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LWE

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This is going to be a mostly gameplay (with some brief historical vignettes) AAR of Sweden in New Nations Mod, 3.03. (The biggest initial difference there is that Sweden starts with Norway as a puppet, instead of controlling it directly).


The AAR is about my third Victoria 2 game, so don't expect particularly brilliant strategy here (I didn't set a National Focus until six years have passed, for instance).

Post-Napoleonic was a largely peaceful one for the Kingdom of Sweden, with the loss of Finland to Russia being compensated by having Norway under a personal union, with both countries ruled by King Karl XIV Johan, formerly known as Bernadotte.


The period of peace was marked by the continuation of early Swedish Romanticism, pioneered by the Gothic Society. Its luminaries insisted that only by restoring the old Viking traditions, Sweden can become a Great Power again.


An illustration to one of the ancient Scandinavian sagas, the Saga of Frithiof

This age was also marked by the beginning of earl industrialization and by the revival of Swedish liberalism, which the King, despite his generally conservative views, had been forced to partially allow.


The King nourished the dream of uniting all Scandinavia under his rule or the rule of this descendants, considering this ultimate goal to be an excellent antidote to the overly rebellious and permissive liberal attitudes. The first step to do so was simply to proclaim Sweden as the head of the Kalmar Union. Although merely a ritual gesture, it still needed certain prerequisites in order for it to be taken seriously on the world stage.


The 1830'ies were a highly protectionist time in Sweden, as high tariffs were raised to maintain the state treasury.


Besides dreams of unifying Scandinavia, the King also planned the creation of a colonial empire in Africa. This was a difficult task, and one which other European powers would disapprove of, given their own involvement with African kingdoms and chiefdoms, but it would benefit Sweden a lot to trade in exotic African goods.


(Warri is located in the Nigerian Delta).

Predictably, the Great Powers did not like this move, although they weren't particularly alarmed about the fate of "some African savages" to significantly inconvenience the Swedish government in its plans.


The King's plan to restore the political union of all Scandinavian countries, leaked to the press, was, as it could be clearly seen, not received well in Denmark. It was clear that huge obstacles lay in front of the romantic "united Scandinavia" dream.

 
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LWE

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Steps were taken to improve the relations between two Scandinavian countries.


The King's conservatism infuriated the more liberal parts of Swedish society, with demonstrations taking place in largest cities. However, Swedish demonstrations were relatively mild compared to some minor European uprisings that took place around that time, they did not escalate to any large-scale violence.


The Swedish tariff regime was flexible, it being raised and lowered as the financial situation demanded.


After months of preparation, Swedish fleet finally arrived in the Bight of Benin. General Ehrenmark easily defeated the antiquated forces of the Warri Kingdom, laying siege to its fortresses and towns, as Britain, not to be outdone in colonial expansionism, used the disorder in the Sikh Empire after Ranjit Singh's death to annex Amritsar.


By early April, all traces of organized native resistance were dealt with. Tropical Wood found in the provinces of Warri and Bonny greatly enriched Swedish budget, proving once and for all that the King's colonial initiative was the right move.

 
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LWE

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The whole world was charmed with Jenny Lind.

...how bouquets fell in showers, and the roof was rent with applause – how it thundered outside, and inside with the thunder of God and of men – judge ye which was the loudest; how we all loved Jennie Lind, but not accustomed oft to her manner of singing didn’t fancy that so well as we did her. No doubt it was very fine, but take some notes from her Echo, the bird sounds from the Bird Song, and some of her curious trills, and I'd rather have a Yankee. Herself and not her music was what we seemed to love – she has an air of exile in her mild blue eyes, and a something sweet and touching in her native accent which charms her many friends. ... as she sang she grew so earnest she seemed half lost in song. ... She took $4,000 for tickets at Northampton aside from all expenses.
-Emily Dickinson



The Tropical Wood profits allowed further decrease in tariffs leveled by the Swedish Crown.


The King was quite surprised to learn that the conquest of Warri means that about a third of his subjects* are now Africans

*discounting the Kingdom of Norway.


As the Romantic movement continued in Swedish literature, the Russian Empire made a demonstration of force in the Aland Islands, convincing the King that any project to regain Finland was most unwise.


The Concert of Europe worked for two decades after the fall of Karl IV Johan's former superior, but what broke it was an island in the continent's West. Historians would long debate why Tsar Nicholas I would desire to back Tadhg Mac Maol Daire (aka Eamon Shannon), the self-proclaimed "King of all Ireland" and the claimant to be descended of several ancient Irish Clan lineages simultaneously. Was he touched by the pretender's monarchist legitimism, or did he want to weaken the British Empire, irritated by British designs on Russian Alaska?


A crisis of another character was triggered in Sweden by Carl Almquist's feminist novel "It will do", as outraged moralists condemned the novel, while liberals praised it.

But the Ireland crisis was not going away, and it finally erupted into major war involving all European Great Powers, with Russia demanding freedom for the Emerald Isle and Britain having designs on Russian Alaska.

 
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McLovin28

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Subbed. It will be interesting to see how this crisis plays out. I don't think that Prussia will hold up well against Russia, Austria and France together but we'll see.
 

LWE

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Prussian armies managed to stalemate Russians and Austrians on the Eastern Front of the war, while France was assaulted both by the Prussian Rhineland army and by the British expeditionary forces.


The war in Europe didn't have much an effect on Sweden, where parliamentary elections proceeded in the usual order.


Leading Swedish economists endorced interventionist economic principles, stressing the need for government regulation of the free market as the golden mean for state prosperity.


Amid rumours of increasing tensions between the Shogun and the Emperor in faraway Japan (presumably, over whether the Japanese national colour can ever be called "pink"), and the growing Oriental Crisis, the King refused to confiscate native lands in Niger Delta (or, at least, to confiscate more then what already was taken). Swedish treasury was already chugging along quite nicely with taxes on the native Tropical Wood harvesters.


Frustrated with Prussian resilience in Poznan and Silesia, as Prussian soldiers overran French fortifications in Alsace, Tsar Nicholas had to admit defeat, abandon all plans of an independent Ireland, and give away Alaska to Britain. France, in its turn, ceded its Caribbean possessions to Britain. It was this war that convinced Nicholas of the decisive need to abolish serfdom in Russia, while stunting aristocratic opposition to it.

 
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LWE

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After a rigorous debate in the Riksdag, liberal positions on minority citizenship won the day. In any case, Sweden didn't have many minorities in her lands, with the exception of the Sami in Lappland.


Despite the King's opposition, the Riksdag made a declaration supporting, in principle, the extension of voting rights. It remained unknown whether the declaration was genuine or a mere attempt to reduce societal tension.


Realism in Swedish art rose primarily as a reaction to the romanticism of earlier years. Much to the consternation of the Romanticists, Sweden gained worldwide renown as the country of realist art - to the point where it became commonplace for it to be referred as the "Great Power of Art".


Ties with Denmark were increased even more, in preparation for the idea of a restored Kalmar Union to gain acceptance.


In order to reinforce Swedish prestige in the world, a program of major fleet expansion was announced.


But one thing became clear: the obstacles to a united Scandinavia were greater than first thought, as London pronounced that it will not tolerate any "foreign meddling" in Dennmark - Britain itself, naturally, not counting as "foreign" here.


1842 was not a good year for Sweden, as the epidemic of cholera was followed by Sweden's junior union partner declaring bankrupcy. The only silver lining was the Elementary School Act.


The new Act was followed by another act, the Industry Act, which opened new banks and granted certain benefits to anyone who owned a factory in Sweden.

Yeah, I finally noticed the missing National Focus at this time.


Also among measures to encourage a new industry was the new "negative tariff" of -1%, subsidising purchases from international market.


Despite the King's opposition to growing liberal clubs, the Riksdag refused to sanction any but the most perfunctory measures against them, ceding to the King the right and the new taxes needed for a public campaign that stressed the importance of Swedish possessions in Niger Delta.


 
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LWE

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Thanks to McLovin and all other lurkers.
_____________________________________

As the aging King became more infirm, liberal currents in Sweden no longer felt themselves chained by the King's popularity. Growing discontent with the monarchy's autocratic policies signaled coming turbulence to the country's public life.


The King and the conservatives surrounding him tried to stop the wave of liberal agitation, but their efforts proved fruitless, as liberalism was, in a contemporary's turn of phrase, "heard in all of Sweden".


As much as Karl IV Johan hoped not to be in Swedish Herald's obtuaries, he, finally, was listed in them, dying in the early 1844.

On his deathbed, he was heard to say:

"Nobody has had a career in life like mine. I could perhaps have been able to agree to become Napoleon’s ally: but when he attacked the country that had placed its fate in my hands, he could find in me no other than an opponent. The events that shook Europe and that gave her back her freedom are known. It is also known which part I played in that".


He was succeeded by his only son, Oscar. He had a reputation as a moderate liberal, and many reformers were cautiously welcoming of his reign.

Oscar I


The new King continued the fleet-building programs of this father, but was immediately forced to deal with liberal societies springing all over the place.


Superstitious minds warned that a comet in the sky may bring ruin to the kingdom, but Swedish scientists always knew that no matter the times, you always keep looking at the sky.


Conservative publicists compared liberal societies to a hydra, whose heads keep regrowing after one is beheaded. Not that there was much beheading going on in Sweden, anyway - king Oscar I wanted his kingdom to be distinguished from the reactionary powers of the "mainland" like Russia or Austria.


1st October, 1844 was a momentous date in Scandinavian history, as Swedish claim to being the head of the Kalmar Union was, finally, recognized by Denmark. Historians would always point out that this was a mere formality that didn't have any particular effect besides prestige, yet this date would have a large presence in Scandinavian public consciousness.

 
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LWE

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The formal proclamation of the Union greatly boosted the political standing of the Conservatives, allowing them to achieve an easy victory in elections.


Conservatives adopted a paternalist response to the potato blight, minimizing risks to their public standing.


Liberals were still able to make a political issue of the Blight, insisting that free trade might be able to better deal with the famine conditions. Good thing the famine never really affected the cities, ensuring that the living standards of workers in Sweden remained higher than in Britain.


After the free trade policies of Britain led to worsening of the Irish famine, conservatives insisted that the Irish Famine shows them to have been right in dealing with the comparatively minor potato blight in Sweden.


The progressive character of the King was revealed in the 1845 speech he gave to the Riksdag, in which he stated government commitment to reform, to the discontent of the Conservatives.


The Governor of Swedish Niger Delta managed to lobby for an extension of the colony.


However, the most momentous international event of 1845 was the Crisis of Thessaly. A local Greek patriot uprising expelled the Ottoman governor and appealed to Greek King Otto and Russian Tsar Nicholas I for protection. The British councilor in Constantinople, however, took a dim view of the Russian ambitions, convincing London that Russo-Greek expansionism needs to be opposed.


In this episode, King Oscar made his biggest blunder. Eager to get into the Tsar's good graces for now, feeling sympathetic to the oppressed Greeks, and being afraid of Swedish's international prestige being diminished, he declared Sweden's official support for the Franco-Russian side in the crisis.


The new Prime Minister wholeheartedly supported the King in his initiative.


Arrest of a notorous thief only encouraged the loyalist Swedes in the rightness of their cause.


The failure of Thessaly Crisis to be resolved peacefully was a surprise to most Swedes. The resulting war immediately spawned an anti-war movement, with some even crying for execution of the king that has led the country to a war with Britain and Prussia - countries that Sweden and Norway previously maintained good trade links with. But the public opinion was still overwhelmingly on the king's side.


Minor Russian-Swedish victories in the Baltic improved the people's wartime spirit, even through the main British fleet was arriving in the Straits.


But the liberal movement, claiming that the King's progressivism was mostly for show, continued to gain ground. Chartist rallies, liberal publications and clubs multiplied across the country.



It didn't take long for Britain to gain control of the Baltics. The British blockade had a very negative effect on Swedish public opinion.


The small British expeditionary force in Bonny was easily repelled.


The war coincided - or was one of the guiding factors - of widespread liberal rebellions across Europe. The King and the conservative Riksdag did not understand the reasons for the continuing unrest, especially during war-time. Weren't all liberal publications approved, anyway? Didn't the government make great improvements in the people's life, introducing new farming techniques and building new hospitals?

 
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LWE

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Forest and tundra of Lapland became more accessible with the building of railroads.


These railroads, however, did nothing to prevent the Swedish Jacobins erupting in an open rebellion, demanding, at minimum, an end to the Conservative Riksdag, at maximum, the establishment of Swedish Republic. It was even possible that the new railroads contributed to the rebellion by increasing the speed with which potential rebel leaders could communicate.


General Lars Tawast was chosen to lead the Kingdom's troops against the rebels.


European troubles didn't affect Sweden's African possessions, where the annexation of Calabar proceeded routinely and successfully.


Russian armies were thriumphant over Prussia.


But a far bigger threat was the British disembarking in Scania, which provoked further popular discontent.



Norvegian Riksdag, seeing Sweden's unstable situation, equipped an army to help the King restore order.


Even amid the instability, economic development of the kingdom continued, testifying to a healthy base development.


But the UK found armed forces both to help Denmark re-acquire Shleswig-Holstein (which it did, by the end of this war)...


and to land an even larger force on Swedish shores. At least, the British invasion had finally started to unite the liberals around their King.


But the new harmony didn't last long, as the King fled from the British forces to Christiania in Norway, and despite the conservative Riksdag's opposition, New Jacobin Brigades rose up, proclaiming their intention to fight both the British invaders and the conservative government that is unable to protect Sweden.


Lars Tawast dealt the Jacobin armies a blow in the Battle of Stockholm, but the British power was just too strong.


However, London also made a fatal mistake. In its desire to punish Sweden and Greece, the Home Islands were left relatively undefended...


But although the Swedish people were eager to take advantage of Britain's weakness...



The Scandinavian regional theater was simply going too badly.


It was left to the British forces in Stockholm to hunt down the last remains of liberal revolutionaries.


Still, it was clear to the Riksdag that serious reforms will be needed in the country once the war would be over.


Finally, in 1850, Sweden could finally celebrate - French invasion of British Home Islands proved decisive in the war that ended with Sweden being among the victors. But the moral and human cost of the rebellion combined with British occupation of the country was immense. The consensus of Swedish public opinion was that it had been better not to enter this war at all - especially since the peace treaty brought no gains to Sweden itself.

 
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hopefully sweden will never have to face such horrors as happened in this war ever again
 

LWE

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It wasn't that horrible... now, the stuff that happened to me in my previous Greece game, where the Ottomans overran my almost-modern borders Greece as I vainly cried for Britain-senpai to save me, this was a true horror :p
___________________________

Discontent with the way the war was conducted increased the pressure on the King to remove Liberals from power, which he duly did, appointing Conservative ministers in their place. In order to placate liberal sections of society, he then announcement an expansion of people eligible to vote.


News came from overseas about decisive American victory in the Mexican-American War.


The Conservatives, resenting the King for expanding suffrage, organized a crack-down on activists demanding a free press.

The Conservative cabinet, being quite hardline, then proceeded to drastically increase taxes on the poor - a measure Liberals refused to enact.


Of course, the Conservatives never committed any kind of voter fraud to counter-act King Oscar's expansion of the vote. Of course, they didn't. What an awful thing to say.



Swedish generals - including impetuous madmen, vainglorious armchair generals and unfit romantics - oversaw the training of special new Swedish Guard regiments, to act as an elite force in any future war.


Hardline as the Conservatives were, they would do everything they could to help the suffering in the big smallpox epidemic, and refused to drive the natives off their land.



This new "compassionate conservatism" resulted in increase of Conservative authority in Sweden. Speeches given by conservative politicians were eagerly listened to in all of Sweden.


However, all this was not enough to prevent a Liberal victory in 1854.


1854 was also a year in which Scandinavism suffered some setbacks, first through Danish bankrupcy (although skillful Swedish diplomatic actions prevented most of the resulting fallout), and then through failure to defend Denmark against Austrian attack to expel the Danes from Holstein (with this task falling instead on the United Kingdom, which opposed Austrian interests).



The British used their help against Austria as evidence that the UK, and the UK alone, stands true as Denmark's friend and protector. Swedish press denounced British actions, calling on Danes to overthrow their pro-UK "puppet government", but for now, these words simply remained words.


Remembering the previous failed war well, the King continued to strengthen the Swedish Army.


Acting consistently with Sweden's traditional anti-Russian position, Sweden joined the chorus of European Great Powers insisting that Russia has no right to declare itself protector of the eastern Christians. However, as the Swedish Army was just in the process of reforming, Sweden decided not to antagonize Russia further after it refused to renounce the title.


Since the Schleswig-Holsten war was still going strong, the UK also decided not to intervene against Russia, leaving the task of protecting the "sick man of Europe" to France.

 
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LWE

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The scandals which rocked the Liberals and the Conservative policy of moderation allowed the latter to achieve a definitive victory in the elections of 1858.


Conservative paternalism was reflected in Sweden sending aid to its colonial administration.


1858 also saw the reform of Swedish Riksdag and the King's appointment of the first Prime Minister in Swedish history, a statesman and writer, Louis Gerhard de Geer.



Louis de Geer

In his autobiography, the political experience and the matured judgments of a lifetime are recorded with singular clearness, sobriety and charm. For example, his explanation of why he, at such a young age, was appointed Prime Minister of Justice, was that in the narrow circles of Swedish nobility at the time, it was difficult to find anyone with at least the mediocre intelligence which was needed for the office.
 
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LWE

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Yeah, I was still a noob (and still am, really) in regards to Vicky industry.
________________________________

Swedish Army still required reform and enlargement to be compared with the armies of Great Powers - and not only the Great Powers.


Despite Danish bravery and English support, the Danes had to cede its Holsteinian territories, making the task of uniting Scandinavia even more daunting.


Both the Conservatives and the Liberals long pursued a policy of non-intervention in the industry. Unfortunately, this policy wasn't working, with other Great Powers surpassing Sweden in heavy industry production. When the government finally got around to sponsoring factories itself, only the light industry had a chance of being profitable.


The first large-scale Swedish industry was clothing production.


The name "Great Power of Arts", given to Sweden, was partially mocking, yet even artistic reputation had its benefits.


King Oscar and the Conservatives sided with the government against the private sector in the Niger River Corruption scandal.


Nations like France long ago monopolized the market with their famous wines, leaving it to Swedish alcoholmakers to open Liquor distilleries.


Government subsidies to manufacturers were leading to benefits even in the small heavy industry.


The Conservatives were winning election after election, as the US Civil War quickly ended with a decisive Union victory, and Russia gained lands in the Caucasus, even through it failed to protect the interests of its Romanian client against Austria.


In 1863, a wonderful opportunity presented itself to King Oscar. The world instability that expressed itself in Russian-Austrian-Ottoman and Austrian-Danish-British wars led to the affairs of small German states being ignored. Bremen, in particular, suffered from chronic misrule - at least, that's what King Oscar claimed, insisting that he still holds the old "Duke of Bremen and Verden" title.


Predictably, the Great Powers objected to this action. But they had a major distraction in the growing Polish Question. The armed Polish rebellion was suppressed by the Tsar, yet the unending partisan resistance made the Powers discuss the possible necessity of Polish independence. Sweden, predictably, declared its support for the plucky Poland.


King Oscar continued the protectionist and paternalist course of his administration.



Despite Swedish attempts to reassert itself, its status of Great Power was under question. The King hoped that Swedish participation in the War over Poland will weaken Russia and re-establish the Swedish might.

 
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LWE

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The Sixties were a more humanitarian time than previously in the century, even as romantic nationalists and philosophers mourned the loss of true heroic virtue in an increasingly pampered age. Indeed the new age was so pampered, it demanded certain standards in the treatment of war captives and wounded.


While Sweden was occupying Finland, news came from Denmark that the poor country is forced to participate in more pointless and unjust wars by its cruel overlord John Bull.


Sudden appearance of Russian troops in Finland clearly demonstrated that the Tsarist Empire isn't going to be defenseless in this war - not that anyone but the stupidest of jingoistic Swedes doubted it.


The mood in Sweden remained optimistic, with parades keeping citizens' spirits high.


Sweden easily won the first blood of its war with Russia (this Russian army was completely eliminated when retreating).


The Swedes even had time to celebrate the joining of railroads with its union partner.


However, new developments on the Russian front caused Sweden to abandon Finland once again. Russian tactician Yudenich managed to land near Stockholm, and while his offence was repelled, all of Sweden's armies were necessary for this.


Obviously, the total destitution and slavery to which the Danes were subjected to under Britain's whip could only end in a reactionary revolt. Swedish government immediately proceeded to discredit Britain even further.


More Russian attempts to take Stockholm were rebuffed.


Prussian advance to Bohemia was stopped in its tracks by French troops.


The Danes were not over with their rebellions.


Somehow, in the middle of the Polish War, it was necessary to solve the Balkan issue, or so the Austrian Emperor thought. Surprisingly, Sweden joined in with those who insisted that the Ottoman Empire needs to part with its Balkan territories, thinking that the new Balkan powers, with European tutelage, would guard Balkans from Russia better than the old Empire.


The Empire had no choice but to accept the demands.


And with Russians constantly at the games of Stockholm, can the Swedes really continue to drink their booze in long winter nights? Obviously not!


Instead, they would be better off studying the map of the new Balkans.


The fights between Swedes and Russians around Stockholm became almost a ritual - a ritual of humiliation for Russia, that is.


In the time of war, there were no place for luxuries such as Trade Unions.


In 1867, Conservatives won another election, the UK annexed the state of Washington, and the Russians achieved a small victory around Stockholm for a change.


The Russians didn't have much time to celebrate (this Russian army was also stackwiped soon after the battle).


Deeply shocked and demoralized by defeats at both Austrian and Swedish fronts, the Tsar had no choice but to accept Polish independence.


Sweden gained no new territory in this war, but in its aftermath it annexed the small city-state of Bremen. The Parliament passed a minimum wage law in order to quell the (rather small) discontent generated by war.

 
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LWE

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A small update this time.
_____________________________________

Decimal monetary system of 100 New Ore making 1 Krona, as well as other innovations, led to a major boost in the kingdom's income.


Before his death, King Oscar had ordered Nile explorers to be sent to Africa, potentially opening new expansion avenues for Sweden. His reign will be remembered for his two wars, one disastrous, the other successful (in public consciousness, the annexation of Bremen was perceived as a part of the Polish Crisis War with Russia, even through they actually were quite distinct).


His son Karl XV, the new King, appointed Abraham Leijonhufvud, the former Naval Minister, as the new Prime Minister. Such an appointment led to speculation about the warlike intentions of the new king.


King Karl XV


The liberal opinion, however, was placated by one of the most important measures ever introduced in XIX-century Sweden a universal, albeit weighted, vote.


During this era, many previously closed African kingdoms were forced to grant extraterritoriality to Europeans - a sign of things to come.


Late sixties-early seventies were a time of prosperity for Swedish industry.


The new king attempted to support Poland in her extension to East Slavic lands, yet this time, not only Russia, but also England and France considered such expansion to be unjust, causing the King to withdraw support.

Good thing that Russia didn't chose war over it.

 
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LWE

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Apparently, Sweden's limited resurgence in North Germany and the small Pinsk Crisis scared the ruling classes of London, for they rushed to guarantee the security of Russian borders - presumably against Sweden, as well.


The 1870'ies in Sweden were known as an exploding time - exploding rebellions of radicals, discontented with the conservatives' near-monopoly on power, exploding nitroglycerin in mines.


Famously hardline general Dyrssen easily dealt with the namby-pamby Jacobins, who just lacked that true Nordic character.


The radicals, however, were not the only discontent with the Conservatives. Reactionary circles of Swedish society believed that the Conservatives were not living up to their name. Dyrssen dealt with them likewise.


In 1872 a new Prime Minister was appointed, Arvid Posse.


Looking pretty strict, right?


The UK continued to drag its allies into its American wars (the war ended in white peace).


Discontent with Conservative rule led to a Liberal victory in the elections. The Liberals proceeded to establish a truly universal voting franchise.


Realizing that the King of Hannover had managed to leave his kingdom without any reliable or strong allies, Sweden took her chance and started preparing for another war. The preparations, however, were not well received by international community.


The rather inept Swedish attempts to blame Hannover for the upcoming war didn't help matters. Even the usually rather neutral American press contrasted Swedish supposedly "expansionist and revanchist" wars in North-Western Germany with the presumably noble American wars for the freedom of Caribbean nations from Spanish oppression. (The new Caribbean nations being colonies of the USA in all but name was, of course, overlooked).


While not exactly a male chauvinist, the King was rather dismissive of women's issues, considering them to be adequately represented by their sons and husbands.


He took more interest in the small, but well-equipped Swedish Army, arming it with machine guns.


To the shock of all Swedes, the first battle with Hannoverian armies ended in defeat. The battle was not important, and soon, more Swedish armies landed on Hannoverian soil to occupy the country.


However, the lost battle had a bad effect on Swedish prestige. It was clear that Sweden is falling behind such giants of industry as UK or the US.


The new, liberalizing Tsar in Russia granted Finland autonomy and managed to mend relations with the UK to such a degree it provided supplies to Russia when it reinvaded Poland.



Even the hardline gen. Dryssen's heart was touched by the many poor chimney sweepers of Stockholm. He became one of the loudest voiced for limiting children's workday.


Swedish army had a decisive success in Hannover.


But the socia stress in Sweden was in no way over, as the Riots of 1876 demonstrated.


Acquisition of Friesland and the introduction of mimimum wage somewhat calmed down the stubborn Swedish temper.



Liberals managed to hold themselves in power yet again, despite the rising influence of Social Democrats.


Sweden's participation in Sardinia-Pienmont's wars for Italian unification consisted of sending convoys to blockade the reactionary Italian kingdoms opposed to Italian unity.


The annexation of Frisia and Sweden taking the side of the Italian people raised Sweden's prestige yet again.

 
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guillec87

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interesting fact... Prussia did nothing to go NGF and then German Empire
 

LWE

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The Prussians suffered at the hands of French, who occupied the whole Prussian Rhineland at one time. They didn't lose any territory, don't know why (the default NNM AI has, in my opinion, too restrictive requirements for demanding territories of other nations... I've removed many of them in my personal mod).
_____________________________

After the catastrophe pro-British government led Denmark to, Copenhagen didn't want anything to do with London. However, Wiennese diplomats remained dangerous rivals to Sweden in their fight for influence in Denmark.

Meanwhile, the Ottoman Sultan was widely acknowledged as winning the "Most Foolish War Declaration of the Century" prize. He assumed that the British resident in Istanbul will support any anti-Russian action, but in fact, the Sultan's erratic behaviour caused the UK to turn against the rump Ottoman state.


The King considered himself a gentleman, and obviously, neither he nor his government could have anything against Gentlemen's Clubs.


These striking workers were the opposite of learned gentlemen. Their disorderly and unaesthetical strike signalled the birth of Swedish Social Democracy.


The Red Room is a satire on life in Stockholm, on life everywhere. The pathetic struggle of the artistic and literary career, its follies and pretenses, the fatuity of politics, the dishonesty of journalism, the disillusion that awaits the aspiring actor, all these things run riot through the lively pages. Strindberg's satire is severe, it is sometimes hard, but it is not mean. He has a large if rather distant sympathy for the poor fellows whose aspirations, failures, dissipations, and friendships he portrays. Of two young critics he says: “And they wrote of human merit and human unworthiness and broke hearts as if they were breaking egg-shells.” He writes of their unconscious inhumanity and blindness in a way that reveals his own clearness of vision and fundamental humanity. The laughter of a somber humorist has in it a tenderness unknown to merry natures.

-John Albert Macy



While Swedish bohemians discussed intellectual matters in their red rooms, pragmatic Great Power ministers discussed matters of greater consequence - especially to the peoples of the African continent.


The King's death before his time was mourned by most people in Sweden. His reign would be rememdered as a reign of steady order and progress.


He was succeeded by his younger brother, Oscar II.

[/spoiler
 
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