• We have updated our Community Code of Conduct. Please read through the new rules for the forum that are an integral part of Paradox Interactive’s User Agreement.

Kurdistani

Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası
80 Badges
Jan 1, 2004
1.048
6
  • Cities: Skylines - Snowfall
  • Cities: Skylines
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • 500k Club
  • Europa Universalis IV: Mare Nostrum
  • Stellaris
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Stellaris: Galaxy Edition
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Cadet
  • Hearts of Iron IV: Colonel
  • Crusader Kings II: Reapers Due
  • Europa Universalis IV: Rights of Man
  • Stellaris: Digital Anniversary Edition
  • Stellaris: Leviathans Story Pack
  • Stellaris: Nemesis
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Divine Wind
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • Europa Universalis IV: Call to arms event
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Lost Empire - Immortals
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
I think the best plan might be to get a map of the Middle east and divide it up as we see fit...

Sadly I have no paint shop on my crappy LSE computer...

And also Suleymania was not built until 1776...
 
Last edited:

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
I have made a few small changes to the map:

- The province of Shehrizor (Kerkuk) is now extended to border Van;
- The name of the city Canakkale is changed to Kale-i Sultaniye;
- A new province "Hamid" added with the capital Isparta.
 

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
THRONE OF KARAMAN:

Timur gave control of Karaman State to Mehmet Bey, the oldest son of Aleaddin Ali Bey. After Bayezid died in 1403, the Ottoman Empire went into a political crisis. During this time, the Ottoman family were fought against for being kings. It was an opportunity not only for Karamanid, but also for all the Anatolian kingdoms. Mehmet Bey assembled an army to march on Bursa. He captured the city and damaged it. This would not be the last Karamanian invasion of Ottoman lands. However, Mehmet Bey was captured by Bayezid Pasha and sent to prison. He apologized for what he had done to Ottoman lands and was subsequently forgiven by the Ottoman Empire.

Ramazanoğlu Ali Bey captured Tarsus while Mehmet Bey was in prison. Mustafa Bey, son of Mehmet Bey, retook the city during a conflict between the Emirs of Sham and Egypt. After that, the Sultan of Mamluk State sent an army to retake Tarsus from Karamans. Mamluks damaged Konya after Karaman was defeated, and Mehmet Bey retreated from Konya. Ramazanoğlu Ali Bey followed and captured him. According to an agreement between the two leaders, Mehmet Bey was exiled to Egypt for the rest of his life.

During the Crusade on the Ottoman Empire, Karamanian İbrahim Bey marched toward Ankara and Kütahya, destroying both cities. In the meantime, Murad Han of the Ottoman Empire was turning back from Rumeli with a victory against the Hungarian Crusaders. Like all other Islamic emirates in Anatolia, the Karamanids were accused of treason. Hence, İbrahim Bey accepted all Ottoman terms.

They left Tarsus to the Mameluke State in the year of 1417, and they captured Beyşehri from Ottoman Stae in the year of 1433. They gave Kayseri to Ottoman State in the year of 1437, but Develikarahisar had remained under the domination of Karamanogullari principality until the end of tem. They were repulsed from Aksehir, Beysehir and Ilgin by the Ottomans in the year of 1465.

In the last period of Ibrahim Bey II, in other words, in the period of Fatih, the state had gradually been under the influence of Ottoman State. Fatih had married a daughter of Ibrahim II in the year of 1458. Ibrahim II had 10 sons and 7 of them were maternally from Osmanoglu lineage. Ishak, Pîr Ahmed, Kasım, Alâeddin who died in the beginning of 1446, Karaman, Süleyman, Nûre Sûfî, Yâkub, Younger Mustafa and Mehmed Beys. The first three sons, Ishak, Pîr Ahmed and Kasım Beys had been enthroned respectively.

Ishak Bey had been the crown prince of his father for 40 years and he had been the bey of Silifke before his enthronement. Pursuant to his sultanate for several months, he took refuge in Uzun Hasan Bey who had been the great enemy and rival of Fatih. He died in Diyarbakir in the year of 1465. His son and wife were taken prisoner by Ottoman State in the year of 1471. His brother, Pir Ahmed Bey who replaced him moved the capital city to Konya and had dominated for 5 years. In the course of the Otlukbeli pitched battle, he took side with Uzun Hasan against Fatih. His daughter, Halime Hatun died in the year of 1508. Kasim Bey who replaced him had been in the status of a county bey connected to the Ottoman State, and he had spent most of his sultanate years far away from his country with a title of claimant for the throne. He took refuge in the side of the Ruler Uzun Hasan together with his elder brother, Ishak Bey in the year of 1464. He also took side with Uzun Hasan in Otlukbeli War. He was the bey of county of Icel connected to Ottoman State in the years of 1482-1483.

karaman_kale.jpg


Kasim Bey was replaced by his son-in-law, Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey. He had dominated in Icel as the bey of country of Icel connected to the Ottoman State for 4 years and then, he could not establish dominion in this region any longer and took shelter in the Mameluke State in the year of 1487. Therefore, the Karaman matter was entirely resolved in the first years of Sultan Bayezid II. Thus, Osmanogullari had taken an important step in respect of the union of Turkey. Kasim Bey had had 3 sons.

Within the most extensive framework of their lands, the Karaman principality had expanded to the following provinces and districts considering the situation of today’s Turkey: They had established their influence and dominion in all the provinces of Konya, Niğde, Kayseri, Ankara, Nevşehir, İçel and Kirsehir, the eastern half of the province of Antalya. Ahi Republic in Ankara, and in Karaman. Karamanli principality had sometimes trespassed the borders stated above in the regions of Antalya, Isparta, and Afyon towards the west. The surface area of the lands stated above is equal to146.000 km2. We can estimate that there was 2 millions of people living in those lands in that period. The surface area of the Karaman principality was almost 100.000 km2 towards the year of 1360.


According to Mesâlik-ül-Ebsâr, written by Şehâbeddin Ömer, the Karamanian army had 25,000 riders and 25,000 saracens. They also used the armies of some Turkmen tribes.

Their economic activities depended mostly on control of strategic commercial areas such as Konya and the ports of Lamos, Silifke, Anamur, and Manavgat.

Karaman.png



Karamanian Dynasty (According to the Chronological Order)

1. Nûre Sûfî Bey (capital city: Ereğli) (1250?-1256?)
2. Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey (capital city: Ermenek) (1256?-1261)
3. Semseddin Mehmed Bey I (1261-1283)
4. Güneri Bey (1283-19.IV.1300)
5. Bedreddin (Mecdeddin) Mahmud Bey (19.IV. 1300-308)
6. Yahsı Han Bey (1308-1312=4) (capital city: Konya)
7. Bedreddin I. İbrahim Bey (1312-1333-21+1348-1349)
8. Alâeddin Halil-Mirza Bey (1333-1348)
9. Fahreddin Ahmed Bey (1349-2.1.1350)
10. Semseddin Bey (2.1.1350-1351)
11. Hacı Sûfi Burhâneddin Musa Bey (Capital city: Mut) (1351-1356)
12. Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1356-1357)
13. Dâmâd Alaeddin Ali Bey I (1357-1398)
14. Sultanzâde Nâsıreddin (Gıyâseddin) Mehmed Bey II (1398-1399-l
15. Dâmâd Bengi Alâeddin Ali Bey II (1418-1419=l+1423-1424)
16. Dâmâd İbrahim Bey II (1424-1464)
17. Sultan-zâde İshak Bey (1464)
18. Sultan-zâde Pîr-Ahmed Bey (1464-1469=5)
19. Kasım Bey (1469-1483=14)
20. Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey (1483-1487=4)

eico090.jpg
 

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
CANDAROGLU:

Candaroğlu Beylik (sometimes referred to as Candar, Candaroğulları or İsfendiyaroğulları in Turkish) is an Anatolian Turkoman emirate that ruled in Kastamonu and Sinop regions and partly in Zonguldak, Samsun and Çankırı, between 1292 - 1461, in the Black Sea region of modern day Turkey.

The founder of the beylik is Temür Yaman Candar (also known as Demir Yaman Candar); the beylik collapsed in 1461 when the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II annexed the region.

The Kastamonu province was given as a sign of goodwill and gratitude to one of the Seljuk commander-of-chiefs and a member of the candar corps Temür Yaman Candar (hence his name) by the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Gıyaseddin Mesud II, for his service and aids in rescuing the sultan from being held captive by the Mongols during the Mongolian occupation of the Seljuk empire. However, this province was under the control of the Çobanoğlu beylik. Following his death, his son Süleyman I conquered the province and annexed Safranbolu and Sinop (ruled by the Pervaneoğlu Beylik) as well to expand his dominion (1322). Süleyman I appointed his son İbrahim I as governor to Sinop, and his other son Ali to Safranbolu. Süleyman I reigned under the authority of the Ilkhanate (İlhanlı) empire until the death of the Ilkhan ruler Abu Sa'id (Ebu Said Bahadır Han).

Following the death of Süleyman I, his son İbrahim I fought his brother Ali for the throne and was victorious (1339) in taking over the rule of Kastamonu. Upon his death, his cousin Adil replaced him (1346 - 1361). When Adil died, his son Bayezid (the Crippled) became the bey. During his reign, Bayezid fought twice with Burhaneddin, the ruler of the Sivas region, and with one of his own sons, Süleyman II, who got military support from the Ottoman sultan Murad I, to lose Kastamonu. Bayezid had to leave to Sinop, and thus the Candaroğlu Beylik was divided into two (1383). Bayezid's son İsfendiyar succeeded him after his death in 1385.

Based in Kastamonu, Süleyman II remained faithful to Murad I, his supporter in his revolt against his father, and aided the Ottoman campaigns in Europe in 1386 and 1389. However, the succeeding Ottoman sultan Beyazid I launched an assault in 1392 on Kastamonu as part of an effort to control all the Anatolian beyliks, eventually resulting in the killing of Süleyman II and the ending of the Candaroğlu reign in Kastamonu.

Meanwhile, fearing of a conflict with the powerful Ottomans, İsfendiyar requested immunity from Beyazid in return for being subject to Ottoman reign. Beyazid granted İsfendiyar autonomy that lasted until his death in Mongol captivity in 1402, upon which İsfendiyar made a deal with the victor, the Mongol khan Timur Lenk. He was granted reign over the traditional Candaroğlu regions Kastamonu, Kalecik, Tosya and Çankırı, although being subject to Timur.

After Timur Lenk left Anatolia, during the Ottoman Interregnum, he stood close to all the four sons of Beyazid avoiding any conflict. When one of his sons, Kasım claimed control over Çankırı and Tosya, and declared the annexation of these areas to the Ottoman empire, the Candaroğlu dominion was divided once more. But İsfendiyar revolted against the new sultan Murad II, only to be defeated, and retreated to Sinop (1423). İsfendiyar died in 1439, to be succeeded by his son İbrahim II, who upon his death was replaced by İsmail in 1443.

After his conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II turned to Anatolia to unite the Anatolian beyliks under his rule. In 1461, joining forces with İsmail's brother Ahmed (the Red), he captured Sinop and ended the official reign of the Candaroğlu dynasty, although he appointed Ahmed as the governor of Kastamonu and Sinop, only to revoke Ahmed's appointment the same year.

Candar.png


CULTURE AND ECONOMY:

The Candaroğlu beylik was located at a very important region in the northeast of Anatolia. They were quite significant in their area with their high population (420,000 in 1332) and political influence, existing along other beyliks and states in their era. Having reigned for about 170 years, Candaroğlu were quite advanced in architecture, cultural and social life and welfare. Also, many books in Turkish were written during their reign by court scientists and writers, including poems, books on medicine, chemistry, social sciences, and translations from Arabic and Persian.
Many architectural structures have remained from the Candaroğlu era in the region, including hammams, caravanserais, numerous mosques, inns, religious schools (madrassas)and libraries.

The 14th century Persian geographer al-Omari notes that the seat of the beylik, Kastamonu was one of the most prominent provinces in that region, as well as Sinop being one of the most important ports in the Black Sea, maintaining a crucial trade route between other ports, the Genoese who owned a warehouse at the port, and the inner provinces. The nearby province Sivas was then inhabited by many Genoese merchants, transporting the goods that would arrive from the east and the south to their ports in Trabzon, Samsun and Sinop. Venetian archives mention that Candaroğlu had close financial and trade relations with the city states of Venice and Genoa. Kastamonu was also rich in natural resources such as iron ore and copper, which were important industrial raw materials then too.

In their trade with the Genoese, Candaroğlu used copper coins they minted that had two fish, and the inscription Dârü's-saâde-i Sinop (the palace of Sinop) engraved on them.

MILITARY:

Candaroğlu beylik had a light cavalry corps of 25,000. This vast military power had often contributed to the Ottoman campaigns in Roumelia as well as in Anatolia, including the siege of Constantinople. Being neighbors with the Byzantines, Candaroğlu aided to campaigns and raids here while preventing them to proceed further towards other beyliks.

Candaroğlu also possessed a shipyard in Sinop that equipped them with a strong naval force. The size of this force is unknown, however, it is known that this force was used in an attack to the Genoese outpost Kefe (Feodosiya today, in Crimea, Ukraine).

CANDAR OGULLARI DYNASTY:

BEGS (BEYS) OF SINOPE & PAPHLAGONIA:
Temür Yaman Candar (1292-c.1308)
Süleymân I Pasha (1308-1340)
Ibrahim Bey (1340-1345)
Âdil Bey (1345-1361)
Bâyazîd Kötörüm (the Cripple) (1361-1384)
Süleymân II Shâh (1384-1385)
Isfandiyâr Bey (1385-1393, 1402-1440) - Kasim Bey (prince, son of Isfandiyar)
Conquest by Bâyezîd I, 1393; restoration by Tamerlane, 1402
Ibrâhîm II Bey (1439-1443) (brother-in-law with Mehmed II of Ottomans)
Ismâ'îl Bey (1443-1461) - Hasan Bey (prince, son of Ismail)
Cemaleddin 'Kizil' Ahmed Bey (1461-1462) (installed Ottoman puppet, brother of Ismail Bey)
 

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
DULKADIR OGULLARI:

BEGS (BEYS) OF TAURUS
Qaraja ibn Dulghadïr al-Malik az-Z.âhir Zayn ad-Dîn 1337-1353
Khalîl Ghars ad-Dîn 1353-1386
Sha'bân Sûlî 1386-1398
Muhammad Nâsir ad-Dîn 1398-1442
Sulaymân 1442-1454
Malid Arslan 1454-1465
Shâh Budaq 1465-1466, 1472-1479
Shâh Suwâr 1466-1472
Bozqurd Alâ'ud-Dawla 1479-1515
Alî 1515-1521
annexation by Süleymân I, 1521
 

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
RAMAZANOGULLARI (or Ramazan Beydom):

Beylik of Ramazan was first established as a vassal state of Dülkadir, having declared its independence from the Mameluks in 1352 (actually the events were more complicated as Ramazan was the Bey of Dülkadir as well.)

Now what's really astounding about Ramazan is that, the Beylik continued its existance as a vassal state to 1608! The lords of this realm served countless Ottoman monarchs, including Suleiman the Magnificent---as well as Suleiman's father, Selim the Grim during his famous Mameluk campaign.

The historical durability of Ramazan aside, they were in full control of the city of Adana almost continiously from late 14th century to early 17th century, for more than two hundred years.

BEYS OF RAMAZAN:

Ibrahim II (1419 - 1427)
Mehmet I Bey (1428 - 1439)
Eylük Bey (1439 - 1440)
Dündar Bey (1456 - 1462)
Ömer Bey (1462 - 1469)
Halil Bey (1480 - 1510)
Mahmut Bey (1510 - 1514)
Selim Bey (1514 - ?)
Kubad Bey (? - 1519)
Piri Bey (1519 - 1569)
Dervis Bey (1569 - ?)
Ibrahim III (? - 1580)
Mehmet II (1580 - 1594)
Pir Mansur (1595 - 1608)

[Thanks to Tuna from the forums for the above information]


HISTORY OF RAMAZAN:

Just like Dulkadirogullari Beydom (principality), Ramazanogullari Beydom (principality) was a Turkish principality that was founded at the latest periods and over the lands of the ancient Cilicia Armenian kingdom. Ramazan Bey from the beys of Yuregir tribe of Oguz people had founded this beydom. He had declared the centre of the state as Elbistan until the year of 1381, and then, he had left this area to Dulkadirli Beydom. Afterwards, Ramazan was centred in Adana. It had dominated for 256 years since 1352 until the year of 1608, but the last 92 years had been experienced under the domination of Ottoman governors. Nevertheless, this principality was considered among the most long-lasting dynasties of Anatolian Turkmen families. While they had been strictly submissive to the Mameluke State until the year of 1516, they had become submissive to the Ottoman State in this year. Similarly, this principality was transformed into an ordinary county beydom of the Ottoman State. Significant Ottoman statesmen were brought up from this dynasty.

Ibrahim Bey I who was the son of the founder of the beydom, Ramazan Bey, had provided help to Dulkadirogullari and Karamanogullari principalities in the course of the struggles against the Mameluk State. On the grounds that he had collaborated with Karamanogullari principality, forces were sent towards him and he was killed thereof. Sihabeddin Ahmed who replaced him became submissive to the domination of the Mameluk State and had provided help for their armies.

Ahmed Bey, after a blockade of seven months, captured Tarsus from Karamanogullari principality in the year of 1415. Furthermore, he had established dominion in the cities of Sis and Ayas. Pursuant to his death, the struggles for the throne broke out among his sons. Of his sons, Ibrahim II was able to establish supremacy in the government of the principality. He collaborated with Karamanogullari principality and they besieged Tarsus that had been captured by the Mameluk State.

By the time of the fall of Constantinople, the Ramazanogullari principality had lost its old significance. Mahmud Bey from Ramazanogullari dynasty had joined in the expedition of Selim I to Egypt and he had died in Ridaniye War (1517). In these dates, it has been understood that Ramazanogullari principality had been under the protection of the Ottoman State as a vassal. Pursuant to the death of Mahmud Bey, Ramazanogullari principality was conferred to Piri Bey (1517-1568). He quickly suppressed the rebellions that burst out in the lands under his domination. He had left his country for a specific period and had been a bey governor in the neighbouring provinces. Then, he had requested from Kanuni Sultan Suleyman for his appointment to return to the principality. His demand was accepted and he returned to the domination of the principality. When the last emir, Pir Mansur resigned from the status of bey of the principality, Adana had directly become an Ottoman province (1608).

Principal Beys of Ramazanogullari Principality:

Ramazan Bey was replaced successively by his two sons, Sârimeddin Ibrahim Bey and Şihâbeddin Ahmed Bey. His other son, Kara Mehmed Bey had died in the year of 1383. İbrahim Bey had captured Adana and made it the centre of the principality and he died in the same year. He had left 2 sons. Ahmed Bey had visited Cairo in the year of 1410. He was respectively replaced by his sons, Sârimeddin II. Ibrahim, Izzeddin Hamza and Mehmed Bey I (It is not definitely determined that Mehmed Bey was the son of Ahmed Bey). It has been supposed that he had another son named Ali Bey. His daughter was the main wife of the Mameluke Sultan Ferec.

Ibrahim II was the son-in-law of Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey. He had become the bey of Tarsus between the years of 1415-1417 and dominated only in the city of Adana between the years of 1418-1426. The actual principality was dominated by his brother, Hamza Bey. He was killed in Cairo on the fate of 15th December 1427. His brother, Hamza Bey was also killed like Ibrahim Beys I and II.

Mehmed Bey I was replaced by his supposed son, Eylük Bey. Upon his murder, Dundar Bey ascended the throne that was supposedly his son. The other son of Mehmed Bey was Ibrahim Bey and the son of Ibrahim Bey was Omer Bey. Then, Omer Bey replaced Dundar Bey. Omer Bey who had been taken prisoner by the Ottoman State in the year of 1485 died in Istanbul. He was replaced by the sons of his brother, Davud Bey who was killed in Aleppo in the year of 1480 and his sons were named as Garseddin Halil and Mahmud Beys. Mahmud Bey lived in Istanbul in the years of 1514-1516. He was replaced by Omer Bey's son, Selim Bey. He was sent again to Adana as the bey of county connected to the Ottoman State. While he fought on the side of Ottoman State against the Mameluke State in Cairo in the course of the Riddaniye pitched battle on the date of 22nd January 1517, he was killed as a martyr in the battlefield. The dynasty was survived through his brother Halil Bey and they had dominated as the beys of country under the domination of Ottoman State.

Arts and Trade:

In the period of Ramazanogullari principality, especially Halil Bey and his son, Piri Bey had constructed lots of architectural works including the mosques, theological schools, inns and public baths in Adana. The most significant of those among these works are Akça Mescit (small mosque), Ulu Camii (mosque) that was built in the form of a complex of buildings, and Yağ Câmii (Eski Câmii).

The fact that Cukurova with it's main city of Adana was located on the way of pilgrimage and on an important trade route at the same time, had enabled the development of this region in respect of economy under the domination of Ramazanogullari principality.
 

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
Doeas anyone have graphics, images or descriptions of the flags or banners used by Ramazan and Dulkadir Beydoms? Did the ones at original EU II have any historical significance or were they sole fantasy?
 

Tunch Khan

the Infidel
110 Badges
Jan 2, 2002
3.687
22
Visit site
  • Cities: Skylines Deluxe Edition
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Europa Universalis IV: Res Publica
  • Victoria: Revolutions
  • Europa Universalis: Rome
  • Supreme Ruler 2020
  • Victoria 2
  • Victoria 2: A House Divided
  • Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness
  • Rome: Vae Victis
  • 200k Club
  • 500k Club
  • Cities: Skylines
  • March of the Eagles
  • Europa Universalis III: Collection
  • Europa Universalis IV: El Dorado
  • Europa Universalis IV: Pre-order
  • Pride of Nations
  • Crusader Kings II: Way of Life
  • Pillars of Eternity
  • Europa Universalis IV: Common Sense
  • Crusader Kings II: Horse Lords
  • Cities: Skylines - After Dark
  • Europa Universalis IV: Cossacks
  • Crusader Kings II: Conclave
  • Victoria 3 Sign Up
  • Divine Wind
  • Crusader Kings II
  • Crusader Kings II: Charlemagne
  • Crusader Kings II: Legacy of Rome
  • Crusader Kings II: The Old Gods
  • Crusader Kings II: Rajas of India
  • Crusader Kings II: The Republic
  • Crusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham
  • Crusader Kings II: Sunset Invasion
  • Crusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
  • East India Company
  • Europa Universalis III
  • Europa Universalis III: Chronicles
  • Hearts of Iron Anthology
  • Europa Universalis IV
  • Europa Universalis IV: Art of War
  • Europa Universalis IV: Conquest of Paradise
  • Europa Universalis IV: Wealth of Nations
  • For The Glory
  • Hearts of Iron III
  • Heir to the Throne
  • Europa Universalis III Complete
  • Legio
  • The Kings Crusade
The Flag of the Dulkadiroglu Beydom:

The flag below belongs to the Dulkadiroglu clan and according to their own website, it has been passed from generation to generation. This one here is from a 2006 clan reunion with members gathering from Kirsehir, Kayseri and Kirikkale.


scan00011.jpg
scan0001.jpg


I already recognize the second line with the arabic script with references to the Prophet and the God. I would assume the other three lines refer to the clan of the Dulkadir among other titles and claims.

bismi6.jpg


This following is the Turkish word with arabic script for "Dulkadiroglu Beyligi" (Principality of Dulkadir):

يعمنشيهقخلمع لآثغمهله