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Simple line chart of Lead paint (one 'dose' per really stupid AI research decisions) vs Time. Now I think about it you might need to switch to a Log chart as the lead paint values could get quite high.

Failing that, @stnylan's suggestion seems a good idea. ;)
 
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I would say annual, and I would suggest by using parantheses. So have the current value and the old value in parantheses It is a fairly simple way of doing it. I am sure one could do something really nifty with conditional formatting or whatnot, but I suspect the time and effort to do so would not be worth the potential reward.

That did not occur to me, and it would be rather easily done too... I'll get on that tomorrow!

Simple line chart of Lead paint (one 'dose' per really stupid AI research decisions) vs Time. Now I think about it you might need to switch to a Log chart as the lead paint values could get quite high.

Failing that, @stnylan's suggestion seems a good idea. ;)

They probably will, indeed!
 
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@stnylan has the right idea, although I'd like to offer an alternative, which is putting the change in paranthesis, ie. 7 (+2) to highlight changes from the previous report. Yearly sounds pretty good to me, as the research tends to get covered in your wordier chapters (as opposed to the charty ones). Semi-annual just sounds like a great way to drown yourself, and everyone else, in colourful yet ultimately confusing sheets, which, as much as I love data, I have to warn against as it will eventually make someone complain that they can't figure out what the hell is going on. Also, annual updates should present the big lines rather more clearly, and big lines, as every strategy player knows, are the key.
 
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V: 2. Artillery, Panzers and the Type XXI: German R&D
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PaK 38B during acceptance testing in summer 1940.
The improvements made the gun far more capable.

Heer funding priorities focused on artillery of all types throughout the year. The Heerwaffenamt’s competition for a design for a new anti-tank gun system finalized in March, resulting in the 5 cm PaK 38 ausf. B. The improvements for the gun included a longer barrel to impart more accuracy and range to the shell which was itself improved to the Panzergranate 40 tungsten-cored penetrator. Improved weapon sights gave the capability to engage targets out to over a kilometer for a well-trained crew. With the ending of this research, the artillery firms were given a charge to use that experience to improve anti-aircraft artillery. Those improvements to the guns finished in June, resulting in the less-than-stellar 5 cm FlaK 40.

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Above: A 5 cm FlaK 40. The weapon system was a
disappointment, as the system didn’t provide much of
an increase in capability but actually lowered traverse
and weight. Below: a post-war picture of the 10.5 cm
leFH 18/M.
B6qbTkO.png


Field artillery improvements focused on trying to make the 10.5 cm leFH 16/18 cannons lighter and more mobile for leg-infantry divisions while providing some improvement in capability against ground targets. Efforts included ensuring that the cannon was easier to produce in quantity. The Heer approved the final submissions in late August, by using the same carriage as the PaK 38 ausf. B, which improved rate of fire, and a slightly thicker shell casing but with a higher power explosive filler. Late in the year, research funding was secured for rocket artillery as an outgrowth of the work done in Peenemunde.


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Above: testing example of what would become the
Nebelwerfer rocket artillery system. Below: a test
example of the PzKpfw.IV before receiving the new
gun system.
nbJhj0D.png


Despite having produced the estimable PzKpfw.IIIC, there was some concern that the tank was not enough. The hull had reached the extent of room for improvement in the engine and transmission improvement and recent improvement in gun designs were making the turret increasingly tight to work around. Shells for the 5 cm cannon were largely constrained to those of the armored-piercing variety, as they did not have enough room for explosive filler for anti-infantry work. Thus, the Heer sought a new prototype: the Panzer IV. It would be armed with a 7.5 cm cannon, a larger engine and thicker armor than the Panzer III, and would better meet the vision of a single tank design to handle most--though not all--needs of the armored division. A prototype was secured from Rheinmetall in mid-September, and with slight improvements would go into production later that year. With a new Panzer and other armored vehicles under development, attention in the Heereswaffenamt included funding of prototyping new Engineer equipment. This funding started at the beginning of September and continued through mid-December.


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Infantry soldier going through training with a new
Gewehr 41A. Unlike the previous Gewehr 41, these
rifles actually won the respect from the infantry.

Infantry in the Heer, having expressed their displeasure of the Gewehr 41 and it’s awkward systems, led the Heereswaffenamt to attempt to limit the damage to morale by producing an improved version of the rifle. With friendly governments having security a few copies of the SVT-38 and the Heer recognizing its relative superiority to the G41, they sought to produce a similar rifle, issuing the directive in early June. This led to the Gewehr 41A, using a similar gas piston system, detachable box magazines (though they weren’t issued en masse), and other small improvements. Other small improvements to the infantry’s kit--sights and ammunition courtesy of improvements from field artillery, anti-tank artillery and some support weapons--also finalized by the end of September. Improvements to the kit used by the airborne forces received funding clearance at the end of December.


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German soldiers enjoying a smoke break during
the summer training drills.

Doctrine work over the year focused on improving the idea of moving reinforcements forward as part of the grand battle plan as well as increasing the pace of attacking progress at the operational level through better organization. Those doctrinal improvements were promulgated in September. Improvements to doctrine surrounding mobile units which had been started the year previously and published in late April. Doctrinal publications regarding Airborne Assault and Mechanized Offensives, also begun in 1939, were issued by July.


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9. PzD on maneuvers, 1940. Note the test vehicle
of a PzKpfw IV. Bringing all the power of a division
to the Schwerpunkt was one of the most important
developments for the Heer.

The three most important doctrinal changes for 1940--and indeed, for much of the decade--covered several diverse topics including focusing the combat power and of the Panzer-divisionen, developing a more comprehensive combined arms battle plan, and working on an increase in the number of units one division commander could lead. This work was begun by September, but only the increase in authorized TO&Es for divisions was approved before the close of the year. Alongside those developments, work for breakthrough and assault tactics started and more large-scale training exercises for the infantry began.


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Seetakt A aboard the Tirpitz in 1940.

For the Kriegsmarine’s part, the year started with production approval for the naval Seetakt A (for large vessels) and B (for smaller vessels) Radar systems. While primarily for ranging targets, secondary uses included gun laying and detection of targets and obstacles at night and in bad weather. This deployment would lead to more training on spotting, fire control systems, the radar system itself and commander decision making. This training would also highlight some of the shortcomings of the Seetakt A/B system, with submissions back to GEMA for improvements.


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Initial design plans for the Type XXI.

At the conclusion of the 1939 winter submarine cruises, improvements in their doctrine for trade interdiction finalized in late March, coupled with the ending of winter training evolutions for the u-boats. Even with the Type IXDs, Admiral Doenitz was not satisfied with the performance of the boats, and ordered another project to create the ideal submarine. This included looking at alternative hull designs, propulsion plants, improving the torpedoes, and including sensors as a primary portion of the design rather than an afterthought. The design was completed in early November, and was christened the Type XXI.


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Two options given to Raeder for the new light cruiser
design.

Admiral Raeder ordered that the cruisers conduct crew training for the spring in the North Sea and continued through the summer to October 1940. The training included extended cruises under as close to wartime conditions as possible, including several SINKEXes and working with their nascent air arm (such as it was). The Kriegsmarine discovered that their main bottleneck for their cruisers’ sortie generation was in their home bases, and funding was diverted to improve the infrastructure. A surprise air attack on a task force in the Baltic--a capstone for the Marinefliegergeschwader training--had ruled significant damage by the umpires: the vessels weren’t heavily armed enough to properly assist the battle cruisers from keeping the aircraft away, and their tactics in escorting their charges were less than ideal. These problems led to a call for an improved Stettin-class, and work began in the last quarter of 1940.


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An unfortunate failure of a rocket in 1940 soon
after launching.

The Luftwaffe--with much of their funding being diverted towards re-equipping their squadrons after the developments of the previous year--still managed to spend significant amounts of money in their research and development of rockets. Just the year previous, a low-flying rocket developed at Peenemunde had been labeled a “Marschflugkörper,” or cruise missile, but the design was relatively slow and flew low to the ground which meant it was subject to interception by high-speed aircraft. The office wanted a true ballistic missile, one that arced high into the atmosphere at extremely high speeds before falling back onto the target. This missile would be unable to be intercepted, given the level of technology thought to be in the hands of those opposing the Reich, and would carry a significantly larger payload. This round of work was finished in June.


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Wurzburg radar during fighter ground control
exercises in 1940.

Rocketry was not the only theoretical development taking place. Some funding was found for exercises for the air arm to develop how radar might influence the air war, and groundwork was laid for the future of aeronautical engineering. The Luftwaffe also contributed to the development of nuclear physics, which continued all year.


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A Luftwaffe IMINT specialist going over aerial
photos in 1940.

Despite the consolidation of all human intelligence (HUMINT) under Frick, the signal intelligence (SIGINT), communications intelligence (COMINT), and imagery intelligence (IMINT) all remained under Goering. Working together with Schacht’s deputy, Albert Speer, the Luftwaffe and intelligencia finished work on both new decryption and encryption systems for the Wehrmacht, as well as improved mechanical computing machines. They also completed improvements to the Freya Radar system at the end of March.


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A German soldier admires a farmer’s fields in
this propaganda picture.

In Speer’s--for Schacht had largely abdicated his post in all but name--department, he demanded improvements in industrial production and efficiency. His tireless efforts also included agricultural improvements as well, releasing more men for the future war effort. Experience with the logistical tail also led to further improvements in their transportation, though improvements in the organization of supply would only finish the following year.

*****
Author's Note: I'll be working on the tech stuff in the background and I'll make a post to get you all to go look at it. If this post was too long, I apologize; I figure I'd get back to bigger and unified posts rather than waste too much time on these sorts of side shows. We are getting closer to the main event though! Next is Italy's turn, followed by the military expansion posts, then on to 1941!
 
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Very authoritative - the best rationalisation of game advances into real world prose I’ve seen, with (for those with some background in it) very authentic sounding descriptions and using all the authentic modern terms.
 
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Thinking of the radar ... have you ever read a book called Most Secret War by R V Jones?
 
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Very authoritative - the best rationalisation of game advances into real world prose I’ve seen, with (for those with some background in it) very authentic sounding descriptions and using all the authentic modern terms.

It's a bit anachronistic I admit, but I want the research to actually sound reasonable and connected with real world experience.

Thinking of the radar ... have you ever read a book called Most Secret War by R V Jones?

I've not. I did read about KG200 though. I'm working my way through Panzer Warfare on the Eastern Front, which is amazing. I wish I had read it before I worked on this, it would have made a few different choices.
 
The Luftwaffe-- --still managed to spend significant amounts of money

No surprises there....

G41A, finally a (relatively) good fucking rifle. No more stripper clips (if they only would produce enough of those damn magazines). Lots of important doctrinal work - Wehrmacht expansion coming up to bring frontline units to the new maximum strength? Updates to the Stettin-class are all good and well, but I have some serious doubts about whether they will ultimately arrive early enough to have an impact that is greater than could have been achieved by allocating those development and production resources elsewhere.

An excellent update, I must say. Exemplary performance in covering up the game's, ahem, patchy tech system, while maintaining rationality and common sense, and you blend the game's projects into your writing so seamlessly I sometimes have to re-read a sentence a couple of times before I realize what tech you were talking about - it makes sense, and I'm not used to that with Paradox research topics incorporated in writing. I must offer some critique on your failure to follow the German ways, however; nothing so far has seemed over-engineered enough that it looks great on paper yet breaks apart spectacularly once exposed to the world outside of the factory. I hope there is something grandiose planned, the absurdness of a Maus project would do some good for the German high command, for example. Right now, they seem entirely too serious - they could end up winning the war at this rate!
 
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Thinking of the radar ... have you ever read a book called Most Secret War by R V Jones?
I have read that book and it contains some German engineers and military leaders who are not utterly perfect, some of them even make mistakes!

It has no place here, never speak of it again! ( ;) )
 
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I've not. I did read about KG200 though. I'm working my way through Panzer Warfare on the Eastern Front, which is amazing. I wish I had read it before I worked on this, it would have made a few different choices.
You really should try to get hold of a copy of Most Secret War. One of the most peculiarly informative books about the UK-British aspect of the war I have ever read.

I am sure even @El Pip would agree with me on that, even if he disputes its place in this thread :D
 
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I want waaaaar!
 
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and still the polish corridor issue remains, gotta be a bit of an embarrassment for the NSDAP?
 
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No surprises there....

G41A, finally a (relatively) good fucking rifle. No more stripper clips (if they only would produce enough of those damn magazines). Lots of important doctrinal work - Wehrmacht expansion coming up to bring frontline units to the new maximum strength? Updates to the Stettin-class are all good and well, but I have some serious doubts about whether they will ultimately arrive early enough to have an impact that is greater than could have been achieved by allocating those development and production resources elsewhere.

An excellent update, I must say. Exemplary performance in covering up the game's, ahem, patchy tech system, while maintaining rationality and common sense, and you blend the game's projects into your writing so seamlessly I sometimes have to re-read a sentence a couple of times before I realize what tech you were talking about - it makes sense, and I'm not used to that with Paradox research topics incorporated in writing. I must offer some critique on your failure to follow the German ways, however; nothing so far has seemed over-engineered enough that it looks great on paper yet breaks apart spectacularly once exposed to the world outside of the factory. I hope there is something grandiose planned, the absurdness of a Maus project would do some good for the German high command, for example. Right now, they seem entirely too serious - they could end up winning the war at this rate!

Indeed. A quick determination of who is actually being pictured will be "Do they have a Gewehr 43? No? Rear echelon/Not Infantry!" Actually, there wasn't much of a push to bring more brigades into the combat command of the divisions, not at first, anyways. This changes after Poland, however, so we'll see how that goes. As for the over-engineered prizes: there is a bit of it from those Rockets... lots of problems there. The unfortunate thing is that there's no mechanic that might cause something like the problems with the Panthers and Tigers... don't worry though. There are more than a few reversals for the Germans...

I have read that book and it contains some German engineers and military leaders who are not utterly perfect, some of them even make mistakes!

It has no place here, never speak of it again! ( ;) )

There are mistakes being made... just think of all the research that's going into these newfangled rockets and nuclear weapons! Surely that could have been better to fund officer and NCO education (hint hint... at one point my ratio was down to something like 120% with more units on the way... :eek::mad::confused:)

You really should try to get hold of a copy of Most Secret War. One of the most peculiarly informative books about the UK-British aspect of the war I have ever read.

I am sure even @El Pip would agree with me on that, even if he disputes its place in this thread :D

I'll look out for it and put it on my Amazon wish list shortly!

I want waaaaar!

So dooo Iiiiiii! But they're pulling out all of the maskiro--I mean, Verkleidung--that they can! Basically, think of it this way: after the crap that Germany got for the "War Guilt" clause in the Versailles treaty, they want everyone to feel like it's the British causing this war. Even if that's not how it falls out.

and still the polish corridor issue remains, gotta be a bit of an embarrassment for the NSDAP?

They're still involved in the "negotiations" around trying to "resolve the issue peacefully". Of course, this causes problems within the countries themselves, and their stances are not engendering any trust amongst the other powers. France is especially incensed by the actions that the British have taken... and with their NU in the toilet and circling, it's basically the Yellow Jacket protests in Paris to untie themselves from London.
 
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V: 3. But What About the Regia Aeronautica?: Italian Research and Development
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Bersaglieri mortars during training in Libya.

With the encouragement of their German allies and attaches, the Regio Esercito spent most of the year attempting to improve the centerpiece of their forces: the infantry. By late March, the supreme command had approved a release of centralizing planning to inculcate aggressiveness even when on the defensive through encouraging the counterattack as soon as possible in the battle. On the same day, the work that had gone into improving the specialized forces (Mountain, Alpini and Paratroops) was published. Funding then turned to speeding the pace of offensive momentum--it always stuck in the German attaches’ craw about the pace of some attacks during their training--as well as improving reinforcement within the grand plan of battle; this work was concluded by September.


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Bersaglieri troops conducting a “fun” run in
dress uniform, 1940.

With the conclusion of the Spring maneuvers, a survey of the Regio Esercito in June revealed that morale in the infantry had improved: nothing like training increased morale. Late July saw the publication of the first doctrinal manual for the employment of Airborne forces, which remained the premier force in the Italian Army: only one out of every fifteen soldiers who applied made it through the grueling training and only two out of every thirty-one officers made the cut on average. The final doctrinal work for the Esercito on the year encouraged the development of the operational-level command, but with only a minor amount of funding left, this work was not completed in 1940.


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The M13/40 was the Italian “improvement” to their
Panzer II.L-ITs.

Turning to equipment, Italian experience in constructing the Panzer II.L-ITs encouraged some indigenous improvements. An improved version of the engine design was finalized in early June, while a new armor scheme received approval a few weeks later. Work also finished on transferring the autocannons and armor which would no longer be fitted to the old Panzer IIs to the light armored reconnaissance vehicles or “armored cars” in Italian parlance; that plan received final approval in late August.


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Italian infantry with the new submachine gun,
Beretta MAB38/40. The ammunition pouches
were to serve as a kind of body armor, but
most infantrymen were wary of such an arrangement.

Improvement of the armored forces also encouraged a rethinking of the infantryman’s kit. A new submachine gun, new attempts at improving the perennially bad machine guns, better light artillery and mortar systems and a new anti-tank mine all received funding approval by mid-July, and the systems were finalized in late September. With that, the Esercito expended all of its research and development funding.


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Giulio Cesare during fitting of the Radar system.
The Regia Marina received the bulk of the research and development budget for the year. Their equipment budget realized the first models of radar for their battleships and heavy cruisers at the end of January; improvements from that deployment led to an improved model being demanded in September. A smaller version--despite the work that had already been done on the destroyers of the Marina--would not enter development until the end of September.


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The latest design in Italian destroyers. Note the
heavy gun armament but also the significant
torpedo and anti-aircraft loadout.

With the majority of the Italian destroyer fleet entering the end of useful hull life, yet more development went into another generation of destroyers beginning in July. While Italian destroyer designs were approaching the most advanced in the world, the Germans of all nations were encouraging their erstwhile allies to continue their development in the hopes of procuring some of their designs as repayment for the amount of direction and assistance received from Berlin. However, when the designs were finalized in November, none of the promised orders came.


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One of the designs for the Regia Marina’s new
Battleships. The layout of the AA guns would be
more in line with those of the
Littorios.
It did not stop the Italians, who decided that they absolutely needed to fully replace their pre-First World War battlewagons. Design firms were contracted in early September, and designs were submitted by the end of the year. Overall, the designs were merely improvements to the Littorio-class battleships: better main gun barrels to minimize the wear from the previous four, a doubling of the AA-gun armament (which only turned the single barrel 90mm turrets into double turrets), improvements to the engines (helping the ship actually hit it’s designed speed) and a more rational armor scheme (directed more towards plunging fire versus belt armor). These vessels, however, did not go into immediate production, though two were ordered.


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Giulio Cesare during the battlefleet maneuvers
of 1940. Her sister ship,
Conte di Cavour, sails
aft.

The training budget for the Regia Marina included work for the destroyer crews and a massive demonstration of all four Littorios in a battle scenario. This scenario was also tied in with work for the destroyers in a reconnaissance roll to spot the enemy and relay it to the big guns, and also in working on escorting those vessels. The Supramarina also directed funds to actually train their Radar operators on the vessels that would receive them. The year’s development work also published the review of Italian naval bases on 4 September, and identified significant efficiencies that could be developed.


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An army base near Tobruk, Libya in 1940.
Organizing these areas to ensure the proper
deployment of logistics occupied much of
the R&D budget in that year.

In the civilian-side of the defense realm, a new mechanical computing machine design from Olivetti, SpA, received final approval for production on 24 July. With the new machine, more analytical inspection of Industrial Production, logistical organization, transportation and production, as well as work on a new Radar system and in the realm of Industrial efficiency and Agriculture all began in 1940. While the work would continue through the end of the year, better production methods did manage to realize some return on the investment. The most important work for the mechanical computing machine and its’ inventor was the funding of an electronic computing machine; indeed, not even the Germans with their massive egos had even begun such research.


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Only tactical bombers received any training
funds during 1940, and those funds ended
in July.

To answer the chapter name’s question, however, the Regia Aeronautica simply had much of their budget tied into a similar area of focus: the procurement of new airframes and improvements to their aircraft. With the end of the tactical bomber exercises in July, and their improvements to both air and ground crew ability and morale, no further exercises to train on the Aeronautica’s new aircraft received funding.

*****
Author's Note: I apologize about the double post, but wanted to get this done while I had the momentum going! Just an aside, but how come not one person commented about the Vicky 3 joke? :(o_O
 
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I loved the title of this post. It just worked very well.
 
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Every time I am reminded Vicky 3 still doesn't exist, a piece of my soul dies. I do my best to forget and miss all references to it to dull my pain.

That new Italian light tank reminds me of the Pz.35(t) and Pz.38(t). The infantry picture in particular is very nice. Always great to see more Italian equipment, although that invariably sends me to read up on it, and suddenly I have jumped an hour or three forward in time.
 
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I loved the title of this post. It just worked very well.

Thank you! I was running out of good title material, but when I color coded the research stuff, I noted only the two doctrines for the air force, which just screamed "What about the air forces!?!"

Every time I am reminded Vicky 3 still doesn't exist, a piece of my soul dies. I do my best to forget and miss all references to it to dull my pain.

That new Italian light tank reminds me of the Pz.35(t) and Pz.38(t). The infantry picture in particular is very nice. Always great to see more Italian equipment, although that invariably sends me to read up on it, and suddenly I have jumped an hour or three forward in time.

Perhaps they'll do V3 after Imperator? Seems like a reasonable request, and the foundation for Imperator strikes me as a suitable one for V3 (I don't know if you've been following their DDs, but having read them myself I think that's what I get from them).

Yes, my retcon is that they bolted the extra armor onto the chassis of the Pz.IIs, before changing the turrets as well and upgrading the engines. I know the feeling about getting sucked into reading about some things like that... when I was doing the German write up I swear I lost an hour getting the pictures done.
 
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These so-called Italian's continue to utterly disgust me. Actually trying to fix the Breda 30, the most Italian of all weapons. A machine gun that combined inaccuracy, unreliability and a slow rate fire into one horrific package and then made it even worse by occasionally catastrophically exploding in the gunners face.

As for the rest, wasting precious fuel on actually training the Navy.... Sickening. I'm not even going to think about those tanks either. ( ;) :D )
 
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Italian industry and armed forces are not up to the task... Maybe in 1943 as ITL... at least decent weapons and equipment... but no IC to actually build it
 
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These so-called Italian's continue to utterly disgust me. Actually trying to fix the Breda 30, the most Italian of all weapons. A machine gun that combined inaccuracy, unreliability and a slow rate fire into one horrific package and then made it even worse by occasionally catastrophically exploding in the gunners face.

As for the rest, wasting precious fuel on actually training the Navy.... Sickening. I'm not even going to think about those tanks either. ( ;) :D )

I know, the Italians and British must have swapped their admiralty and generals... to a point. Were I to run this again, I'd have a bit of a house rule as to whether some of my planned improvements would go through. Especially for Germany and Italy.

Italian industry and armed forces are not up to the task... Maybe in 1943 as ITL... at least decent weapons and equipment... but no IC to actually build it

Not really. Something that I don't mention much of--because I rather ignorantly removed from my files--are the funding priorities. There's massive expansion going on in Italy regarding making North and East Africa able to support the forces that are going to be deployed there. So much of the Italian IC is dedicated to infrastructure, port expansion and building airfields. So, there's even less IC available than before... perhaps @El Pip can get behind that... ;)

I also have that happening to a lesser degree in Germany. Germany has to improve Austria, Memel and Bohemia and needs airfields on the border as well as improving some of the ports around and deploy all of this fancy Radar that they want to have... that's quite a few projects that Speer needs to balance.

I'm about to post the last 1940 update, and then work on advancing the timeline (ie, play the game some!).
 
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