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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

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cccino

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header.gif

The Cillis find themselves at the corner of different worlds, making a place of their own out of the roots of others. Newly made Princes of of the Holy Roman Empire, one of the most influential Baronial clans of the Kingdom of Hungary, governors of Croatian territories, seekers of the ancient glory of Carantania - the Cillis are at once German, Hungarian and Slovenian, or would be if such catagorical definitions existed at this point in history. They find themselves with estates and vassals inside the Kingdoms, Duchies and Counties of others, with allies and relatives in all corners of Europe, and yet without the economic or military clout that comes with having lordship over a single coherent realm. Their jumbled, incongruous and sometimes inconsistent spread is both a strength and a weakness, but their political might is growing...


---------- FACTS - IN - BRIEF ----------
Nation: Duchy of Carinthia
Player: cccino
Head of State: Ulrich II von Cilli, Imperial Prince, Sovereign of Bosnia, Baron of Hungary, Lord of the Slovenes.
Proper Title: Ulrich II, Duke of Carinthia, Margrave of Carniola and the Windish March, Princely Count of Celje, Ortenburg, and Sternberg, Ban of Croatia and Slavonia, Lord of the Kingdom of Bosnia, Lord of the Slovenes, Lord of the Marches of Petovia and Savinia.
(Ulrich der Zwiete, Herzog zu Kärnten, Markgraf zu Krain und zu Windischen, gefürsteter Graf von Cilli, Ortenburg und Sternberg, Vizekönig von Ungarn zu Croatien und Slavonien, Herr Prinz zu Bosnien, Herr auf der Windische, Herr zu Pettovien Mark und Savinien Mark)
Capital: Klagenfurt
Religion: Catholic
Ruling Culture: German
Popular Culture: Slavonic
Stats: 1/0/3/4/1
Provinces: 1
Major Ports: none.
Lands Owned: Steiermark
----------------------------------------


- = Index (Not Implemented) = -

Preface
Facts in Brief​
TITULAR HOLDINGS
Map
Regions
Ranks and Titles
Claims​
HISTORY OF HOUSE VON CILLI
Brief History
Anna
Barbara
Heinrich
History Since 1420​
THE PLAYERS
Von Cilli Family Tree
House von Cilli
House von Goerz
The Ugnads
Others​
MILITARY
Ensigns
Blah
Blah​
CITIES AND CASTLES
Altenburg
Celje
Hörberg
Klagenfurt
Lublana
Montpreis
Neudeck
Sonnegg
Stein
Weissenfels
Blah
Blah​
HISTORY OF CARANTANIA
The Grand Duchy
First Dynasty
Second Dynasty
Habsburgs​
CARANTANIA
Blah
Blah
Blah​
DIPLOMACY
Foreign Diplomats
Embassies Abroad
Allies
Trade Partners
Pacts of Non-Aggression
Rights of Passage
Vassals
Selected Attitudes​
TREATIES
Cessation of Inner Austria
Danube Syndicate Charter​


- = Titular Holdings = -

map.gif


flagavatar6.gif
............................
flagavatar8.gif
............................
flagavatar7.gif
............................
flagavatar4.gif
............................
flagavatar9.gif

Carantanian Panther..........Duchy of Carinthia..............March of Carniola...............March of Slovenia...............Arms of Dalmatia
over the Arms of Cilli.................................................................................................(Windischmark)........................(Croatia).......

Descriptions by Region

Carantania: blah blah blah.

Carinthia: blah blah blah.

Carniola: blah blah blah.

Croatia: blah blah blah.

Slavonia: blah blah blah.

Styria: blah blah blah.


A History of the Cillis' Ranks and Titles

Grafen von Cilli: The Barons of Sonnegg (-Heunburg), Counts under Carantanian law through female succession of the Heunburg line, were known as Free Lords in the Empire. In 1341 they were recognised by Emperor Ludwig IV as Imperial Counts and granted the appelation "von Cilli".

Grafen von Ortenburg und Sternberg: Through marriage they inherited the estates and titles of the von Ortenburg, who themselves had inherited the von Sterberg.

Gefürsteter Grafen: In the early 1400s, Hermann II, close friend of the Emperor Sigismund and who had saved the Emperor's life at Nicopolis was promised to be made a Gefürsteter Count, a Prince of the Empire. At this time the Habsburgs still considered the Cillis their vassals and the threat of war without the support of the Emperor - who had died at a most inconvenient time - suppressed the promotion. Hermann's descendants fought the Habsburgs at every turn and with the final demise of the Austrian Dukes in their wars against the very Empire itself the Cillis were free to persue Hermann's legacy.

In 1449 the Emperor Joachim of the Greif recognised the Cillis' claim of Sigismund's intent and formally granted Friedrich II von Cilli and his descendants the rank of Princes of the Empire. Their estates and holdings now constituted a sovereign state.

Herzog von Kärnten, Markgraf von Krain : Simultaneously, the King of Bohemia, who had in the Imperial Wars of the 30's and 40's gained the Habsburgs' Ducal titles handed over the Duchy of Carinthia and the March of Carniola to Friedrich II's son Ulrich. Reports differ as to whether or not the titles were given freely or stripped by the Emperor Joachim, with whom King Ladislav had fallen out of favour.

Bans of Croatia, Dalmatia, Slavonia:Hermann II von Cilli was appointed by the King of Hungary as Ban or Governor of Croatia and Dalmatia until his death. His son Friedrich and grandson Ulrich were appointed Bans of Slavonia in later years. As King of Bohemia and Hungary, Ladislav reconfirmed Friedrich II's and Ulrich II's royal appointment as joint Bans of Croatia and Slavonia. Ulrich is related to the Frangepans, traditional viceroys of Croatia.


Claims and Non-Recognised Titles

Carantania: Ulrich has taken the Carantanian Panther, the ancient coat of arms of the original dynasty of the Grand Duchy of Carantania, as his personal emblem. Until around 1270, the black "panther" on white once flew at the head of the Carinthian Duke's army. After 1335, Carantanian heraldry was superceded by Habsburg symbolism. Naturally, Cilli (while the Grand Duchy no longer exists) has reverted to the use of the black and white conventions for Carinthian military commands.

Sovereign of Bosnia: As the sole legitimate descendant of Stephen II Kotromanic, Ulrich II von Cilli can claim to be the rightful Despot of Bosnia, particularly when the current, heirless and aged "King" of Bosnia - descended from an illegitimate son of a Kotromanic who was not only known to be a bastard himself, but whose very blood-connection to the Kotromanic house is questionable - dies.

Sovereign of Serbia: Should the present Serbian dynasty die out, Hermann IV von Cilli would be in line for the Serbian throne through his mother Katalin Brankovic.

Margrave of Slovenia: The March of Slovenia, or Windischmark, was gained by the Habsburgs from the von Görz as payment of debt, and was subsequently captured by Cilli. The Habsburgs considered absorbing it into the March of Carniola in the 1440s, and Cilli was never explicitly granted the title. Nevertheless, Ulrich claims it as a title distinct from Carniola, although it is administered from Lublana.

Palatine of Carantania: An archaic position, still existant in the ailing von Görz line, is unlikely to be continued past that house's demise, but given their debts to and the ownership of many of their former estates by the Cillis, it is not unlikely that through actively taken steps of purchase or simply through forfeit, Ulrich would inherit the title; although it would almost certainly be unrecognised formally.

Windischer Herr: Ulrich von Cilli, as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Slovenia, is known by the people by the traditional title of the Slovenian Lord. Carantanians do not need to remove their headgear in the presence of the Duke. Similarly, the Windischer Herr is permitted by law to remain wearing the Slovenian Hat before the Emperor.


- = History of Cilli = -

http://www.niagara.com/~jezovnik/

Brief History

In 1341, the first Count of Celje (Cilli, in German records) appeared, he was Frederic I († 1360). His father was Ulric (II), a nobleman of Zovnek (Saneck) a castle situated in the Savinja Valley, West of Celje. The Zovnek nobles derived from Gebhard I, mentioned ca. 1130 - 1173, a descendant of the ancient Margraves of the Savinja (Sann) March. His mother was Catherine, Countess of Vovbre (Heunburg) from Eastern Carinthia. She was the last and therefore the heiress of her family. From her derived the title of "Counts".

Count Frederic I was married to Ann of Walsee. Out of this matrimony derived Ulric I († 1368), Herman I († 1385), further Catherine, married with Albert of Goerz in first, and with Hans Waldburg in second law; further Anna († 1354) married with Otto of Ortenburg.

Count Ulric I was married to Adelheid of Ortenburg, and they had a son called William († 1392). He married Anna, a Polish Princess, daughter of King Casimir, the last member of the royal family of Piasts. Their daughter Anna († 1416) married Vladislav Jagiello, another Polish King, who was also the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Count Herman I married in 1361 the daughter of Stephen II Kotromanic, the Ban (sovereign) of Bosnia. Their children were Hans († 1372) and Herman II († 1435). The last was the most important representative of the Celje stock. His consort was Countess Anna of Schaunburg (in Upper Austria). Their children were Ludovic († 1417), Elisabeth († 1400), married to Henry of Goerz; Frederic II († 1454), married to Elisabeth of Frangipani in first, and with Veronica of Desenice in second law († 1425); further Anna († 1465), married with Nicola II Gorjanski; Herman III († 1426), married with Elisabeth, Countess of Abensberg (Upper Austria) in first, and with Beatrix, daughter of the Bavarian duke Ernst, in second law. Another daughter of Herman II, Barbara of Celje († 1451) pertains to the most important historical personalities in Slovenian history. She was married to Sigmund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary (later of Germany, of Bohemia, of Italy) and Emperor. Herman II' natural son was Herman († 1421), Bishop of Freising (1412) and then of Trento.

Count Frederic II continued the lineage. His children were Ulric II, Frederic III, and his natural son Hans. Ulric II married Catherine, daughter of Georg Brankovic, the despot of Serbia.

In the female line, the Counts of Celje descend from the Counts of Vovbre (Heunburg), whose first ancestor was Gero I (mentioned between 1050 and 1072). He was the consort of St. Emma's daughter, whose name has not been mentioned in the records. The succession in the female line, in this case the Countess Catherine of Vovbre and her son Count Frederic I of Celje, furnishes clear evidence of the Carantanian law called for in the charter institutio Sclavenica.

The Counts of Celje threatened seriously the supremacy of the Habsburgs in Inner Austria (Carantanian lands).


Anna of Cilli

blah


Barbara of Cilli

blah


Heinrich II of Cilli

blah


History Since 1420

blah


- = House von Cilli = -

cilli_tree.gif
 
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- = House von Cilli = -



friedrichII.jpg


Friedrich II (b. 13??)
Gefürsteter Graf von Cilli und Ortenburg, Ban of Croatia and Slavonia

Head of the von Cilli family, Friedrich is old, bitter and corrupt.


ulrich.jpg


Ulrich II (b. 1407)
Duke of Carinthia, Margrave of Carniola and Slovenia
Ban of Croatia and Slavonia, Graf von Cilli und Ortenburg

The most important figure in the family, Ulrich has been raised to be manipulative and ambitious. Recently gaining the ducal and margravate titles, Ulrich runs his small empire from Klagenfurt, the chief city of Carinthia. Ulrich is the sole legitimate descendant of Stephan II Kotromanic and as such the rightful heir to the Kingdom of Bosnia.


katalin.jpg


Katalin (b. 14??)
née Brankovich

Wife of Ulrich, and daughter of Djuradj Brankovich of Serbia. Despite her dispassionate visage and even colder personality, the woman is essentially harmless, although she is unsentimental about her Serbian relatives.


friedrich.jpg


Friedrich (b. 1416)
Graf von Cilli

Mildly jealous of his brother Ulrich but incapable of violence, Friedrich portions his time between living the life of a Count and managing the affairs of the family considered too trivial for his father or brother. In particular he acts as an intermediary with the Danube Trading Syndicate


johann.jpg


Johann (b. 1418)
Graf von Cilli

Johann envisions himself as a warrior and a gentlemen, and spends much of his time travelling as a free knight, when not running errands for the family. After the Great Tournament in Moldavia, he left for Russia with a Pskovian noblewoman and has not been heard from in years.


[Portrait]

Hermann IV (b. 1435)
Gefürsteter Graf von Cilli und Ortenburg

Ulrich's first son and heir, recently come of age. Presently under the tutelage of his grandfather.


Georg (b. 1439)
Gefürsteter Graf von Cilli und Ortenburg

Ulrich's second son.


[Portrait]

Elisabeth and Katharine (b. 1441)
Gefürsteter Gräfinnen von Cilli und Ortenburg

'The twins'. Ulrich keeps, of all his children, only his precious daughters by his side, where he can protect them vehemently.


Albrecht (b. 1448)
Gefürsteter Graf von Cilli und Ortenburg

The newborn of the family.


[Portrait]

Liutpold I (b. 1422)
Graf von Cilli

Son of Hermann III von Cilli and cousin of the main body of the family.


margareta.jpg


Margareta (b. 14??)
Gräfin von Cilli

First daughter of Hermann III and recently widowed.
Location: Castle Planina



- = House von Görz (Lienz) = -

Johann (b. 1434)
Graf von Görz

Heinrich V's first son, killed in a hunting incident.

Ludwig (b. 1437)
Graf von Görz

Heinrich V's second son, missing, presumed dead.

Leonard (b. 1440)
Graf von Görz

Heinrich V's third son and sole surviving von Görz, left at an early age to deal with the consequences of his deceased father's excesses.



- = The Ungnads = -

Georg (b. 1420)
Seignior of Wasserleonburg, Gradenegg, Plankenwart, and Wiederdriss

Georg Ugnad, son of Wulfing II and Margaret Dummersdorf of Plankenwarth.

Cristoph (b. 1425)
Captain of Celje, Seignior of Sonnegg

Third son of Wulfing II, Cristoph Ugnad acts as Ulrich von Cilli's lieutenant in the Carinthian Army and as Captain of Celje at other times.



- = Miscellaneous = -

blah blah
 
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header.gif

- = Military = -

Ulrich II von Cilli has restored the use of Carantanian heraldric conventions, which had been replaced by the Habsburgs.

The Ensigns of the Army Command Structure:

rankflags.gif


- = Notable Locations = -

Altenburg (Stari grad)
The structure was built on a hill in the southern part of Trška gora surrounded by numerous vineyards, in a picturesque and romantic location of Lower Carniola, not far from the city of Novo mesto.

First, the castle was owned by the Patriarch of Aquileia, and its existence was mentioned already in the 12th century. The Patriarch appointed his ministerials (knights) as masters of the castle. Around 1230 the records name Albert of Altenburg (Starograjski) as the first master. The chevron in his arms shows that he was also the castellan, or "gradnik" in Slovenian, i.e., the commander of the local troops. Already in approx. 1350 the castle passed over to the Ortenburgs, in 1418 to the Cillis.


celje.jpg

Castle Celje

Cilli (Celje)
blah blah blah
and so forth


Hörberg (Podsreda)
Castle Podsreda (Hörberg) is located close to the borough of Podsreda in eastern Slovenia, in the area of Kozjansko, not far from the Croatian border. The castle's first foundation stone was laid in the 12th century. Its origin is but older, probably it was first a refuge tower, like other forts of those times. Its German name Hörberg or Herberch meaning "lodging, shelter" (today Herberge) bears witness of its first purpose. The tower served as a shelter in case of attacks from Croatia, or more precisely said, invasions coming from its Slavonian Province, which was part of the Hungarian kingdom.

In the 10th - 11th century, the territory, where the castle was built, pertained to the Savinja (Soune) March, whose margraves were the Counts of Friesach (Breze) in Carinthia. Count William I of Friesach was married to Countess Emma of Krka (Gurk). He died ca. 1015, and around 1035 the couples' two sons were killed too. Countess Emma, his widow, was heiress of big estates and she used her properties to found new parishes and abbeys.

The Benedictine abbey founded by her in Krka (Gurk) in Carinthia, her last dwelling place before she died in 1045, was demolished in 1072. On its place was erected a bishopric, and all estates in the area of Kozjansko belonged to it, including the castle of Podsreda, mentioned in the records for the first time in 1213, became in this way the fief of the bishopric. However, at the time of its first mentioning, it was already in possession of the nobleman Ortolf of Planina (Montpreis) over Sevnica town. Later, it came into the hands of the seigniors of Zovnek, the then Counts of Cilli (Celje).


Klagenfurt
blah


Lublana
blah


planina.jpg

Castle Planina

Montpreis (Planina)
Planina (Montpreis, in German documents) is a borough situated in the middle of the Kozjansko region, between the rivers Sava in the south and Sotla in the east, in Lower Styria. In the early Middle Ages, in the period of the great Duchy of Carantania (10th century), the region of Kozjansko was the property of St. Emma of Krka (Gurk). After her death in 1045, the Kozjansko region became property of the Bishopric of Krka (Gurk), Carinthia, which was founded on grounds owned originally by St. Emma. The bishop appointed his ministerials (knights) as administrators of the castle. The first one mentioned was Ortholfus de Munparis, who appears in the records in 1190. But his family died out already in the following century. The knight of Planina must have been a military commander of the Kozjansko area. The central position and the unusual size of his castle also testify this.

After the Munparis (Planinski) family became extinct, the castle changed hands of several families - the Schärffenbergs, the Ptujski (Pettau), the Sanecks and the Cillis.

neudeck.jpg

Castle Neudeck

Neudeck (Mirna)
The seigniories of Mirna (Neudeck) are mentioned in the records for the first time in 1163 starting with Mainhard I, followed by Wulfing in 1220, Popo in 1226, During in 1231, and others.

The Mirna family obtained the castle in fief from the Patriarch of Aquileia. In 1335, the castle became property of the seigniories of Zovnek (Saneck), the later Counts of Cilli.


Ortenburg
blah blah


sonnegg.jpg

Castle Sonnegg

Sonnegg (Zovnek)
blah blah blah
and so forth


Stein (Kamen)
At one time the road led to the village of Begunje situated in the idyllic Draga valley, which leads to the Karavanke mountain chain, an important route from Carniola to Carinthia. Therefore, the Counts of Ortenburg from Carinthia, owners of the land, erected on an elevated strategic post at the entrance of the valley a powerful fortification, the Castle Kamen (Stein, in German). In the records it is mentioned for the first time in 1263.

In 1418 the Counts of Ortenburg died out and the Counts of Cilli inherited their properties. However, Castle Kamen was not administered directly by the Ortenburgs and Cillis, but by a family of knights named Stein. The arms of this family were: barry of 6, Azure and Or. A member of this family, Diepold of Stein, was mentioned in the records already in 1311. On a tournament in Kranj, he fought with the knight named Balthazar of Landpreis (Lanšprez), and was victorious over him.


weissenfels.jpg

Castle Weissenfels

Weissenfels (Bela pec)
The area of Bela pec and Ratece, bordering close to the Zilca (Gailitz) River in the West, were part of the province of Carniola since immemorial times. The borough of Trbiž (Tarvis, Tarvisio) on the other bank of the Zilca River belonged already to the province of Carinthia. Both provinces were part of Carantania, and were under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.

The feudal lords of this region were the Counts of Ortenburg, who are mentioned in the records since the 12th century. In 1418, this family was extinct, and their properties were inherited by the Counts of Celje (Cilli). After 1431, Count Frederick II of Celje had built a castle on top of the hill, called Bela pec (1120 m), which rises high above the village. This name means "white steep", and in German it was called "Weissenfels". The name passed over to the settlement under the hill, whose inhabitants were mostly foundry workers, labouring for the local iron-forge.

Credit for this content goes to [url]http://www.niagara.com/~jezovnik/default.htm[/url]


- = History of Carantania = -

http://www.niagara.com/~jezovnik/

The Great Duchy

In 952, Otto I the Great, King of the Eastern Franks, (since 962 Emperor), founded Great Carantania. It was a Great Duchy, based on the older Slovenian State formation called Carantania (mentioned in the records already in 595 AD). Great Carantania extended from Bohemia across the Eastern Alps until Verona (Italy). Its primary task was to defend the Kingdom of the Eastern Franks (later called Germany) against Hungarian and Byzantinian invasions coming from the East and South-East.

Carantania had a social structure based on a combined symbiosis of the ancient Slovenian and Franks, i.e., similar to the European feudal system. At first it was conserved on the basis of the old Carantanian social structure, meaning that the leaders of the villages and districts (and even the former Carantanian dukes) were elected by the peoples' assembly.

In the feudal system, however, the leadership appointments of the lords were hereditary. Due to these fundamental possibilities leaderships could originate only from very potent feudal families.


First House of Carantania

Around 930, the historical records point out the name of a landowner, who had his lands on the Ingering Creek in the Mura Valley, close to today's town of Knittelfeld. All we know is that his name was Markvart I, and that he was the forefather of the family who created the dynasty in coming years. His son Markvart II is mentioned in the records aroud 970. He was married to Hadmut Sempt-Ebersberg, a Bavarian Countess.

In 1012, their son Adalbero was the appointed Duke of Carantania, and he became the real father of the Carantanian dynasty. His consort and mother of the dynasty, Beatrice, was a Swabian Princess (Conradins). She originated in the female line from the Western Carolingians, what indeed gave an enormous prestige to her husband. Duke Adalbero even confronted the Emperor Conrad II in 1036, and therefore was deposed of his charges. Some years later he died in Bavaria († 1039), and was burried in the abbey of Greisenfeld (near Ingolstadt), founded by the family of his mother Hadmut.

In the following decennium the Imperial Court continued to nominate dukes of Carantania. However, three dukes, that where appointed in a row, were rejected by the Carantanian assembly (vechah). Neither one of them entered the dukedom, where Adalbero's son Markvart III was the very ruler. He also was Count of Goerz (Gorica, now belonging to Italy). Only in the year 1076 he was recognized by the Court as the true Carantanian duke († 1076).

On the duke's throne he was followed by his sons, first Luitpold († 1093) and then Henry III († 1122), who was the last successor of the family in the male line. But the dynasty continued through his nephew Henry, son of his sister, Duchess Hedwig, and Count Engelbert (called Spanheim).


Second House of Carantania

The Carantanian law, called Slavica lex, also granted succession to the female line. In this sense, duke Henry IV († 1123) continued the dynasty until his death in 1123 and was succeeded by his brother Engelbert († 1141), the former Margrave of Istria. After him his son Ulric I († 1144) took over the ducal charge. His sister Mathilda († 1161) was married to a French nobleman, Theobold II, Count of Champagne. Their daughter Alice became Queen of France and mother of King Philip II August.

In Carantania the ducal throne was ascended by the sons of Ulric I: First, there was Herny V († 1161) followed by his brother Hermann († 1181). On the ducal seal of 1163, belonging to the latter, the famous figure of the Carantanian panther appears for the very first time.

His son, duke Ulric II died untimely of leprosy († 1202). He was followed by his brother Bernard, who reigned for a long time († 1256) and became very famous. Among other facts it is known, that his court was a meeting place of troubadours with great reputation.

Bernard's son and successor Ulric III († 1269) was the last duke of the Carantanian dynasty. It was his choice to appoint as his successor Otokar II, King of Bohemia, his cousin from his mother's side, and not his younger brother Philip. The latter, being the last member of the dynasty, was elected Archbishop of Salzburg and then Patriarch of Aquileia, but he never received confirmation by the Pope in his official duties († 1279). He is intered in Krems (Lower Austria).

The last resting-place of the Second House is to be found in St. Paul, a monastery in the Lavant Valley, which was founded in 1091 by Count Egelbert and Duchess Hedwig, parents of Henry IV.


The Habsburgs

The decline of the dynasties of Austria in 1246, and shortly after of Carantania in 1269, opened up the territory for expansion to the Habsburgs. After defeating their new ruler Otokar II, King of Bohemia, they acquired Austria and other Carantanian provinces. Under their power the name Austria prevailed definitely over all provinces.

In 1359, Rudolph IV, the Founder of the Habsburg family and Duke of Austria (ex Carantania), prepared an elaborate falsified charter called Privilegium maius. The significance of this charter was, that the rulers of Austria were given special privileges by Emperor Frederic I Barbarossa at a time, when the Eastern (Austrian) March advanced to dukedom, in 1156. Among other subjects, the charter points out, that he should possess the title of an "Archduke" and the rank of an "Archmaster of Hunt" in the Empire. In fact, some of these rights were recognized by the Emperor and granted to the Austrian Margrave Leopold III of Babenberg, as called for in the charter of the historiography Privilegium minus from 1156 issued by Friedrich I Barbarossa. The Babenbergs were descendants of the Carantanian Luitpoldinger family, and according to the lex called institutio Sclavenica, they were entitled to succession in the female line of the family. This right came into effect with the bestowal of the duke title. It is not mentioned anymore in the Privilegium maius, because the Habsburgs were not of Carantanian origin.

The purpose of the rights contained in the Privilegium maius was, to make the Austrian rulers comparable with the princes Electors of the Empire. Even though the falsified charter was not acknowledged at the Emperor's Court at that time, it had its historical consequences.

Rudolph IV died in 1365 and was succeeded by his brothers, who shortly after his death divided among themselves the Austrian or Carantanian provinces, and they became the founders of two lines of the Habsburg dynasty: The elder Albert III obtained Austria on the Danube with Vienna, whereas the younger brother Leopold III received Inner Austria, i.e., the Carantanian provinces in narrow sense (Carinthia, Styria, Carniola, and Istria) as well as Tyrol.

In 1386, Duke Leopold III lost his life in action while fighting the Swiss near Sempach. He was succeeded by his four sons: In Inner Austria by William († 1406), Leopold IV († 1411) and Ernest († 1424), and in Tyrol by Frederic IV (†. 1439). Nothing but incessant quarrels and even fights broke out among the brothers of the Leopoldinian line, until Ernest took over the leadership of Inner Austria, in 1411; he was nicknamed "the Iron", because of his corporal vigour.

Duke Ernest the Iron was born in 1377. He did not even turn 19, when in 1396, he became the consort of Margaret, daughter of Bogislav V, Duke of Pomerania (Poland). She died very young in 1407. Some years later, in 1412, he married the Polish princess Zimburgis († 1429). She was the niece of the Polish king and daughter of Ziemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, and she gave birth to three sons: Frederic V, Albert VI, and Ernest II.

Compared to his brothers, Duke Ernest the Iron was much more conscientious in matters of political and historical traditions concerning his (Carantanian) provinces. His residence was in Graz, the chief-town of Styria. In 1414, he travelled with his suite to Carinthia, and there he let inthronize himself in accordance with the Slovenian Carantanian rite on the Prince's Stone as Windischer Herre (Slovenian Lord). Thereafter, sitting on the Duke's Throne he judged the quarrels and granted lands in fief. Empowered by his new rank, he adopted the title Archduke in accordance with the Privilegium maius. It is obvious, that this title reconnected him with the ancient dukedom of Carantania (Carinthia).

It was the very last time, that the ancient ceremony of "the installation of the Duke of Carantania on the Prince's Stone" was used as a whole. From then on, the new elected dukes received the homage on the Duke's Throne, but always only in Slovenian language.

Under Archduke Ernest the Iron the provinces of Inner Austria or Carantania enjoyed a period of piece. He lived in harmony with the Counts of Cilli (Celje) in Lower Styria, who later became the main rivals of the Habsburg family.


- = Carantania = -

http://www.niagara.com/~jezovnik/

blah blah blah
 
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header.gif

- = Diplomacy = -

A summary of diplomatic relations, register of foreigners of note, attitudes, pacts and agreements.


Foreign Diplomats

In Celje: Palatine Laszlo Garai, meeting with Friedrich II.
In Klagenfurt: Graf Werner von Rothenburg, on behalf of King Ladislav of Bohemia
In Klagenfurt: Heinrich Grumbach, on behalf of Elisabeth, Duchess-Regent of Bavaria


Embassies Abroad

Praha, Bohemia Ulrich II von Cilli to King Ladislav.
In Galati, Moldavia: Friedrich von Cilli to the Danube Trade Syndicate meeting.


Allies

Informal: Bohemia.
Informal: Hungary.
Informal: Pommern.


Trade Partners

Danube Syndicate: Under negotiation with Bohemia, Hungary, Moldavia, Pfalz.
Venice: Under negotiation.


Pacts of Non-Aggression

Holy Roman Empire: Effective non-aggression with all states of the Empire as outlined in the Martial Bulle (1430)


Rights of Passage

Holy Roman Empire: Effective right of passage (mutual) with all states of the Empire as outlined in the Martial Bulle (1430)
Hungary:
Croatia:


Vassals

None.


Selected Attitudes

Holy Roman Emperor: Positive

Bavaria: Positive
Bohemia: Seeking Alliance
Bosnia: Claiming Kingdom
Brandenburg: Positive
Bremen: Neutral
Cologne: Neutral
Croatia: Positive
Gelre: Neutral
Hessen: Neutral
Hungary: Cautious
Kleves: Neutral
Luxembourg: Positive
Magdeburg: Neutral
Mainz: Neutral
Mecklemburg: Neutral
Moldavia: Cautious
Palatinate: Neutral
Pommern: Positive
Saxony: Neutral
Serbia: Positive
Teutonic Order: Neutral
Tuscany: Neutral
Venice: Cautious


- = Treaties and So Forth = -

The Cession of Inner Austria

By the authority of His Majesty, Ladislav, Lord of the Kingdom of Bohemia, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomere, Cumania, and Bulgaria, Overlord of Croatia, Duke of Upper and Lower Austria, of Carinthia, of Lusatia, of Luxemburg, of Silesia, of Styria, Margrave of Moravia and Carniola, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, King Among the Princes, Grandmaster of the Knights of the Cross of the Red Star, Arch-Cupbearer of the Empire, Arch-Hunter of the Empire,

It is declared that the duchy of Carinthia and the margraviate of Carniola shall be removed from the royal dominion, exempted from all clauses of the Ausgleich and Union of Arms of the Dual Monarchy, and freed of obedience to the royal authority, after long deliberation by His Majesty the King with His August Majesty the King of the Romans,

And in proper stead of such authority and governance by His Majesty under the aegis of His August Majesty, Graf Ulrich von Cilli, Ban of Slavonia and Croatia under His Majesty the King, shall be granted such titles over the land as Duke of Styria, Duke of Carinthia, and Margrave of Carniola solely under the auspices of His August Majesty to rule as a direct Imperial vassal free from any mandatory obligation save that of the Church and Empire.

Furthermore, to better recreate the privileges enjoyed by ancient Carantania that have devolved to present Carinthia and to preserve the home of the von Cilli, the territory of Styria south of the river Drave, particularly the town of Cilli, shall be permanently henceforth added to the duchy of Carinthia as a gesture of goodwill towards Duke Ulrich.

All inhabitants and landholders of these duchies and margraviate, so dubbed Inner Austria by the common speech, shall swear full allegiance to the Duke and Margrave Ulrich, whose line shall succeed him in those positions. This action we proclaim by force of royal edict and our supremacy over our territory, in felicitous consultation with His August Majesty.

Ladislav von Wittelsbach-Luxemburg, Lord of the Kingdom of Bohemia, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomere, Cumania, and Bulgaria, Overlord of Croatia, Duke of Upper and Lower Austria, of Carinthia, of Lusatia, of Luxemburg, of Silesia, of Styria, Margrave of Moravia and Carniola, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, King Among the Princes, Grandmaster of the Knights of the Cross of the Red Star, Arch-Cupbearer of the Empire, Arch-Hunter of the Empire
Jan z Valdštejna, High Chancellor of Bohemia
Zavis, Bishop of Seccau and extraordinary minister of Bohemia

In pursuance of the goals of this proclamation, Count Kolovrat, Hetman of Inner Austria and the Tirol, has full royal endorsement of his authority and actions.
Jan z Valdštejna, High Chancellor of Bohemia​


The Danube Syndicate

ARTICLE I - MISSION:

1. To protect and promote the interests of Central-European, land-based merchants, especially focusing on the Danube River trade artery.

2. To improve the status and wealth of the member-states of the Syndicate.

ARTICLE II - GOVERNING BODY:

1. The Syndicate will be led and managed by a council of delegates from member nations, with the chairman to be decided by vote. The Chairman will lead the organization for life. The Syndicate is not a political organisation.

1.A. If the Syndicate determines the current holder of the office of Chairman to be ill-suited for the task, detrimental to the interests of the organization as a whole, or for any other reason it sees fit, it may remove the Chairman of the organization from his post at any time and hold immediate elections for a replacement. In order for a motion to remove the Chairman to pass, it must receive the votes of every member of the Syndicate with the exception of the Chairman himself.

2. All decisions are made by democratic process. Simple majority vote is required to pass any decision. Unanimous vote is required to pass changes to this charter.

3. All member votes have equal weighting. In the case of a deadlock, proposition will not pass unless deadlock is broken.

4. The technical capital of the Syndicate is Vienna.

ARTICLE III - MEMBERSHIP

1. In order to be considered for membership, potential members must have either: a) access through the Danube River; or b) a trade reliance of at least 75% on river/overland routes and be geographically adjacent to an existing syndicate member through whom the Danube flows. This is to ensure all members can be focused on common issues.

2. New members must invest in establishing and improving overland trade routes for Syndicate merchants in their country. New members must contribute 1 eco (all money goes to events). This is to ensure that ALL members contribute to keep the Syndicate sustainable and efficient - thereby, all members have a stake in the continual success of the Syndicate.

3. In being a member of the Syndicate, all members have signed a non-aggression pact with all members. In any case where members are at war with each other, they are temporarily suspended from the voting priviledges of Syndicate Council. The remaining members of the council may take whatever means are necessary to ensure trade is not disrupted by the war.

4. Members may sign trade agreements with other nations provided the Syndicate Council is given ample notification of its terms prior to its signing, so that potential problems may be identified at an early stage.

5. Any member may sign military agreements with other nations provided they do not cause conflict with the Syndicate or its members. Member states must reserve the right with their allies to remain neutral should any conflict arise with the potential to draw Syndicate members into war, etc.

6. Any member may make proposals to the Syndicate Council.

7. No member may engage in trade embargoes, banning of merchants, imposing of extraordinary taxes or tariffs - or any other act deemed to be inappropriate - without approval of
Syndicate Council.
7b. States of the Holy Roman Empire, where required to enforce Imperial embargo, are excepted from this rule. Affected members must inform the Syndicate Council within 1 week of the Imperial ruling. The Syndicate itself is not required to enforce the embargo outside of the HRE.

8. Members agree to abide by this charter and any resolutions of the Syndicate Council regardless of their date of signing.

9. Members must accept all rulings of the Syndicate Council.

10. Any member state has the right to ask for a loan from the Syndicate. All members of the Syndicate are obliged to contribute to providing the funds for any loan where appropriate (as determined by vote of the Syndicate Council).

ARTICLE IV - TRADE GUIDELINES:

1. Members of the Syndicate trade with each other under certain general priviledges and conditions. Members of the Syndicate trade with foreign nations under certain general priviledges and conditions. The Syndicate will increase trade between member nations, increase trade with external nations, provide incentives for private merchant groups, reduce costs involved with trade and therefore prices, and provide fair and equitable trade opportunities.

2. All merchants from member-nations of the Syndicate are to be considered as native freemen of the country they are operating in. This means no additional taxes, duties or tariffs that would normally be applied to foreign merchants.

3. Merchants who are members of this syndicate are to be given priority over foreign traders where necessary.

4. Base prices for goods traded between members, within all territories belonging to members, will be negotiated yearly and fixed for that year.

5. Trade between member nations will be regulated for maximum efficiency. It is an aim of the Syndicate to reduce haphazard merchant trade and introduce an organised and well managed import/export system.

6. Member nations may not compete unethically or predatorily in foreign nations against merchants of members.

7. Sales to and purchases from non-Syndicate nations will be carefully controlled to ensure all members recieve maximum benefit from syndicated buying power.

ARTICLE V - INFRASTRUCTURE:

Members must invest in improving the infrastructure and security of trade routes.

1. Every member must provide free docking facilities for merchants of the Syndicate along the Danube and other major river trade routes. It is the responsibility of the Syndicate member to ensure the safety and security of river trade routes in his own realm.

2. Every member must build in his own nation a quality road highway which will connect the capitals of each member. It is the responsibility of the Syndicate member to ensure these trade routes in his own realm are patrolled regularly by security forces for the protection of merchants and other travellers from bandits, and danger.​
 
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Installation of the Carinthian Duke
As Told By Poet and Historian Joze Klasinc



duke1.gif

15th Century Illustration Portraying (Inaccurately) the Three Stages of the Ceremony


The Free Holders of the Land, represented by an Assembly of Good and True
men, Observed and Partook in the Ceremonies, described here in Truth and
Accuracy according to man's limitations, written by the Hand of Joze Klasinc,
to the best of my Rememberances by my Oath before by the One True God,
that did take place on November the First, and following days, in the year of
Our Lord Fourteen Hundred and Forty Nine.


In These Times the Duke of Carinthia is not chosen by the Veca as in Older
Days but we the Carantanian people maintain the Priviledge of Confirming or
Rejecting Him who is offered to us as Duke. On this day the Assembly of the
Nation was gathered to wield this Privilege over Ulrich of Celje, presented by
His Majesty the King Ladislav of distant Bohemia and His Imperial Majesty
Joachim of distant Pommerania. These persons were not present on this day.
The Emperor's representative to Carantania the Palatine was present on this
day.

The events of the Ceremonies took place as in the Tradition of the Ancient
Rites.

At Krnski Grad under the sun and the sky the Veca was gathered to perform
the Carantanian Rites. From these Good and True men the Judge was chosen
to speak for them all, the man considered by all to be the Best; the most
Wise, the most Fair, the most Honest and the most Holy. This was done first
to observe their Oath to the Country.

The Judge chosen by the Veca did then ask that great Assembly whether he,
Ulrich of Celje, given to them by King and Emperor, was acceptable as their
Prince. The great Assembly then did give a Cheer and Warm Welcom to
signify that, Young and Old, Rich and Poor, by General Consent they did
please him as their Prince, and they welcomed him as is the Custom of the
land. Ulrich of Celje was then given precious vestments of his Office, and
accompanied by Knights and Noblemen, and followed by the free men and the
masses, he did proceed up the Hill to the seat which is called the Prince's
Stone. With him were carried a great number of banners, the black and silver
banners of all ranks of noblemen of Carantania, and the banner of Celje, and
the banner of the nation of Carantania.

To Ulrich of Celje the precious vestments of his Office, with which he walked
up the hill which is of great Spiritual and Cultural importance, were given: in
his left hand, a mighty Bull, of Brown and White and Spotted, signifying the
Land and the Farmers who do toil upon It, and in his right hand a mighty
Warhorse, of Black and White Blaze and White Socks, signifying the army and
the Prince's duty to defend the Land. Together, these did signify the
elements of the Carantanian Land and its rule.

Upon the hill, known as Krnski Grad, these vestments were put aside and the
Judge of the Assembly, acting as the People of the land, did proceed to dress
Ulrich of Celje according to the tradition, comprising of items grey in colour,
signifying the dust of the land and the Prince becoming as one with the land.
Also he was dressed in items red in colour, signifying all that is eternal and
the spiritual duty of the Prince to the people. All told, the items in which the
Prince were dressed were: a tunic, grey in colour, signifying earthly things, a
red belt from which is hung a red hunting bag, as suitable for a Master of the
Hunt, although in These Times the Imperial Master of the Hunt was not the
Prince of Carinthia. In the Hunting Bag was placed Bread and Cheese and
Foods to symbolise that upon which all men must subside. Furthermore, the
Prince was given a Horn hung from red cords, and upon his feet he was given
to wear two shoes of red thongs, and upon his back a cloak of grey.

At this time the Ducal crown had been taken from Carantania after the Final
War against the Dukes Habsburg in which the former Duke and the Duke
before him, and so on right back to the Duke Ernst whom was called the Iron,
all bearing the name Habsburg, were disgraced and had their lands and
estates confiscated. Although he was to be Duke and Prince of Carinthia,
Ulrich of Celje chose to wear in the ancient Slovenian Hat, making him
popular before the great Crowd. And so, in this manner, Ulrich of Celje was
given to wear the Slovenian Hat, which is grey in colour and from which is
hung cords, equally grey in colour.

duke2.gif

Krnski Grad and the Prince's Stone


From the great Crowd then emerged the man who is known as the Keeper of
the Stone, and to which the Duty belongs to him alone, and before him was
his father, and before him his father, and so on. The Keeper who is a peasant
and a free man and is given house and plot which to farm and keep himself as
payment for his duty, did then proceed to perform his duty according to the
Carinthian tradition.

Before the massed Crowd the Keeper sat upon the great stone Chair. Before
the Stone stood Ulrich of Celje, who was to be Prince, and also Henry of
Goerz who was the Palatine of Carinthia, and the other nobles of position and
importance. In his hand Ulrich of Celje held the stick which he had been
given, which was the Sceptre of the Prince. The Keeper of the Stone, who
represented the people of the Land to whom the Prince owes his rank, did
speak, and the massed Crowd did answer.

Said the Keeper in the common tongue, which is Slovenian: Who is he that
comes forward?

Said the massed Crowd, also in the common tongue: It is he who is the
Prince of the Land!

Said the Keeper: Is he an upright Judge seeking the Well Being of the
Country? Is he free born and Deserving? Is he a Foster and Defender of the
Christian faith?

Said the massed Crowd: He is, he is, he will be!

Said the Keeper: By what right can you displace me from this Seat?

Said the massed Crowd: He will pay you sixty Denari, and he will give you
your home free and without tribute!

At which the peasant who was Keeper of the Stone stood and approached
the Prince and struck him gently and with open hand, signifying the Right of
the people to Rebuke their Prince. At this the Prince then drew his sword and
climbed upon the Stone and held his sword aloft. The Prince pointed his
sword in each direction, East, South, West and North, that he would be a
Righteous ruler to All. The people then lifted him aloft and placed him upon a
horse, singing in the Slovenian language: Praise Be to God, Kirie-Eleison! And
the crowd marched around the Stone each of Three Times with the Prince at
their head.

In this manner Ulrich of Celje was accepted by the people as Prince of
Carantania and installed on the Prince's Throne according to the ancient
Slovenian traditions.


The Prince who had now assumed power over the country was taken over hill
and field to the great Cathedral Maria in Solio.

Wherein the bishop celebrated Mass, assisted by prelates of the land,
superiors, and abbots. The Bishop then blessed the Prince, who was dressed
in the grey clothing of the land and the red clothing of the eternal, according
to the instructions of the Pontifical Book. After the ceremony the Prince's
precious vestments were distributed among the poor according to the
instructions of his Chamberlain. Then the Prince proceeded to the Banquet
whereat the Marshal, the Chamberlain, the Seneschal, and the Butler
distinguished themselves with their Services. This was the middle of the day.

duke3.gif

The Duke's Throne with the Cathedral, Maria in Solio, in the Background


After the Banquet was completed the Prince and the knights and nobles and
the free men did walk to the Field nearby the Cathedral. There in the field
was erected the tribunal before which sat the Duke's Throne. Beside this sat
the Count Palatine's Seat. The Duke sat upon his throne and proceeded to
judge and render justice. In this manner the Duke took office as Supreme
Judge over the land, as he had taken office as ruler of the land at the
Prince's Stone.

From the Throne Ulrich of Celje, who was Prince and Duke, bestowed the
fiefs of the lands belonging to him. Whenever the Duke refused to confer a
fief the reject then protested to Henry of Goerz, who was the Palatine of
Carantania and the Emperor's representative. The Palatine conferred the fief
to the man who had been rejected by the Duke so as to not prolong the
Quarrel. This was done in accordance with tradition.

After the fiefs were bestowed, the Duke did judge and render justice to all
that would seek it. Now, the Duke was judge in both as the Prince of the
Country and in the King's Court, to which the Prince must submit. As he
rendered justice, a man who held a grievance against the Prince might
accuse the Duke of having not done him justice. On each occasion, the
Prince might claim: I do not understand your language, and so need not hear
your complaint. The plaintiff might then accost the Duke a second time, to
which the Prince could not ignore his complaint in the Slovenian Tongue. By
calling for judgement a second time, the plaintiff asked for his Case to be
heard before the King's Court in which the grievance had to be heard in the
Slovenian Tongue according to the Law of the land, for the Carinthian Duke
could only be accused under Slavica lex in this fashion.

The rendering of justice at the tribunal in Carinthia took five days, after
which was the Sabbath and all men rested, and the day after which the
tribunal was disbanded.

In this way Ulrich of Celje was accepted by the people as Prince of
Carantania and Supreme Judge of Carantania according to the ancient
Slovenian traditions. So says I, Joze Klasinc who did record these events as I
witnessed them, in Truth and Accuracy according to man's limitations on my
Oath before the One True God.​
 
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Petrarca said:
Late autumn saw the snows descend upon the mountains of the Austrian Alps, coating the now-glistening peaks with a deathly beautiful white veneer. The mountain passes both through and inside the Alps remained somewhat clear, however, allowing traffic between Austria and the Adriatic and the continued commerce of Inner Austria.

The fact that the mountain passes were still open made Meinhard Bauer’s task easier. The common soldier was one of many escorting lords of the land to Graz, the seat of provincial administration and a hospitable town among so much cold, barren terrain.

The city was quite hospitable, Kolovrat decided. Bedřich Libštejnský z Kolovrat, Hetman of Styria and Tyrolia, was busy keeping himself warm by downing beer after beer and drawing the female servants close to him. He downed another mug and pulled the young woman who had served him close, burying his reddened face in her chest. ”This day has been a long time in coming,” he said once the girl had extricated herself from his clutches. “It is time, but I will miss the company,” he said with a smile.

An officer opened the door to the tavern Kolovrat had occupied and brisk winter impinged upon the warm atmosphere of an alcoholic’s paradise. “My lord, the nobles and burghers of the territory are assembled in the hall according to your orders. The most insidious of them have been sequestered, again by your command.”

Kolovrat’s sobriety was a close-run thing, but he still managed, “Then prepare accommodations for the majority, as we will have them swear fealty to the Bavarians when they arrive. Then execute the troublemakers,” he said with a drunken grin.

“Execute them?” The officer repeated his orders with a look of unadulterated shock.

“My good man, do you think I jest?” Even as he spoke, Kolovrat still bore his alcoholic smile, rendering the officer speechless.

“My lord, I think you have had too much to drink,” the officer finally managed. He was terribly confused about his orders, and killing in cold blood was too much to ask when demanded by a clearly drunk noble.

“Good captain, I assure you these orders are perfectly valid. Come, have a drink, and read the letter I possess acknowledging my authority,” Kolovrat said benevolently.

The officer snatched the document and sat down opposite the Czech lord.
The Cession of Inner Austria​

By the authority of His Majesty, Ladislav, Lord of the Kingdom of Bohemia, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomere, Cumania, and Bulgaria, Overlord of Croatia, Duke of Upper and Lower Austria, of Carinthia, of Lusatia, of Luxemburg, of Silesia, of Styria, Margrave of Moravia and Carniola, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, King Among the Princes, Grandmaster of the Knights of the Cross of the Red Star, Arch-Cupbearer of the Empire, Arch-Hunter of the Empire,

It is declared that the duchy of Carinthia and the margraviate of Carniola shall be removed from the royal dominion, exempted from all clauses of the Ausgleich and Union of Arms of the Dual Monarchy, and freed of obedience to the royal authority, after long deliberation by His Majesty the King with His August Majesty the King of the Romans,

And in proper stead of such authority and governance by His Majesty under the aegis of His August Majesty, Graf Ulrich von Cilli, Ban of Slavonia and Croatia under His Majesty the King, shall be granted such titles over the land as Duke of Styria, Duke of Carinthia, and Margrave of Carniola solely under the auspices of His August Majesty to rule as a direct Imperial vassal free from any mandatory obligation save that of the Church and Empire.

Furthermore, to better recreate the privileges enjoyed by ancient Carantania that have devolved to present Carinthia and to preserve the home of the von Cilli, the territory of Styria south of the river Drave, particularly the town of Cilli, shall be permanently henceforth added to the duchy of Carinthia as a gesture of goodwill towards Duke Ulrich.

All inhabitants and landholders of these duchies and margraviate, so dubbed Inner Austria by the common speech, shall swear full allegiance to the Duke and Margrave Ulrich, whose line shall succeed him in those positions. This action we proclaim by force of royal edict and our supremacy over our territory, in felicitous consultation with His August Majesty.

Ladislav von Wittelsbach-Luxemburg, Lord of the Kingdom of Bohemia, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomere, Cumania, and Bulgaria, Overlord of Croatia, Duke of Upper and Lower Austria, of Carinthia, of Lusatia, of Luxemburg, of Silesia, of Styria, Margrave of Moravia and Carniola, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, King Among the Princes, Grandmaster of the Knights of the Cross of the Red Star, Arch-Cupbearer of the Empire, Arch-Hunter of the Empire
Jan z Valdštejna, High Chancellor of Bohemia
Zavis, Bishop of Seccau and extraordinary minister of Bohemia

In pursuance of the goals of this proclamation, Count Kolovrat, Hetman of Inner Austria and the Tirol, has full royal endorsement of his authority and actions.
Jan z Valdštejna, High Chancellor of Bohemia

Wallenstein had approved the measures, attached as an addendum to the royal proclamation. He looked up at Kolovrat, again in shock. “But…”

Bedřich Kolovrat laughed heartily at his subordinate’s confusion. Putting an arm around him, he said, “Consider what we are doing. This territory is being transferred to the von Cilli, who will ever after rule this region. We have brought the men of power to Graz and Klagenfurt to swear allegiance to their new Duke, which is a nice gesture in my mind. But—and listen closing—we can do them a real favor. The lords most suspect of treason and disloyalty we have already quarantined. They came like the rest, and are now in our power like lambs come to the slaughter. Now is our chance to fall upon these conspirators before they can do the same to us or the von Cilli.” Here he paused. “And what will the Duke do? He will decry our cruelty to the other lords, promising to impose law and order over the land, and so earn their friendship. And the greatest domestic threats to their rule will all be dead. I think it is an enormous favor to do this for him.”

The officer considered this all for a brief moment. Then he said, “I believe I will need a drink after all.” Once he was finished, he returned to his men and passed along Kolovrat’s commands.

Meinhard Bauer slit the throats of half-a-dozen lords and merchants in secret that night by command of his superiors. The rest of the nobility and burghers continued to wait, unaware of what had happened, to pledge fealty to their new ruler.




The same scene was repeated at Innsbruck in the Tirol. There, however, the prominent would swear obedience to the infant Duke of Bavaria-Munich. That land of crucial strategic importance, with its mountain passes connecting Italy and all of Germany, would pass to another branch of the Wittelsbach. The withdrawal from the Alpine territories of the south by Bohemia had begun and finished with remarkable swiftness.

Unsure of the activity of the ducal court or even the titles by which to address the von Cilli by, Graf von Rothenburg arrived at Klagenfurt with great unease. There was no telling what the new lords of Carantania would be like towards Bohemia now that what they wanted of Ladislav was finally theirs. He voiced a soft request to a passing chamberlain to see the new Duke, barely a month ensconced in his realm.

rothenburgport.jpg
 

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Ulrich paced from one end of the long room to the other, pausing occasionally to lean over one of the maps on the table. There was no sound but that of the silent attendants around the room shifting their weight. Ulrich heard the far door open and shut, but ignored it. For several minutes he continued to stand with his back to the door. Finally the Duke sighed in exasperation.

"Yes, what is it," he cried impatiently.
"My lord, a Graf von Rothenburg has arrived, and requests to see you," said the courtier, softly.
"Very well, bring him here."
"Yes, my lord."

Once more the door was opened and closed, and Ulrich stood leaning over the maps. He wasn't seeing them, but listening for the Count's entrance.
 

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von Rothenburg paused for a moment before entering. The von Cilli were an unknown quantity, particularly this one pondering charts.

"Your lordship, would any of those maps be of Hungary? I am Graf Werner von Rothenburg, an envoy of King Ladislav, and furthermore I am deeply interested in Hungary."

He stopped for a moment. Then he faced Ulrich with a glint in his eye. "Ladislav is also King of Hungary, and you are also Ban of Slavonia and Croatia. I am not a negotiator, but I can say that our mutual interests coincide perfectly. Hungary is a nation in chaos crying out for order."
 

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"Maps of Hungary? They might be," spoke Ulrich, cautiously. "I have many maps." Slowly he turned his head, and viewed the visitor darkly from the corner of his left eye.

"The correct way to address an Imperial Duke is as his Highness," he scolded, quietly, savouring the newfound taste of superiority and relishing it. "There may be some confusion about the transfer of my titles but you had better get into practise. Ratified or no, I am a Duke, or as good as. And, it would seem, a man in position to be of great help to you."

Finally he turned around completely to face the Graf, and called for a chair, insisting the visitor be seated. Ulrich stood to one side, near the window, so the visitor would have to strain to meet his face. "Hungary is indeed in chaos. Crying out for far more than order. Hungary needs a strong individual to wrest her from anarchy and force her, against her will if need be, piece by piece - INCH by inch - to recognise where her destiny lies."

Ulrich was behind the chair now, face directly next to von Rothenburg's, almost whispering in his ear. "Some would call that rape, Werner - I trust I am not taking a liberty in calling you Werner -" he murmured in a manner that indicated it was not an option. "But like a woman, if she is made your servant by force she will respect you all the more for it. It would take an individual of some character to achieve this, friend. But it will be the men controlling this individual who would reap the rewards..."
 

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"Had I been confused about Your Highness's position, I would have addressed you as an equal, or worse, because not long ago you too were only a Graf," Werner responded forcefully to von Cilli's arrogant comment. "I don't have much practice in dealing with those below kings, so Your Highness should forgive my innocence." Upstart Slavs...

von Rothenburg sat, a disgruntled pawn on von Cilli's board, and listened. "The severity of the hand that brings order is clear from the brutal civil war that plagues that kingdom. The only authority the barons of Hungary know is the sword, and so long as they field their own armies without heed to the law and those the law sets above them, the sword is the only path to restoring order over them."

Bastard Slav, toying with him, sneaking up behind him. "I thank Your Highness for the vivid illustration, but I am well aware of the situation and the solution for it. There are many barons in Hungary, rogue armies and city militias too, who will require many troops to subdue them." He rose to turn and look at Ulrich. "I am looking for an individual with that certain character, of course. But I am also looking for an individual with enough soldiers to allow him to do so. Inches may be well and good, but we want to make sure that the entire kingdom falls before us and moans the name of her rightful ruler."
 

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So he was right. Hungary by any means. Ulrich ignored the Czech's bitterness. "I would welcome us to speak as equals, provided you recognise my... authority," he explained slowly, but deliberately in a manner opposed to conciliation. Who cared if he irritated the Count further? Let the man prioritise his emotions. Well, Ladislav's intentions were apparent enough to not need to mince words with this man.

"But you don't come to me for my armies, do you Count. No, that's his Majesty's problem. What you seek is my connections. I have been... considering my position for some time. No doubt so has your liege. Politics, manipulation, conspiracy. These will win any war before it begins. You know I have significant holdings in former Habsburg lands, and in Hungary. I have many allies in Western Hungary. Croatia is a mailed fist under my command. The mountains are loyal to the Garai, who are loyal to me. In the chaos, the remaining Barons will see on which side the power lies, or they will be crushed. All that remains is to give them a figurehead. A Palatine will act as a focus, an excuse to rally behind his Majesty's cause."
 

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"Your Highness, I have no desire to speak as equals with you," von Rothenburg said, passing his dislike of Ulrich as respect.

"Politics can carry us only so far. We tried a political solution before, relying on a single man like you said, avoiding war, and it collapsed. Any successful attempt to restore order must be accompanied by sufficient force. I am aware of the connections and allies you possess in Hungary. There was a reason for your family to be hated by the Hunyadi because those wretches envied your power, and I certainly hope that power is still extant. If Slavonia and Croatia rally to their Ban, then much is already accomplished, like Your Highness states. But the task is not yet finished. The great plains would still resist the encroachment, and renewed strength of the von Cilli would give pause to many barons and force them to unite against us. The means to solidify your hold on western Hungary is to destroy the plains barons, or at least sufficient number for them to realize that their bawdy independence has come to an end. For this we will need arms to subdue a good portion of the Danube Basin beyond Slavonia."

"I am not sure of the idea of a figurehead Palatine for the barons to rally behind. They must know that the Crown Law and the King rule Hungary with his officials, such as the Bans, not a popular appointee who gives them false illusions of grandeur and self-importance. What I am sure of is a Captain-General to lead the armies of Bohemia and her friends against the barons and show the remainder that they are not free to choose allegiance to their King, but that loyalty and obedience is required."
 

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Ulrich's face had darkened at the mention of the Hunyadis, and as he listened to he had to consciously control his hatred. "The Barons must be forced to see they have no option, agreed.

"The man Ugo was mad, and given free reign. It would be a catastrophe to see the installation of another independant popular Palatine. A puppet administrator is necessary, but one whose strings are pulled by the King and not the nobles.

Ulrich hesitated. Perhaps it would be best to hear what von Rothenburg had planned before proceeding further. "You wish to restore the Captains-General of Hungary?"
 

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"I have come to feel that the barons must be deprived of any illusion that they owe obedience to the Palatine and not the King. Look at the factions warring against each other, some claiming to support Emerek as Palatine in hopes of controlling the boy and gaining legitimacy. The only hope I hold is that without a Palatine, they must acknowledge the supremacy of the Crown Law and its execution by the King. I do think that Your Highness's idea of a puppet Palatine bears merit, but there must be no risk of the barons seizing the merest fringe of legitimacy by purporting to support the Palatine when they revolt against the King."

"I really have no respect for the nobles of Hungary. Not after this,"
he said with a sweeping gesture over the maps. "Not after the despicable Hunyadis quit war in favor of torching villages in Tyrolia, Hungary, and Slavonia on their way home to plot uprisings. Not after wretches plunge the country into chaos and war in their desperate bids for supremacy. No, the barons must realize perfectly that their armed insolence won't be tolerated."

von Rothenburg responded to the question of the Captains-General. "It is personally my opinion- the King will hear my counsel- that the office of Palatine is too tarnished by men eager for their own gain. The precise differences elude me, but if one man were appointed chief or supreme captain, then it would be clear he served at the King's sufferance. Of course, if law or custom makes this unviable, then the idea will be dropped. Unlike Your Highness, I am not familiar with the workings of Hungary and her officials. My family is not one of magnates or courtiers. We make our fortunes leading the King's armies."
 

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"I fought in Venice too, Count," gritted Ulrich between his teeth, "and I have far more to lose in this that do you." And far more to gain. "If one man were appointed supreme captain it might, as you say, be clear he served at the King's sufferance. At least for as long as he is loyal to the King. No, you have the same problem as before. The reliance on a single man to act as magistrate, administrator, general and king's man all rolled into one. No, in my opinion you must divide the administrative and military rules of Hungary. Let the men who can raise the armies be reliant on the men who collect taxes and distribute funds. Establish as intricate a web of bureaucracy as is necessary.

"Eighteen months ago I received a copy of a proposal from an ally, a man close to the Chief Chancellor in fact. It would be interesting if this proposal, a political theory really, should prove to be suitable to our needs. Essentially, the concept was that the government be removed, if you can believe it, from the hands of the barons and passed to a council of paid king's officials - the national governance and royal revenues beyond the control of the baronial chancellory*. An interesting concept to say the least.

"At any rate, the trick will be in getting the nobles to submit to and recognise as the king's governor someone who is in reality essentially powerless to act independantly and recklessly."


*OOC: Historically proposed (and successfully opposed) 1454.
 

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“Interesting, certainly,” von Rothenburg said after Ulrich's idea. He was by and large bored with talk of government. “I suppose it make sense to deprive the most powerful barons of their stranglehold of power. As an official of the kingdom dependent on the monarchy’s largesse, let me speak for the efficacy of that system,” he said with a gleeful smirk.

“But tell me more of this man in the Chancellery. Is he still there, more than a year later? And if he came up with such an idea, would he and others in positions of power be sympathetic to the restoration? If some members of the barons, particularly those whose lands and power have been diluted over the generations, side with the King and the Ban in their campaign? Internal support beyond the Garai and the Frangepan would make any march infinitely more bearable.”

“Honestly, I thought that a chief captain would perform the duties of his title alone, leading the armies of the King. I had no idea that he would be the same as the Palatine, wielding too much power across every aspect of government. Administration only distracts us soldiers from doing our jobs properly anyways. In regards to that, I will send Your Highness’s proposals to Prag, but please, for the future relay them directly there. I don’t govern kingdoms, I conquer them.”
 

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Ulrich had had just about all he could take of the German's abrasive arrogance; a room can only hold so many big heads. "And what kingdoms have you conquered lately, mighty lord?"
 

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"I'm working on Hungary, Highness," Werner von Rothenburg said affably. He wouldn't let an upstart Slavic Duke faze him. "But what are the military capabilities of the Garai? Is their strength in the mountains as great as it is reputed?"
 

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"The Garai hold many key towns, and like most barons have a substantial base of lesser nobility under their banner. Their support is useful if uninspiring." Said Ulrich hurriedly.

"If you eliminate the Palatine, as you suggest, there is no-one but your Captain-General to act as an administrative figure-head. Else you have anarchy - the mightiest of armies cannot rule in all places at once.

"Look. If this bores you perhaps his majesty should have sent a more capable conspirator?"