Croatia Under the Hungarian Crown: Flavour for Croatia-Slavonia

Croatia Under the Hungarian Crown: Flavour for Croatia-Slavonia

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    Real Strategy Requires Cunning

Sanguine Caesar

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Introduction:

Hello there! Following the success of my previous thread about Ragusa and Dalmatia, I would like to present this new thread of suggestions for the rest of the Croatian Lands in 1444. The area’s history during the EUIV time period was very turbulent, and many key events in the Habsburg campaigns against the Ottomans occurred in this region. Therefore, this thread will be covering many new flavour aspects which I believe would provide a more accurate representation of Croatia in EUIV, which will be further broken down into the following topics:

  1. Historical Maps
  2. The Kingdom of Slavonia
  3. The Kingdom of Croatia
  4. Relations with Hungary
  5. Events
  6. Missions and Decisions
  7. Miscellaneous

As always, all sources used in the researching of this thread will be listed at the end. I've also provided the opera Nikola Šubić Zrinski by Ivan Zajc, a Croatian composer of the Romantic period, to make things less stale as this thread is quite long. Enjoy!


1. Historical Maps

The following maps are included for reference purposes:


Map of Royal Counties of Croatia as Part of Austria-Hungary


Relief Map of Modern Croatia


Map of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia


Map of Croatia after the Fall of Serbia and Bosnia, 1469


Map of Croatia Under Ottoman Occupation, 1606

2. The Kingdom of Slavonia

Painting of the old castle of Varaždin

To start with, the area known today as Croatia was not formally united in 1444. At that time, the Croatian lands were split among various regional powers, including the Habsburgs, the Venetians, Ragusans, and most of all the Hungarians. Even within those parts of Croatia under Hungarian rule, the populace was divided into two separate entities: the Kingdom of Croatia in the southwest (commonly refered to as “Croatia Proper”), and the Kingdom of Slavonia in the northeast.

Therefore for the sake of convenience I have chosen to tackle each Kingdom separately in this thread, starting with Slavonia.

The origins of Slavonia lie far before the beginning of the EUIV timeframe, but it began as a separate Slavic state lying between the Sava, Drava, Danube, and Sutla rivers on the incredibly fertile Pannonian Plain. This state would be annexed by the Croatian King Tomislav in 925, and afterwards would become assimilated into Croatian ethnic territory. However, for much of history the Slavonians would remain largely separated from other Croats, with the region’s history largely involving repeated separations and unifications with the Kingdom of Croatia.

The first of these separations would occur in 1027, when the territory accepted Hungarian suzerainty and would not be reunited with Croatia again until the 1070s, when the local Svetoslavić Dynasty rose to the Croatian throne. Further separation would occur in 1091, when Slavonia elected the King of Hungary as their sovereign: 11 years before Croatia would do the same. As such, the two would each retain a separate sabor (diet) and a separate ban (viceroy). The heir apparent to the Hungarian throne was even given the title of "Duke of [all] Slavonia", similar to how the current heir to the British throne is the Prince of Whales.

Under Hungary, the Kingdom of Slavonia experienced many significant demographic changes at several different levels of society. The King granted settlement rights to Germans and other Central Europeans in Slavonia via several Golden Bulls in an attempt to attract foreign intellectuals to his realm. These communes of Gosti (Hospites) were areas of great economic freedom and fell directly under the King’s authority rather than that of local lords. Threatened with enserfment should they cause too much trouble, the Hospites would go on to make several contributions to the area’s economy. Another such demographic change occurred in the nobility, which by 1444 had become incredibly Magyarised in contrast to the nobility of the Kingdom of Croatia. Furthermore, following the fall of the Serbian Despotate, yet another demographic shift would occur in Slavonia, affecting every strata of society as many Serbian refugees would settle the region, with many establishing settlements, particularly in the Srijem (Szerém), Vitrovitica (Verőcze), and Požega (Pozsega) counties.

In 1476, Slavonia would be reunited politically and administratively with Croatia, and Matthias Corvinus would go on to construct a sophisticated system of fortifications in the two newly-reunited territories. Following the Cetin Election in 1527 Croatia-Slavonia would become a Habsburg domain, and although the Austrians would go on to eventually separate the two again until the Croatian-Hungarian compromise of 1867, the first joint sabor of the nobility of Croatia and Slavonia would be held in 1558. In the following centuries, Slavonia would experience multiple Ottoman incursions and occupations, with the southern portion of the territory eventually constituting a large part of the Habsburg Military Frontier, which fell under direct administration from Vienna, which would last the rest of the EUIV timeframe.

Now with the historical overview covered, let’s move on to my suggested changes for the Slavonia in-game, shall we?

1. Separate "Slavonia" State
As was hopefully made clear by my little treatise on the history of the Slavonia region both during and proceeding the timeframe of EUIV, I believe it should be represented as a state separate from the existing Croatia state in-game. As all states require a minimum of three provinces, such a state would contain the provinces of Syrmia, Slavonia, and Varasd (which was historically sometimes included as part of the region). The reasoning for this change would be as follows:
  • Slavonia and Croatia remained separate administrative entities for most of the EUIV timeframe
  • Within the timeframe, Croatia and Slavonia were only united for 51 years; from 1476 to 1527
  • The local dialect of Slavonia was Shtokavian, as opposed to the Kajkavian dialect which was dominant in Croatia-proper at the time, suggesting greater ethnic diversity as Serbs also spoke the Shtokavian dialect
  • Slavonia was historically more closely-integrated into Hungary than Croatia Proper
  • It allows for the potential of adding 2 more provinces to the region if desired
For said reasons, I find the addition of a Slavonia state to certainly be at least justifiable if not necessary for accurate representation of the region.

2. Releasable Slavonia Tag
Another addition I feel would be the addition of a separate tag for Slavonia, which would have Croatian as its primary culture, and cores on the provinces of Syrmia and Slavonia. The justification for this would be much like the previous point, although I would like to direct further attention towards the following:
  • Slavonia existed as a separate political entity for a majority of the game’s timeframe, and for a long time before then
  • The Hungarian heir was often granted the title “Duke of [all] Slavonia”
  • Slavonia was ruled by a separate ban and had its own sabor
Therefore, a separate tag for Slavonia to me seems far from unreasonable.

3. Unique Provincial Modifiers
This is related to an old thread of mine, but I would recommend that the provinces of Slavonia and Syrmia be given a modifier to represent the Gosti (Hospites) who had established multiple communes in the region under the direct authority of the Crown. The modifier would entail a boost to Local Manpower and Local Production Efficiency, as well as making it impossible to convert the culture of the province. The reasoning for this would be as follows:
  • Slavonia had a uniquely large amount of Hospite communes within their borders
  • Hospites had been invited to settle from Italy and Germany to improve local architecture and engineering, as well as craftsmanship
  • Hospite communes fell under direct authority under the King of Hungary and enjoyed his protection
  • Should Croatia be given a PU with Hungary, Croatian would no longer be an accepted culture in Hungary, and such a modifier would help to prevent it from being ahistorically quickly Magyarised, alongside Serbian in Syrmia
Should such changes be implemented, I feel that it would offer a better portrayal of the Kingdom of Slavonia as part of Hungary.

3. The Kingdom of Croatia

Painting of Petar Zrinski (one of the leaders of the Magnate Conspiracy) and his wife Ana Katarina Zrinska

And now in these next two sections we move on to the main focus of this thread: my “Magnum Opus of the Balkans”, if you will. Croatia, while being very much overshadowed by its stronger neighbours in Austria, Hungary, The Ottomans, and Venice, still remains a rather interesting place during the time of EUIV, with a very dramatic and turbulent history of its own. This in turn makes for several opportunities for content, as I will now go on to elaborate further.

The Kingdom of Croatia at this time mostly refers to the area commonly known as "Croatia Proper". Founded in the 10th Century under King Tomislav I of the House of Trpimirović, the realm would continue to grow in size and influence until reaching its pique in the following century under his successors; uniting Pannonian and Dalmatian territories into a single Croatian state. Even Bosnia originally began as a Croatian Banate, with King Tvrtko I of Bosnia also claiming the crowns of Croatia and Dalmatia. By the 12th Century however, the last native Croatian King died without an heir, and his marriage to a Hungarian princess resulted in a personal union being established between the two thrones with the Pacta Conventa of 1102.

Under the Hungarians, Croatia was administered by a Ban (viceroy) in lieu of the King. The different Bans ruled with varying degrees of authority, but the “Croatian right to statehood” was nonetheless maintained through the separate institutions which existed between Hungary and Croatia. The Croatian nobility would remain separate (though there was a lot of intermarriage between themselves and the Hungarian nobility), and the country maintained its own diet or Sabor, which was responsible for administering the realm. Despite many attempts by the Hungarians to further integrate the two states, this was countered by Croatian delegations citing the Pacta Conventa, saying “regnum regno non praescribit leges” (or “one kingdom does not prescribe laws for the other”).

Croatia inevitably found itself caught in the crossfire of the multiple Hungarian succession crises of the late 14th and 15th Centuries, during which the Croatian possessions in Dalmatia were sold to Venice in 1420. Eventually though, the Croats would come to accept the House of Hunyadi as monarchs as had the rest of the Hungarian Kingdom, and under the reign of Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490), a sophisticated system of fortifications was built along the border with Ottoman-controlled regions of Bosnia and Serbia. The Turkish invasions also created large waves of Serbian refugees which would come to settle in Slavonia and other portions of the Croatian frontier.

Many pivotal battles against the Ottomans were fought in Croatia during the 15th and 16th Centuries, with notable examples being the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493 (which resulted in the “creme of the Croatian nobility” being killed, becoming one of the factors leading to the decline of local nobles as many had been slain in the battle), the Siege of Szigetvár in 1566 (when combined Hungarian and Croatian forces under the command of Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski led a legendary cavalry charge in a fateful last stand which resulted in the death of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent), and the Battle of Sisak in 1593 (in which Croatian forces halted the Ottoman advance into Croat lands and prevented them from besieging Zagreb). Croatia would continue to maintain a strong military, with Croatian irregulars introducing the kravat (necktie) to Central and Western Europe while fighting as part of the Thirty Years’ War, having gained a reputation as feared and brutally effective warriors.

Like their Hungarian overlords however, the Croats would eventually find themselves under Habsburg Control. With the Cetin Election of 1527, the combined sabor of Croatia and Slavonia elected the Habsburgs to the Croatian throne independent of the Hungarian diet, thus beginning nearly 400 years of Habsburg rule over the country. In 1558, Croatia and Slavonia were united once more into a single Kingdom, until the region was later split up once again between the Banates of Croatia and Slavonia, and the area which would become known as the Habsburg Military Frontier along the border with the Turks. Repeated attempts were made by the Habsburgs to establish more centralised, absolutist rule in the region in the 17th Century, however the local nobility in the sabor continually blocked such attempts to do so. Many revolts would also result from this, with Croats, Slovenes, and other local ethnic groups rising up against Austrian encroachments.

This would culminate in the largest Croatian uprisings against foreign domination until the Revolutions of 1848: the Magnate Conspiracy of 1671 and the ensuing Croatian Peasant Revolt. With large portions of both Croatian and Hungarian territories still under Ottoman control, tensions arose between the local nobility and the Habsburgs as it was felt that Vienna had abandoned their Turkish-ruled compatriots. This prompted several distinguished members of the Croatian nobility, alongside some from the Hungarian, to dethrone the Habsburgs in their respective Kingdoms.

This conspiracy was led by the Croatian noblemen Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan; leading members of the two most powerful and prestigious Croatian noble houses, which had each provided several Bans throughout history. Joined by the Hungarian nobleman Ferenc Wesselényi, these Magnates conspired to organise a coup d’état which would see the Crown of Hungary-Croatia granted to a new monarch who would fight to liberate Croatian and Hungarian lands held by the Ottomans. Offering the Crown to multiple European rulers, the conspirators first approached Louis XIV of France, then the King of Poland, then the Venetian Doge, and even at one point the Ottoman Sultan. Yet despite their repeated attempts, none accepted the throne and forced the conspiring nobles to pursue more desperate measures in order to remove the Habsburgs, which would result in the failed Croatian Peasants’ Revolt in 1671.

With the conspirators arrested in Vienna, and executed in Wiener Neustadt on April 30th, 1671, the Zrinski and Frankopan families, which until then had been the most powerful of the Croatian nobility, would die out with the Croats’ autonomy. The Austrians used the plot to justify a power-grab in Croatian and Hungarian lands, and would rule with increasingly absolutist authority in the region. Under the reign of Maria Theresa, Jews were banned from settling in Croatia-Slavonia in a 1729 edict, however the Empress would found the Royal Academy of Zagreb - ostensibly out of gratitude for the Sabor’s recognition of the Divine Sanction by which she inherited the throne. The Ottomans would remain a threat, and as such the Croatian capital would be moved from Zagreb to Varaždin from 1756 until the latter city suffered a major fire in 1776, after which it was returned to the former.

Save for a short period of time in which Croatian territories south of the Sava river were annexed to France by Napoleon I as part of the Illyrian Provinces, Croatia would remain under Habsburg control for the entirety of the game’s timeline. Despite the significant events in Croatian history which occurred after 1821, they are well beyond the scope of this suggestion and the game as a whole.

Now with all that finally out of the way, allow me to offer my suggestions for the region of Croatia Proper in EUIV.

1. Redrawing the Croatian Map and Splitting Lika

Ignore the red and white provinces. Something for Part 3 of the Illyrian Trilogy ;)

1. Varaždin
Owner: Croatia
Foreign Cores: N/A
Development: 3/3/3
Culture: Croatian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Wine
Terrain: Farmlands

2. Slavonia
Owner: Hungary
Foreign Cores: Croatia, Slavonia
Development: 2/3/3
Culture: Croatian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Grain
Terrain: Farmlands

3. Syrmia
Owner: Hungary
Foreign Cores: Croatia, Slavonia, Serbia
Development: 2/2/2
Culture: Serbian
Religion: Orthodox
Trade Good: Livestock
Terrain: Farmlands

4. Zagreb
Owner: Croatia
Foreign Cores: N/A
Development: 4/3/3
Culture: Croatian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Cloth
Terrain: Hills

5. Primorje
Owner: Croatia
Foreign Cores: N/A
Development: 2/2/3
Culture: Croatian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Livestock
Terrain: Mountains

6. Lika
Owner: Croatia
Foreign Cores: N/A
Development: 3/3/2
Culture: Croatian
Religion: Catholic
Trade Good: Naval Supplies
Terrain: Grasslands

In general, Croatian provinces could do with a bit of a facelift, as their shape is wildly different from the historical borders of the region. Furthermore, I would advocate for the addition of a single new province: that of Primorje, which would be split from the existing province of Lika.

The reasoning behind such a split would be as follows:
  • Primorje was ruled as its own county, known as Modrus-Fiume, while Lika formed the separate Lika-Krbava county
  • Boosting Croatia’s development and force limit through the addition of a new province (and giving a bit more to its existing provinces) would leave it in a less precarious position starting under a PU as well as stand in the way of Ottoman blobbing
  • The House of Frankopan (one of the most powerful in the country) held a great deal of influence over the area of Primorje and the neighbouring island of Krk in particular
For said reasons, I feel the map of Croatia could certainly be fixed up nicely, without having to change too much.

2. Reshuffling the Croatia State
With the Creation of the new Slavonia state in the previous section, the existing state of Croatia should be redrawn to represent the historical territory of “Croatia Proper”, which would include the in-game provinces of Zagreb, Lika, and the previously-mentioned addition of Primorje. The province of Donji Kraji could be included in either Croatia or Bosnia, it doesn’t really matter to me which as either work fine. Now, my reason for moving Lika and Primorje from the Eastern Adriatic to Croatia would be as follows:
  • This section of the coast was always under Croatian/Hungarian/Habsburg control throughout the timeline
  • Croatia would otherwise have to pay maintenance for 3 states at the game’s start
All this considered, I think said reshuffling would be a reasonable addition if the state of Slavonia were to be added as suggested here.

3. A Fort in Varaždin
I believe the historic city of Varaždin should get some treatment in any rework of Croatia, and that it should be given a fort for the following reasons:
  • The city was one of the historic Croatian capitals
  • The city was based around a central fortress, following the design philosophy of a Wasserburg
  • The reign of Matthias Corvinus would see many forts spring up across Croatia and Hungary
For these reasons, a fort in Varaždin would be in my opinion a sensible addition to the area.

4. Move the Centre of Trade from Lika to Zagreb
I assume the current setup in which Lika has a Centre of Trade must be to represent the city of Rijeka/Fiume. Whilst that city was indeed very important as a trading port, it was in fact under Habsburg control in 1444 and did not form part of Hungary-Croatia (a point which I will elaborate on in a future Slovenia/Austrian Littoral thread).

However, despite being in a state of relative decline, Zagreb would serve better to have a Centre of Trade for the following reasons:
  • Rijeka was not under Croatian-Hungarian sovereignty in 1444
  • Zagreb held an important position on the Sava river as a way-point for trade between the coast and the interior
  • Zagreb was always the economic heart of Croatia (outside of Dalmatia of course)
For these reasons, I believe moving said Centre of Trade would be a simple, sensible addition to Croatia.

There may appear to be a small amount of suggestions considering the importance I have put on this part of the thread, but this is because the majority of changes in this thread have to do with events and Croatia’s relationship with Hungary. So I promise you, all this Croatian history will not have been recited in vain ;)

4. Relations with Hungary

The Hungarian Árpád (Arpadović) Dynasty Receiving the Croatian Crown

Ah yes, the inevitable Croatian PU plea. If you’ve seen any of my other posts on these forums that deal with the subject, you’ll know my position on this already, but here I would like to offer my arguments in favour of such a proposition, as I believe the main reason why it is not seriously considered is mostly due to poor argumentation in the past. However, in my research I have found many factors which point to a PU as being the preferable option for representing this historical relationship between Croatia and Hungary.

Associations between Croatia and their Hungarian neighbours began early in the nation's’ existence, with many Magyar princesses being married to Croatian kings of the native Trpimirović Dynasty. This would later prove to be quite the fateful relationship, as once the Trpimirovići died out in the 11th Century, the marriage of Hungarian-born Jelena as consort to King Demetrius Zvonimir (the second-last Trpimirović King), was used by the Árpáds as justification to claim the Croatian throne. This would be opposed by the pretender Petar Svačić, who would continue to contest the Hungarian claim until his death at the Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097.

The union between the two crowns would be formally established in 1102 with the signing of the Pacta Conventa, and the crowning of King Coloman I of Hungary as King of Croatia. The document, which was ratified by both the Hungarian diet and Croatian Sabor, firmly established the paradigm between the two countries, and had many provisions which reaffirm the separate nature of the two Kingdoms and their institutions. One of the most glaring such example was a provision which stated “regnum regno non praescribit leges” (“one kingdom does not prescribe laws for the other”) which would come to be widely-cited by the Croatian nobility when they felt the Hungarians were encroaching on the “Croatian right to statehood”.

This right was another of many enshrined in the Pacta Conventa, and was among the most crucial in the eyes of the Croatian nobility. Also agreed upon was the preservation of the Sabor, which was to remain an independent body from the Hungarian diet, and which the King would be mandated to call at least once annually. Also, Croatian administrative divisions based on traditional tribal territories (županije) were left intact, and remained separate from those in Hungary, and Croatian officials held veto power over the Hungarian ones.

Rulership of Croatia would be overseen by a Ban, who would rule over Croatia as viceroy in the King’s name. Many important figures in the Croatian nobility would come to hold this office, which entailed varying degrees of authority over the course of its existence. Over the years, there would be several Bans whose authority directly challenged that of the King, with some such as Pavao Šubić Bribirski ruling in a hereditary fashion. Several Bans would also oversee the passage of Golden Bulls pushed for by the nobility in the Sabor, which would further erode the King’s authority over Croatia.

Though there would be intermarriage between many members of the Croatian and Hungarian nobility, this did not prevent the Croats from fighting to maintain their autonomy and their cherished “right to statehood”. As such, the Sabor would utilise its veto power on multiple occasions, and there would be many attempts by the Hungarians to merge the body with the diet in Pest and thus remove said power. With the Sabor retaining its independence however, it was left to it to decide who should be granted the Croatian crown in times when Hungary was engaged in succession crises; such as the beginning of the EUIV timeline.

This right to elect the Croatian King would be exercised on occasions such as the Cetin Election in 1527, during which the Sabor independently elected Ferdinand I von Habsburg as King of Croatia, whilst Hungary was split between rival factions supporting either the Habsburgs or János Zápolya in Transylvania. Croatia would then lose much of its autonomy under the Habsburgs, but would not truly integrate the country until the failure of the previously-mentioned Magnate Conspiracy in 1671. Some semblance of this previous status would not return until the Croatian-Hungarian compromise of 1868 which granted special rights to Croatia within the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, but that is beyond the scope of this thread.

Now then - assuming you haven’t fallen asleep yet - seeing a request to do something about the Croatian PU is certainly something I’m sure you have seen many times before, and by now I would assume you are likely justifiably tired of it at this point. But allow me to make my point as to what I believe should be done in terms of mechanics which could really represent this relationship in the best way possible, without having to introduce a mechanic that applies only to one Balkan country.

1. Croatian Personal Union Under Hungary
This one is kind of necessary, and as such requires no introduction. I believe Croatia should start off on the 1444 map and should be in a Personal Union under Hungary. My reasons for doing so would be the following:
  • The Pacta Conventa which established the personal union in 1102 reaffirmed Croatian statehood and guaranteed an equal footing with Hungary
  • A Ban was appointed by the Hungarian Kings to serve as their viceroy in Croatia
  • Croatian administrative and territorial divisions remained distinct from those of Hungary
  • The King's direct power over Croatia had been very much degraded by 1444 due to several Golden Bulls pushed for by the Croatian nobility
  • The King was required to convene a Croatian diet (Sabor) separate from the Hungarian one, in which the Croatian lower nobility would determine local policy
  • Croatian Bans ruled with increasing authority, to the point where some ignored the King’s authority altogether (i.e Pavao Šubić who became a hereditary Ban in the 14th Century)
  • After the death of the last King Louis II in the 16th Century, the Croatian Sabor appointed the Habsburgs as Kings of Croatia-Slavonia independently from Hungary as through the Election in Cetin
  • Croatian nobles countered the Hungarian diet's attempt at increased centralisation with the statement "regnum regno non praescribit leges" ("one kingdom does not prescribe laws for the other")
  • Hungary at the time was involved in several succession crises, during which time the Croats could have potentially elected a separate King
For these reasons, I believe the best representation of the dynamic between Hungary and Croatia (excluding Slavonia, which will be my next point) would be to have a Personal Union exist between the two in 1444.

2. Slavonia Integrated as Part of Hungary
Here is where I feel my suggestion might differ from others which call for a Croatian PU. Slavonia (the provinces of Slavonia and Syrmia in-game) should remain integrated as part of Hungary, as I alluded to in the Slavonia section of this thread. My reasons for such a position would be as follows:
  • Hospites (foreign settlers from Italy and Germany) were awarded free communes through royal charters, particularly in Slavonia, which were under the direct authority of the Hungarian King
  • Much of Slavonia was directly controlled/influenced by the Hungarian nobility rather than the native Croatian nobility
  • The Hungarian heirs commonly claimed the title Duke of Slavonia
  • Slavonia and Croatia remained separate administrative entities for most of the EUIV timeframe
For these reasons, I believe Slavonia should be made a part of Hungary rather than Croatia in the 1444 start date.

3. Changes to Liberty Desire for PU Partners
Now this would be a more global change to mechanics that would affect more than just Hungary-Croatia: in fact it could have direct effects on other tags such as Burgundy, Austria, and Castille, and could help to make Regency Councils a bit more interesting despite still not being able to declare offensive wars.

Liberty Desire is a thorn in the side of anyone familiar with playing a vassal-heavy campaign, and I believe it could be used to provide for an interesting mechanic. What I would suggest is that if the Overlord in a PU has a Regency Council or Interregnum, their Junior Partner should gain +15% Liberty Desire to represent the potential election of a pretender to the throne during such times of uncertainty.

Now, my reasoning behind such a change to the system would be as follows:
  • In many cases succession laws varied between partners in historical unions
  • Opportunistic nobles and foreign rulers might take advantage of succession crises to take the throne of the lesser partner for themselves
  • Nobles in one country sometimes backed different candidates than the other for political reasons (especially in elective monarchies)
  • It would add a new dimension to Regencies and Interregna
  • A major rework of game mechanics would not be required to implement this change
For said reasons, I believe a decent case can be made as to why such a change should be implemented to how partners in a PU interact with one another.

4. New Mechanic: Viceroys
I’m certain this has been suggested many times as well (particularly with regard to Colonial Governors in the New World) but I will do my best to advocate here for the implementation of a new mechanic to represent the position of Viceroy in EUIV.

Applicable to both Lesser PU Partners and Colonial Nations in-game, in real life the Viceroy was the personal representative of the Crown and would fulfill the duties of the monarch in their absence (i.e the granting of Royal Assent to bills passed in the local legislature). As such, I feel they should become a feature of EUIV considering how widespread and influential the practice was.


This would be the new UI the subject would see. The overlord instead would simply have a list of the shields of each country they have as a CN or Lesser Partner, with the traits of each viceroy appearing as a tooltip when one hovers over the shield. Oh and please forgive my atrocious image editing

Occupying a new slot in the Court tab for Lesser Partners in a Personal Union (as well as Colonial Nations, though those are not the focus here), each Viceroy will have 1 corresponding Ruler Trait, but will not grant any bonus to Monarch Point generation. Each PU Partner and CN will have their own Viceroy appointed to them individually by the overlord.

Each Viceroy is appointed by the Overlord in an event which fires every ten years (like Republican elections). The choices include appointing a Viceroy with a Military Trait, one with a Diplomatic Trait, one with an Administrative Trait, keeping the same one (resulting in +5 Corruption), or not appointing one at all (resulting in +10 Liberty Desire).

Viceroys can also be made into Generals by the Junior Partner/Colonial Nation (only the Overlord should be able to make the Ruler into a General, so this would be the equivalent for the Subject), and would have dynamic titles depending on things such as the tag or culture of the subject in question (i.e Ban for South Slavs, Governor General for British Colonies, etc.). There would also be events to simulate tensions between Viceroys and Overlords which would cause Liberty Desire to either increase or decrease (with some flavour text of course). Some events could also be incorporated in which the player of the Overlord must decide whether or not to remove the current Viceroy over some kind of scandal.

Now my reasons for the inclusion of such a mechanic, both historical and gameplay-centred, would be as follows:
  • The Pacta Conventa between Hungary and Croatia mandated that a Ban be appointed to serve as the King’s representative in the Sabor
  • Croatian Bans wielded vast amounts of power over Croatian affairs, many times becoming de facto sovereigns
  • Viceroys were appointed in colonies around the world by powers such as the British and Spanish
  • Viceroys would add a new dimension to playing in Personal Unions or Colonial Nations
  • The bonuses granted could entice more players to play in Personal Unions or Colonial Nations, while still not being OP
  • Such a mechanic would be far-reaching, and applicable to many countries around the world
All this considered, I think such a mechanic similarly implemented in-game could possibly make for an interesting new addition to the game. I’m not usually the best with creating mechanics, so take this with a grain of salt if you will.

5. Events

Depiction of the Battle of Krbava Field

Of course with new content for Croatia, events should definitely be added concerning the turbulent state in the time period of EUIV. I’m not the best at balancing and I’m not too sure how some of these would be implemented, but I’m no programmer so I hope you can appreciate that. ;)

With the Habsburgs and Zapolyas contesting the throne of Hungary, our Kingdom has become caught between the two as our overlords descend into a state of constant warring over succession. A combined meeting of the sabor of Croatia and Slavonia has taken place in the city of Cetin to determine the future of the Croatian Crown.
  • Elect the Habsburg candidate! Austria gains a PU over Croatia, Hungary gains Restoration of Union CB against Croatia,Croatia gains cores Slavonia and Syrmia, -50 Hungarian opinion
  • We must remain loyal to Hungary! Hungary gains a PU over Croatia, Austria gains Restoration of Union CB against Croatia, -50 Austrian opinion
  • Perhaps a local would be better-suited as ruler? _insert_name_here_ ?/?/? becomes King, Hungary and Austria gain Restoration of Union CB against Croatia, Croatia gains cores Slavonia and Syrmia, -50 Hungarian opinion, -50 Austrian opinion
*Requires the Hungarian/Croatian King to die without an heir. Interregnum does not count*
For centuries, the Croatian language has been written in the so-called “Glagolitic Script” invented by Saints Cyril and Methodius. Despite the alphabet being the traditional method of writing our speech, it has fallen out of use in other Slavic countries and is mostly preserved by the Old Slavonic liturgical language used in some of our churches. As linguists begin to standardise our language, and as the printing press continues to spread across Europe, many are questioning whether we should continue to use this archaic system of writing.
  • We must adapt to current times! Gain -5% Administrative Technology Cost, -100 Ducats, +2 National Unrest
  • Our script is part of our heritage! Gain -10 Prestige, -2 National Unrest
In 1731, a disastrous fire destroyed much of the Upper Town of Zagreb. Among the sites razed to the ground were the Stone Gates connecting the city districts of Kaptol and Gradec. The Gates alongside the entire Upper Town were both completely reduced to ashes, save for a painting of the Madonna and Child which escaped the blaze unscathed. The people of Zagreb have come to believe that the artifact has come under Divine protection, and are suggesting a shrine be dedicated to it upon reconstructing the city.
  • We have truly been blessed! Gain +1 Stability, +10 Prestige
  • It’s just a painting. Gain -10 Prestige, Clergy gain -10% Loyalty
With the forces of the Reformation continuing to spread throughout the Catholic World, some of Luther’s teachings have come to the attention of some of our most influential noble families, including the famed House of Zrinski. With many members of the nobility converting to Protestantism, some fear that this will come to mean the end of Catholicism in Croatia.
  • We must force them to convert! Gain -1 Tolerance of Heretics, +1 Tolerance of the True Faith, Nobility gain -10% Loyalty
  • Tolerance is the only way forward! Gain +1 Tolerance of Heretics, -10 Prestige, Nobility gain +10% Influence
According to legend, as Croatian irregulars left to serve in the religious wars of the Holy Roman Empire, their wives and sweethearts tied ornate scarves around their necks as a reminder of their beloved at home. The garb has been seen across the battlefields of Europe, and, thanks to the Croats’ fierce reputation, has gained considerable popularity across the continent, particularly among French gentlemen.
  • Interesting. Gain +5 Prestige
A recent issue has sowed discord between the members of the Hungarian Diet and the Croatian Sabor. The resulting state of deadlock in our two countries is leading to increased tensions between the two states, with the monarch unfortunately being caught in the middle.
  • This is most unfortunate. Croatia gain +5% Liberty Desire, -5 Trust of Hungary
With the fall of multiple realms in the Balkans to the Ottomans, the fortress of Szigetvár has become the last thing standing between them and Vienna. The Pope has dubbed our domain the “Ramparts of Christendom”, and among those defending it are the likes of the Croatian Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski. With armies of Janissaries bearing down on them, the garrison of Szigetvár has held out against all odds, and is preparing to launch what appears to be a daring cavalry charge and last stand.
  • To die for the homeland, oh what a pleasure! Gain +5% Morale of Armies, +10 Prestige, -3000 Manpower, Starts Sortie in Sopron, Ottoman Ruler Dies
  • We cannot condone such recklessness! Gain General “Nikola Šubić Zrinski/Zrínyi Miklós” 4/4/5/2, +5% Discipline, -10 Prestige
*This event would require the Ottoman Ruler to be leading an army besieging a fort in the Hungarian province of Sopron, and as such would be quite rare indeed. This event would also only fire for the player's country. The name would change according the player's primary culture (the former being Croatian and the latter Hungarian)

Aside from those mentioned above, events should also exist which illustrate the appearance of historical figures such as Nikola Zrinski (a descendent of the one who was at the Siege of Szigetvár, he was a one of the greatest poets in both the Croatian and Hungarian languages), as well as Petar Zrinski Fran Krsto Frankopan.

An event chain representing the Magnate Conspiracy would also make a fitting inclusion. :D

6. Missions and Decisions

Sample Text of the 1102 Pacta Conventa

What? A regional improvement thread without new NIs? How can this be?

Well simply put, I actually don’t really mind the existing Croatian NIs all that much, so I’m fine with leaving them as they are. I might think of some revised NIs at a later date though, so stay tuned in case.

As for Missions, I helped to create and really enjoy the ones @Parmelion included in his mod covering Hungary and the surrounding area, and I would advocate for mostly the same ones to be implemented in vanilla. They offer a nice challenge that makes for a fun and interesting campaign. However, I have made a few modifications to the tree which I would like to present here:


Finally, there should also be some unique National Decisions for Croatia and the different powers occupying Croatian lands.

Requirements:
  • Own Core Provinces Slavonia, Syrmia, Zagreb, Torontal, Temesvar, and Lika
  • Military Tech 10
  • 75 Military Power
Effects:
  • Local Autonomy Changes to 0 in Slavonia, Syrmia, Zagreb, Torontal, Temesvar, and Lika
  • +10% Local Defensiveness in Slavonia, Syrmia, Zagreb, Torontal, Temesvar, and Lika
Requirements:
  • Own Core Province Zagreb
  • Administrative Tech 17
  • 300 Ducats
  • 50 Administrative Power
Effects:
  • Build University in Zagreb
  • -2 Local Unrest in all Provinces with Croatian Culture
Requirements:
  • Own Core Province Slavonia and/or Syrmia
  • Is currently the Age of Exploration or the Age of Reformation
  • Ruler has Cruel, Greedy, or Malevolent Traits
Effects:
  • 10 Years of Separatism in Slavonia and/or Syrmia
  • Remove “Hospite Communes” modifier from Slavonia and/or Syrmia

7. Miscellaneous

Saint Mark’s Church in Zagreb, with the Arms of the Triune Kingdom (left) and the old town of Gradec (right) emblazoned on the roof tiles

This is the last section of this hopefully-not-too-overwhelming thread. Here I will suggest a few minor additions which would not fit under the other sections.

1. Croatian Unit Models
I don’t think it’s a secret to anybody that the default Eastern Tech unit models are quite out of date and a bit of an eyesore (with all due respect). Now I am no expert on other Eastern Tech countries, I believe Croatia could certainly do with unique unit models of their own, which I have discussed in a previous thread which I shall link to here.

2. Dynamic Province Names
Of course with any talk of regional improvements, one has to discuss dynamic names for provinces. Here are the ones I have been able to find for the provinces discussed in this thread, and I invite anybody with knowledge of any other dynamic names to please share them in the discussion. :)

Croatian Name: Zagreb
Hungarian Name: Zágráb
German Name: Agram
Italian Name: Zagabria
Serbian Name: Zagreb
Croatian Name: Varaždin
Hungarian Name: Varasd
German Name: Warasdien
Italian Name: Varasdino
Serbian Name: Varaždin
Croatian Name: Slavonija
Hungarian Name: Szlavónia
German Name: Slawonien
Italian Name: Schiavonia
Serbian Name: Slavonija
Croatian Name: Srijem
Hungarian Name: Szerém
German Name: Syrmien
Italian Name: Sirmia
Serbian Name: Srem
Croatian Name: Primorje
Hungarian Name: Modrus
German Name: Kvarner
Italian Name: Quarnaro
Serbian Name: Primorje
Croatian Name: Lika
Hungarian Name: Lika
German Name: Lika
Italian Name: Licca
Serbian Name: Lika

Conclusion and Sources

And with that, ladies and gentlemen, we have reached the end of this massive thread. I thought it a good idea to get this out now while the devs are still researching for the Europe mega-patch. I obviously don’t expect everything to be implemented, but hopefully this can serve as inspiration to the devs if nothing else.

Some of my decisions in this may certainly appear questionable to many (i.e the decision to suggest the Personal Union), however I encourage discussion about them as long as things are able to remain civil. ;)

Thank you for reading my Treatise on Croatia and Part 2 of my “Illyrian Trilogy”! I hope you have enjoyed it and potentially even taken something useful away from it! :)

 
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Kane_hun

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Interesting read, but alas, while Zrinski (or Zrínyi as known among Hungarians) is regarded as a hero, this
Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski led a legendary cavalry charge in a fateful last stand which resulted in the death of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
is just a myth unfortunately. (But if Wallachia can have a mission to impale the sultan, we could work something out here as well, maybe your event kill off the Ottoman monarch?)

I didnt quite catch whose general the Ban would be? the Juniors or the Seniors? Electing him for every colonial nation every 10 year might be a hassle if you have many of them though, but maybe I am wrong here.

resulting in +5 Corruption
Why would keeping the ban in the office such a bad move though?

Overall, solid work, I am interested what the devs think about this.
 

Sanguine Caesar

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Thanks for the feedback :D

I'll be adressing your points in reverse order so please forgive me for that.

Why would keeping the ban in the office such a bad move though?
My rationale was that since re-electing the same candidate causes a hit to Republican Tradition, there needed to be a downside implemented in order to ensure the player doesn't keep perpetually re-appointing the same Viceroy. Admittedly +5 Corruption does seem like a rather steep penalty to pay, so I would certainly be open to suggestions about other possible drawbacks I could incorporate instead.

I didnt quite catch whose general the Ban would be? the Juniors or the Seniors?
The Viceroy would most likely be the junior partner's general, but either or could work.

Electing him for every colonial nation every 10 year might be a hassle if you have many of them though, but maybe I am wrong here.
Well the reason I put ten years was because I thought the standard 5-year period for Republics would be too tedious :confused:. But I guess the time period could be increased to say 15 or 25 years.

but alas, while Zrinski (or Zrínyi as known among Hungarians) is regarded as a hero, this...is just a myth unfortunately. (But if Wallachia can have a mission to impale the sultan, we could work something out here as well, maybe your event kill off the Ottoman monarch?)
I'm definitely open to reworking events (and that includes editing flavour text to be more accurate), but I still feel the Siege of Szigetvár should definitely be included as an event considering its significance to all three nations involved.
 

DanubianCossak

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Not gonna happen, its just one of those things that are set in stone (along with certain country colors, flags etc).

Dont get me wrong, thats how i have it in my mod though.
 

Sanguine Caesar

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Not gonna happen, its just one of those things that are set in stone (along with certain country colors, flags etc).
Well these are suggestions and not demands ;)

And you never know, people can always change their minds...

Dont get me wrong, thats how i have it in my mod though.
And if the devs decide against using these suggestions, then of course any modders can if they so wish :D
 

Kane_hun

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The Siege of Szigetvár"
What about this:
Req. :
  • Is Croatia or Hungary
  • Has a fort in the Croatia or Slavonia area under siege by the Ottomans
  • The Ottoman ruler is a general
MTTH: 1 year (8 months only if has the modifier Végvár system)
(Can only happen once)

Option a) (as you described): -3000 manpower, +2 War exhaustion, starts a sortie in the fort, Ottoman ruler dies, +10% morale for 5 years, 10 prestige

Option b) (same) gain Zrinski/Zrínyi as a general (name could depend on country), -10 prestige, -50 mil points
 

Sanguine Caesar

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What about this:
Req. :
  • Is Croatia or Hungary
  • Has a fort in the Croatia or Slavonia area under siege by the Ottomans
  • The Ottoman ruler is a general
MTTH: 1 year (8 months only if has the modifier Végvár system)
(Can only happen once)

Option a) (as you described): -3000 manpower, +2 War exhaustion, starts a sortie in the fort, Ottoman ruler dies, +10% morale for 5 years, 10 prestige

Option b) (same) gain Zrinski/Zrínyi as a general (name could depend on country), -10 prestige, -50 mil points
This definitely sounds much better. I will add it to the OP ASAP! :D
 

otaats

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A lot of great stuff here, hopefully PDS won't be shy to implement some of the ideas you have. Still didn't get to read all of it, but i really like events and flavor you came up with :)
 

Sanguine Caesar

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A lot of great stuff here, hopefully PDS won't be shy to implement some of the ideas you have. Still didn't get to read all of it, but i really like events and flavor you came up with :)
Thank you as always my friend! Feel free to tell me what you think once you finish reading it. :D
 

Van Kasten

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Well researched suggestion! :D

I think that the "Estabilish Royal Academy of Zagreb" decision should be possibile to Austria, Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia (if the tag is introduced) ;)
It will make it less railroady and more flavorful.
 

otaats

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I think the idea of adding client rulers is beyond awesome, and though i'm not too big on Hungary-Croatia PU, i would most definitely be for it under these gameplay conditions. Love the events too. Well done. I hope folks in the studio take notice :)
 

otaats

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Also, can you give me the information whether Belgrade was a part of Šabačka Banovina. If that is the case you should add that province to the frontier too :)
 

Sanguine Caesar

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Also, can you give me the information whether Belgrade was a part of Šabačka Banovina. If that is the case you should add that province to the frontier too :)
Surprisingly, I have not been able to find much information about the different Banates, and so far the Banate of Jajce is the only one I've been able to confirm in other sources (i.e WappenWiki and I think one other). However, Belgrade is almost directly on the border with Syrmia, and that area appears to be under the Šabačka Banovina on the map (the city is in fact labeled on there, so it is somewhat hard to see).

However, these banates were not part of the Military Frontier as it seems, since that would only be established under Austrian rule. I would say that they are more likely areas ruled by powerful Bosnian nobles which sought Hungarian/Croatian protection. But I could do some more digging on the subject of course. :)
 

Sanguine Caesar

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Just thought that I should point out that I've made some slight changes with regard to the terrain and trade goods of a couple provinces. Otherwise no much has changed. I may add some more events in the future though :)

I would also like to point out that should more Croatian provinces be desired, I would suggest following the map of Croatian counties I included in the OP, and incorporate the Bjelovar and Vitrovitica counties in addition to the ones I've suggested here. Furthermore, Zagreb could also be split into Zagreb (west) and Sisak (east) as that fortress was rather significant during this period. However, I do not think that Croatia would need more provinces than what I've included in the OP, so think of this as simply another option if you wish to be a bit more ambitious ;)
 
Last edited:

Sanguine Caesar

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Another update, this time a bit bigger. I've added to the OP a suggestion to move the existing Centre of Trade from Lika to Zagreb (feel free to read it and tell me some of your thoughts) ;)
 

sparta105

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This is truely amazing work. Well done, and hope it gets implemented.
 

Sanguine Caesar

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On the topic of Viceroys being made into generals, I've decided that it should be the Subject who is able to turn their Viceroys into Generals. The reason being that the Overlord can already make their Ruler into a General, so the Subject should be able to turn Viceroys into Generals instead.

Otherwise, I've slightly changed some of the language in the OP, mainly involving exchanging the word "Guests" to the more accurate "Hospites".

That is all. :D
 

TRex1983

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Great work!
I'm sure my friend would be laugh if I would do a run with Croatia. When I was talking to him about EUIV and naming provinces in the Balkans he was completely surprised!
Its a bit tough to break out of the Hungarian vassalage in MEIOU&Taxes, but I'll keep trying!
If the devs see this thread, then it will make my life a bit easier.
 

Sanguine Caesar

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Slightly updated the Croatian mission tree. ;)

Also, go check out the new Balkans Archpost by @otaats ; the collective labour of love by many of us in the Balkan community here on the forums. :D
 

Calanon

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Very well written. Probably my biggest issue though is that only 50 years must pass before a junior partner can be integrated, have you got any idea how to stop Hungary from integrating Croatia?