Cloud Strife

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The actions of the a certain Apostol Arsache, have created a great uproar in Eastern Europe through his ill-advised actions that step far beyond the bounds of permissible for a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. That Mr. Arsache attempted to perform foreign relations at all, and especially without informing Porte of his intentions is most alarming. The statement made by the supposed "foreign minister" of the United Principalities is thus null and void. The Porte apologizes for any confusion or inconvenience that this has caused for our neighbors, steps have and are being taken to mitigate future risks.

~ Grand Vizier Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha
From: Agenor Gołuchowski, First Minister of the Empire, and Deputy Chairman of the Council of State of the Austrian Empire
To: Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha, Grand Vizir of the Ottoman Empire

228px-Coat_of_Arms_of_Leopold_II_and_Francis_II%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperors-Or_shield_variant.svg.png

Greetings to your Excellency,

The Imperial Government is most pleased by the firm approach of the Sublime Porte towards the indiscretions of the regime of Moldova and Wallachia. We have every confidence that the Sultan's government will continue to work as a positive influence in regional affairs at the mouth of the great Danube River. Know that the Austrian Kaiser bears no ill-will towards the Ottoman Sultan for the mistakes made by Prince Cuza, and on his behalf let me convoy the Austrian Kasier's well-wishes for your government.

Sincerely,
Gołuchowski
 

Frymonmon

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BE ADVISED

I am opening up two more slots for permanent placements of nations with stats. Please send signups here.

If you are not in the stats currently, you do not have a spot. You will have to sign up if I previously promised you a stats-bearing spot.
 

Sneakyflaps

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The Reign of King Frederick VII of Denmark
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Frederick VII was not born to be king, as all had expected that his cousin, King Frederick VI would father a child during his long period of government. But thankfully for all of Denmark, or perhaps to its curse as one would never know, he never did. What however happened was that Frederick ascended to the Danish Throne at the age of forty, following the death of his father, Christian VIII. He had grown up in what would in modern day Denmark be described as a neglected home, left in the hands of relatives or strangers, not taken care of by his father or mother and left largely alone, even when his parents were present. He also received an education not to his liking, and as such he largely grew bored with all but athletics where he achieved acclaim. He was to become the black sheep of the Danish Royal Family, having numerous affairs and scandals during his early adulthood, some even lasting well into his life. It was this Prince that now had to restore Denmark from the disastrous reign of his cousin, which had left Denmark without Norway which in turn threw Denmark into a near two decades of financial recession and depression.

The Danish economy prior, during and post the Napoleonic Wars had made progress, even despite the recession. This especially came from 1775 and onwards as the Danish population began to grow larger than ever before. This was helped by a declining child mortality coupled with advances in medicine and fewer epidemic outbreaks, not to mention the education of midwives. This population boom now meant that the local landowners started to gain losses by the old archaic system which the Danish agricultural sector was based upon. The response to this was perhaps not the most obvious to some, but it came in the form of the massive sale of crown lands combined with sale of landed estates of the nobility. The result of this early on meant that now, two thirds of all Danish Farmers became owners of their own private land compared to only ten percent a century ago, with each farm being about 50 acres worth of land. This progress was halted somewhat during the recession during the 1820s and 30s, but resumed once more early in the 40s and 50s. Though this was at a much lower rate than previously as much land had already become privately owned by the farmers.

Due to all of this, the wealth and the standard of living were to rise during the reign of Frederick VIII, even if much of this had to do with the policies of his predecessors, and even if most of them apart from the mentioned above were outside of the king’s control. It was especially the spreading of clovers and potatoes across Denmark during the 1830s which helped the Danish peasants grow more crops, which combined with the individual farms ensured that the Danish people no longer lived near starvation and poverty. Another important event was the British repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846, along with the population increase of Europe, boosted Danish export even further, so that by now the export share of agricultural production in Denmark has risen to very nearly 30%.

Frederick though would become most known for two other events during his reign, the war of Schleswig and the absolution of the Danish absolute monarchy. The first major event, the abolishment of the absolute monarchy occurred when the first Danish constitution was signed by Frederick VII in 1849, thus willingly and peacefully bringing democracy to the Kingdom. This had in truth had been building up over many years and many had hoped that Frederick’s father, Christian VIII and his predecessors, Frederick VII’s cousin, Frederick VI had instituted a constitutional monarchy in mirror of Britain. This had especially been hoped for during the late reign of Frederick VI, who had ruled as an enlightened regent and monarch ever since his coup d'etat, in 1784 at the age of 16 against his father’s ministers, where he was first proclaimed regent and then finally becoming king in 1808. Frederick VI’s father, Christian VII, had been insane since early in his life and as such during the majority of his reign the actual governance was handled by ministers and regents.

But as neither Christian VIII nor Frederick VI had given up their power, it felt to Frederick VII. The event which sparked the issue was a national liberal meeting in the theater of Copenhagen, where the group demanded that the King’s Government resign, and that there should be a free constitution. The following day the King was caught by surprise as a large number of protestors came to the palace square in support of the proclamation made the night earlier in the theatre. The King’s natural inclination was to follow the wish of the people saying “When you, my gentlemen, has the same trust in your King, as I have to my people, then I shall be to you a true leader for honour and liberty”, a desire supported by one of his ministers, Bardenfleth, who was the only one who remained in his position following the government’s resignation shortly thereafter. It was after this that the March Ministry came to be, this ministry oversaw the early months of the war against the German states as well as the implementation of the first constitution, during which time the King proclaimed that he would rather abdicate than go against the wish and good being of his subjects. Thus in 1849 formally ending nearly 200 years of absolute rule.

4Ky09dy.jpg

King Frederick VII of Denmark
Motto: The people's love, my strength

The second event was to unfold during the early parts of Frederick’s reign as well, while he was still occupied with protests of 1848, was the beginning of the Schleswig war. The war itself can be split into three parts, divided by two truce periods. Originally the position of Denmark was less secure as the German states sent aid to the Schleswigian rebels, resulting in Denmark losing the first battle of the war. But as time progressed and the first truce ended, support for the rebels had faded and by the end of the second truce, it was gone entirely and the Danish forces crushed the rebellion. Though while the war was a victory, politically it proved to be of little use as the Danish politicians failed to achieve their goal of uniting the duchies with the Danish Crown thus forming it into one Kingdom. Instead the London Protocol was signed which ensured that the duchies would remain with Denmark. It also altered the succession in the duchies to allow for succession that would soon come to the Royal house of Denmark to also take place in the duchies. In return Denmark promised not to further integrate the duchies into the Kingdom, while securing that the Prussians could no longer attack Denmark or its duchies, and keeping the important naval city of Kiel out of Prussian hands. It was in this protocol that Christian, the duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was named as heir to the Kingdom of Denmark and the duchy of Schleswig-Holstein. This largely came about due to the influence and insistence of the Russian Tsar, who advocated for his candidacy, thus ensuring the continued stability and succession.

Now as the King was growing increasingly ill as the early parts of 1863 dawned, it remained to be seen how long he would last. The King had become a national hero, but he himself was consumed if the politics of his reign allowed the continued peaceful existence of Denmark, if Prussia would invade, or if his ministers, God forbid, would be foolish enough to attempt to overwrite the London Protocol.

((Fry, if you are opening up for more stated nations, I would love to get stats for Denmark, or to play as the Dutch with stats))
 

Olligarchy

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15y9qtc.jpg

It be the will of Heavens on high that this humble representative speaketh to the qiānsùi of the Zhàndòu mínzú, the fiercest tribe of warriors known to many as the Russian Empire, concerning breaking of the borders belonging to the Middle Kingdom. It be the will of the Heavens, and that of the Dragon that the qiānsùi of the Zhàndòu mínzú bring clarity to the concerns of his Majesty and bring explanation as to why reports of Zhàndòu mínzú men at arms have taken to crossing and breaking boundaries of the Middle Kingdom in repeated manner, ignoring the precepts of earlier treaties and amiable relations?

We expect clarification to follow soon, for though the Dragon views himself a friend of the qiānsùi, he cannot allow such travesties to come to pass without some manner of explanation.


文祥
known as Wénxiáng
Head of the
Zǒnglǐ Yámén
 

Cloud Strife

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Interlude at Miramar:
"Mountain Hungarians" and Ironclads


330px-Franz_Joseph_Austria_with_Brothers.jpg

The Imperial Brothers; from right to left, Karl Ludwig, Franz Joseph, Maximilian, and Ludwig Viktor

The excitement over the recognition of the Southern Rebels in the United States by the Western Europeans calmed down somewhat after the United Principalities capitulated and retracted their endorsement of rebellion. Congratulations and well-wishes from the Diet of Hungary poured into Vienna and the Kaiser was pleased Prince Cuza was reminded of his proper place in the hierarchy of Europe. It was vexing to the Magyars that the Cuza and his "Romanians" continued to claim the lands of Translyvania as their own. Of course no Romanians lived in Erdély, only "Mountain Hungarians," Szeklers, and other minorities.

Deciding upon a break from Vienna, the Kaiser and his brothers departed the capitol for Archduke Max's estate at Schloss Miramar. The retired kaiser, Ferdinand, was also in attendance having been invited from Prague. He was regularly invited by his nephew Max each spring and winter to take in the better clime and make sure of a nearby sanatorium Max had constructed for this express purpose. The current kaiser's father, Franz Karl, also arrived from Prague as his brother's--the retired kaiser's--caretaker and to escape the nagging of his wife Sophie of Bavaria, who had not reconciled herself to being supplanted in the family hierarchy by the Kaiser's wife Sisi.

The noted architect Carl Junker was responsible for the design of Miramar. The complex was built on a cliff by the seaside and the location was chosen to allow for the landscaping of tropical plants and other curiosities Max had come upon during his travels as an active-duty officer of the Austrian Navy. The style of the castle reflects the artistic interests of Max, who was acquainted with the eclectic architectural styles of Austria, Germany and Britain. The craftsman Franz Hofmann and his son, Julius, were entrusted with the furnishing and decorations. Hofmann, who worked in the city of Trieste, was a skillful artisan who was willing to follow Maximilian’s suggestions. Both the artisan and his patron had a similar cultural formation and they were well acquainted with the latest trends of the 1860s.

The discussions between members of Imperial Family inevitably centered on when Franz's youngest brother would accept his duties and marry. Archduke Ludwig Viktor publicly effeminate ways were a source of much headaches for the Kaiser, he directed Max to take Ludwig on a tour of Viennese hospitals and asylums to put the fear of God back in him, or at the very least show him the dangers of such a libertine lifestyle, and to engage him in hiking in lower Austria. Franz gave his youngest brother the choice of being straightened out by Max or their brother Archduke Karl Ludwig, whose fiery religiosity and ardent love of science was both confusing and endearing to the people of Vienna. Not really enjoying Max's philosophy of the "strenuous life" Ludwig drifted towards Karl's circle, and for his part Karl worked on making his youngest brother a proper carbon copy of himself.

Political discussions were confined to talks between Franz and Max, the rest of the family were not as enthusiastic to involve themselves in the endless debates between both brothers. Topics ranged from the Danish and Greek successions, the effect a blockade of the Southern Rebels would have on the price of textiles, and which composers to grant patronage in the upcoming opera and concert season. For the several weeks the Imperial Family was in residence at Miramar, a steady stream of guests and other dignities came and left to allow the Kaiser to conduct state affairs. Laws passed by local diets were given Imperial assent, candidates for the Imperial Diet suggested by local diets to fill new vacancies were reviewed, and the decisions of military promotion boards certified. Nobles, industrialists, and other figures who made the empire run also visited the Kaiser to drum up his interest in this or that cause. The most persistent of lobbyists were members of his brother Max's Flottenverein.

The Fleet Association was aggressive in their advocacy for industrialization and modernization. The Navy was not seen as threatening to Liberals as further enlarging the standing army. Conservatives paid little attention to fleet for it did not particularly interest them. There was both greater room for innovation and some degree of financial support coming in as the new industrialists of the Habsburg Empire saw the Navy as a reliable, long-term customer. A trip was arranged for Max and Franz to visit the dockyards of the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino. The yards were busy constructing the newest capital ships of the empire, the Einheit-class Ironclads. Materials for their construction came from across the Kaiser's domains and much new innovation was poured into their design and creation.

After ensuring no naval artillery tests were on the day's agenda--the Kaiser did not want to share the fate of von Roon of Prussia--the royal party toured the construction site. The larger portion of the yards were devoted to warehouses and sheds containing building materials. Delivery had to be carefully coordinated with supplies to ensure materials would not rust on-site, waiting to be used. The majority of warships of the time were wooden but the generation of new ironclads employed an iron superstructure and a series of uniform iron plates attached to the hull, usually backed by several inches of teak for shock absorption. The Einheit-class was different in that it substituted iron for teak for backing and used steel armor. Even with the new Bessemer process steel was impractical for use on an entire vessel and this "compound armor" which counteracted the brittleness of steel with the shock absorption of iron allowed for the cost-effective use of steel plate in warships. Below the waterline a layer of Muntz metal--a form of brass with about 60 percent copper, 40 percent zinc and trace iron--worked to prevent fouling; the build up of marine organisms on the hull, which would create drag and lower speed.

The superstructure of the Einheit-class was also different than contemporary wooden warships. Being designed for combat in the narrow seas of the Adriatic and Mediterranean there was little need for the vessels to be fitted out with sails. Rigging would take up precious displacement and all along the Adriatic and Mediterranean were friendly coaling stations in the event of a war with the most likely powers. This meant the turrets of the Einheit-class could fire without obstruction. In the forward-center of the ship, behind the forward turret, was the fighting bridge and behind that a solitary "military mast" used for spotting and stationing marksmen. Behind the military mast were two funnels for engine exhaust and behind the funnels lay the aft turret. Conversely, the lack of wind propulsion would reduce the endurance of these Austrian ironclads if used in uncivilized parts of the world but as Austria had no colonies, it was not expected that these ships would see service in the Orient and beyond.

Each turret was a work of modern engineering. Each was a circular, armored chamber in which were attached two 12 inch naval guns. The entire structure went some yards below the main deck and was kept in place through weight; if the ship were to capsize and roll over the turrets would fall out. Each naval gun was a muzzle loader and this was accomplished by directing steam power to rotate the guns to a loading position, where gunners below deck would prepare the ammunition and manually ram it home. This being accomplished and the guns loaded, the turret would then be trained on a target. The entire operation in optimal conditions would take 3 to 5 minutes and required a gun crew of nearly 48 sailors.

Most fascinating for the Kaiser was the equipment slated for use in the engine room and bridge. Telegraphy had made the world much smaller and now it was used to communicate orders from the bridge to the engine room. When the ship's pilot wanted to change speed he would "ring" the telegraph on the bridge, moving the handle to a different position on the dial. This would ring a bell in the engine room and move their pointer to the position on the dial selected by the bridge. The engineers hear the bell and move their handle to the same position to signal their acknowledgment of the order, and adjust the engine speed accordingly. Such an order is called a "bell," for example the order for a ship's maximum speed, flank speed, is called a "flank bell." For urgent orders requiring rapid acceleration, the handle is moved three times so that the engine room bell is rung three times. Both on land and at sea, telegraphy was proving key to reducing communications lag.

The cost of such bleeding-edge technology was considerable but Franz came away with his tour of the yards with more confidence that the vast expenditures on these capital ships would provide fighting units without par. The growing Italian Navy would become more formidable with each passing year and the intervention of Great Britain into Romanian affairs produced great annoyance in the Kaiser. British power was built on the Royal Navy and measures would have to be taken to ensure the population centers of the Adriatic would not be threatened in any potential conflict. While Austria had no need, or money, to match any power on the waves one-for-one across the globe, it was prudent to ensure local dominance of the Adriatic in the face of the changing geopolitical landscape.
 
Last edited:

Watercress

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Кнежевина Србија
The Principality of Serbia

~

140px-Royal_Monogram_of_Prince_Mihailo_Obrenovi%C4%87_III_of_Serbia.svg.png


300px-Knez_Mihajlo_III_Obrenovic.jpg

His Serene Highness, Mihajlo Obrenović, Prince of Serbia

~

250px-Ilija_Gara%C5%A1anin_table_crop.jpg

His Excellency, Ilija Garašanin, President of the Ministry

~

320px-Civil_Flag_of_Serbia.svg.png


Foreign

Domestic
 
Last edited:

MastahCheef117

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A letter from Secretary of War Edwin McMasters Stanton to Captain David Glasgow Farragut.
in late December.
Sir,

Following a series of cabinet meetings with the President and Sec. of the Navy, I wish to inform you of your official recalling from your current station back North for a reassignment. You are expected in the city of Annapolis, ready for service, no later than 10 January. A vessel for your transport has already been dispatched and will facilitate your departure and return to civilization.

Faithfully in Christ and Union,

EDWIN McMASTERS STANTON
Secretary of War of the United States
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Korona

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攘夷勅命
ORDER TO EXPEL THE BARBARIANS
KŌMEI 17
By Order of His Imperial Majesty, all foreign barbarians are to be expelled from Japan and its domains by May 11 Kōmei 17.

孝明天皇
 

Mikkel Glahder

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O6Ahdlr.png

From the Prussian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the most honorable William H. Seward, Secretary of State of the USA
Dear Mr. Seward,

On the behalf of His Majesty's Government, the Ministry of War and the General Staff of Prussia, I greet you and come with a proposal that the General Staff sees as something of the utmost importance to the Prussian Army. We wish to send military observers to the United States of America to observe the Civil War that is currently ongoing. If accepted, we will send a detachment of military officers that shall be linked to an American army of the choice of the US government.

Best Regards
Otto_vonBismarck_Signature.svg

-------
Memorandum from the Prussian Ministry of War
Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel is appointed Prussian Minister of War.

 
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naxhi24

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The History of Portugal from the Liberal Wars to 1863

When the reactionary and absolutist King Miguel I was removed from power by his brother, Pedro IV, the liberal victors established a constitutional monarchy very similar to what was exercised in France and England (two branches of legislature, monarch as head of state, etc). Pedro IV would not assume his old throne, favoring instead to abdicate the throne in favor of his daughter, Queen Maria II. Maria II would rule as Queen alongside her husband, Fernando II, for the next twenty years.

219px-Maria_II_of_Portugal.JPG
272px-Ferdinand_II%2C_King_Consort_of_Portugal_1861.jpg

(The co-monarchs from 1834-1853. Maria II is pictured left, Fernando II right)

Yet the liberal reign was not one of peace or stability. According to Gastão Pereira de Sande, Count of Taipa, a member of the new government's radical opposition, described the government as a "gang made up to devour the country under the shadow of a child" (a figure of speech wherein the "child" represented the young Queen, Maria II of Portugal). The practice the Count of Taipa was describing was "Devourism", the utilization of the public treasury to enrich either oneself or to benefit another. It was a time characterized by a precarious executive office, a lack of ideological definition, the marginalization of popular movements, indiscipline and the intervention of military chiefs in politics. When Maria II was declared of age to rule at only fifteen, she was not prepared to handle the hostile political climate Portugal had obtained. Though, the utilization of the new free press laws provided a way for politicians to express themselves. Small newspapers ran by politicians sprang up across the nation, each one providing differing ideas.

Economically, Portugal was only getting worse compared to the rest of Europe. Its lack of investment in industrialization and its reliance on agricultural products began to take a heavy toil on the economy as the industrialized nations of Europe outproduced Portugal extensively. One man responsible though for pushing forward the idea of progressing what Portugal had was Mouzinho da Silveira. Although he had exiled himself from Portugal following the Civil War, his ideas still caught on with the new liberal government. Among his many proposals, successive governments adopted his policies of disengaging the economy from social conditions, limiting taxes to 5%, ending tithes, abolishing seigniorial fees, reducing export taxes to 1%, terminating the regulation of inter-community commerce and government intervention in municipal affairs, as well as separating the judiciary and administrative offices, liberating general commerce and prohibiting some monopolies. In general, his initiatives were legislated by the post-War regimes to eliminate the privileges of the elite classes, establish social equality, encourage liberalization of the economy and improve government performance. Though, without substantial industrialization, Portugal will lack behind the rest of Europe economically.

200px-Mouzinho_Silveira1.JPG

(Silveira, one of the most important politicians of the Liberal Wars)

Even with economic solutions being enacted, the politics of Portugal would turn head-over-heels. The Charter of 1826 was the constitution adopted by the new government and the new Queen, but it was not popular with many radical liberals in the government. They wished to see the adoption of the 1822 Constitution, which was much more liberal than the 1826 one. Many began plotting against the government, and the plots turned into full-scale rebellion. Since this rebellion was launched in September of 1837, the rebels were given the name "Septembristas". Though the Septembristas were defeated, the government adopted a new constitution in 1838 which sought to reconcile the varying political factions, especially the Septembristas and the Cartists (supporters of the 1826 Charter). Maria II would have other ideas. With royal approval, a coup was launched from Porto in 1842, and reinstated the 1826 Charter with no regard to political unity, bringing the Cartists to power under Costa Cabral.

240px-Antonio_Bernardo_da_Costa_Cabral.jpg

(Costa Cabral, the "Portuguese Doctrinaire" responsible for the coup bringing the Cartists back to power)

Cabral would struggle to reconcile the Septembristas, which led to his downfall as the Septembristas secured his removal and exile from power. In 1846, the Septembristas made a pact with the devil allying with the Miguelists (absolutists in support of Miguel I) to bring down the Cartist government in conflict. Though the Cartists would win, political instability was evident in this new government. Corruption reigned supreme, but there were men willing to oppose it. One such man was the Duke of Saldanha. Saldanha, a Marshal who fought in the Liberal Wars, began a movement called Regeneração, a movement aimed to establish a new political order and to defeat corruption. His movement was met with widespread popularity, and Maria II would make him Prime Minister in 1851. From there, Portugal was rather at peace. Parliament met regularly, elections came and went, there was little internal strife, and the country was relatively stable. Politics though still remained messy. Portugal was falling into a period of "Rotation", where parties would "rotate" in and out of power. Yet, the country was at peace, and internal developments were coming about.

490px-Saldanha.PNG

(Saldanha)

Queen Maria II would die in 1853, leaving the throne to her oldest son, Pedro. Pedro would be crowned Pedro V, and would rule for almost eight years. He had succumbed to cholera in 1861, leaving the throne to his younger brother, Luis I. Luis I is only two years into his reign. Perhaps this new age of Civil War and crisis across the Atlantic could prove opportunistic for the new King?

D._Maria_Pia_e_D._Lu%C3%ADs_I%2C_Baile_de_M%C3%A1scaras_%281865%29.png

(The new King Luis I (right) and his Queen)
 

Watercress

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Jovan Ristić, Serbian Agent in Constantinople, delivers a letter to the Grand Vizier from his Sovereign, the Prince of Serbia @KeldoniaSkylar

140px-Royal_Monogram_of_Prince_Mihailo_Obrenovi%C4%87_III_of_Serbia.svg.png

To His Excellency, Grand Vizier Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha

I bid you warm greetings and salutations to you and your master, my suzerain Sultan Abdulaziz. I wish, before proceeding to the main business of this correspondence, to re-affirm my full dedication to the suzerainty, and diplomatic obligations thereof, of Turkey over Serbia, in light of the recent scandal concerning the United Principalities. I can most heartily assure you that Serbia would never take a diplomatic stance contrary to the wishes of the Sublime Porte.

The aforementioned business of this correspondence concerns the continued Turkish military presence in Serbia. Turkish garrisons occupy the fortresses at Užice, Soko Grad, Belgrade, Šabac, Smederevo, and Kladovo. It is my desire that this presence be either reduced, or if possible, entirely removed. In its present state this military garrison must be an considerable drain on the finances of the Sublime Porte, and moreover is damaging to the stability of the Principality in angering the hotter sort of my subjects who advocate an anti-Turkish policy. The reduction or elimination of the Turkish garrison, therefore, would be interest to the both of us, and would greatly strengthen the bonds of affection between Turkey and Serbia.

I have invested my man in Constantinople, Messr. Ristić, with plenipotentiary powers in order to conduct negotiations on this matter. I pray to the Almighty that this proposal finds your favour, and that the amity between our peoples remains ever enduring.


Yours in friendship,
Mihajlo Obrenović, Prince of Serbia

 

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A Telegram is sent out to all relevant embassies in Athenai

DECLARATION

THAT THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF GREECE HAS CHOSEN A NEW MONARCH FOR THE KINGDOM OF GREECE.


THAT THIS MAN WILL BE PRINCE WILLIAM OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN-SONDERBURG-GLÜCKSBURG,AND BY ACCEPTING THE GREEK THRONE SHALL SURRENDER ANY RIGHTS OF SUCCESSION TO THE DANISH THRONE, FOR HIMSELF AND ANY HEIRS HE MAY SIRE.

PRINCE WILLIAM, AS A FOREIGNER AND A LEGAL MINOR, SHALL HAVE A REGENCY ESTABLISHED FOR HIM FOR THE COMING TIME, WHEN HE REACHES THE AGE OF MAJORITY, BEING 18 YEARS OF AGE FOR THE MONARCH AND IS FIT TO RULE, HE SHALL BE INAUGURATED AS PER OUR MONARCHICAL TRADITIONS. IN THIS TIME HE SHALL LEARN HIS CONSTITUTIONAL OBLIGATIONS, THE GREEK LANGUAGE IN ITS PURE AND UNCORRUPTED FORM AND BE FULLY PREPARED FOR THE POSITION BY MOVING TO THE ROYAL PALACE IN ATHENS, TO ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH HIS FUTURE SUBJECTS.

HIS EXCELLENCY THE REGENT SHALL BE APPOINTED BY PARLIAMENT WITHIN A WEEK OF THIS DECLARATION TO FULLFILL HIS MAJESTIES CONSTITUTIONAL DUTIES IN THE ABSENCE OF HIS MAJESTY.

Dimitrios_Voulgaris_-_ypografi.JPG


D. VOULGARIS, FOR THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF GREECE AND AUTHORIZED BY PARLIAMENT AS PRIME MINISTER OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.

 
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Noco19

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Confederate_Cabinet_small.jpg

The Cabinet of the Confederate States of America

The Modern Founders


193px-Judah_P_Benjamin_crop.jpg

Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of State

At first the Attorney General, then the third Secretary of State, Judah Phillip Benjamin stood as one of the most successful and highly regarded of the Confederate cabinet, having been credited with coaxing recognition from both the British and French.

The first openly Jewish member of the U.S. Senate, Benjamin was born to Sephardic Jews in St. Croix of the Danish West Indies in 1811, immigrating in 1813 to the United States. His family would eventually settle into Charleston, South Carolina for its historic religious tolerance and bustling Jewish community. Bright and full of wit, Benjamin attended Yale University but abruptly departed in 1827, not finishing his studies; in 1861, an abolitionist paper claimed this was due to thievery, a claim rejected by Benjamin.

By 1832, Benjamin had settled into New Orleans and became admitted to the Louisiana Bar, with a rocky marriage into a wealthy family of French Creoles. From the early 1830s, he was a vocal supporter of the Whigs and became a proper U.S. senator in 1853. While not a slaveholder from an early age - likely resulting in his more moderate disposition towards the issue - Benjamin nevertheless defined his time in the Senate by being an outspoken proponent of its survival, elucidating it as a matter of property rights.

As Benjamin transitioned into the Democratic Party following the fragmentation of the Whigs, he likewise made another important affiliation in the late 1850s in the form of then Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis. Although they began as wary allies- Benjamin at one point threatened to duel Davis when he insinuated Benjamin to be acting as an hourly attorney by asking so many questions - they would eventually become close compatriots.

Naturally, when the South seceded, Benjamin supported it, though he had held that secession was the last measure. Due in part to his legal background, Benjamin was appointed Attorney General, but in a state with no established federal courts or marshals, nor even a room for the Justice Department, this gave him exceedingly little to do. However, he used his free time wisely, ingratiating himself to Davis, hosting meetings the president couldn't attend. His few legal rulings were of little note, such as that lemons and oranges could enter the Confederacy duty-free, but walnuts could not.

When the prior Secretary of State Robert M. T. Hunter - a caustic critic of Davis - resigned, Benjamin was an easy choice for Davis, as he had began to be regarded as the right hand of the president. Formally appointed on March 17, 1862 to little fanfare, Benjamin quickly moved to take on the office and push harder in Paris and London. Both, he reckoned, were waiting to see which way the winds blew, he did his part to lay the ground-work, directing Slidell in France and Mason in London to work through whatever channels they could worm through to plead the case of the Confederacy.

And it would succeed in late 1862, a culmination of Benjamin's insistence to play directly to the ear of Napoleon III and the practical results created by generals Robert E. Lee and A.S. Johnston. It was said that Benjamin was in high moods not only with the recognition of the Confederacy, but a winning streak in the Richmond gambling dens, a sure sign that God stood with the South. The Richmond Examiner even allowed a compliment to the president it usually lambasted, stating that "Davis picked a Jew with a silver tongue!"


V1NPucn.jpg
Christopher Memminger, Secretary of the Treasury
Founder of the Confederate financial system and main author of Davis' economic policies, Memminger holds what is likely among the most vital and stressful posts in the war, forced to gather funding in a country in constant necessity with limited means of production. But this should not obstruct from his likewise monumentous contributions in not only drafting the Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union which outlined the reasons behind secession, but also chairing the congressional committee to craft the Provisional Constitution in just four days.

Born in Vaihingen, Würtemberg in 1803, Memminger immigrated into Charleston, South Carolina with his mother, who died in 1807. Left as a total orphan in America, Memminger would live a harsh life until he was taken in by prominent lawyer and future governor Thomas Bennett. Entering the South Carolina College at age 12, he would develop to a life of success, becoming a lawyer himself.

Entering the political arena in the 1830s, Memminger would come out as an opponent during the debates over the nullification doctrine, satirizing its advocates in his aptly named book
The Book of Nullification. For twenty years, Memminger served as head of the South Carolina state legislature finance committee, proving himself a fierce advocate for education, so much so that South Carolina boasted one of the most comprehensive public school systems in the country.

Considered a moderate on the issue of secession, Memminger nevertheless supported the cause following the election of Lincoln, serving as a major contributor to secessionist documents. Chosen as Secretary of Treasury in February of 1861, Memminger has been one of the most vocal in the cabinet regarding the naval situation, confident that a blockade would spell a fast calamity to the Southern economy, perhaps even forcing such harsh measures as income taxation and fiat currency - egads!



RStlvYj.jpg

LeRoy Pope Walker, Secretary of War

Virtually a nobody to President Davis prior to his appointment and treated as such, LeRoy Pope Walker stands as the Secretary of War in a most crucial period of time with little in the way of actual experience. This has in effect allowed President Davis to do precisely what he intended to do in the first place, intensely micromanage the office to the point where he was in command. Saved from ridicule by the efforts of the South's generals, Walker's health nevertheless has been severely declining, first with the loss of Kentucky, and now with the stress of the Tennessee defense, leading many to believe his replacement was soon.

A native of Huntsville, Alabama born in 1817, Walker bore the blood of LeRoy Pope himself. Attending universities in Alabama and Virginia, Walker was admitted to the bar before the age of 21, spring-boarding into various state offices. An energetic secessionist, by 1861, Walker's supporters, including his brother Senator Richard Wilde Walker, successfully petitioned President Davis for his inclusion in the national government, earning him the vaunted post of Secretary of War.


6ZQP4kT.jpg

Stephen Mallory, Secretary of Navy

Blessed by a lack of interest from political rivals and a wealth of experience as the chairman of the U.S. Committee on Naval Affairs, Stephen Mallory has perhaps been an unsung hero for the Confederate cause, ironic given the suspicion levied upon his person owing to his lesser role in the secessionist movement. Quickly able to erect the Confederate Navy, staff it with leadership like Raphael Semmes, and innovate against Union fleets, Mallory seems poised to hold his office tightly as his personal creation that none could hope to manage at this crucial time.

Born in 1813 in Trinidad to an American father and Irish-born mother, Mallory's family settled in Key West, Florida, where Mallory himself would be when not at school in Mobile, Alabama. Following the death of his father and brother, Mallory would be sent up north to Nazareth, Pennsylvania to a Moravian academy despite being Catholic himself. Financial issues would force him to return to Key West after only three years in 1829.

Back home, Mallory entered into the service of maritime law expert Judge William Marvin, where he would construct a reputation as a premier trial lawyer. Up into the 1840s, Mallory held a variety of public offices, building up his influence in Florida, with a brief period spent in the Army during the Seminole Wars. In 1851, he entered into the U.S. Senate with the support of moderates against the Fire-Eater David L. Yulee. Here is where Mallory truly made his mark, gaining prominence in his reforms for the U.S. Navy, implementing a retirement board for naval officers which in turn earned him a number of life-long enemies, such as his current colleague Matthew Fontaine Maury.

Of moderate leanings in opinon towards secession, Mallory called for reconciliation up until Florida seceded, whereafter he gave his farewells to the U.S. Senate and threw his support behind the Confederacy. Though now a supporter, his opponents attacked him as a Yankee sympathizer, though such claims grew quieter into 1863. With a mind towards modernity, Mallory was the genius behind many of the reforms of the Confederate Navy, being one of the first to push for ironclad warships as well as the pioneering of naval technology like the C.S.S. Pioneer.

Now once again in a bind, with the Union Monitors wresting back control, Mallory now deals with the very real possibility of a Union blockade finally materializing.



191px-Thomas_Hill_Watts_1860s.jpg
Thomas H. Watts, Attorney General​

The fourth Attorney General that has sprung up since the short existence of the Confederacy, Thomas H. Watts stands as a man not well invested into his position. Unremarkable and with his appointment a surprise, atop the understandable struggles of running an underfunded department while at war, Watts tenure has produced little of note as yet, and as his allies in Alabama plot his election as governor without his knowledge, it will likely remain as such.

Born in 1819 in the Alabama Territory, Watts would graduate from the University of Virginia in 1840, becoming a lawyer in Greenville, Alabama and then onto Montgomery in 1848. Likewise, he became a wealthy planter, boasting 179 slaves by 1860.

While initially pro-Union in the 1850s, he would turn around as 1861 loomed, ending in his support of the secession of Alabama. Organizing the 17th Regiment Alabama Infantry, Watts would resign from its command by March 18, 1862, succeeding Thomas Bragg - who was said to have been fiercely heckled by Richmond papers - as Attorney General.​

166px-JHRegan.jpg

John H. Reagan, Postmaster General​
Whereas the other departments quarrel for funds and attention, it was John Henninger Reagan that quietly built up his entire agency in only six weeks, to Davis' utter astonishment, essentially stealing the U.S. Post Office Department's staff, records, contracts, and account books simply by asking for them. Efficient, Reagan has busied himself with building up a mail network without much of a fuss.

Although born in Tennessee in 1818, Reagan became a Texan, becoming first a surveyor and then a lawyer in 1846. In 1847, he entered the state legislature and thereafter became a district judge in Palestine. Defeating the Know-Nothings in 1857, Reagan entered the House of Representatives as a moderate who stood for reconciliation up until Texas made clear its support behind secession. A member of the Provisional Confederate Congress, Reagan was appointed Postmaster General a month into his term where he's made ever since, well-appreciated by Davis.
 

Dadarian

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220px-Sir_James_Douglas.jpg
220px-Richard_Clement_Moody_%281859%29.JPG

Sir James Douglas (L) & Richard Moody (R)

Of Gold Rushes and Colonies
Prologue
The region of New Caledonia, of which modern British Columbia is formed, was a chaotic mess during the administration of James Douglas. A steady stream of gold rushes throughout the region would require the establishment of administration centres (typically in the form of crown colonies) for the ease of transport, organisation, protection, and taxation of those that sought to take advantage of these gold rushes. However, throughout all of the region's early history, these administration centres were more often then not operated as simple robber baronies, thieving what they could from the ruffians that dominated the mining industry in colonial New Caledonia. Those who weren't miners or administrators were all employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, which operated with near open sovereignty.

To which, the British Crown thought that this was not a proper example of effective and efficient colonial exploitation, and wished to show a 'courtesy, high breeding and urbane knowledge of the world’ desirous of a British officer. This led them to appoint Sir James Douglas as Governor-General and Richard Moody as Lieutenant Governor-General of the various colonies of New Caledonia (numbering in 1858 some 3 separate administrations plus the everpresent Hudson's Bay Company). This urbane nowledge, carefully cultivated in London, soon collapsed into bloodless wars and infighting.

What London soon learned is that Douglas and Moody hated one another, and constantly fought for control and authority over one another's (fairly ill defined) jurisdiction. It wasn't helped when, in the beginning days of their joint administration, an incident regarding a loud and racist American by the name of Ed McGovern who led a band of drunks out to attempt to lynch their town's black barber. Douglas dispatched Moody along with 21 Royal Engineers to stop the men. The men, drunk, disliked, and angry, tried to fight the Royal Engineers but realised they were thoroughly outgunned. McGovern was soon charged and exiled from the colony and Moody basked in the lime-light, much to Douglas' jealousy.

The importance of the McGovern War (as it was called later) was that it established British authority over the throngs of incoming American miners, which threatened (the administration feared) turning British Columbia into yet another American territory. This feud between Douglas and Moody would continue for the next five years, as the increasingly stressed Douglas was heaped with yet more responsibilities by the Crown (such as the Siktine Territory which was formed in 1862) while Moody languished in British Columbia and his personal political fief of New Westminster (the largest city in Western British North America).

What made Douglas' job even worse was that his attempts to apply responsible government (as sen in the Canadas and increasingly in the Maritimes) was consistently and constantly opposed by Moody (out of pettiness) and the near monolithic Hudson's Bay Company. Constant appeals to the Crown were lost, misplaced, or ignored, and Douglas was forced to go it alone. In the wake of yet another gold rush in 1862, this time in the Cariboo region, Douglas was left with but a single choice. Unite the disparate colonies and territories of New Caledonia and form a single, easily (or at least easier) administrated colony that would bring true British civilisation to all of the Western British North Americans that lived in New Caledonia.
 

Frymonmon

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Simply Murder


The Civil War was fought in ten thousand places. Memphis, Bowling Green, Clarksville, and Sharpsburg. Apache Canyon, Fort Union, Jacksonville, and Brandy Station. On the White River, the Rappahannock, and the Rapidan. Across the Susquehanna and the Monongahela. From Mount Ida and Mount Olive, to Mount Zion. From Nineveh and Nickajack Gap. To New Bern, New Carthage, New Iberia, New Lisbon, and New Hope. From the Yazoo Delta, to the Chickasaw Bluffs.

By 1863, the Taiping Rebellion in China had entered its thirteenth year. Civil War broke out in Afghanistan. In America, Ned Cuthbert of the Philadelphia Keystones stole the first base in professional baseball. The National Academy of Science was founded in Washington. The Roller Skate was patented. And Henry Ford and William Randolph Hearst, were born.

In 1863, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson would become a terror to the Union Army, and a legend North and South. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, a college professor from Maine, would lead his regiment to glory on hillsides in Virginia and Pennsylvania. In the wilderness of western Maryland Robert E. Lee would devise the most brilliant and daring battle plans of the War. While a thousand miles to the west, Philip Sheridan continued to hammer away at the rebel stronghold at Memphis. Confederate Private Sam Watkins would fight at Nashville, Murfreesboro, Hartsville, Lebanon, and Murfreesboro again, and somehow survive. While Elijah Hunt Rhodes would march in vain pursuit of General Robert E Lee’s Army across three states.

In 1863, with Confederate recognition from Britain and France, and despite a clear superiority in men and materiel, despite a northern victory over a Confederate invasion, the Union seemed close to fumbling all it had. From Memphis to Wilmington, the fragile Confederate coalition was starting to unravel. And yet somehow, the Confederacy stayed alive, by the daring, luck, and genius of its high command.

“General, I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. I have heard in such aways to believe it, of your recently saying that both the Army and the Government needed a dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of this that I have given you the command. Only those Generals who gain successes can set up as dictators. What I ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship.”
Abraham Lincoln

Again, Lincoln turned to a new General. He replaced Rosecrans with Joseph Hooker, a tenacious west pointer called “Fighting Joe.” Who drank and talked too much for his own good. His direction was clear, he needed to destroy Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, and drive the Confederates out of Maryland.

Joseph Hooker inherited an army in disarray. The defeat at Fredericksburg, subsequent retreat into Washington, D.C., and fighting at South Mountain had taken its toll on the Army of the Potomac. The IV Corps saw Bvt. Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum depart, with Maj. Gen. Winfield Hancock taking command. Hooker’s old VI Corps was given to Bvt. Maj. Gen. George Meade. General Hooker was forced, by virtue of the cold and severe winter weather, to make camp in western Maryland, occupying Boonsboro, with the bulk of his army located outside of Frederick, Maryland. He went to work immediately, organising the command structure, securing his own supply lines, and introducing several popular measures within the ranks. The most celebrated was a reform to the furlough system, ten days for one soldier in each company. He reformed camp sanitary conditions, improved the daily diet of his men, and addressed many issues that Rosecrans and McClellan did not address. He also consolidated the cavalry into one corps-level unit, allowing it to be much more effective.

Throughout the winter months, little took place in action between the two sides. Newspapers and the government screamed for Hooker to make movements towards the Confederates, by virtue of them being in Maryland was said to be unacceptable. As the snow began to melt and troop movements became possible once again, the first actions took place in the middle of March. Confederate cavalry under J.E.B. Stuart began to ride around South Mountain, engaging Stoneman’s cavalry at the largest cavalry battle of the war on a crossroads near the town of Smithsburg. The fighting was inconclusive, but Stoneman’s cavalry was forced from the field. The Confederates lost the most that day, with J.E.B. Stuart being wounded, mortally so. He passed away the next day from his wounds. Pierce M. B. Young was made the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia’s cavalry division, and they were forced to withdraw to Hagerstown, stunting the Confederate push.

With the desire to be on the offensive, General Longstreet’s corps moved against Boonsboro, attacking Hooker’s flank as he began to move men through South Mountain. The attack was a feint, for the most part, as Longstreet’s men simply kept Hooker busy and masked the movements of Jackson’s Corps, which crossed into Hagerstown on March 17th, and across the border into Pennsylvania on the 18th. Jackson’s men marched into storehouses and homes, taking much needed supplies and offering the worried Union civilians nothing more than Confederate paper money, useless in southern Pennsylvania. Jackson, known as the Ghost of the Shenandoah for his actions in the valley, now sought to repeat his success, only this time in the north.

Frightened Pennsylvanians huddled in their homes as the Confederate column marched past. Jackson’s target was believed to be Harrisonburg, judging by his movements into Greencastle and Chambersburg. Raiding parties were deployed to surrounding towns to capture supplies for the army, and the civilians responded in most cases by ripping up the crops they had planted or just throwing their food stores on the ground. One Union man remarked, “I’d rather starve then let those rebels get this food.” Still, Jackson’s moves frightened the Union. Hooker dispatched George Meade and Winfield Scott Hancock’s Corps north to Harrisburg, where they took up a position in Mechanicsburg on the western side of the Susquehanna. Hooker, sensing that Lee’s army was split up, went on the attack. He first sent Stoneman’s cavalry south across the Potomac to block Lee’s escape south, while Young’s cavalry instead road north, providing Lee with valuable information on the whereabouts of the Union Army. Lee knew that half of his army was far north in Pennsylvania, but he also knew that Hooker’s men were chasing after Jackson.

Defying all military conventions, Lee split his army in half once again, moving one quarter southeast to cross the creek, and keeping the other positioned outside Sharpsburg. As he had expected, Hooker moved against him. Lee’s tiny force was defending a small hill and grove of trees on the west side of Antietam Creek, where the Union would have to cross a stone bridge to meet the Confederates properly. With Stoneman’s men waiting across the Potomac, Hooker had no idea that Lee had divided his army. Longstreet had moved to the east, entering into Rohrersville and turning north, just as Hooker began to engage with Lee’s men.

Hooker’s headquarters was located in Keedysville, where he held his reserve and one corps. He had his V Corps cross Antietam Creek to the north, leaving the I Corps to engage Lee, the III Corps under Couch to remain at this HQ, and the II Corps to march with the I Corps. With Hooker dividing his army in so many ways, it allowed Longstreet to unleash a surprise assault from the south. He captured the heights on the outside of the town, and quickly cut down trees and set up artillery, which pounded away at Hooker’s headquarters. Hooker himself was standing on a porch when a shell slammed into the post he was leaning against. Hooker was unresponsive and dazed, but refused to give up command. He ordered an assault against Longstreet and for his I Corps to cross Antietam Creek and sweep Lee from the field, a move he was advised against.

Longstreet’s men simply rained down fire on the Union men as they attempted to charge up the long slope. Hooker demanded that Longstreet be dislodged, it was crucial that the Confederates did not occupy the heights south of the town. To the west, Lee’s forces continued to hold the bridge, unleashing a volley of fire down the bridge, and stalling the Union offensives. The Union came at the bridge three times, with the 2nd Division finally crossing enough men to form a line to engage the rebels. Taking the bridge was bloody, and the Confederates were forced to retreat once they lost that major defensive asset. The bridge was known as “Reynolds’ Bridge” for the Division commander’s valiant charge which dislodged the rebels.

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Charge of the 2nd Division across Reynolds’ Bridge
The second day of fighting was more of a large skirmish than a battle. Lee’s men were dangerously divided, and Hooker had regained much of his sensibility. Hooker was far more concerned with Longstreet’s men and called the II Corps back to try and remove Longstreet from his position. With the shifting of men, Lee took the chance he needed, and retreated to Hagerstown. Young’s cavalry rode east to Smithsburg, then south through Boonsboro and reinforced Longstreet’s men, who then also disengaged and moved through South Mountain once again. Hooker, while mostly all there, declined to engage Lee further, much to the ire of his subordinates. Lee and Longstreet escaped, and moved north into Pennsylvania. The Battle of Sharpsburg (known as the Battle of Antietam in the north) was by all accounts a draw by the fighting that took place, but it was seen as a resounding Confederate victory. Lee had masterfully divided his army, kept a huge force at bay, and escaped to the north to bring terror to Pennsylvania. Lee’s whereabouts were unknown, and Hooker was disparaged for sending his cavalry across the Potomac, leaving him blind.
[-419 Regulars, -6,152 Volunteers to the United States. -1,276 Regulars, -4,207 Volunteers to the Confederate States.]

It was not until March 30th that the Army of Northern Virginia had its position confirmed. Lee had moved to Chambersburg, and Jackson had meetup with him once again. The Army of Northern Virginia’s supplies were sporadic at best, but Lee was able to acquire supplies from the people of Pennsylvania. Young’s cavalry went on many raids, cutting railroad lines, burning army supplies, and cutting telegraph wires. The vital Baltimore and Ohio railroad was severed, bridges burned and exploded, cutting off a major supply line to Washington, D.C..

Confederate General Stonewall Jackson moved from town to town, engaging elements of the Army of the Potomac before vanishing once again. He frustrated Hooker’s commanders and was considered, without a doubt, the best General the Confederates possessed. Jackson’s most daring raid was the capture of a supply depot in Carlisle, where he stole cannons, muskets, and munitions, while also burning the trainyard and stealing all the gold from the banks. Hooker was careful to keep his army between Lee and Washington, all the while attempting to maintain the defenses of Harrisburg. For an entire month, the Army of Northern Virginia rose hell on southern Pennsylvania, with Lee poised to begin a spring/summer offensive against Harrisburg, Baltimore, or even Philadelphia. The war had moved to the North, and a frightened public clamoured for action. Lee’s supply lines were re-established, Hooker simply did not have enough men to defend Harrisburg, Washington, and all of the Potomac river. The Department of Maryland’s forces were mostly concentrated between Lee and Washington, with the defense of Washington being more important than cutting Lee’s supplies.
[-427 Regulars, -2,782 Volunteers to the United States. -578 Regulars, -2,478 Volunteers to the Confederate States.]

In western Virginia, Maj. Gen. George Sykes’ Army of Virginia continues its advance towards Charleston. The large Union army found it difficult to operate in the rough terrain, and the Confederates were able to bring reinforcements up through the new railway line they had erected to connect Charleston with the rest of the Confederacy. While there was really only fighting in late March and early April, Sykes suffered an embarrassing loss at the Battle of Craigsville, where a column of his men marching south, hoping to cut the railway lines, was ambushed by Confederate guerillas. Sykes had believed this was the Confederate army in the region, and pushed them only slightly to try and gauge their strength. Getting himself pushed back, he withdrew from the field. His forces of nearly eight thousand were defeated by a couple hundred Confederate rebels, acting totally on their own.

Using the three monitors in Hampton Roads to trap the CSS Virginia on the Elizabeth River, a combined force from the Army of the James and men from the Department of the South land in Princess Anne county, seeking to capture Fort Princess Anne and the city of Norfolk, and with it, the Gosport Naval Yard. The combined forces numbered six thousand. Norfolk was defended by about a thousand Confederates, mostly Virginia state militia, while Fort Princess Anne had several thousand defending Confederates. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Edward Ord commanded the men on the ground, first seeking to capture the fort before turning their attention to the city of Norfolk. Ord had underestimated the number of men guarding the fort, and after two assaults called off the attack before he lost too many men. As the assault was getting underway, Magruder’s men in Newport News began to skirmish with Fort Monroe, and the invasion was abandoned completely, with Ord retreating back to the Fort to prevent it from falling into Confederate hands.
[-243 Regulars, -578 Volunteers from the United States. -154 Regulars, -263 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

Braxton Bragg was considered one of the Confederacy’s worst Generals, He had suffered several embarrassments, and his men openly mocked his command and leadership, his men being incredibly insubordinate and having very low morale. Bragg dispatched a force under Brig. Gen. Felix Zollicoffer and Brig. Gen. Roger Hanson from his position in the Cumberland Gap. Bragg’s idea was to march his men behind the Union forces in Kentucky, and threaten (if not capture) the city of Lexington. Bragg left Brig. Gen. John Pemberton in charge of defending the Cumberland Gap.

Bragg’s movements had gone well, reaching deep into Kentucky, before he was engaged by the Union forces of the Army of the Kentucky under the command of the now returned General Ulysses S. Grant. While he had considered retiring from the Army after his injuries in the field, he was persuaded against it by his friend, General William T. Sherman. A Colonel in the Army of the Kentucky, Theodore Lyman had remarked of his new commander, "He habitually wore an expression as if he had determined to drive his head through a brick wall and was about to do it."

The Army of the Kentucky was vastly stronger than Bragg’s men. The Battle of London, Kentucky ushered a new force into the war: Unconditional Surrender. General Grant had driven his men miles to catch up with Bragg’s forces, and Bragg attempted to hold the line outside of the city of London. When Bragg attempted to surrender, on the condition his men could be parolled, Grant refused. He would accept no conditions, except immediate and unconditional surrender. Humiliated, Bragg accepted Grant’s offer. Two weeks later, Grant’s men attacked the Cumberland Gap, overwhelming the small rebel garrison. The Cumberland Gap was now open to the Union, and the rest of Kentucky feel to the Union.
[-581 Regulars, -1,571 Volunteers from the United States. -2,154 Regulars, -5,471 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

Still, Grant did not stop there. Eastern Tennessee had long been a stronghold of Union support. Unionists had been burning bridges, downing telegraph wires, and causing hell for the Confederate forces in the region. Grant’s Army of the Kentucky moved into the region, not going too far ahead of their supply lines, and occupied the areas at the basin of the Cumberland Mountains. Grant was setting up for a late spring/early summer offensive to take Knoxville and with it, capture the East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad, northernmost link between the eastern Confederacy and the western Confederacy. Losing Knoxville, and by extension the rail connection, would be disastrous for the Confederates. Luckily for them, it was impossible for Grant to support such a large army in the region, and he moved incredibly slow, and was spread out across a wide swath of land.

With the assistance of the Mississippi River Squadron, now with its tonnage increasing at a nearly exponential rate, General Philip Sheridan continues his siege of Memphis. The Confederate Mississippi fleet had reduced itself to docking in Memphis and acting as floating batteries, being unable to win a naval engagement with the Union fleet. Still, the Confederates lost ships at a rapid pace. When they could, the Confederate sent divers to retrieve the cannon from the ship, and placed it along the shore to bombard the Union fleet should it draw close enough. Sheridan hammered away at the city for four full months, and somehow the beleaguered Confederates inside the town held on. General Smith, commander of the Memphis Garrison, made good use of the Wolf River, the main line of defense for Memphis, lashing out at any Union attempt to cross the river and march towards the city. Sheridan was able to sever the rail linking Memphis to Nashville, but was unable to cut the one leading from Memphis to Corinth, Mississippi.
[-578 Regulars, -2,281 Volunteers from the United States. -214 Regulars, -671 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

While General Lyon had failed to take Nashville, he vowed to return to the city. Establishing a base of operations in Clarksville, the Ohio River Squadron established their new base of operations in the city, taking control of the former Confederate wharves which churned out ships for protecting Paducah. From here, Brig. Gen. Benjamin Grierson and his cavalry crossed the Cumberland River and began to scout the region for Confederate forces. Following behind him was Lyon and his Army of the Tennessee. Grierson met Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry in clashes at White Bluff and White Oak Flat, before the Confederate commander slipped across the Cumberland, forcing Grierson to give chase to him. Forrest did inform General A.S. Johnston of Lyon’s advancing forces before driving directly north into Kentucky to raid Union supply lines and occupy Grierson’s cavalry.
[-554 Volunteers from the United States. -437 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

Marching blind into Nashville, Lyon once again met the Confederate Army of Tennessee, only this time on more favourable ground. The fighting lasted two days, from the 14th of January to the 16th. The fighting took place in the streets, rough, urban combat between the two sides that inflicted heavy casualties on both sides. The hardest hit was Maj. Gen. Giuseppe Garibaldi’s XIV Corps, 2nd Division under Bvt. Brig. Gen. Thomas Wood. Wood’s Division had been reduced from seven thousand men to just over three thousand. Garibaldi had dispatched the 2nd Division to capture the Tennessee State Capitol, which was defended by Cheatham’s Division, Hardee’s Corps, which was only just over five thousand strong. The Confederates were not willing to give up the Capitol Building, and held it fiercly. Wood ordered five assaults before Hardee gave the order to evacuate, moving to the south of town.

After Garibaldi himself marched into the Tennessee State Capitol, he rode his horse into the building, climbed to the top, and cut down the Confederate flag hoisted over the city, and replaced with with the Stars and Stripes. General Lyon, later in the day, came to admire the flag waving over the city. General Johnston retreated from the city, moving south to Murfreesboro. While Johnston had taken less casualties (and had more men), he was forced to cede the city to Lyon, believing that he could come back at him at a later time when he had an advantage.
[-9,547 Volunteers from the United States. -1,258 Regulars, -5,881 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

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Union cannon defending the Nashville State House, spring 1863
The news of Nashville falling was met with jubilation in Washington. Former Tennessee Senator Andrew Johnson was made Military Governor of Tennessee, and was dispatched to Nashville to establish an administration. The Tennessee legislature and Governor Isham G. Harris retreated south, establishing a temporary capital in Chattanooga, which would remain the capital until the “Yankee invasion had been defeated.” The occupation was Nashville was an uneasy one. The city was overwhelmingly supportive of the Confederate cause, and guerilla movements within the city hampered Union supply lines and communication efforts, forcing Lyon to dispatch the 4th Division under Brig. Gen. Ivan Turchaninov to garrison the city with his men. General Lyon then went on the attack, wanting to try and deliver a crushing blow to Johnston. Along the banks of the Stones River, the two armies met once again in a minor engagement, very few men lost on either side, but Lyon was able to take the field. Instead of retreating south, Johnston headed north, while at the same time his cavalry under Nathan Bedford Forrest was riding south.
[-175 Regulars, -574 Volunteers from the United States. -247 Regulars, -217 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

Lyon’s men wheeled around and crossed the Cumberland, marching northeast to meet the forces of Johnston, whom they believed was going to enter into Kentucky. By the time they met up with Grierson’s Cavalry, it was a poor sight to be. Forrest had rode circles around Grierson, and destroyed his men in detail. His force was half the size of Grierson’s, and it inflicted twice the number of casualties. Yet still, Lyon needed his cavalry in battle with Johnston’s Army, and he ordered Grierson to ride east, to try and cut off Johnston’s chance to cross the Cumberland River.
[-1,258 Volunteers from the United States. -507 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

No such engagement happened, as Johnston had already crossed at Hartsville, and was going to move north to Westmoreland before he engaged with Grierson’s cavalry, which dismounted and attempted to hold their ground while calling for reinforcements. Pillow’s Division made quick work of Grierson, who lost another thousand men in the fighting over the day, being entangled with both Maj. Gen Gideon Pillow and Maj. Gen. Bushrod Johnson’s divisions. Lyon encamped at Gallatin, Tennessee, before the two armies met the next day along Lick Creek.
[-1,011 Volunteers from the United States. -658 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

The Battle of Lick Creek (Hartsville in the south), started in earnest the next day with Lyon deploying his men along a two mile long line, which he ordered to advance upon the Confederate positions in a wooded grove near some farmland. Lyon’s plan was to push the Confederates out of the grove, then use it to pick them off as they retreated through the farmland. His plan worked. Johnston had not expected the assault and for Lyon to throw all his forces into the field, and by the end of the day five thousand men lay dead. This time Johnston disengaged and moved south, but Lyon did not let him stop, chasing him with hopes to drive him out of Tennessee.
[-3,471 Volunteers from the United States, -1,041 Regulars, -977 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

Johnston stopped to gather his forces in Lebanon, with the idea of attacking Nashville from the east. General Lyon executed a move that even shocked Johnston, who believed such a feat could not be done. General Lyon ordered a grueling sixty mile march from Hartsville to the outskirts of Lebanon, completing it in under a day. Johnston had been so surprised, he disengaged his men from the skirmish and moved back south to Murfreesboro. Johnson and Lyon had been fighting for three and a half months in 1863, with little actual ground exchanged hands and the only appreciable Union victory being the capture of Nashville and establishment of an occupational government. Seeking a total victory, Lyon divided his forces and descended on Murfreesboro from two directions, Nashville and Lebanon.

As the battle began, Lyon and Johnson both devised plans to attack their opponents left flanks, but Lyon had struck first. Bvt. Maj. Gen. William Sherman’s XV Corps slammed into Lt. Gen. Joseph Johnston’s III Corps. The fighting was intense, hundreds fell by the minute, but the Confederate line was able to hold. Bedford Forrest’s men rode around and took note of the enemy’s positions, before engaging Grierson’s cavalry (again) and defeating it (again) at several skirmishes to the west of the main battle. The Union centre, the XXII Corps under Bvt. Major Gen. George Thomas, was surprised by an assault from Lt. Gen Samuel French’s Corps. Thomas had not expected an engagement, and had sent several regiments to help the Sherman’s attack, weakening the Union centre.

French took the opportunity when he saw it. Johnston called up the reserves from Lt. Gen. John Breckinridge, and threw them directly into the the XXII Corps. The line bent, and a large Confederate salient was formed, jutting deep into the Union line. Garibaldi moved to try and collapse the salient, but as he was bringing his men online, he was attacked by Hardee’s Corps. April 23rd, 1863 would go down as the bloodiest single day in American history, as the two huge armies were engaged totally against each other, fighting simply everywhere. So bad was it, that neither Lyon nor Johnston knew what was happening on the battlefield.

Finally, the Union line broke near five in the afternoon, after seven hours of full-scale fighting. Lyon was forced to call a retreat, and withdrew his forces to Nashville, extremely battered. Johnston had achieved a victory, barely so, but at a massive cost. The Army of Tennessee (CSA) had lost twenty-five percent of their forces, the Army of the Tennessee (USA) had lost thirty-one percent of their forces. Sherman’s Corps were demolished, not five thousand remained in a corps that started the year fourteen thousand strong.
[-174 Regulars, -13,803 Volunteers from the United States. -1,242 Regulars, -9,705 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

sDBe9fM.jpg

Fighting at the Second Battle of Murfreesboro
Confederate Brig. Gen. Benjamin McCulloch’s Army of the West undergoes a slight restructuring, being renamed the Trans-Mississippi District. McCulloch himself became a Lieutenant General, and was in charge of all Confederate forces in Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and Louisiana (west of the Mississippi River). He orders no attacks, but instead employs the assistance of Maj. Gen. Trapier, who had fortified the Confederate seaboard, to build up Confederate defenses in Arkansas along the White River. In a strange move, the Union forces from the Department of the Missouri withdraw many of their men from northern Arkansas and simply leave enough to ensure there was no crossing of the White River by the Confederates. Union Brig. Gen. John Palmer then turns his attention towards the continued pacification of southern Missouri, while still keeping a watchful eye on Arkansas. It was a move he would be resoundingly criticised for, with almost everyone universally agreeing had he engaged McCulloch’s men before they had entrenched themselves, he could have captured Little Rock.

Infighting between the native tribes reached a boiling point in early 1863. While much of the leadership had decided to side with the Confederacy, the actual natives held much different beliefs. Opothleyahola was able to convince several hundred Creeks to rise to arms for the Union, which was soon joined by thousands of other disgruntled natives from all tribes, and the Indian Home Guard was formed, determined to drive the rebels out of Kansas and begin to reclaim ground in the Indian Territory. Brig. Gen. Curtis, his numbers now almost doubled from the native enlistment, struck out fiercely at the Confederate positions in Kansas. Brig. Gen. Stand Watie on the other side had his forces diminished and it was believed what he held was untenable. He withdrew from Fort Larned first, and concentrated his forces at Fort Lecompton.
[+3,781 Regulars to the United States.]

Opothleyahola’s raiders came in and cut the rebel supply lines down the river, and burned several wagon trains full of supplies. Curtis saw several hundred men go AWOL, tired of the cold Kansas winter and many headed south to return to their homes in the Indian Territory. The Battle of Fort Lecompton took place on January 28th, 1863, pitting the smaller rebel force against Opothleyahola’s Indian Home Guard, which was acting without orders from Brig. Gen. Curtis. The pro-Union natives assaulted the Fort from all directions, with one spectacular charge leading to the explosion of a barrel of gunpowder at the fort walls, collapsing them, and allowing fighting inside the fort itself. The Confederates were able to push back the attack, but they slipped out of the fort under the cover of night. When Curtis and men from the Department of Kansas arrived to siege the fort, they found it abandoned.

The Confederates thus found themselves encamped at Fort Nichonka, surrounded by the two rivers, and hoped that the Union would not go after them further. Watie was mistaken, as Curtis could tell that the Confederates were reeling from their defeats. Attacking from the northwest, the Union stormed the fort once, retreated, and came back at it again. Curtis and several hundred men slipped out during the fighting, as the fort itself surrendered. Among the men who were captured was Albert Pike, the primary Confederate agent who had orchestrated the alliances with the natives. Captured along with him were plans to raid the Colorado territory, with goals to stores of gold and to bring about Union panic. The Army of the Plains officially surrendered (without their commanding General) on the 7th of March, 1863, ending the Confederate invasion of Kansas, and restricting the Confederacy to operations within the Indian Territory.
[-214 Regulars, -574 Volunteers from the United States. -1,257 Regulars, -4,057 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

After a year and a half of an ineffective and lackluster blockade, the Union Navy made her presence known. The North Atlantic Blockading Squadron was outfitted from Virginia down to South Carolina, with Port Royal quickly being turned into a coaling station and place to drop anchor. The Union now had a base of operations deep in Confederate territory, and the blockade extended down to the southern tip of Florida. The Union ships began to confiscate Confederate freighters, laden down with cotton from the previous season. Despite the Confederate stronghold at Key West, the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron closed the shipping routes out of the Gulf to the north of Cuba, forcing the Confederates to take the longer trip to the south of Cuba, before continuing on to Europe.

The effect was immediate. The European economy shuttered from the news of the blockade, and financial panic gripped Turin, Paris, and London. Two banks backing textile mills collapsed in Italy, despite no cotton shortages as of yet - just the news of the blockade destroyed the confidence in the venture. In Paris, a panicked Emperor Napoleon III took an extraordinary measure. He met personally with John Slidell, Confederate Minister Plenipotentiary to France - their first meeting since French recognition of the Confederacy - and the two men agreed upon one of the most shocking treaties of the war.

The Confederacy would purchase two ironclads currently operating in Mexico, the Solférino and the Magenta. The two were broadside ironclads, some of the strongest warships afloat on the high seas. Two crews departed from New Orleans, and boarded the ships in the waters well off the coast of Mexico. The Solférino was renamed the CSS Fredericksburg and the Magenta was renamed the CSS Stonewall. James Waddell became the commander of the CSS Fredericksburg, while John R. Tucker became the commander of the CSS Stonewall.

2QMCPNB.jpg

The CSS Fredericksburg in Mobile, Alabama
After a month of training, the new ships were put to sea, and seeked to crush the Union blockade of the southern ports. A Union patrol off the coast of southeast Florida saw the CSS Stonewall hove into view, what the officer had not noticed was the Confederate flag now flying from the masts of the ship. They had mistakenly believed she was still a French-flagged ship, bound for home. Their mistake was realised a few minutes later, when a glimpse of the Confederate flag was seen. The men rushed to their battle stations, but the CSS Stonewall was a formidable foe. She had 120mm of wrought iron armour, 16 55-pounder smoothbore guns, 34 160mm Model 1860 BLM guns, and 2 240mm RML howitzers. The CSS Stonewall drew up alongside the USS Powhatan, and unleashed a salvo, riddling the steamer with shot. All it took was another salvo before the ship was abandoned, sinking beneath the waves. The Stonewall continued to engage the ships, all of whom were fast to intercept blockade runners. She took two more before the rest were able to escape north, they were vastly unequipped to fight the massive Confederate vessel.
[+2 Ironclads to the Confederate States. -1 Screw Frigate, -2 Minor Vessels to the United States.]

When the news broke of yet another Confederate ironclad patrolling the Atlantic, the blockade was drawn back to only go as far south as Georgia. Shipments continued to flow through the Florida Straits, guarded by the Confederate navy. The blockade was still having its effect on the Confederacy’s coastal states, where some planters invested in several railroads between South Carolina and Mobile, Alabama with the purpose of transporting cotton. The Florida & Alabama Railroad ran from Montgomery to Blakely, but it did not connect to the important port of Mobile. Construction began (and was completed several months later) of a bridge to the north across the swampy marsh of the Tensaw and Mobile Rivers. Cotton could now travel by rail from the southeastern Confederacy to Mobile for shipment abroad. With the completion of the bridge, Mobile joined Chattanooga as being the locations of the rail hubs that linked the eastern and central Confederacy together.

The Confederate ironclads also meant more bad news, an effective blockade of Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas was underway. Fast supply ships were sent to dart in and out, bringing what they could, but even then some were captured by the Confederate Navy patrols out of Key West. It was there that General Burnside remained trapped, unable to slip away without fear of getting captured, or worse, killed. Captain Farragut had, thankfully for the Union, been able to leave on a supply ship early in January.

While the urgency of the situation was only realised after the acquisition of the French ironclads by the Confederates, the Union Navy had put in orders for new Canonicus-class and Miantonomoh-class ironclad monitors. A total of 13 ships were laid down, ready to be used before the year was out. Likewise, more steam-power frigates were also ordered, and a general expansion of the Union’s river squadrons. It was understood, however, that much more would need to be done should the Union win a naval battle against the Confederacy’s large ironclads.
[+13 Ironclads to the United States by September 1863, +6 Steam Frigates a month to the United States starting in July 1863 until February 1864. +57 Minor Vessels to the United States.]

General P.G.T. Beauregard once again finds himself having a major command in the war, this time of the Atlantic Coastal Defenses. While he had orders to take Port Royal, the Union had been stockpiling men and supplies there for weeks, making such an assault impractical. Instead, Beauregard decided on taking reinforcements from Virginia and using them to respond to any Union assaults that might take place towards Charleston, fortifying the city, he also dispatched men to Fort Pulaski and Fort Fisher, shoring up the defenses of Savannah and Wilmington.

Beauregard’s first test came in early February, as a frenzied Union assault against Fort Clinch near Jacksonville, Florida was launched. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Butler had dispatched two thousand men to capture the fort, determined to take it before the Confederate ironclads pushed that far north up the Florida coast. Beauregard had no real way of shifting men to Fort Clinch, but he did dispatch men to defend Jacksonville from what he suspected would soon be an attack by Butler once Fort Clinch fell. The Confederates defending the fort fought bravely against Butler’s ships and men, but were forced to surrender. A few hundred were able to escape, and made their way to Jacksonville, and the city began to prepare for a Union attack with its limited resources.
[-479 Regulars, -674 Volunteers from the United States. -147 Regulars, -543 Volunteers from the Confederates States.]

Butler’s next target was Fort McAllister, the southernmost fort defending Savannah, Georgia. The Union Navy weakened Fort McAllister with several bombardments, and knowing this fort was far more defended, Butler dispatched five thousand men to take the fort, which he hoped would be the first to fall, followed by Fort Pulaski, and then Savannah itself. Most notable about this assault was that it contained the 54th Massachusetts, the first all-black infantry unit to see battle in the entire war. Several unsuccessful charges against the fort continued to weaken it, and the final charge was undertaken by the 54th Massachusetts. They had actually breached the walls, and were looking to win the day, until they reached the interior of the fort, where the Confederates were waiting with artillery, and decimated the attack. Fort McAllister was still standing, and the Union forces which escaped returned to Port Royal.
[-2,473 Volunteers from the United States. -287 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

Charge of the 54th Massachusetts against Fort McAllister, Georgia

After the Confederate victory in the New Mexico territory, little had happened between the two forces. Baylor’s men remained stationed in Santa Fe, while Fort Union remained standing strong in the hands of Bvt. Maj. Gen. Kit Carson. Unknown to Baylor, Carson had spent the entire time reinforcing his men, and formulating a daring strategy to destroy Baylor’s force. He would ride most of his men out of Fort Union, ride south, and cut Baylor’s supply lines from the east, all the while hoping Baylor did not move on Fort Union.

Carson left Fort Union on February 18th, and began to raid Baylor’s supply train a week later, before turning North and attacking Sante Fe. Baylor, for his part, was caught completely by surprise. He had believed that Carson would dispatch men to deal with the Navajo rebellion, instead of attacking him. Carson kept up the attack, engaging the rebels at La Ciénega, San Felipe Pueblo, and Algodones. Each one was a Confederate defeat. In the ensuing chaos of Baylor’s men losing their position and footing (as well as Carson’s men not believing his plan had worked), the Army of Arizona was able to escape south, making their way to Mesilla. Fort Wingate, nearly surrounded by Navajo-occupied lands, was assaulted by the Navajo men, killing the fort’s Confederate defenders. With the main Confederate army in the area long gone, the Navajo ignored the “alliance” they had with the rebels, and instead south to maximise the territory they controlled.
[-57 Regulars, -224 Volunteers from the United States. -28 Regulars, -357 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

The Union Army of Arizona under Brig. Gen. James Carleton spent the first four months of the year engaged in operations against the Navajo tribe, attacking and getting attacked constantly. Holding the territory was near impossible, and his supply lines were constantly harassed. What progress he did make was almost always wiped out by the next month. He was able to establish Fort Scott (named after General Winfield Scott) at the base of the Black Mountain in the Colorado Territory, and it was where the majority of his army made their base of operations. Given the difficult terrain and the conditions much more suited for the native warriors, the Navajo threat would continue to be a major issue for the Union throughout the year. He had, however, made progress, something that other Generals in the far West could not have easily stated just so recently.
[-127 Volunteers from the United States.]

The Confederate do find some success during the beginning of 1863 in the far West, however. Sibley’s men in Fort Secession are able to push back three separate attacks from the Union forces under Brig. Gen. Slough (and one assault from a Navajo raiding party). One particularly weird quirk of the war occurred when cavalry from Slough and Sibley’s men met north of the Fort along the Agua Fria River, and before they could seriously engage in fighting one another, they were attacked by a numerically superior Navajo party. Rather than both be destroyed, the Union and Confederate soldiers fought together, beating back the Navajo. After the battle, they made camp together, exchanged stories and songs (and complaints about their leadership) before parting the next morning back to their respective lines.
[-58 Regulars, -55 Volunteers from the United States. -114 Volunteers from the Confederate States.]

The Enrollment Act passed Congress, right before the new session started. The measure was an act to bring new soldiers into the U.S. Army should states fail to meet their volunteer quotas, which was starting to happen in the midwest. All men age 20 to 45 were to be registered from enrollment, and it could be avoided by paying a fee of $250 or the hiring of a substitute. Thousands protested this move in cities across the north, as men were begun to be drafted into the army. While the Confederacy did not yet have a draft, their own enlistment numbers were starting to rapidly dwindle, as less and less men were interested in signing up for a war that was looking increasingly like it would drag on forever.
[+28,558 Volunteers to the United States. +11,258 Volunteers to the Confederate States]

To the far north, the British authorise the consolidation of the militias of the various British North American provinces, the most significant from Canada West and Canada East merged into the Canadian Militia. Particular interest was given to New Baltimore, where the 14th Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada was formed, which was an amalgamation of Kingston’s seven independent rifle companies with five new volunteer rifle companies raised from New Baltimore. Shortly after the Prince of Wales married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark in early March, the battalion had outgrown its name and it applied for, and was given permission, to change its title to The Princess of Wales’ Own Regiment.

Amidst the fighting in North America, there was a different type of fighting across the Atlantic. With the British Government recognising the sovereignty of the Confederate States, a nation nearly universally agreed based upon upholding the institution of slavery, Liberals and anti-Slavery activists were incensed that the British would take such a stance with the victor still very much unclear. Prime Minister Palmerston was forced to resign, with William Ewart Gladstone becoming Prime Minister. Gladstone, with the exception of upholding the recognition of the Confederacy, was in lockstep with the aims and policy ideas of the Liberals. His position as the head of the Government was able to placate some of the most rowdy backbenchers, even more so after he unleashed plans for reforms before the Parliamentary session was out in 1865. Pragmatism won the day in the backbench, as radicals and pro-Union MPs quelled their rebellion, seeing Gladstone as one of the best vehicles for bringing about major reforms to the United Kingdom.

While the Government was stabilised, the public reaction was severe. Newspapers across the country decried the actions of the Conservatives (and the Liberals which went along with it) as near treasonous. Pro-Confederate papers countered with fears of a Union blockade of the Confederacy, saying that should it set in, Britain would experience a huge cotton famine, and textile mills and factories would shutter. Briton’s large monied class was lukewarm on recognition, even supportive of it. Many of them had lent money to the Confederate government, and now were pleased to see that banks could follow them, some shifting their personal loans to their banks, to ease their own personal risks. Workers, many of whom had never even seen an African, didn’t care much about the recognition, but many were worried about any economic instability in Britain. The major source of resistance came from Britain’s intellectual class, with the Anti-Slavery Society under Rev. Aaron Buzacott calling it “one of the darkest days in Britain's history.”

 
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A letter from Secretary of State William Henry Seward to Ambassador Henri Mercier.
following recent events.
Your Excellency,

Following recent events pertinent to the once-amicable relationship between the United States and France, I am instructed to inform Your Excellency that your services to President Lincoln and the Congress are no longer required, and are therefore instructed to depart from the District of Columbia and the United States posthaste, returning to Your nation of origin and Your Emperor.

Yours,

WILLIAM H. SEWARD
Secretary of State of the United States
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الخديوية المصرية
al-Khadawiyya al-Misriyya

National Anthem: Salam Affandina [since 1865]; Aziziye Marşı [until 1865]
Form of Government: Constitutional Monarchy/Khedivate [since 1865]; Eyalet [until 1865]
Head of State: His Majesty Khedive Hassan Isma'il Pasha
Capital: Cairo
Legislature: Majlis al-Nuwwab al-Misri [since 1879]

Until 1879: Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab [Semi-Advisory]; Majlis al-Khususi [Semi-Advisory]; Majlis al-Ahkam al-Misriya [Semi-Advisory]
Cabinet: Majlis al-Wuzara' [since 1879]
Until 1879: Majlis al-Khususi [Semi-Advisory]

1st Constitutional Party Cabinet of Mohammad Sharif Pasha (1879-85):

Prime Minister: Mohammad Sharif Pasha
Finance: Raghib Pasha
War: Sirdar Mahmoud Sami Pasha al-Baroudi
Marine: Ja'far Sadiq Pasha
Industry: 'Ali Ibrahim Pasha
Education: 'Ali Mubarak Pasha
Foreign Affairs: Mustafa Fahmi Pasha
Interior: Khayr al-Din Pasha
Charitable Endowments [Awqaf]: 'Ali Mubarak Pasha
Public Works: Hamad 'Abd al-'Ati Pasha
Antiquities: Ahmad Kamal Pasha
Justice: Mohammad Qadri Pasha
Agriculture: Mahmud Pasha Sulayman


Foreign Correspondance and Treaties
- In Response to British Concerns Regarding Adoption of the Arabic Language, 1863
- Letter Sent to the French and British Consuls, 1863
- Various Letters in Response to the French Assault on Alexandria and Occupation of Port Sa'id, 1864
- Private Letter sent to the British Consul and the Ottoman Government, 1864

- Letter to Alfred Krupp of Friedrich Krupp AG, 1865
- Joint Agreement Between France and Egypt, 1865

- In Response to Secretary of State Horatio Seymour, 1866
- The Treaty of Debr Tabor, 1866
- Letter to Edouard Drouyn de Lhuys, Foreign Minister of the French Empire, 1868
- Joint Letter to the Secretaries of State of the Confederate and United States of America, and to the Foreign Minister of the French Empire, 1868
- In Response to Britain's Request, 1868
- Letter to Khayr al-Din Pasha al-Tunisi in France, 1868
- The Treaty of Gondar, 1876
- Treaty of Aegypto-Ethiopian Monetary Union, 1878
- Letter to the Ethiopian Crown, 1878

Internal Affairs
- Letter Sent to His Excellency the Wali, 1864
- Opening Address to the First Sitting of the First Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, 1864
- Letter to and Respone from Mushir A'la Ahmad Pasha al-Minkali, 1864
- Letter to and Response from Binbashi Mahmoud Sami al-Baroudi, 1864
- Letter to and Response from Amir Liwa' Hamad 'Abd al-'Ati Bek, 1864
- Sanat al-Masir, 'Aam al-Fath al-Mubeen, 1865
- Letter of Congratulation and Resignation from Mushir A'la Ahmad Pasha al-Minkali to His Majesty, 1865
- Letter to Amir Liwa' Mahmoud Sami al-Baroudi, 1868
- Announcement by the new Nazir of War, 1868
- General Address, 1868
- Coronation Speech, 1868
- Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab: Regarding Elections, and Official Confirmation of the Hikmadar Liwa' of Abyssinia and his Deputy, 1868
- An Excerpt from the First Annual Meeting of the Majlis al-Khususi, 1869
- The Nazir of Education's Report to the Majlis al-Khususi and Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, 1876
- The Nazir of Foreign Affairs is Called up for Questioning by Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, 1876
- The Nazir of Public Work's Proposal to the Majlis al-Khususi and Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, January 1877
- Announcement by the Nazir of War, 1877
- The Nazir of Finance Expresses his Concerns to the Majlis al-Khususi and Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, February 1877
- The Nazir of Public Work's Revised Proposal to the Majlis al-Khususi and Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, March 1877
- Decree Regarding the Status of Jews in Egypt, 1877
- His Majesty, the Twenty-Four-year-old Khedive Hassan Isma'il, Addresses the
Majlis al-Khususi and Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, 1878
-Declaration by His Majesty's Constitutional Council with regards to the Attending Members of the Constitutional Convention at Aswan, 1878
-Declaration by His Majesty's Constitutional Council with regards to the Attending Members of the Constitutional Convention at Aswan continued, 1878
-Declaration by His Majesty's Constitutional Council with regards to the Attending Members of the Constitutional Convention at Aswan continued, 1878
-Declaration by His Majesty's Constitutional Council with regards to the Attending Members of the Constitutional Convention at Aswan continued, 1878
-The Nazir of Finance Outlines his Nizara's current project to the Majlis al-Khususi and Majlis Shura al-Nuwwab, July 1878
- The Wazir of War Addresses Majlis al-Nuwwab al-Misri, April 1879


Miscellanea
- On Contemporary Egypt
- Ya 'Abna'a Misra Hibu!, 1864
- min: Takhlis al-Ibriz ila Talkhis Bariz, 1864
- General Address to the People of Egypt and the Empire, and France, 1865
- The Rise of the Cotton Exchange of Alexandria, 1865
- A Comprehensive and Sweeping History of the Development of the Egyptian Military Part 1
-
An Exposition on Recent Ethiopian History
- General Address to the People of Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, 1868
- min: Aqwam al-Masalik fi Ma'rifat Ahwal al-Mamalik, 1868
- In Response to the Invitation of the Egyptian Government, 1868
- The tale of Sultan Hasan
- All the Pasha's Sons Lie Dead, But Halim; He Stands Defiant Still, 1869
- AIDA Act I - Scene I, 1871
- Li-Yahya al-Qalam, 1878
- Declaration Bringing into Force the Constitution of Egypt, 1879
- The Egyptian Government of 1879-85
 
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