But a treaty had been entered into between the British Government and Adam Kok, in 1845, in which certain terms affecting the Boer tenure of property in Griqualand were comprehended, which gave great dissatisfactions to the immigrants. Their acknowledged leader, Andries Pretorius, endeavored to procure an amelioration of these terms, but without success, and after the proclamation of sovereignty over the territoy, discontent broke out into rebellion, and the British authorities were driven back across the Oranje River, in July, 1848. Subsequently a force of 500 men was brought up by Sir Harry Smith and after a short but sharp skirmish with the Boers at Boomplaats, the latter were defeated, andthe British authority re-established in the Oranje River sovereignty. The territory now remained under the control of the British Government, represented in the person of a Britsh Resident in Bloemfontein, where a fort was build, with three guns, and where the seat of the Resident was established until 1854.

End of the Residency to the end of the Basuto Conflicts
(1854-1869)​
During this period many Europeans and colonists of European descent also took their abode in sovereignty. Owing, however, to the continual embroilments of the burghers with the Basutos, under Chief Moshesh, not in their own quarrels, but in those of the allies of the British Government and the cost thereby occasioned of keeping up a considerable military force, the abandonment of the Oranje River sovereignty was recommended to the London Government and carried out under the command of Sir George Clerk, who despite of the opposition of an influential body of inhabitants, especially of Bloemfontein, made over the Government of the Orange River sovereignty to a body of delegates, representing the inhabitants of the various districts, by virtue of the convention entered into with them on 23 of February 1854; which convention is the Charter of the Oranje Free State. A Provinsional Government was at once formed by the delegates under the Presidency of Mr. Hoffman, and afterwards a Republican Constitution was drawn up and adopted by the Volksraad, the members of which had in the meantime been elected. For some time after its creation into a independent nation, the Government of the Oranje Free State was engaged in meeting the difficulties arising out of the many boundary questions with native chiefs, in and bordering on the young nation;the principal settlement became the Vetberg-line, between Adam Kok and Cornelius Kok and Waterboer and it was during the the Presidency of Mr. Boshoff, that attention was given to the internal affairs of the country, resulting in establishment of order by salutary local ordinances, which currently still exist, regulating, among other matters the establishment of proper law courts, tariffs, sale of gunpowder and liqour laws. But this dawn of order was soon clouded by the questions with the Basutos, which assumed greater importance and eventually in March 1858 escalated into a war between the four year old republic and the Basutos. The war ended with the Convention of Aliwal-North on 29 September, but the border skirmishes did not. Thus Boshoff resigned his office, after he finally collapesed on the burdens of leading a new nations with barbarian enemies on every border, although there were those who may have differed with him,the universal voice was that of regret after the resignation of the man who not only did so much for the internal welfare of the Oranje Free State, something that was non-exsistant before him, but he also ably conducted the Free State through his boundary disputes and other difficulties with the Witze, with Transvaal, with Scheel Cobus and with the Basutos. The successor to President Boshoff was Marthinus Pretorius, son of the Commandant-General of Boomplaats, entered office in 1860. The two major events during his term of office were the annexation of the Bethulie lands by the Free State with a special treaty with Chief Lephin and secondly the purcase from the Griqua Chief, Adam Kok, on his migration to the territory of Nomansland in 1861, all of Kok's land, whereby the Vetberg part of the Free State became. It is on this purchase that the right and title to the Campbell land to the north of the Vaal River is founded by the Oranje Free State Government. Pretorius, a staunch supporter of a united Boer republic, was also Presdient of Transvaal, but due to failure of this plan, he was forced to resign in Transvaal, after which he resigned in Oranje, for the personal union and his plans of unification had failed. New elections were held in 1863, wherein President Brand won, he assumed office, in February 1864. The peace secured by the Treaty of Aliwal, as stated, was a hollow one, and as the Basutos not only repudiated their treaty engagements, but continued their depredations and commited various outrages on the burghers inhabiting the fronteir, President Brand's first endeavors were directed to the attainment of a satisfactory settlements of the boundary line question and he succeeded in getting this defined by the abritration of Sir Philip Wodehouse, Governor of Cape Town. Not withstanding this peaceful solution of the question,the attitude of the Basutos grew daily more and more threatening and the Oranje Free State saw itself against forced to arms and took the field May 1865. The struggle lasted eleven months, and a treaty of peace, on very advantageous terms for the Oranje Free State was signed 3 April 1866, by which, among other condition, a large part of the country was ceded to the Free State. This new territory was inspected by commissioners, and the farms granted and sold on conditions of military tenure. And as Basuto squatters had everywhere re-occupied this tract, it became necessary to clear the country by a commando, called out for that purpose, March 12th 1867. But this measure had not the desired effect, for in June and July the Basutos murdered two burghers of the Free Stade and flung defiance at its Government, when it demanded the delivery to justice of the muderers. Consequently, in the month of August 1867, the commandos of the Free Trade took to arms again and soon defeated the Basuto again as mountain stronghold after mountain stronghold was taken from the enemy; and there remained now only to Moshesh his own fastness, called Thaba-Bosigo. When hostilties were brought to an end by the intervention of the British Government, to whom the Basutos had applied to be recieved a ssubjects, a lengthy correspondence was carried on during an armstice which had been agreed upon and it was only after deputation from the Oranje Free State had been sent to England, that a satisfactory settlement of the question was arrived at, and defined in the Convention of Aliwal-North, 12 March 1869, whereby advantageous terms of the peace and satisfactory boundary were obtained by the Oranje Free State.

Minerals and the British, British Neo Imperialism against Oranje Vrystaat
(1869-1894)​
Imediately after the settlement of this question, negotiations were carried on with the Transvaal Republic, which resulted in a deed of submission, by which the settlement of the boundary between the two Republics was confided to the arbitration of Lieutenant Governor Keate, of the Colony of Natal, and his decision was communicated to the respective Governments in February 1870, and adopted by them. But another boundary question which had from time to time engaged the attention of the Volksraad, namely, that between the Oranje Free State and Nicholas Waterboer, now assumed prominence, owing to the discovery of diamonds in the Vaal River, near Pniel, a mission-station of the Berlin Missionary Society. Every means was used to bring the matter to a satisfactory solution without avail, and at last the Oranje Free State Government, after a meeting with Waterboer and his council at Novitgedacht on the Vaal River saw itself constrained to proclaim the territorial boundaries of the Campbell Lands to the north of the Vaal River, purchased by it from Adam Kok, as heir to Cornelius Kok in 1861. Meantime a large influx of people from all parts of the colonies and from foreign countries to the diamondiferous banks of the Vaal River took place and gradually spread itself to the present dry diggings at Du Toits Pan, Bultfontein and Voornitzigt, in the district of Pniel, and while the Oranje Free State Government was engaged in the establishment of a proper system of control and sanitary regulations for the mining population, Waterboer, urged on by his agent, presented a petition to the British Government, representing that a great part of his territory had been encroached upon by the Oranje Free State Government, and requesting their acceptance of himself and his people as subjects, and asking their intervention on his behalf. Lieutenant Governor Hay, the acting High Commissioner at Cape Town, thereupon identifying himself with Waterboer's representations forthwith, in violation of the second and other articles of the Convention, appointed Commissioners and empored them with authority over the diggers, which authority was at first only exercised on the north side of the Vaal, through sundry intrigues were carried on amongst the diggers, on the south side also, in order to abtain a footing there. Matters came to a crisis however, after the arrival of Governor Barkly at the Cape, in 1871, who, adopting the views of thethen Government Secretary, Southey, and ignoring the fact that all the grounds to the south of the Vaal River had been in undisputed possession, and under the civil and criminal jurisdiction of the Oranje Free State, since the Convention of 1854, issued a proclaimation, 27 october 1871, declaring Waterboer and his people British subjects and claiming as his territory not only the Campbelllands to the north of the Vaal, but aslo the territory on the southside of that river, up to a straight line from Ratberg to David's Graf, at the junction of Riet and Modder River, and thence in a straight line to Ramah and the Oranje River. This proclamtion was followed up by forcible possession being taken of the lands in question, in a time of profound peace. In order to avoid a collision, and the dire effects which a war with a consanguineous race in th ecolony would inevitably entail, the Government of the Oranje Free State, withdrew its authority and officials from that part of their territory, under solemn protest against this breach of the Law of Nations and sought to obtain justice for the voilation of their territory in arbitration and eeds of submission; forming subject matter for a continued correspondence and discussion between the British Government and that of the the Free State. Many events have occurred in connection with this question, which each in their turn threatened to disturb the peaceful relations between the countries concerned, but sufficient proof has been given that the terms of the convention have not recieved that due regard which a weaker power may, with justice, expect from a stronger; and that the endeavors of the Government of the Free State to secure a satisfactory definition of the boundary line made over to them have but too often been thwarted by those, from whom it had a right to expect every possible cooperation. At all events, it is certainly beyond dispute, that the action hitherto taken by the British High Commissioners in these various questions, does not evince the spirit breathend forth in the despatch of H. Labouchere to Sir George Grey, Governor of the Cape Colony, from which the following extract is quoted:" The outlines of that policy, I would recapitulate as follows: to observestrictly the letter and spirit of the treaties into which we have entered with the neighboring States; to maintain the integrity of our possesions on the confines of these states, but to aboud any extension of their limits to which they may justly object; and to forbear from mixing ourselves up with the affairs of the naitve tribes, except so far as may be clearly indispensable for the protection of Her Majesty's subjects. "

The future for the Oranje Vrystaat Repbulic​
Such, then, are the principal events which have occuied the serious attention of the Oranje Free State Government to such as degree, that the internal affairs of the State have not recieved that vital attention which many important branches still urgently demad; and to this it is owing that the Judical, Asministrative, and Educational Departments, still call for the earnest study of every well-meaning citizen, with a veiw to their establishment on the best possible footing. To the political questions also it may be attributed that the national feelings of the Dutch and English are not more fully united and merged in the consolidation of the various interests of the country with a sole view to its future greatness. Happily, however, of late years, agreat deal of the bitterness has passed away, and the sympathies of all parties are becoming more concentrated in the common interests ofthe State. When it is considered that but fourty years ago, the management of the affairs of this country was cast upon the shoulders of a people untutored as regards to government; exposed to crafts of enemies, without and within; without any standing force; without military stores, or a public treasury; with a sparse population spread out over a large extent of territory; and without any definite legislation; the rise and present proseperity of the Oranje Free State Republic, surely bears witness to an almost unprecedented success, and have earned for it the right to be looked upon as one of the leading States of South Africa. In concluding the short sketch of this Republic, it would be well to state, that besides the amicable relations which the Oranje Free State enjoys with their nothren neighbours, it has formed various amicable relations with various European powers.

[1] There has been no official calculation about the area that the Oranje Vrystaat occupied. The only official estimate that has been made is from 1875, which stated that it was around 70,000 square miles
[2] People were actually send to South Africa for the 'good' air, including the most evil man in South Africa, Cecil Rhodes
[3] There has been no official calculation of population of the Oranje Vrystaat since 1870, so these numbers arenot certain
[4] These estimates are very rough and from 1875, thusmuch may have changed in nearly two decades
 
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Punch, or the London Charivari

VOL CVII
LONDON:
PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE, 85, FLEET STREET,
AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS,
1894



Mr. Punch at White Lodge, Richmond
"Don't make a noise, or else you'll wake the baby."


(Mr. Punch watches over the crib of Prince Edward of York, the great-grandson of Queen Victoria, born in this year)​

i. July 7, 1894

"VIVE LA RÉPUBLIQUE!"

ENGLAND TO FRANCE.—June, 1894.


Aye! Long live the Republic! 'Tis the cry
Wrung from us even while the shadow of death
Sudden projected, makes us catch our breath
In a sharp agony of sympathy.
Her servants fall, but she—she doth not die;
She strideth forward, firm of foot as Fate,
In calm invincibility elate;
The tear that brimmeth, blindeth not her eye,
So fixed aloft it lowereth not to greet
The writhing reptile bruised by her unfaltering feet!

Vive la République! How can we who love
Fair France's charm, and sorrow at her sorrow,
Better bear witness, on the bitter morrow
Of her black grief, than lifting high above
Even the mourning that all hearts must move,
That cry, blent of goodwill and gratulation?
Vive la République! In the whole stricken nation
Doth not the dumbness of Pretenders prove
The land's possession by that cleansing fire,
Which purges patriot love from every low desire?

Sister in sorrow now, as once in arms,
Of old "fair enemy" on many a field,
In valiant days but blind, we will not yield
To any in that sympathy which warms
All generous hearts, or love of those gay charms
Nature and Genius gave you as your own
To wear, inimitable and alone;
And now the asp-hearted Anarch's mad alarms
Make monstrous tumult in the midst of peace
We cry "let brothers band till Cain-like slayers cease!"

The slaughtered son you bear from forth the fray,—
Like some winged Victory, or a Goddess high,
With steps unshaken, glance that seeks the sky,
Such as your glorious sculptors shape from clay,—
Was noble, brave, and blameless; him to slay
Was the blood-blinded phrenzy of black hate.
Through him the Anarch struck at your high state,
Fair choice of France, but baffled crawls away.
Prone at your feet your faithful servant fell,
But you stride calmly on, unscathed, invulnerable.

So may it be till Anarchy's stealthy blade
Falls pointless, shattered, from its palsied grasp,
And helpless, harmless as a fangless asp
It slinks from freedom's pathway, foiled, afraid,
Whilst the Republic, strong and undismayed,
With robe unsmirched, its hem no longer gory,
Strides proudly on the true high path of glory.
Take, France, a sister's wreath, before you laid,
In honour of you, and of your hero brave.
Love's garland shall not fade on gallant Carnot's grave!

ii. July 7, 1894


PREHISTORIC PEEPS
It is quite a mistake to suppose that Henley Regatta was not anticipated in Earliest Times.

iii. July 14, 1894

THE NEW PARTY.

[Mr. Grant Allen and several other advanced politicians have started a new party, the members of which are to be called Isocrats, a title very similar to one coined by Coleridge for a society which he desired to found on principles of general equality. —Daily Paper.]


Many have heard of Pantisocracy,
A compound crude of Coleridge and cant,
The latest products of Democracy
Dub themselves Isocrats without the "pant."
'Tis as it should be, is it not,
For what are they but sans-culottes?

IV. July 21, 1894

THE COREAN DIFFICULTY. —"Japan declines to withdraw."—(Telegram, Thursday, July 12).—"Ah," observed Miss QUOTER, who is ever ready, "that reminds me of Byron's line in Mazeppa, quite applicable to the present situation—


'Again he urges on his mild Corea.'"​

V. July 28, 1894

GUESSES AT GOODWOOD.

[By a Transatlantic Cousin, according to English ideas.]


That I shall get puppar to take me and mother down in real style.

That we will wake up sleepy old Europe, and show these insolent insulars that we are above small potatos.

That I shall cut out the Britisher Misses, and make their mummars sit up.

That I shall take care that luncheon is not neglected, and see that all my party, like the omnibuses, are full inside.

That I shall think very small of the races, so long as I get my boxes of gloves.

That I shall do credit to the best society of Boston and the seminaries of New York by speaking through my nose a mixture of slang and nonsense.

That I shall call his Grace of Canterbury "Archbishop," and any owner of strawberry leaves "Duke."

That I shall wear a gown trimmed with diamonds, and have my parasols made of net and precious stones. That I shall conceal the fact that puppar made his money out of the sale of wooden nutmegs and mother's aunt was a laundress.

That I shall flirt with a Duke at the Races, marry him at St. George's, and give up for ever the stars and stripes.

P.S. (by a Transatlantic Cousin, according to American ideas).—I shall continue to wonder at an English girl's notions of her kinswomen when there are so many charming specimens of refined Columbian gentlewomen resettled in the old home of the Anglo-Saxon race.

VI. August 4, 1894

Maxim for Cyclists.—"Try-cycle before you Buy-cycle."

VII. August 11, 1894

THE MARCH OF CIVILISATION.

[From a Record in the Far East.]


Step One.—The nation takes to learning the English language.

Step Two.—Having learned the English language, the nation begins to read British newspapers.

Step Three.—Having mastered the meaning of the leaders, the nation start a Parliament.

Step Four.—Having got a Parliament, the nation establishes school boards, railways, stockbrokers, and penny ices.

Step Five.—Having become fairly civilised, the nation takes up art and commerce.

Step Six.—Having realised considerable wealth, the nation purchases any amount of ironclads, heavy ordnance, and ammunition.

Step Seven.—Having the means within reach, the nation indulges in a terrific war.

Step Eight and Last.—Having lost everything, the nation returns with a sigh of relief to old-fashioned barbarism.​

VIII. August 18, 1894

WHERE TO GO.


Antwerp—if you are not tired of Exhibitions.
Boulogne—if you don't mind the mud of the port.
Cologne—if you are not particular about the comfort of your nose.
Dieppe—if you like bathing in the foreign fashion.
Etretat—if solitude has commanding charms.
Florence—if you are partial to 100° in the shade.
Genoa—if you have no objection to mosquitoes.
Heidelberg—if you are not tired of the everlasting castle.
Interlacken—if the Jungfrau has the advantage of novelty.
Java—if you wish to eat its jelly on the spot.
Kandahar—if you are not afraid of Afghan treachery.
Lyons—if you are fond of riots and émeutes.
Marseilles—if you are determined to do the Château D'If.
Naples—if you are anxious to perform an ante-mortem duty.
Ouchy—if you like it better than Lausanne.
Paris—if you have not been there for at least a fortnight.
Quebec—if you are qualifying for admission to a lunatic asylum.
Rome—if you have never had the local fever and want to try it.
Strasbourg—if you are hard up for an appropriate destination.
Turin—if it is the only town you have not seen in Italy.
Uig—if you affect the Isle of Skye in a thunder-storm.
Venice—if you scorn stings and evil odours.
Wiesbaden—if you can enjoy scenery minus gambling.
Yokohama—if you are willing to risk assault and battery.
Zurich—if you can think of no other place to visit.

N.B.—The above places are where to go on the keep-moving-tourist plan. But when you want to know "WHERE TO STAY,"—we reply, "AT HOME."​

IX. September 8, 1894

Motto for Mr. Hall-Caine.—"The proper study of mankind is (the Isle of) Man!"

X. October 20, 1894

"ALL UP WITH THE EMPIRE!"


This is a dreadful cry to raise. Let's hope it is not anywhere near the truth. Says the Emperor, i.e. the chairman of the Empire (Theatre), "There will be only one effect should the County Council endorse the decision of its Licensing Committee. The Empire Theatre will be at once closed, as it would be impossible to carry it on under such absurd restrictions." Such is the Imperial ukase issuing from Leicester Square. And the Emperor is right. This "grandmotherly legislation," however well-intentioned the grandmothers, may be all very well for "babes and sucklings," but then babies in arms are not admitted to the Empire, and those babes of older growth who have evidently been partaking too freely of "the bottle" are strictly excluded by the I. C. O. or Imperial Chuckers Out. No doubt London common sense will ultimately prevail, even in the Court of the London County Council, and the Empire will soon be going stronger than ever.​

XI. December 1, 1894


"ALL'S WELL!"
British Lion And Russian Bear (together).
"WHAT A PITY WE DIDN'T KNOW EACH OTHER BEFORE!"

XII. December 20, 1894

THE MAKING OF A MAN.

["Lord Rosebery is not a man at all: he is a political Joint-Stock Company, Limited."—Letter from Mr. Chamberlain in the "Times."]



Oh, Chamberlain, with joy I note the labour of the file
In this delightful sample of your literary style.
I seem to see you trying it in half a hundred ways,
Before your taste could settle on the perfect final phrase.
With just a little polish here, a slight erasure there,
You got it into shape at last, and made your copy fair.
Lo, how its graceful suavity all meaner folk rebukes,
In every little word I trace the influence of dukes;
The gallant style, the courtly thrust with controversial sword
Of one—what need to tell his name?—who dearly loves a lord;
Who learnt amid our feudal halls the ancient courtesy
That scorns to stoop to Billingsgate, or ape the bold bargee.
Serene and proud he follows still the good old maxim's plan,
And by his manners proves himself to all the world a Man.
 
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The German Emperor would like to extend an invitation to all noblemen, dignitaries and sea loving gentlemen of Europe, America and the Far East to attend the Kiel Regatta. The Regatta will take place in the last week of June and will be personally attended by the Emperor as well as other prominent members of the German Imperial Government, Army and Navy. The Emperor himself will take part in the race and looks forward to the competition as well as the banquets and events surrounding the races.
 

Julius Maximus

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The Kingdom Of Romania

I, King Carol I of Romania shall attend the Kiel Regatta on behalf of the Kingdom of Romania. Our close ties to Kaiser Wilhelm II and the house of Hohenzollern shall give me great pride to be apart of such festivities. I look forward to the competition, and shall bring our most prestigious and agile yacht to see who shall be crowned the winner.

My Regards,

 

Frymonmon

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From the Desk of His Excellency Ignacio Mariscal, Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the United Mexican States
Del escritorio de Su Excelencia Ignacio Mariscal, Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos

Himno Nacional Mexicano



Following the declaration by the German Emperor, I have been instructed by His Excellency the President to announce that the United Mexican States shall attend Kiel Week. A yacht of great speed and excellence shall be outfitted to attend the ceremonies and to represent the Mexican people in this event of great international prestige and brotherhood.

I shall attend the event personally and will be aboard the Mexican vessel during the races. It is my hope that the yacht most worthy of victory shall secure it.

 
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دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه
دولت ابد مدت
Hamidiye Marşı


From the Office of Ahmet Tevfik Paşa, Ambassador to Germany

It is with great enthusiasm that I may report to your Majesty that his Imperial Majesty, Abdul Hamid II, has accepted your invitation to attend this Kiel Week; he anticipates arriving within two weeks of the event. It is also hoped that negotiations over continued modernisation programmes being undertaken within the Empire can be discussed at length, amongst other topics and minutiae.




 
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I personally plan to attend this festive event in Germany. A naval race should be enjoyable and as well its clear to all that Italy has a keen interest in all matters naval. The German people are clearly a friend to the Italian people as well.

Umberto I ~ King of Italy
 

oxfordroyale

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Prologue: The War of the Pacific (1879-1883)​

On February 14[SUP]th[/SUP], 1879, Chile landed troops along the coastal territory of Bolivia following a dispute over an increase of taxes on Chilean nitrate enterprises in the heavily-contested Atacama Desert region – a violation of the 1874 Boundary Treaty between the two nations. This precipitated a declaration of war on Chile by Bolivia and its ally Peru on the 1[SUP]st[/SUP] of March, 1879, and the commencement of what would later be termed the “War of the Pacific”; an incredibly important historical event not only for the countries involved, but for the entirety of South America.

The war went badly for Bolivia and Peru almost immediately. Within weeks of the declaration of war the Chileans won a string of decisive victories over the Bolivian and Peruvian armies, pushing them north along the coast and occupying large areas of the disputed territory. One of the first major cities to be taken was the vital Bolivian port of Antofagasta, Bolivia’s main link to the Pacific Ocean and the source of much wealth and trade for the nation. Its loss was devastating to both the Bolivian morale and economy.


I. Chilean troops occupying Antofagasta in 1879. It was Bolivia’s largest and most lucrative port city on the Pacific.

Following a harsh defeat at the hands of the Chilean army at the Battle of Tacna, the Bolivian army was forced to withdraw on May 26[SUP]th[/SUP], 1880. The Peruvian army was similarly defeated at Arica in June; a bloody engagement that reduced any fighting in the region by the Peruvians to merely guerilla warfare.


II. The Battle of Arica resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Peruvian army; one of Peru’s foremost military figures, Colonel Francisco Bolognesi, was killed in the fighting.

Following the functional elimination of any enemy armies in the region, Chile advanced on its gains made with its initial landings and soon occupied the entirety of coastal Bolivia and most of southern Peru.

The naval theatre of the war went seldom better for the Bolivians and their Peruvian allies. Despite several victories over Chile by the Peruvian navy, such as the Battle of Iquique and the First and Second Battles of Antofagasta, Chile ended up defeating both Peru and Bolivia’s fleets and gaining the naval supremacy it needed to easily supply its troops for a larger war.


III. The Battle of Iquique resulted in the sinking of an important Chilean ship, the Esmeralda, by a famed Peruvian ironclad, the Huáscar.

Having bested its enemies on both sea and land, Chile went on the occupy the Peruvian capital of Lima in January 1881, and in October of 1883 Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón with Chile following the defeat of the remainder of the Peruvian army at the Battle of Huamachuco in July of that year. It quickly became clear to all parties that the war was already decided, and Bolivia too signed a truce with Chile in 1884.

In the two treaties, Chile acquired the territories of Tarapacá, Tacna, and Arica from Peru, and from Bolivia annexed all of the nation’s coastline. The war was a humiliating and devastating defeat for both nations, resulting in significant military and economic losses for Bolivia and Peru and a glorious victory for Chile. The defeat was particularly hard on Bolivia, as it had lost its entire access to the Pacific and become completely landlocked, deprived of both maritime trade and the natural resources of the annexed Atacama region.


IV. Bolivia lost its entire coastline following the War of the Pacific, a fact which caused bitter resentment and a desire for vengeance in the Bolivian people that still hold strong a decade later.
 
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Rare

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República de Colombia (Republic of Colombia)
"Libertad y Orden" ("Freedom and Order")

The President of Colombia, Rafael Núñez, would love to attend Kiel Week along with his wife and The First Lady, Soledad Núñez. The yacht, built by the hands of Colombians, will be outfitted to represent the people of Colombia and their hard work on the yacht. This event will show the positive relations that Colombia has with other nations around the globe.

The President also hope that other South American nations join Colombia at this prestigious event as they represent, not only their people, but all of South America.

I will personally be on the Colombian vessel during the event at Kiel as the yacht gains a victory from Colombia.


From the Office of Marco Fidel Suárez, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Colombia

 
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Watercress

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HRH The Prince of Wales
His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales shall be delighted to attend the Kiel Regatta, hosted by his beloved nephew, His Imperial Majesty Kaiser Wilhem II. His Royal Highness shall serve as the representative of both the Crown and of Her Majesty's Government, and as a keen yachtsman, shall personally captain the British entry into the Regatta.
 

Frymonmon

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Excerpts as printed in the NEW YORK TIMES:

On the ongoing Economic Hardship

[...] Across the nation, the effects of recent collapse of the stock market are still being felt by America's citizens. The destruction of industrial jobs, and the ongoing depression of farm prices, have left hundreds of thousands without jobs. So dire are the straits that many people find themselves in, Detroit mayor Hazen S. Pingree has announced the formation of a large portion of public land towards the cultivation of potatoes, simply to ensure the population of the city has access to some form of food. The latest news from Detroit puts unemployment rates near thirty per cent of the working population. Here in New York, there number have been steadily rising towards twenty five per cent of the workers. Tensions remain mounting, as thousand place the blame on President Cleveland and the Democratic Party. Currently in Congress, a debate is taking place over a new tariff law, which if passed, would see a large reduction in overall tariff rates [...]

On Hawai'i and the recent overthrow of the Monarchy

[...] President Cleveland released a statement today through Secretary Gresham regarding the ongoing dispute in the Republic of Hawaii. In it, it read that 'President' Dole had sent Lorrin Thurston to Washington in a bid to enter into discussions about the annexation of of the Hawaiian Republic to the United States. The President's response was also included, which stated that the United States would 'actively seek the overturn' of the 'illegal assumption of power from Queen Liliuokalani.' While the President has made it clear he does not support the Republic of Hawaii, he did not hesitate in making sure that business of negotiations between the United States and Hawaii would continue at their normal pace [...]

On the Kiel Regatta

[...] While the United States government has not issued any specific plans to attend the Regatta in Kiel, Germany, there has been the confirmation that the financier J.P. Morgan and steel baron Andrew Carnegie have decided upon entering into the European event, a true sign of both their yachting support, and their tendancy to form what many are describing as 'America's Aristocracy' [...]