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Sanguine Caesar

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Introduction:

Hello there! Despite the devs having already released their ambitions with regard to Italy, I would like to take this opportunity to cover the small island nation of Corsica in EUIV. Despite its diminutive size, the island's history remains quite fascinating, being a bone of contention between the Genoese, Aragonese, French, and even British at various points throughout the time span of EUIV, and as we all know would become the birthplace of everyone's favourite Emperor of the French. I will further be breaking this thread down into the following topics:

  1. The Island of Corsica
  2. Events
  3. Decisions and NIs
  4. Miscellaneous

As always, all sources will be included at the end of this thread. I have also taken the liberty of including some Corsican Jesuit chants for a less monotonous read. I hope you enjoy!


1. The Island of Corsica:

Pasquale Paoli, leader of the 18th-Century Corsican Republic

Corsica in EUIV is not all that notable for the most part, and to a degree justifiably so: what's one tiny Mediterranean island compared to all the countless other tiny Mediterranean islands? Well as it turns out, Corsica was in a rather interesting historical position in 1444, and would continue to be throughout the rest of EUIV's timeframe. Having done some research, I would like to present why I believe that Corsica should receive some attention in the upcoming update, as well as delve into a bit of this island's unique history:

The history of Corsica in the time frame of EUIV is quite a turbulent one; a far cry from the hegemonic Genoese control of the island as it is presented in the current 1444 setup. The early-to-mid-15th Century in particular was fairly unforgiving for the island, which saw many tyrants come and go. Since the 14th Century, Corsica had been a bone of contention between Aragon, Genoa, and the local nobility. In the midst of this constant changing of hands, a noble by the name of Vincentello d'Istria would rise to prominence, and would claim the title of Count of Corsica in the name of the Aragonese in the early 1400s, managing to subdue most of the island. He enjoyed popular support from many of the leading noble families, and would fortify many significant settlements such as Corte and Bastia. However, the so-called "Terror of the Mediterranean" would come to be abandoned by the Aragonese, and after gradually losing his remaining holdings, would be beheaded in Genoa in 1434.

That same year, the two powers would broker a deal in which Corsica was at least nominally ceded to Genoa by Aragon, though the reality on the ground was far more complex. The power left by the death of Vincentello d'Istria caused many feuds between rival factions of noble families. Among those who would rise to power was Mariano da Gaggio, who in 1443 challenged Genoese rule in the Terra del Commune and abolished the Caporali (members of the elite ruling class which had descended into corruption), leading to further unrest. Concurrently, the feud between the Adorni and Fergosi families in Genoa extended to Corsica, with each house competing against each other and the local nobles in pursuit of the title of Count. This lead to two interventions from the Papacy in an attempt to restore order to the island; the first being in 1443, followed by a second in 1447, which saw the installment of Ludovico Campo Fergoso as governor in 1449. By 1458, Corsica fell under the administration of the Genoese Bank of San Giorgio as had Genoa's Levantine colonies.

While the Genoese were quarreling over the north of the island, the south continued to be dominated by the nobles, who remained loyal to the King of Aragon. In 1461 however, they would rally under the leadership of Tomassino Campo Fergoso, who would come into direct conflict with the Genoese by launching an invasion of northern Corsica, though the Aragonese had lost interest in Corsica by that point. This newfound authority would not last, as in 1464 Francesco Sforza of Milan usurped the Genoese signoria, forcing the Bank to renounce its control over the island, and plunging the Republic into a state of chaos until the Adorni regained power in 1478. Fergoso too lost his title, with Corsica instead being granted to the Milanese general Antonio Cotta by Sforza, who managed to hold onto the island despite an abortive attempt by Tomassino to reassert his power. Later however, the Corsican diet would continue to attempt to appoint a new Count, until the Fergosi sold their claim to the bank in 1483, leading to a Genoese invasion which would see the island finally subdued in 1487. The former nobles however - particularly Renuncio della Rocca, who had persisetently attempted to take the island for himself - would continue to harass the governing Genoese over the next few decades, who became increasingly brutal in their methods of dealing with the rebellious island. However, the rule of the bank would later also be characterised by its relatively democratic nature and generally favourable treatment of Corsicans.

By the 16th Century, the French had regained their interest in the island. From 1553 to 1559, Catherine de Medici took the island for France with Ottoman support in an attempt to antagonise the Holy Roman Emperor and weaken Genoa. An uprising led by the nationalist Sampiero Corso expelled the French, and in 1567 the island returned to Genoese rule, under which it would remain until 1729. This period would be characterised by rampant corruption among the ruling Genoese, which would further antagonise the Corsicans and lead to an increase in nationalist sentiment. An culture of honour killing and vigilante justice - the infamous vendetta - would grow out of the political environment of the time, and many Corsicans began to appeal to other European powers to end the occupation.

In 1729 another Corsican uprising would ensue, ushering in further bloodshed and political turbulence on the island, with a German adventurer was nominally crowned King Theodore I of Corsica in 1736. He would retain this title until 1743, and by 1755, the political turmoil would culminate in the establishment of an independent Corsican Republic under the rule of the nationalist leader Pasquale Paoli. Though the Republic was notable for its highly democratic constitution, Paoli nonetheless ruled in line with the principles of enlightened despotism, constructing a university, navy and printing press, while also repressing the practice of vendetta within the Republic. However, in 1768 the Genoese sold their claims to Corsica to France, and a year later the French invaded the island with overwhelming numbers, forcing Paoli into exile. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio but a few months later.

The island has since remained a French possession, however in the midst of the French Revolution, the British would intervene in Corsica, creating on the island what came to be known as the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1794 to 1796, and making Paoli a British citizen. The island would be reconquered by Napoleon however, and since then has been a part of France.

Now that all that's out of the way, let's get to some of the changes I'd like to make to Corsica in EUIV.

1. Partitioning Corsica

Cismonte (North)
Development: 3/2/2
Terrain: Hills
Capital: Bastia/Corte
Owner: Genoa
Culture: Sardinian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Wine
Foreign Cores: Corsica
Fort: Yes

Pumonti (South)

Development: 2/2/2
Terrain: Hills
Capital: Ajaccio
Owner: Corsica
Culture: Sardinian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Naval Supplies
Foreign Cores: Genoa
Fort: N/A

Given its historical division between rival powers and domestic groups, I believe the current province of Corsica should be divided in two: Cismonte in the North, and Pumonti in the South.

The reasoning behind this decision would be as follows:
  • In 1444, Corsica was split between the Genoese-controlled north and Arganonese-influenced south (more on this in the next spoiler)
  • The island would be more difficult to conquer for foreign powers as it was historically
  • The island was divided between multiple noble families
  • The island is large enough to split without creating micro-provinces
With these reasons in mind, I believe that a split of Corsica would be a reasonable addition to the game.

2. Aragonese-Guaranteed South
As mentioned in the previous spoiler, the south of Corsica did not submit to Genoa, and was in fact countrolled by local nobles who remained loyal to Aragon. As such, I believe the southern Corsican province should be owned by the independent Corsica tag under an Aragonese guarantee.

My reasoning behind this would be as follows:
  • The southern nobles remained loyal to King Alfonso of Aragon, despite the north being under Genoese control
  • In 1461 Tomassino Campo Fergoso would unite the nobles of the south and would invade the north
  • Though the southern nobility remained loyal to him, King Alfonso did not show much interest in Corsica
  • The King did however force concessions from the Genoese regardless
  • Having an independent Corsica tag in the southern province would make for a more challenging game as Genoa
  • Providing Corsica with a guarantee from Aragon would make conquering the entire island more difficult for Genoa
  • The Corsica tag already exists in the game, so making it independent would not be significantly more taxing to run
For these reasons, I believe the south of Corsica should be independent and guaranteed by Aragon

3. Interregnum in Corsica
The question of the status of who actually ruled over southern Corsica in 1444 is difficult to answer. The state was very much locked in a state of turmoil, with various noble families vying for the position of Count. As such, I believe that the Corsica tag should be in a state of interregnum at the game's start for the following reasons:

  • While King Alfonso of Aragon technically held the title of Count, he did not do much to enforce his claims after 1434
  • The local nobility in Corsica was constantly infighting over who would become the new Count
  • The title would not be taken up again until 1461 when Tomassino Campo Fergoso would unite most of the island
With such a turbulent situation in the south, it would be difficult to choose a particular Corsican ruler in 1444, therefore the solution of an Interregnum seems the most plausible in the context of EUIV.

4. A Fort in Cismonte
Finally, I would also like to propose that a fort be placed in Cismonte (northern Corsica) for the following reasons:
  • During his rule, Vincentello d'Istria fortified the cities of Corte and Bastia, both located in the north
  • A fort would make the island more difficult to conquer as it was historically
  • Towers constructed by the Genoese continue to stand in Corsica today
As such, a fort in northern Corsica would, in my opinion, be a reasonable addition to increase strategic depth in the region.

With changes such as these made to the starting setup, I believe the island of Corsica, despite not being great in size, might provide new opportunities for flavourful, challenging, and overall interesting gameplay.

2. Events:

Sampiero Corso; Corsican rebel leader who expelled the French in the 16th Century

Now that we're through with changes to the map and tags, let's get into some events then shall we? The events I would suggest adding would be as follows:

By the mid-15th Century, Corsica remained leaderless and embroiled in internal conflict. The leading local noble families of d'Istria, della Rocca, da Mare, and da Leca, though all still loyal to Aragon, were each competing against each other for the title of Count in the south. Among them however, a Ligurian nobleman, Tomassino Campo Fergoso, has risen to prominence, seeking to use the claims of his family in Genoa to assert his control over the entire island.
  • He shall lead Corsica to victory! Tomassino Campo Fergoso (4/3/4) becomes Ruler, gain 4 Western Medieval Infantry in Pumonti, Corsica Declares War on Genoa
  • No foreigner shall rule over our island nation! A local noble becomes Ruler
MTTH: 1461
Our wars against foreign oppression have proven victorious! It is thanks to our triumph that our island is united once more!
  • Dìu vi salvi Regina! Capital of Corsica changes to Cismonte, Capital of Cismonte changes to Corte
MTTH: Only fires if Corsica conquers Cismonte
The Corsican nobility has continually proven difficult to subdue even after Aragonese claims were settled in 1434. The situation had become so dire that by 1443 the people made an appeal to the Pope himself requesting that Papal soldiers be sent to pacify the island. Recently, with tensions on the island threatening to boil over once again, another request to His Holiness is being considered.
  • We need all the help we can get! 7 Particularist Rebels rise up in Cismonte, gain +25 Papal Opinion, +5000 Manpower, -10 Prestige
  • We can deal with the rebels on our own! 7 Particularist Rebels rise up in Cismonte, gain +10 Prestige
MTTH: 1447

Further events could also be implemented to represent the appearance of Theodore I, Pasquale Paoli, Napoleon Bonaparte, etc. The addition of events such as these would function to depict more accurately the volatile situation in which the island found itself throughout the EUIV timeframe.

3. Decisions and NIs:

Ruins of the Genoese-built Parata Tower in Ajaccio

Next off, I would like to touch off on some new Corsican National Ideas I have created. They are still somewhat of a work in progress, however I believe it is important to give even minor states their own unique ideas rather than generic ones. Therefore, allow me to present here my proposal for Corsican National Ideas:

Traditions:

+1 Tolerance of the True Faith
+25% Foreign Core Creation Cost
Terra del Commune:

-0.05% Monthly Autonomy Change
Abolish the Caporali:

+10% National Tax Modifier
Vendetta:

-15% Harsh Treatment Cost
Bank of San Giorgio

-0.25 Interest Per Annum
Constitutionalism:

+1 Yearly Legitimacy/Republican Tradition
Enlightened Despotism:

-10% Construction Cost
+5 Max Absolutism
Birthplace of Napoleon:

+1 Yearly Army Tradition
Ambition:

+10% Naval Force Limit

Furthermore, given its long-lasting effects on Corsican and Genoese history, I have also included a decision by which Genoa can establish the Bank of San Giorgio in Corsica, Cyprus, and the Levant (also taking the opportunity to tag @Van Kasten here in hopes that he may be able to help me out with this a bit more). The decision would appear as follows:

Requirements:
  • Administrative Tech 5
  • 250 Ducats
  • Own Cismonte
  • Own Pumonti
  • Own Cyprus or any province in the Mashriq Region
Effects:
  • +0.10 Yearly Corruption
  • Cismonte, Pumonti, Cyprus, and any Genoese-owned province in the Mashriq Region gain +75% Autonomy, +5% Local Trade Power Modifier

4. Miscellaneous:

Depiction of the offices of the Bank of San Giorgio in Genoa

Finally, there are a few things I would like to add which could not fit into their own section in the rest of the thread, and are therefore included in this Miscellaneous section.

1. Dynamic Province Names

So far I have only managed to find French and Italian/Corsican names for the two provinces in Corsica, so if anyone knows their names in other languages then please feel free to suggest them as it is much appreciated. ;)

Italian: Cismonte
French: Haute-Corse
Italian: Pumonti
French: Corse-du-Sud

Conclusion and Sources:

And that brings us to the end of this first post. I know this is late for the 1.29 Italy dev diary, but given that Corsica appears not to have changed at all I thought I should at the very least bring it to attention. I had already been in the process of writing this suggestion when it came out anyway, so I decided I should at least not let the effort go to waste and post it anyway.

Anyway, thank you for reading my thread on Corsica in EUIV! I hope you've enjoyed it and perhaps been able to take something useful away from it! :)

 
Last edited:

Van Kasten

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Not knowing much about the island I should say that I am very surprised about your details.

I very much like your suggestion, but could you please tell me the specific of the two new provinces (development, terrain, trade goods)? This would add even more depth to the suggestion.

Also, two provinces in Corsica with around the same development might be a nerf for Genoa since Merchant Republic have a maximum of Stated provinces.

By the way, have you ever thought about making the Banco di San Giorgio a special Estate for Genoa? You could assign them land and interact with them (loans like the Jains for example). Maybe the provinces assigned to the Banco would not count towards the Stated Limit of 20 provinces, but has the drawback that has to be assigned until literally bought back from the Banco or when the Banco goes bankrupt?

As always, there are plenty of ideas to deepen the experience of the game ;)

I sincerely hope that your suggestion will be implemented.
 

Me_

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Why would anyone take the Bank decision? It's purely detrimental.
Other than that, I think it's interesting. The split of Corsixa in particular would be interesting for the sake of creating a potential, but not guaranteed point of conflict between Genoa and Aragon giving both some new possible early strategic decisions.
 

Sanguine Caesar

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I very much like your suggestion, but could you please tell me the specific of the two new provinces (development, terrain, trade goods)? This would add even more depth to the suggestion.
Already did! ;)
Cismonte (North)
Development: 3/2/2
Capital: Bastia/Corte
Owner: Genoa
Culture: Sardinian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Wine
Foreign Cores: Corsica
Fort: Yes

Pumonti (South)

Development: 2/2/2
Capital: Ajaccio
Owner: Corsica
Culture: Sardinian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Naval Supplies
Foreign Cores: Genoa
Fort: N/A
Though admittedly I forgot about terrain so thank you for reminding me. Terrain for both provinces would likely be Hills. ;)

By the way, have you ever thought about making the Banco di San Giorgio a special Estate for Genoa? You could assign them land and interact with them (loans like the Jains for example). Maybe the provinces assigned to the Banco would not count towards the Stated Limit of 20 provinces, but has the drawback that has to be assigned until literally bought back from the Banco or when the Banco goes bankrupt?
The problem is that Republics don't have access to Estates in-game I'm afraid. Nevertheless, it could be an interesting way of portraying it. I figured that since your first major thread was about Genoa you might have some ideas about how to portray the Bank in its larger context. ;)

Thank you as always for the kind words! :D
 

otaats

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Traditionally an insightful post, Caesar :) I have to admit that i know nothing of Corsican history, but i enjoy the read regardless and hope the devs seriously consider your proposal :)
 

Sanguine Caesar

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Traditionally an insightful post, Caesar :) I have to admit that i know nothing of Corsican history, but i enjoy the read regardless and hope the devs seriously consider your proposal :)
Well when I saw the name d'Istria I felt compelled to keep researching, and this was the result. :p

Thank you as always for the kind words! :D
 

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Really nice post :) I hope it makes it to the base game someday, but I feel that devs currently have more pressing matters than Corsica. :/
Thank you very much. :)

However, that is precisely the reason why I make these threads: the devs have larger priorities than Corsica or Ragusa or whatever, and as such are probably not going to bother reading up on them. However, for those of us who are interested, we can spend the time reading up on it and present it to them in an easily-digestible way to ensure better accuracy while also lightening the burden of the devs and not forcing them to spend hours upon hours of research into every little OPM or area out there. So I will continue to write these so that these often-overlooked areas will at least get some consideration. ;)
 

Van Kasten

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The problem is that Republics don't have access to Estates in-game I'm afraid. Nevertheless, it could be an interesting way of portraying it. I figured that since your first major thread was about Genoa you might have some ideas about how to portray the Bank in its larger context. ;)
Sorry, I did not see them at first. Guess I’m starting to age :D

I thought about extending my old thread but I do not want to necessarily bump it. My Genoese Government is not a Merchant Republic so technically it could have access to the Estates, or some of them. Or just to the Banco of San Giorgio.

I envisioned an Estate that could earn money from its assigned territories and then help the State by giving loans without interest and contributing up to 50% to loans that Genoa gives to other nation, diving the gains and the losses. And if it goes bankrupt then a nasty event chain will start to slowly recover. This of course must be coupled with new mechanics regulating loans between nations, because as of now you may avoid to repay without consequences.

Maybe it’s too ambitious.
 

Liviu590

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Hi, i played EU4 few years ago but I was more into CK2. As a guy who's part corsican I wanted to play corsica in EU4 and I was surprised that they put Sardinian culture but not corsican one.
I made some researches and I found this topic. I'm glad you made researches about my island I agree about everything because you are saying facts.
The only last thing that is frustrating me is that Sardinian culture ... Sardinian culture and corsican are really different and it's too different languages beside actually north of sardinia is speaking corsican so if one island should be with another culture it should be north Sardinian as corsican and all corsica as corsican.
Well I actually think it would be fair if we have a full sardinian sardinia and a full corsica as corsican culture. I just don't like the fact the dev see us as Sardinian while it's actually northern Sardinian who are corsican dialects speakers.
Sardinian and corsican culture should accept each others

I don't know much about EU4 gameplay so sorry if I'm talking nonsense but if you succeed to get independence from France it would be nice if it achieves a mission called Pasquale Paoli dream and then unlock sub missions like create a modern republic like he started to do (one of the first, consired as the first modern constitution by many and inspired the future constitution of USA and the who gave the right to vote for women in certain cases)
Or idk if you succeed to create an independent corsica with an constitutional republic can be enough to achieves it

Independent corsica invading sardinia or independent sardinia invading corsica can achieve the Long lost brother mission



Change name in corsican for ajaccio it's Aiacciu, but can change to Ajaccio if the local culture change to any other culture

Change the flag to a more accurate one, just add a scarf on the maure forehead

Corsican names : to make it easier and still be accurate:
- take Italian names that and by O and end them with U, petro petru , livio liviu, etc
- take Italian names with Gi and put Ghj instead, ex: Giulia Ghjulia, Giovanni Ghjuvanni ...
All others italian names can work

We also have our own heresy the Gjuvannali (Giovannali in other languages) they are like fraticelli or cathars
 

Mr.Grizzly

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Hi, i played EU4 few years ago but I was more into CK2. As a guy who's part corsican I wanted to play corsica in EU4 and I was surprised that they put Sardinian culture but not corsican one.
I made some researches and I found this topic. I'm glad you made researches about my island I agree about everything because you are saying facts.
The only last thing that is frustrating me is that Sardinian culture ... Sardinian culture and corsican are really different and it's too different languages beside actually north of sardinia is speaking corsican so if one island should be with another culture it should be north Sardinian as corsican and all corsica as corsican.
Well I actually think it would be fair if we have a full sardinian sardinia and a full corsica as corsican culture. I just don't like the fact the dev see us as Sardinian while it's actually northern Sardinian who are corsican dialects speakers.
I disagree on the current development team's take on the introduction of new cultures, but sadly Corsican will never be added. Paradox is cracking down on 2 province areas and won't add new cultures unless it can fill out an area. So as much as it sucks that Maltese is in the game but not Corsican, the best we can see is Tuscan culture replacing Sardinian due to the similarities between the dialects, of course culture isn't always tied to linguistics so I understand that it may not be the best solution.
 

Ihadabadname4

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Thank you very much. :)

However, that is precisely the reason why I make these threads: the devs have larger priorities than Corsica or Ragusa or whatever, and as such are probably not going to bother reading up on them. However, for those of us who are interested, we can spend the time reading up on it and present it to them in an easily-digestible way to ensure better accuracy while also lightening the burden of the devs and not forcing them to spend hours upon hours of research into every little OPM or area out there. So I will continue to write these so that these often-overlooked areas will at least get some consideration. ;)
Well you certainly convinced me, if I read someone saying Corsica could use special attention I'd probably mentally go "pfft", but your details really make a good case. I mean, many small countries are independent today because of unlikely historical accidents (Albania, Bosnia, Estonia etc.), why not Corsica or Basque Country?

I disagree on the current development team's take on the introduction of new cultures, but sadly Corsican will never be added. Paradox is cracking down on 2 province areas and won't add new cultures unless it can fill out an area. So as much as it sucks that Maltese is in the game but not Corsican, the best we can see is Tuscan culture replacing Sardinian due to the similarities between the dialects, of course culture isn't always tied to linguistics so I understand that it may not be the best solution.
This decision always struck as without logic. If you're going to use real culture-names and not just name them after geographical areas, at least be consistent about it. I don't think the 'gameplay' argument cuts dice.

Like Karelian/Estonian/Finnish/Sami are separate culture groups, whilst in Russia all the lesser East-Slavic cultures are pretty much made up except maybe 'Novgorodian'.

@neondt
Corsica could actually be looked at though, considering Naples and Sicily have had reworks, it seems a good time as any.
 

Mr.Grizzly

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This decision always struck as without logic. If you're going to use real culture-names and not just name them after geographical areas, at least be consistent about it. I don't think the 'gameplay' argument cuts dice.
Yeah, it just seems silly to abandon small and still existent cultures because you can't fill a state with them even though the only reason they weren't added at launch with other small ones is because the provinces were.... of a lower quality than now.