• Crusader Kings III Available Now!

    The realm rejoices as Paradox Interactive announces the launch of Crusader Kings III, the latest entry in the publisher’s grand strategy role-playing game franchise. Advisors may now jockey for positions of influence and adversaries should save their schemes for another day, because on this day Crusader Kings III can be purchased on Steam, the Paradox Store, and other major online retailers.


    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

Frymonmon

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Hello! Welcome to the thread! Here, you will find all In Character (IC), Game Moderators Notes (GM Note), Updates, Mini-Updates, and much more for the next installment in the highly popular World in Revolution based games. Of course, as you can deduce from the title, this is not a World in Revolution game. Fear not, the name has not been retired, all those who are wondering. Instead, I have chosen to name this game after the board game "Twilight Struggle." The premise of that game, much like this one, is very similar. It involves the almighty match up of two of the greatest countries the world has ever seen. The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This was a fight between two fundamentally different system. Free Market Capitalism and Planned Socialism. For much of this period between 1945 and 1991, the world debated and the Superpowers squabbled over which system was the best, and which one could lead the world moving forward. As we all know, the Soviet Union is no more, and the American system reigns supreme above all others.

Now, who says it must happen here? Now is the chance for you to take hold of your nation, and pilot it through this uncertain time. Tensions will flare, wars will appear, and you will watch as the two Superpowers due battle above, attempting to eek out an existence, or move in the shadows to secure a larger haul for yourself. The nature of the game is open, do as much as you dare, but always be prepared for any possible push back that may occur. The Cold War was a period of mass activity for the Superpowers and countries involved in their antics, and you must now find your, and your nation's, role in this delicate ballet.

Rules

1.0 The Game Moderators are ALWAYS right.
1.1 Use common sense
1.2 IRC is REQUIRED in order to play Twilight Struggle
1.3 Updates are final. If the GM misses something or has interpreted an order incorrectly, you may question it, but it will never be changed.
1.4 Quitting is final. Should you announced in thread or to a GM that you quit, you are out, and may not apply for Twilight Struggle again unless the Head GM determines otherwise.
1.5 Orders are always due Friday, 12:00:00 GMT (24-hour clock) unless otherwise posted. If orders are not in by then, the GMs have full right to publish the update without your orders. Orders may thus be sent up until the update is posted. The Update will normally be on Friday or Saturday.
1.6 All orders are to be Private Messaged to the Head GM.
2.0 Democratic nations may not declare war unless cleared with the Head GM beforehand. No exceptions.
2.1 Any type of warlike action taken by a country against another country (PC or NPC), requires an IC Declaration of Hostilities twenty-four hours before the orders deadline. Violations to this rule will be met with punishment on a case by case basis.
2.3 Metagaming is banned. The Head GM will determine what is and is not metagaming. The first instance will be a warning and penalties to rolls. The next instance will be expulsion from Twilight Struggle.
2.4 IC must be posted at least once every 2 weeks. Failure to do so shows a lack of interest in Twilight Struggle, and will result in expulsion from the game, and your slot handed to another person.
2.5 All IC that is marked private or secret is to be treated as such. Violations of this rule and using the information for in-game knowledge will result in application of rule 2.3.
2.6 All conversations in #WiR_Main are considered to be Out of Character (OOC), while all conversations on IRC while NOT in the main channel are considered to be In Character (IC).
3.0 By submitting orders, or posting an In-Character Message, you agree to all of these above rules, and will be held liable should they be broken by yourself.

IRC Channel

Link: Coldfront
Channel: #WiR_Main
Instructions:
1) Use the link provided above.
2) Choose the Flash app or the Java app.
3) Create a screen name; it’s recommended that you use your forum name, if available.
4) Close the #coldfront channel that opens automatically.
5) In the command box, type “/join #WiR_Main” without the quotation marks.
6) You’re in the chat! Welcome!

Game Moderators

Head GM: Frymonmon
Assistant GM: Dadarian

Orders and Rolls

Orders are simple and straightforward. They are the same as any World in Revolution game, except the total number of words for your orders as a whole may not exceed 300 words. This, and the following section, do not apply to the United States and the Soviet Union. Each nation gets 2 normal orders, 2 war orders, 1 election order (when your nation has an election), and 1 budget order. Unless you are Ab, who is special. Ab only gets 1 normal order, and that's it. War orders may only be used when engaged in active combat, and no other time. War movements that do not have stats may only send in the two war orders. In addition to this, the United Kingdom, France, and China (PRC) get 1 extra normal order.

Now, on to the United States and the Soviet Union. Due to the importance of both of these nations, they get an increased amount of orders. As it stands, both nations get 4 normal orders, 2 war orders, and 1 budget order. Unlike the other nations, both the USA and the USSR may use their War Orders for covert actions abroad, be it using the CIA or KGB, or supply rebels in some unknown territory. The United States, as it were, gets 1 election order every 2 years for Presidential and Midterm elections. Both nations will be extremely in advancing the cause of their system, and must be very hands on in their approach towards doing so, which is why they get such a large number of orders, as they will have very much to do.

In terms of rolls, they are generated from a normal distribution, centred on five (5) with a distribution of two and a half (2.5). All rolls, except war orders, with the exception of the superpowers covert actions, will follow this path.
 
Last edited:

Frymonmon

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Last edited:

Frymonmon

President of California
29 Badges
Jul 21, 2010
772
32
  • Hearts of Iron II: Armageddon
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Sengoku
  • Semper Fi
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • March of the Eagles
  • Lead and Gold
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • Cities in Motion 2
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Darkest Hour
  • East India Company Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Victoria 2
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Cities: Skylines
Selected headlines from around the World, January to December of 1953


January 7 – President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb.

January 20 – Dwight D. Eisenhower succeeds Harry S. Truman as the 34th President of the United States.

February 28 - James D. Watson and Francis Crick of the University of Cambridge announce their discovery of the structure of the DNA molecule.

March 1 - Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke after an all-night dinner with Soviet Union interior minister Lavrenty Beria and future premiers Georgi Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev. The stroke paralyzes the right side of his body and renders him unconscious until his death on March 5.

March 14 – Nikita Khrushchev is selected First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party.

March 26 – Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine.

April 16 - President Eisenhower delivers his "Chance for Peace" speech to the National Association of Newspaper Editors.

April 25 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid", their description of the double helix structure of DNA.

May 9 – France agrees to the provisional independence of Cambodia with King Norodom Sihanouk.

June 2 – Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom at Westminster Abbey.

June 17 – Workers Uprising in East Germany: The Soviet Union orders a division of troops into East Berlin to quell a rebellion.

June 18 – Egypt declares itself a republic.

June 30 - The first Chevrolet Corvette is built at Flint, Michigan.

July 10 – The Soviet official newspaper Pravda announces that Lavrenti Beria has been deposed as head of the NKVD.

July 27 – United Nations Command (Korea) (United States), People's Republic of China, North Korea sign an armistice agreement at Panmunjom and the north remains communist while the south remains capitalist.

August 8 – Soviet prime minister Georgi Malenkov announces that the Soviet Union has a hydrogen bomb.

August 19 – The CIA helps to overthrow the government of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran, and retain Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on the throne.

August 20 - The French government ousts King Mohammed V of Morocco and exiles him to Corsica.

September 7 – Nikita Khrushchev becomes head of the Soviet Central Committee.

September 26 – Rationing of cane sugar ends in the UK.

October 30 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves the top secret document of the United States National Security Council NSC 162/2, which states that the United States' arsenal of nuclear weapons must be maintained and expanded to counter the communist threat.

November 9 – The Kingdom of Laos gains its independence from the French Army. The Laotian Civil War begins between the Kingdom of Laos and the Pathet Lao. In Cambodia the Khmer Issarak begins to fight the French Army and the nation joins the First Indochina War but the Kingdom is established.

December 8 – U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers his Atoms for Peace address to the United Nations General Assembly in New York City.

December 17 – The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approves color television (using the NTSC standard).

December 23 – The Soviet Union announces officially that Lavrenti Beria has been executed.

December 30 – The first color television sets go on sale for about $1,175 (American dollars).
 

Frymonmon

President of California
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  • Hearts of Iron III: Their Finest Hour
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
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  • Cities in Motion 2
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Darkest Hour
  • East India Company Collection
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • For the Motherland
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Victoria 2
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Cities: Skylines


Albania
Economy & Population
Population: 1.353 m. $ 1,120 GDP per Capita, 2.89% Population Increase
Economy: $ 1,516 m. GDP, 5.94% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 52% Services, 4% Industry, 44% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 24.34% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: -7.74% of GDP [-3.42% Balance last year]
Government Spending 87.87% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor, 3.27% of GDP, 93% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Average, 3.49% of GDP, 91% Funding
Education: (2/5) Poor, Public, 7.57% of GDP, 82% Funding
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Poor, Public, 7.85% of GDP, 86% Funding
Miscellaneous: 2.05% of GDP
National Defence: 15.87% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 1,031 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: tyriet

Austria
Economy & Population
Population: 6.940 m. $ 4,555 GDP per Capita, 0.17% Population Increase
Economy: $ 31,611 m. GDP, 10.22% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 56% Services, 7% Industry, 37% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 6.91% Debt to GDP, BBB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -1.94% of GDP [0.03% Balance last year]
Government Spending 28.82% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Average, 2.63% of GDP, 93% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Good, 3.41% of GDP, 100% Funding
Education: (1/5) Good, Semi-Public, 6.30% of GDP, 97% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Good, Public & Private, 5.67% of GDP, 98% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.07% of GDP
National Defence: 0.71% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Volunteer: 65,930 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Korona

Brazil
Economy & Population
Population: 59.989 m. $ 1,848 GDP per Capita, 2.96% Population Increase
Economy: $ 110,836 m. GDP, 6.62% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 42% Services, 28% Industry, 30% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 5.34% Debt to GDP, BB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -2.95% of GDP [0.41% Balance last year]
Government Spending 31.28% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Failing, 1.77% of GDP, 109% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Failing, 1.77% of GDP, 101% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Mostly Public, 6.09% of GDP, 106% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Semi-Private, 3.41% of GDP, 100% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.41% of GDP
National Defence: 1.70% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 1,013,797 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: baboushreturns

Bulgaria
Economy & Population
Population: 7.423 m. $ 2,025 GDP per Capita, 1.05% Population Increase
Economy: $ 15,030 m. GDP, -1.87% GDP Decrease, Recession, Semi-Industrial Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 51% Services, 11% Industry, 38% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 34.56% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: -5.40% of GDP [1.51% Balance last year]
Government Spending 92.58% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor, 2.84% of GDP, 97% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Poor, 3.33% of GDP, 100% Funding
Education: (2/5) Poor, Public, 7.91% of GDP, 96% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Poor, Public, 7.72% of GDP, 99% Funding
Miscellaneous: 2.42% of GDP
National Defence: 9.27% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 113,326 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Andre Massena

China
Economy & Population
Population: 595.310 m. $ 557 GDP per Capita, 2.39% Population Increase
Economy: $ 331,550 m. GDP, 3.28% GDP Increase, Expansion, Agrarian Mixed Economy
Economic Sectors: 43% Services, 19% Industry, 38% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: -0.33% Debt to GDP, Cannot Borrow
Yearly Balance: -0.88% of GDP [0.33% Balance last year]
Government Spending 51.59% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Failing, 1.83% of GDP, 88% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Poor, 2.01% of GDP, 90% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Public, 6.64% of GDP, 84% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Public, 6.60% of GDP, 81% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.62% of GDP
National Defence: 1.75% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 9,873,235 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: XVG

Czechoslovakia
Economy & Population
Population: 12.952 m. $ 3,652 GDP per Capita, 1.03% Population Increase
Economy: $ 47,295 m. GDP, 2.16% GDP Increase, Expansion, Semi-Industrial Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 48% Services, 38% Industry, 14% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 0.68% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: 0.01% of GDP [-0.72% Balance last year]
Government Spending 93.64% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average, 3.88% of GDP, 103% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Poor, 2.89% of GDP, 101% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Public, 7.81% of GDP, 103% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Poor, Public, 7.86% of GDP, 106% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.57% of GDP
National Defence: 2.28% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 119,612 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Duke of Britain

East Germany
Economy & Population
Population: 18.064 m. $ 6,802 GDP per Capita, -0.34% Population Decrease
Economy: $ 122,862 m. GDP, 1.42% GDP Increase, Expansion, Newly Industrial Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 51% Services, 37% Industry, 12% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: -0.29% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: -0.76% of GDP [0.29% Balance last year]
Government Spending 96.71% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Good, 4.99% of GDP, 96% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Poor, 3.72% of GDP, 103% Funding
Education: (2/5) Average, Public, 9.04% of GDP, 99% Funding
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Poor, Public, 8.27% of GDP, 98% Funding
Miscellaneous: 2.33% of GDP
National Defence: 1.23% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 226,184 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: MastahCheef117

Egypt
Economy & Population
Population: 23.299 m. $ 911 GDP per Capita, 2.39% Population Increase
Economy: $ 21,215 m. GDP, 4.26% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 40% Services, 21% Industry, 39% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 10.54% Debt to GDP, BBB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -3.40% of GDP [0.98% Balance last year]
Government Spending 28.54% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor, 2.00% of GDP, 99% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Failing, 1.68% of GDP, 98% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Mostly Public, 5.60% of GDP, 86% Funding
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing, Public & Private, 3.86% of GDP, 87% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.02% of GDP
National Defence: 2.84% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 347,032 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Watercress

France
Economy & Population
Population: 43.822 m. $ 5,915 GDP per Capita, 0.75% Population Increase
Economy: $ 259,215 m. GDP, 4.85% GDP Increase, Boom, Newly Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 57% Services, 34% Industry, 9% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 35.01% Debt to GDP, AAA Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -4.09% of GDP [-2.02% Balance last year]
Government Spending 34.78% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Average, 2.92% of GDP, 99% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Average, 2.92% of GDP, 96% Funding
Education: (2/5) Average, Public, 7.41% of GDP, 92% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Average, Semi-Public, 5.84% of GDP, 94% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.78% of GDP
National Defence: 3.17% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 390,707 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Keldonia-Skylar

Hungary
Economy & Population
Population: 9.706 m. $ 2,850 GDP per Capita, 1.16% Population Increase
Economy: $ 27,664 m. GDP, 3.51% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 51% Services, 26% Industry, 27% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 0.86% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: 1.01% of GDP [0.37% Balance last year]
Government Spending 90.77% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor, 3.61% of GDP, 100% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Poor, 3.36% of GDP, 103% Funding
Education: (2/5) Poor, Public, 7.96% of GDP, 100% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Poor, Public, 7.99% of GDP, 102% Funding
Miscellaneous: 2.00% of GDP
National Defence: 1.70% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 143,561 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: LatinKaiser

India
Economy & Population
Population: 386.051 m. $ 672 GDP per Capita, 1.80% Population Increase
Economy: $ 259,262 m. GDP, 4.14% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 32% Services, 19% Industry, 49% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 1.35% Debt to GDP, B Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -0.87% of GDP [0.56% Balance last year]
Government Spending 25.82% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor, 1.81% of GDP, 97% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Poor, 1.81% of GDP, 100% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Public, 6.56% of GDP, 91% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Semi-Public, 4.90% of GDP, 98% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.31% of GDP
National Defence: 1.80% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 6,577,944 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Spectre17

Iran
Economy & Population
Population: 18.216 m. $ 1,546 GDP per Capita, 2.71% Population Increase
Economy: $ 28,156 m. GDP, 0.36% GDP Increase, Recession, Semi-Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 48% Services, 11% Industry, 41% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 8.23% Debt to GDP, BB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: 0.88% of GDP [0.36% Balance last year]
Government Spending 22.29% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor, 1.86% of GDP, 100% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Poor, 2.01% of GDP, 96% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Semi-Public, 4.79% of GDP, 92% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Poor, Public & Private, 4.20% of GDP, 97% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.49% of GDP
National Defence: 1.53% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 300,996 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Magister

Iraq
Economy & Population
Population: 5.743 m. $ 2,463 GDP per Capita, 2.76% Population Increase
Economy: $ 14,145 m. GDP, 18.88% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Mixed Economy
Economic Sectors: 47% Services, 7% Industry, 46% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 23.56% Debt to GDP, B Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -1.55% of GDP [0.84% Balance last year]
Government Spending 50.34% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor, 2.16% of GDP, 98% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Poor, 2.16% of GDP, 99% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Public & Private, 4.28% of GDP, 87% Funding
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing, Semi-Private, 3.25% of GDP, 83% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.09% of GDP
National Defence: 3.34% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 34,246 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Noco19

Israel
Economy & Population
Population: 1.712 m. $ 3,374 GDP per Capita, 2.70% Population Increase
Economy: $ 5,776 m. GDP, 19.04% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 52% Services, 30% Industry, 18% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: -4.07% Debt to GDP, A Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -8.42% of GDP [-9.27% Balance last year]
Government Spending 50.22% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor, 2.03% of GDP, 98% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Average, 2.51% of GDP, 99% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Semi-Public, 4.96% of GDP, 87% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Public & Private, 3.96% of GDP, 83% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.74% of GDP
National Defence: 27.29% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 6,688 Manpower, Full mobilisation
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: etranger01

Italy
Economy & Population
Population: 48.299 m. $ 4,449 GDP per Capita, 0.71% Population Increase
Economy: $ 214,884 m. GDP, 5.19% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Mixed Economy
Economic Sectors: 50% Services, 31% Industry, 18% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 28.62% Debt to GDP, AA Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -2.30% of GDP [0.02% Balance last year]
Government Spending 41.28% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Average, 2.97% of GDP, 100% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Average, 2.79% of GDP, 106% Funding
Education: (3/5) Average, Public, 7.95% of GDP, 102% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Average, Semi-Public, 6.06% of GDP, 97% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.67% of GDP
National Defence: 2.06% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 785,532 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Maxwell500

Japan
Economy & Population
Population: 89.815 m. $ 2,551 GDP per Capita, 1.20% Population Increase
Economy: $ 229,151 m. GDP, 5.65% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 63% Services, 33% Industry, 4% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 15.77% Debt to GDP, A Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -2.04% of GDP [0.23% Balance last year]
Government Spending 27.26% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor, 2.12% of GDP, 94% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Average, 2.55% of GDP, 92% Funding
Education: (4/5) Poor, Public, 6.99% of GDP, 91% Funding
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Poor, Mostly Public, 5.97% of GDP, 87% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.19% of GDP
National Defence: 0.34% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 1,625,578 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: bakerydog

Libya
Economy & Population
Population: 1.086 m. $ 915 GDP per Capita, 3.23% Population Increase
Economy: $ 994 m. GDP, -0.40% GDP Decrease, Recession, Agrarian Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 47% Services, 2% Industry, 51% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 2.92% Debt to GDP, B Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -3.37% of GDP [-1.80% Balance last year]
Government Spending 13.95% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Failing, 1.32% of GDP, 81% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Poor, 1.44% of GDP, 87% Funding
Education: (2/5) Failing, Mostly Private, 1.56% of GDP, 54% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Failing, Private, 0.64% of GDP, 51% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.72% of GDP
National Defence: 4.54% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 8,091 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: jacob-Lundgren

North Korea
Economy & Population
Population: 8.572 m. $ 1,013 GDP per Capita, -0.09% Population Decrease
Economy: $ 8,683 m. GDP, 4.77% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 42% Services, 24% Industry, 34% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 0.00% Debt to GDP, Borrow from China
Yearly Balance: -14.33% of GDP [-14.65% Balance last year]
Government Spending 87.82% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor, 2.76% of GDP, 94% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Poor, 3.19% of GDP, 91% Funding
Education: (2/5) Poor, Public, 7.63% of GDP, 90% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Poor, Public, 7.63% of GDP, 90% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.51% of GDP
National Defence: 27.23% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 108,455 Manpower, Partial mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Shynka

Pakistan
Economy & Population
Population: 91.965 m. $ 589 GDP per Capita, 2.19% Population Increase
Economy: $ 54,184 m. GDP, 2.13% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 48% Services, 13% Industry, 39% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 4.05% Debt to GDP, BBB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -1.45% of GDP [-0.93% Balance last year]
Government Spending 27.63% of GDP
Infrastructure: (3/5) Poor, 1.99% of GDP, 87% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Poor, 1.99% of GDP, 89% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Semi-Public, 4.63% of GDP, 74% Funding
Health & Welfare: (3/5) Failing, Semi-Private, 2.87% of GDP, 73% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.63% of GDP
National Defence: 3.18% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 1,293,353 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Dadarian
Played by: Julius Maximus

Poland
Economy & Population
Population: 26.715 m. $ 2,715 GDP per Capita, 1.88% Population Increase
Economy: $ 72,526 m. GDP, 5.66% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 42% Services, 43% Industry, 15% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 0.00% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: 0.11% of GDP [0.22% Balance last year]
Government Spending 97.71% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor, 3.65% of GDP, 96% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Average, 3.90% of GDP, 94% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Public, 7.77% of GDP, 92% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Poor, Public, 7.75% of GDP, 91% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.72% of GDP
National Defence: 2.56% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 302,228 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Haresus

Romania
Economy & Population
Population: 17.040 m. $ 1,496 GDP per Capita, 1.15% Population Increase
Economy: $ 25,493 m. GDP, 7.24% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 43% Services, 42% Industry, 15% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: -1.04% Debt to GDP, Borrow from the Soviet Union
Yearly Balance: -0.71% of GDP [1.16% Balance last year]
Government Spending 96.80% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor, 2.93% of GDP, 100% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Failing, 2.68% of GDP, 100% Funding
Education: (3/5) Failing, Public, 7.15% of GDP, 86% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Poor, Public, 7.63% of GDP, 87% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.71% of GDP
National Defence: 4.40% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 183,240 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: sealy300

South Korea
Economy & Population
Population: 21.259 m. $ 1,124 GDP per Capita, 0.94% Population Increase
Economy: $ 23,894 m. GDP, 5.87% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Mixed Economy
Economic Sectors: 42% Services, 30% Industry, 28% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 15.11% Debt to GDP, BB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -7.93% of GDP [-6.65% Balance last year]
Government Spending 42.08% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Poor, 1.83% of GDP, 84% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Poor, 1.98% of GDP, 83% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Mostly Public, 5.64% of GDP, 74% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Public & Private, 3.94% of GDP, 78% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.85% of GDP
National Defence: 12.15% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 695,229 Manpower, Partial mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Groogy

Soviet Union
Economy & Population
Population: 192.171 m. $ 3,106 GDP per Capita, 1.70% Population Increase
Economy: $ 596,910 m. GDP, 4.86% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Planned Economy
Economic Sectors: 34% Services, 46% Industry, 20% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 0.00% Debt to GDP, Cannot Borrow
Yearly Balance: 0.75% of GDP [0.18% Balance last year]
Government Spending 97.85% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor, 3.74% of GDP, 100% Funding
Administration: (4/5) Poor, 5.58% of GDP, 100% Funding
Education: (4/5) Poor, Public, 8.64% of GDP, 100% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Poor, Public, 8.13% of GDP, 100% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.95% of GDP
National Defence: 9.83% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 2,943,164 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Stormbringer

Spain
Economy & Population
Population: 29.060 m. $ 2,696 GDP per Capita, 0.89% Population Increase
Economy: $ 78,335 m. GDP, 7.59% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Mixed Economy
Economic Sectors: 50% Services, 28% Industry, 22% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 44.85% Debt to GDP, BBB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: 0.54% of GDP [0.69% Balance last year]
Government Spending 53.70% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Average, 3.00% of GDP, 78% Funding
Administration: (2/5) Average, 4.14% of GDP, 103% Funding
Education: (1/5) Poor, Semi-Public, 5.28% of GDP, 88% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Public & Private, 4.29% of GDP, 87% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.90% of GDP
National Defence: 2.30% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 381,610 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: nachopontmercy

United Kingdom
Economy & Population
Population: 50.765 m. $ 7,619 GDP per Capita, 0.34% Population Increase
Economy: $ 386,789 m. GDP, 4.07% GDP Increase, Boom, Newly Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 55% Services, 41% Industry, 4% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 162.46% Debt to GDP, AAA Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -4.52% of GDP [-3.23% Balance last year]
Government Spending 35.22% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Average, 2.89% of GDP, 95% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Good, 3.58% of GDP, 98% Funding
Education: (3/5) Average, Mostly Public, 6.80% of GDP, 97% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Average, Semi-Public, 6.24% of GDP, 101% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.96% of GDP
National Defence: 5.74% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 663,153 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: MagnificentOne

United States
Economy & Population
Population: 163.026 m. $ 10,359 GDP per Capita, 1.77% Population Increase
Economy: $ 1,688,804 m. GDP, -0.66% GDP Decrease, Recession, Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 45% Services, 49% Industry, 6% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 73.23% Debt to GDP, AAA Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -0.21% of GDP [-0.71% Balance last year]
Government Spending 32.39% of GDP
Infrastructure: (2/5) Average, 2.58% of GDP, 93% Funding
Administration: (1/5) Good, 3.56% of GDP, 99% Funding
Education: (1/5) Average, Semi-Public, 5.66% of GDP, 97% Funding
Health & Welfare: (2/5) Average, Semi-Private, 4.22% of GDP, 98% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.51% of GDP
National Defence: 8.05% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 2,151,981 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Dutchbag

Vietnam
Economy & Population
Population: 27.210 m. $ 732 GDP per Capita, 1.82% Population Increase
Economy: $ 19,920 m. GDP, 4.65% GDP Increase, Boom, Agrarian Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 43% Services, 8% Industry, 49% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 29.19% Debt to GDP, BB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: -0.39% of GDP [0.53% Balance last year]
Government Spending 24.67% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Poor, 1.54% of GDP, 92% Funding
Administration: (2/5) Poor, 1.96% of GDP, 83% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Public & Private, 3.92% of GDP, 86% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Poor, Mostly Private, 2.45% of GDP, 87% Funding
Miscellaneous: 0.45% of GDP
National Defence: 5.82% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 371,385 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Firelordsky

West Germany
Economy & Population
Population: 51.804 m. $ 4,705 GDP per Capita, 1.04% Population Increase
Economy: $ 243,722 m. GDP, 4.77% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Market Economy
Economic Sectors: 56% Services, 33% Industry, 11% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 46.77% Debt to GDP, BB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: 0.93% of GDP [0.04% Balance last year]
Government Spending 31.99% of GDP
Infrastructure: (1/5) Good, 3.17% of GDP, 106% Funding
Administration: (3/5) Average, 3.38% of GDP, 101% Funding
Education: (1/5) Average, Semi-Public, 5.73% of GDP, 97% Funding
Health & Welfare: (1/5) Average, Public & Private, 5.04% of GDP, 103% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.31% of GDP
National Defence: 0.89% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Volunteer: 480,138 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: TJDS

Yugoslavia
Economy & Population
Population: 17.151 m. $ 1,712 GDP per Capita, 1.26% Population Increase
Economy: $ 29,362 m. GDP, 5.53% GDP Increase, Boom, Semi-Industrial Mixed Economy
Economic Sectors: 56% Services, 33% Industry, 11% Agriculture & Resources
Income & Spending
Treasury & Credit Rating: 8.11% Debt to GDP, BB Credit Rating
Yearly Balance: 0.21% of GDP [-1.80% Balance last year]
Government Spending 57.90% of GDP
Infrastructure: (4/5) Poor, 2.69% of GDP, 98% Funding
Administration: (2/5) Poor, 3.07% of GDP, 96% Funding
Education: (4/5) Failing, Public, 6.73% of GDP, 87% Funding
Health & Welfare: (4/5) Failing, Public, 6.67% of GDP, 83% Funding
Miscellaneous: 1.45% of GDP
National Defence: 5.30% of GDP (estimate)
Recruitment & Manpower: Draft: 113,294 Manpower, No mobilisation
Game Moderator: Frymonmon
Played by: Ekon

Neutral States Military Stats

 
Last edited:

MastahCheef117

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Dadarian

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Julius Maximus

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Ab Ovo

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[FONT= "Times New Roman"]Agħti, kbir Alla, id-dehen lil min jaħkimha
A Modern History of Malta[/FONT]​
 

Noco19

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Foundation of the Modern Iraqi Kingdom
From Sumerian to Hashemite

The lands comprising modern Iraq bear the epithet "Cradle of Civilization" deservedly, having been the site of the very first documented civilization in existence - the Sumerians. This was but one of the firsts that this region may boast, having cultivated the first signs of mathematics, written law, and organized religion, created by the numerous city-states that called the fertile lands between the mighty Euphrates and Tigris rivers home. The rise and fall of various city-states birthed the beginnings of great empires - the Babylonians, the Akkadians, the Assyrians, all of which would eventually fall to invasion and internal turmoil. Legendary empires would go on to reign over this region, from the early Persians and later Sassinids, to perhaps the most influential force in Iraqi history - the Arab Muslims in the mid-seventh century.

Under the Muslim Caliphates, Iraq became home to an influx of Arabs and Kurds, who grew to dominate the demographics of modern Iraq. Similarly, the introduction of Islam took root and became the primary religion of the area, neglecting the Assyrian minority of Christians created under the Roman Empire. Under the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th century, Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, was founded, to be decimated in the 13th century by Mongol forces. Coupled with the ensuing Black Death that ravaged the Islamic world and the atrocities committed by Timur, who raided Baghdad and devastated the northern Assyrians, Iraq was greatly weakened, both in terms of population and in general prosperity.

By the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Turkish Kara Koyunlu had moved in to control the Iraqi region, to be ousted in 1466 by the Turkish Aq Qoyunlu. By the 16th century, the rising Ottoman Empire controlled most of Iraq under the Baghdad Eyalet. This would place Iraq as the foremost battleground between the Ottoman Empire and its enemies, as well as a number of tribal rivalries, from the Safavids in Iran to the Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula. From 1747 to 1831, Iraq was under the rule of a Georgian Mamluk dynasty, whose reign was ended when the Sublime Porte imposed direct rule. Ottoman rule had greatly sapped Iraq, with the population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in 800 AD, being only 5 million at the start of the 20th century.

During the Great War of the early 20th century, the Ottoman Empire found itself alongside the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, facing off against the Triple Entente. The Mesopotamian Campaign, formulated by the opposing British Empire, saw the British invasion through Iraq, assisted by local Assyrian and Arab volunteers, that ultimately lead to British control over Iraq, affirmed on November 11th, 1920 when Iraq became a League of Nations mandate under British control with the name "State of Iraq".


King Faisal I of Iraq

The British installed a Hashemite king, the Hashemites being descendants of Banu Hashim [Tr: Of the Clan of Hashim], Faisal I, who had been originally destined to rule Syria but was forced out by the French. Likewise, the British empowered the Sunni Arab elite to essentially control Iraq. Iraq was thus subject to Britain, exemplified by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, which called for a "close alliance," for "full and frank consultations between the two countries in all matters of foreign policy," and for mutual assistance in case of war. Furthermore, the British were entitled to have the near-unlimited basing of military troops throughout Iraq. While technically a functioning democracy, complete with a constitution and elected assembly, in actuality it was centered around cliches and personalities, chief of which were those who owed their loyalty to accepting such a one-sided treaty. This was exacerbated by the fact that the British-formed local army was comprised of a Sunni top brass, whose influence remained far stronger than the weak democratic elements of Iraq.

The Kingdom of Iraq was formally granted independence as a sovereign nation on October 3rd, 1932, although the British maintained many of their imposed conditions, such as unlimited military basing and an Iraqi obligation to assist Britain in war efforts. This, obviously, was a source of tension between the two states, and this tension would only rise. Almost immediately following independence, the Iraqi state would claim British-held Kuwait, stating that Kuwait was formerly under the authority of the Vilayet of Basra, which encompassed Iraqi lands, and thus a Kuwait separate from Iraq was merely an imperialist invention. The question of British relations proved to be a major dividing force within the early Iraqi Kingdom, with men such as autocratic Prime Minister Nuri al-Said representing those that supported these ties with Britain, and the nationalist Rashid Ali al-Gaylani who sought to remove the British from Iraq. Beyond the pressures of Arab nationalism, Iraq faced dissent from various ethnic and religious factions, Assyrian, Shi'a, and Kurdish to name the most prominent. This instability prompted a grand total of five separate coups by the Iraqi Army between 1936 and 1941.


Prime Minister Nuri al-Said

Of perhaps greatest importance was the 1941 coup by Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, who aligned himself with Nazi Germany in a bid to purge British power over the Iraqi Kingdom. Prime Minister al-Gaylani ultimately failed to defy the British, and was eventually ousted by a British invasion, leading to the occupation of Iraq and the reinstatement of Nuri al-Said, who continues to dominate the political realm of Iraq as a pro-western advocate, acting on behalf of the figurehead Crown. Al-Said, entering into his seventh term as Prime Minister of Iraq, represents to many nationalists in modern Iraq the very force they combat, imperialism and its control over the sovereign Iraqi state.
 

Spectre17

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Shynka

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OOC:


The Polandball History of Best Korea



The Great Patriotic Struggle Against Sanity



Entry One - 1954
Where greedy capitalist pigdog cause great market collapse with greed and propaganda.

Direct link to better image





Entry Two - 1955
Where imperialist monarchist KKK-influenced Maltese leadership lead country to disaster with short distance trains.

Direct link to better image






Entry Three - 1957
After one year holiday, Great Leader has decide to be taken in by the spirit of Valentine tradition of Western Capitarrist













 
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Watercress

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A History of the Egyptian Republic



Updates
The Philosophy of the Revolution - see below



~



The Philosophy of the Revolution
by Gamel Abdel Nasser

Published in 1955, 'The Philosophy of Revolution' was penned by the Egyptian Premier as a recounting of his experience and his personal interpretation of the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.

'These impressions on the Philosophy of the Revolution were not meant to be published as a book. Neither are they an attempt to explain the events of the Revolution of July 23rd and its objectives. They aim at something else altogether. They are like a reconnaissance-patrol. They are an effort to explore within ourselves who we are and what our role in the successive stages of the history of Egypt really is...Such is the object I aim at: a mere patrol in the field in which we are fighting our greatest battle for the liberation of our country from all fetters and shackles.'

'It is not true that the revolution of July 23rd started on account of the results of the war in Palestine. Neither was it caused by defective arms, to which officers and men fell victims. It is still further from the truth to attribute it to the crisis of the elections of the Officers' Club. In my opinion its causes are deeper and farther.... All these were incidental. Perhaps their greatest influence was that they urged us to march forward along the road to revolution; but without them we were marching just the same...There is the question; and to do justice to myself and to the philosophy of the revolution I leave it to history to gather how it was within me, how it was within others and how it appeared in events; and from, all these the whole truth will emerge.'

'I can now say that we are at presently in the throes of two revolutions and not one. Every nation on earth undergoes two revolutions: One political, in which it recovers its right of self government from an imposed despot or an army of aggression occupying its territory without its consent. The second revolution is social, in which the classes of society struggle against each other until justice for all citizens has been gained and conditions have become stable...In the case of our nation, it is going through the two revolutions together and at the same time, a great experiment putting us to the test...Political revolution demands, for its success, the unity of all national elements, their fusion and mutual support, as well as self-denial for the sake of the country as a whole.'

'What is it we want to do? And which is the way to it? The truth is that I often knew the answer to the first question. Such knowledge was not confined to me; it was the hope held by our whole generation. As for the answer to the second question — the way to that which we want - I confess it has undergone in my mind more changes than anything else. I almost believe that it is the biggest bone of contention in this generation. There is no doubt we all dream of Egypt free and strong. No Egyptian would ever differ with another about that. As for the way to liberation and strength, that is the most intricate problem in our lives. I faced this complex problem prior to July 23, 1952. I continued to face it after that, until its many angles, which had lain hidden under the shadows that fell upon them, became clear to me I began to behold horizons which were shrouded out of my sight by the pall of darkness that had lain on our country for centuries.'

'Fate has so willed that we should be on the crossroads of the world. Often we have been the road which invaders took and a prey to adventurers In certain circumstances we find it impossible to explain the factors inherent in the soul of our nation without due consideration of these circumstances. In my opinion we cannot overlook the history of Egypt under the Pharaohs or the reaction between the Greek spirit and ours, the Roman invasion, and to conquest and the waves of Arab migrations that followed...Often, when I go back to turning the pages of our history, I feel sorrow tearing my soul as I consider the period when a tyrannical feudalism was formed, a feudalism which had no other object save to such the blood of life out of our veins and to sap from them the remnants of any feeling of power and of dignity. It left in the depth of our souls an effect that we have to struggle long to overcome.'

'We live in a society that has not yet crystallised. It is still boiling over and restless. It has not yet grown calm or settled down, so as to continue its gradual evolution parallel with other nations which preceded it along road. I believe, without paying any compliment to people's emotions, that our nation has realised a miracle. Any nation, exposed to the same conditions as our country, could easily have men lost. It could have been swept away by the torrents that fell upon it. But it stood firm in the violent earthquake.'

'The era of isolation is now gone. Gone also are the days when barbed wire marked the frontiers separating and isolating countries. Every country must now look beyond its frontiers to find out where the currents that affect it spring, how it should live with others... etc. It has become imperative that every country should look around to find out its position and its environment and decide what it can do, what its vital sphere is, where is the scene of its activity and what its positive role can be in this troubled world.'

'We cannot look stupidly at a map of the world not realising our place therein and the role determining to us by that place. Neither can we ignore that there is an Arab circle surrounding us and that this circle is as much a part of us as we are a part of it, that our history has been mixed with it and that its interests are linked with ours. These are actual facts and not mere words. Can we ignore that there is a continent of Africa in Which fate has placed us and which is destined today to witness a terrible struggle on its future? This struggle will affect us whether we want it or not. Can we ignore that there is a Moslem world with which we are tied by bonds which are not only forged by religious faith also tightened by the facts of history?'

'All these are fundamental facts, whose roots lie deep in our life; whatever we do, we cannot forget them or run away from them...There is no doubt that the Arab circle is the most important and the most closely connected with us. Its history merges with ours. We have suffered the same hardships, lived the same crises and, when we fell prostrate under the spikes of the horses of conquerors, they lay prostrate with us. Religion also fused this circle with us. The centres of religious enlightenment radiated from Mecca, from Koufa and later from Cairo... An event may happen in Cairo today; it is repeated in Damascus, Beirut, Amman or any other place tomorrow....One region, the same factors and circumstances, even the same forces opposing them all. It was clear that imperialism was the most prominent of these forces; even Israel itself was but one of the outcomes of imperialism.'

'After these facts became established within me, I began to believe in one common struggle and repeat to myself, "As long as the region is one, with its conditions, its problems and its future, and even the enemy is the same, however different are the masks it covers its face with, why should we dissipate our efforts?" The experience of what followed July 23rd increased my faith in a united struggle and its necessity...I do not hesitate for one moment to mention that our united struggle could achieve for us and our peoples everything we wish and aspire to; I shall always go on saying that we are strong but the great catastrophe is that we do not know the extent of our strength...Such is the first circle in which we must revolve and attempt to move as much as we possibly can. It is the Arab circle.'

'If we direct our attention after that to the second circle, the circle of the continent of Africa, I would say, without exaggeration, that we cannot, even if we wish to, in any way stand aside, from the sanguinary and dreadful struggle now raging in the heart of Africa...We cannot do so for one principal and clear reason, namely that we are in Africa. The people of Africa will continue to look up to us, who guard the northern gate of the continent and who are its connecting link with the world outside. We cannot stand aside in face of what is taking place in Africa on the assumption that it does not concern or affect us.'

'The third circle now remains: the circle that goes beyond continents and oceans and which I referred to as the circle of our brethren in faith who turn with us, whatever part of the world they are in, towards the same Kibla in Mecca, and whose pious lips whisper reverently the same prayers...When my mind travels to the eighty million Moslems in Indonesia, the fifty million in China and the several other million in Malaya, Siam and Burma and the hundred million in Pakistan, the hundred million or more in the Middle East and the forty million in Russia, as well as the other millions in the distant parts of the world, when I visualise these millions united in one faith, I have a great consciousness of the tremendous potentialities that that does not deprive them of their loyalty to their countries but which guarantees for them and their brethren a limitless power.'

'I now revert to the wandering role that seeks an actor to perform it. Such is the role, such are its features and such is its stage. We, and only we, are impelled by our environment and are capable of performing this role.'
 
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Maxwell500

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Lo Stivale
History of Italy; 1953 - Present

Unification, Liberal Years and March on Rome (1861-1922)

Fascism, World War II and the End of the Monarchy (1922-1946)

A New Path, Elections and the Early Days of the Republic (1946-Present)
 

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The Dominion of Pakistan



The Lahore Riots (1953)

The Dominion of Pakistan, going into the year of 1953 looked promising, but that was quickly dashed in February. In the religion of Islam, the two main sects are Shia and Sunni, but there are other less known factions that look to improve their standing, by either peaceful or violent means.

This brings us to the Islamic revitalist sect Ahmadyiyya Movement located in Lahore, Punjab Province. The main difference (and most controversial) was the different interpretations of Khatam an-Nabiyyin (Prophet Muhammad being last Prophet). Sunni and Shia Muslims are awaiting the second coming of Mahdi (Redeemer of Islam who will lead before the Day of Judgment and rid the world of evil). While the Ahmadi believe that Muhammad was not the last Prophet, it being Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who is also the Mahdi.


Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Founder of the Ahmadyiyya Movement (1835-1908)

With the beliefs of this sect, most of the Islamic community condemned and showed discrimination towards Ahmad's followers since its inception. This was met with initial hesitation in the political sphere, as the Ahmadyiyya had prominent positions in government. Due to their high literacy rate and policy of secularism and a proper democratic system they acted as a counter-balance to the more conservative and reactionary elements in the government.

Disturbances began when an ultimatum was delivered to the Prime Minister on January 21st by a deputation of ulama representing the Majis-i Amal (Council of Action) constituted by an All-Pakistan Muslim Parties Convention held in Karachi between January 16-18th.

The ultimatum stated unless three demands were met:
1. Removal of Muhammad Zafarullah Khan from the Foreign Ministry
2. Removal of Ahmadi Muslims from top government offices
3. Declaration of Ahmadi Muslims as non-Muslims

If these demands were not met, violent action would be taken.

The Prime Minister rejected the terms of the ultimatum, and immediately afterwards the Anti-Ahmadi movement began violent action. By March, the situation had gotten out of control for the Governor-General, as an estimated 200 to 2,000 Ahmadi Muslims were reported killed, and the Pakistani Army was called in to quell the uprising.

Lieutenant Muhammad Azam Khan was given command, and on March 6 martial law was declared throughout the city of Lahore. The city of Lahore was under complete military jurisdiction for 70 days, as the army cracked down on the dissenters and looters. Mass arrests were made, and the Chief Minister of Punjab was sacked by the Governor-General for allegedly manipulating the religious element of the Anti-Ahmadi violence for political benefit.

It even went as far as Prime Minister Khwaja Nazimuddin being dismissed along with the entire Federal Cabinet. Muhammad Ali Bogra was called from his post as Ambassador to the United States to replace Nazimuddin as Prime Minister.
 
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