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Chapter III: Cleaning the House. (Part I)
Chapter III: Cleaning the House. (Part I)
"If I sit silently, I have sinned." - Mohammad Mossadegh, former iranian prime minister.
Teheran, Imperial State of Iran.~ March 25th, 1952.

"Farid, I can't believe this, my cousin's father was taken by the british. Their tanker was forced to stop at Yemen, they are trying to stop us with everything they've got. With each passing day I start to believe there's only one solution, we must support the Tudeh Party, they are striving for the same thing we want but they'll get us the allies we need." - Amir said, he started as a pure supporter of Mossadegh, but slowly he began to lean towards the Tudeh Party as he started to view that only through cooperation with the Soviet Union would Iran be able to stop british influence over the country.

The economic situation in Iran was on declining, the sanctions were taking their toll upon Iran's economy. Oil production suddenly turned inefficient too as expertise and maintenance workers left the country. Every shipment that left Iran was taken by the british and there were no countries willing to buy iranian oil.
It was clear that Mossadegh had to do something regarding the crisis with the United Kingdom, dealing with United States was an option however, the Truman administration wasn't supporting any side. They didn't care for british colonial interests while they weren't decided to oppose their allies by supporting Iran.

"Amir, shut up, how can you say that? If someone hears you they'll cut your throat." - Farid wished he could be joking but the previous day he heard a bunch of conservatives saying that Tudeh supporters should be thrown to the northern border or disposed of. - "Amir, I bet the situation will be under control in some months, the Soviet Union is our greatest threat. How did you start to see them as possible allies in our struggle? They want our oil too, that's all."

"I'm not sure about that Farid, they've got Baku for their oil production, they clearly want to be allies of Iran and they are the only option we have to modernize this country while retaining our independence from the Western Devils." - he was gradually turning more radical in his opinion against the West, first he was against the United Kingdom but American unwillingness to support Iran was clearly a reason to hate them as well; at least for people with a radical perspective as him.

Modern History: Korea. - Wade Barnett.

Picture 00.jpg

Fearing a huge communist revolution the National Assembly declared Cho Bong-am (The most important figure in the left) as the new president, they did so thinking that asking Park Chung-hee for a coup would spark the chaos.
Cho Bong-am, the Korean independence activist and politician was also the founding member of the Communist Party of Korea (Which lasted until it was dissolved in 1946) but he also was a prominent figure in leftist-thought in Korea. He studied at Japan and the Soviet Union, eventually after Japan's defeat he left the Communist Party as they practically changed loyalties towards the soviets which was a move heavily opposed by Cho Bong-am.

He was the Minister of Agriculture during Syngman Rhee's presidency and was a prominent voice of opposition regarding Rhee's land reforms seeing them as limited compared to the work done northwards. However, he tried to avoid criticism of the regime while the Korean War lasted as the heavy campaign against leftist elements was raging the country. Recent released documents from the Korean National Archives reveal that Syngman Rhee thought about purging even those leftists in his government thinking that they were another threat, however, at the insistence of the American Advisors present at the peninsula he decided to let them be.

The year after the Korean War was won was one of the most chaotic ones Korea went through in the XXth Century. Syngman Rhee's authoritarian rule and brutal tactics against his opponents turned several politicians against him (at least in secret, as publicly opposing Rhee was quite dangerous) even right-wing ones. It's interesting to say so, as some of them eventually tried to limit president Cho's reforms, he was capable of creating coalitions against the hostile environment that Rhee's dictatorship plagued the country.

Forming one of the most impressive coalitions in Korean history he was able of uniting right-wing politicians and left-wing ones to fight Rhee's dictatorship. One of the first actions Cho Bong-am took after assuming power was restoring Park Chung-hee as Chief of Staff for the ROK Army. The motives behind his decision are clear, he needed the support of the army and also to appease the american's concern regarding the new leftist government of Korea, in that way he would be able to gain the military's trust and also the american willingness to keep the aid flowing towards the peninsula.

Picture 01.jpg

Republic of Korea's government after Cho Bong-am took power but before Park Chung-he was restored to his Chief of Staff position. To the right one can see how were the policies at the moment.

After restoring Park Chung-hee he went after the National Security Act, he rolled back the measures taken by Rhee specially the most controversial one regarding the families of communist sympathizers. Previously only the active communists were hunted but Rhee's measures made it possible for the system to prosecute those related to them, even if they weren't communists. It was a brutal witch-hunt.
Those actions were useful to restore order in Korea, he granted amnesty and decided to finish the general mobilization of the army by December 15th. He gradually achieved the peace that Rhee wasn't able to win.

Picture 03 End Gen Mob.jpg

The End of the General Mobilization brought peace through the peninsula along the forgiveness measures taken by Cho Bong-am and the rolling back of the strongest measures of the NSA. Soldiers were returning to their families and provinces to help in the reconstruction while most of the army was deployed to the northern border.
Those weren't the only actions taken by Cho Bong-am, previously, Syngman Rhee enacted the Infrastructure Development Act but the main issue about it was that no funds were assigned to the commission in charge of the project. Most of the cash was getting drained by the corrupt politicians in the government, eventually, Cho Bong-am started a "War against the Immoral Government", the results were mixed to say the least.

But his actions and his cooperation with the army helped him to recover the funds destined to the Infrastructure Development Act and the work started in at the end of December. Those projects were meant to strengthen Korea's infrastructure, in order to develop a stronger industry in the future, specially by using the resources at the north.

Picture 04.jpg

The measures taken since Rhee's death were highly effective at reducing the anger towards the government. Cho Bong-am was a charismatic politician and he managed to gaint he support from the people easily after rolling back the harshest actions done by Syngman Rhee. It brought a fresh air to the peninsula and that's why the First Republic of Korea is considered the worst of all.
Basically at December 20th, president Cho took an important decision, while it basically didn't change anything on the constitution nor the government it was an important signal for the chances coming to the Korean Peninsula. That day the First Republic of Korea was declared defunct, lasting from 1948 to 1951 and widely considered to be Syngman Rhee's project.
Today, historians agree that Syngman Rhee was an important figure for the shaping of Modern Korea but they disagree on their impact. Right-wing politicians defend him saying that he was a necessary evil over the country in order to guarantee order and peace while leftists claim the opposite, they feel he was an oppresive tyrant interested only in staying at the helm.

The Second Republic of Korea was born on December, close to being one month after Syngman Rhee died by his shot injury. While his legacy remains as something controversial, there's evidence that his government did at least good things too. The Infrastructure Development Act, the National Education Investment Act and the Communication Network Development Act are widely considered to be his greatest achievements along the unification of the peninsula.
However, people tends to forget that Cho Bong-am was the president behind the enactment of the IDA and the CNDA as Rhee was mainly focused on education while corruption stopped the aforementioned acts. (IDA and CNDA)

Picture 02.jpg

After a brief struggle to recover the funds, president Cho Bong-am used the foreign aid to start building (and rebuilding) the infrastructure over the country. The main priority was the National Route One. (Connecting Sinuiji in the northern part of the country to Mokpo in the south)
By January, 1952 it was evident that Korea was once again stable. Guerrillas were still active but they were now far smaller than they were before, the state of war plaguing the country was at its end. The soldiers were joyous to return with their families, to begin the reconstruction of the peninsula and Cho Bong-am was glad to help with that.

Demobilizing the army helped him to reduce the military spending and that gave him the opportunity to start subsidizing the reconstruction of the country. While he was aware that the whole country needed his help he placed an important focus on the south as it was the main agrarian region and people was starving, aid was coming from United States, United Nations and even from Japan but it wasn't enough to completely stabilize the situation in the south.

Previously, Syngman Rhee chose to support those japanese left or even the former collaborators but Cho Bong-am was totally against it. While he knew that some of the former collaborators would be useful for the country, he was against the idea of helping those "traitors" as he called them. The first step towards his fight against Rhee's supporters was the land reform.

Rhee kept it quite limited and even reversed the one done in the north, that was one of the main reasons for the national outrage, president Cho soon decided to revert Rhee's decision and to also expand the land reform over the south. He knew it was a dangerous move and even expressed: "Today, several supporters of president Rhee will be angry, but those angry aren't the tenth size of those starving by his decisions. Korea has to move ahead, only together we'll be able to succeed."

His Coalition took a blow after the reform, however, it stayed strong as Rhee's supporters started to rally behind the powerless prime minister: Chang Myon. While he wasn't entirely powerless, his influence was getting weaker with the time, prominent figures joined Cho's regime after seeing the stability he was bringing to the country.

Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values and the felt that Cho Bong-am was very close to communism and he was also worried about Cho's past as a founding member of the Communist Party of Korea. While he agreed on the reforms Cho Bong-am was taking he also felt that he was a potential communist dictator, that's why he accepted the support from Rhee's allies. While some of them weren't interested on Chang Myon's vision, they felt he was actually a moderate figure compared to the "radical" Bong-am.

Some of the right-wing politicians were concerned about it, Chang Myon wasn't their type of candidate but he was also more moderate than Cho Bong-am. However, they thought that Chang's allies were a threat to the nascent Korean Democracy, specially as they were willing to support a ruthless tyrant as Syngman Rhee.
After understanding that, it makes sense why the right-wing politicians chose to stay close to a left-wing president even if there was a moderate option at the table.
Cho Bong-am announced that elections would take place in 1956, it was clear for the conservatives that they had to assemble a strong coalition before the elections came or they would have to choose between Cho Bong-am and Chang Myon.

Picture 07.jpg

President Cho's Land Reform was widely praised, it brought numerous benefits to the average citizen of the Republic of Korea. It caused discontent through the conservative groups but it was seen as the best option to stabilize the critic situation on the peninsula.

Well, here we are with the new chapter!
Apologies for taking so long, I've been quite busy irl and I'm close to returning to classes so I'll be a bit consumed.

I hope you enjoy the update!
I still have screenshots to make more updates, but Korea's 1953 was pretty deaaad, so I'll probably focus on international affairs by 1953 which is not bad at all as we have:: Iran, Soviet Union and soon I'll start to work on other events mainly regarding: Vietnam and France.

I'm trying my best to keep plausible this AAR and not just turning it into Korea-wank :p so even if freedom has won at the peninsula, expect some havoc ahead of us, after all, we still have some unrest and we have two big neighbours willing to export their revolution.

I don't know when will I post next update but I hope it won't be too long, next events I'm working on will deal with the economic situation and the politics over the peninsula, I'm also thinking about the relationship with the Republic of China and Japan so; expect more things to come!
(NOTE: I barely know about american politics so I decided not to touch USA election events -yet- so we may see some of OTL presidents...)
They should build a wall and make Chinese pay for it :p
That would be a great solution, by now we can trust in the Yalu River, bridges were destroyed and the non-existent relations between the countries mean we aren't rebuilding them anytime soon. :)

But those pesky-commie hordes can make a human bridge...
You'll be the Minister of Wall-Affairs.
Only legitimate Chinese government is in the Taipei, Republic of China, of course :p
Totally agree on that.
RoC all the way!
(It's funny as I'm planning on a future alliance between RoC and RoK)

(Off-topic, I've been watching your AAR [Black Tsar] and I was wondering, where you got the...uhm...unit-image for it? :eek: )
[Are they called skiffs? Do they work with Kaiserreich 1.8?]]
Rhee getting shot was probably a good thing, when all is said and done.
Rhee getting shot was probably a good thing, when all is said and done.
Indeed, I bet that americans must be quite happy to see Korea back to some stability, worried considering our leftist policies (and the fact game says Korea is right now left-wing radical) :p but I bet they prefer a stable government at the moment; Rhee was just creating so much chaos.

Nice AAR. Happy to see a unified Korea. Politics will keep Korea far from boring and being a backwater country no one looks after anymore ;)
Thanks. :)
:p You are right about it, at the moment our dear peninsula is still pretty much a third world country, however, the seeds for change are already there.

Korea's political situation will be quite interesting considering the most important figures at the moment:

A) President Cho Bong-am is quite popular at the moment (Both, with civilians and the military) while he causes some concern from the United States he is viewed as a capable, charismatic leader. His measures to stop the chaos overwhelming the government were quite effective but he also depends on the support from the right-wing politicians, they at the moment support him fearing that Chang Myon will use Rhee's allies to strengthen his influence; however, they would also prefer to join him, seeing him as a moderate option compared to Cho Bong-am.

B) Chang Myon, while he is just another left candidate it's easier to consider him a moderate-centrist candidate at the moment as he isn't as radical as Cho Bong-am. He retains the allies that supported Rhee as they feel he is their best option at the moment and the only one capable of standing against the current president. However, those who opposed Rhee's presidency are also worried, thinking that Chang Myon plans to "pull a Rhee" if he takes power.
Some right-wing supporters of Cho Bong-am see him as a possible choice but he is widely considered to be a threat to democracy as well.
He has a promising future and he may easily get american support too, but he would need to distance from Syngman Rhee's legacy first.

C) While he hasn't intervened in politics yet, we all know he is an ambitious man and he is also regarded as the Hero of Seoul by his heroic stand against the KPA occupation of the capital, here we go; Park Chung-hee, commander of Seoul's garrison and Chief of Staff.
He hasn't joined actively in politics but he is widely considered a hero, left, right, it doesn't matter (At least in the South) as he is viewed as a hero and he is also quite popular in the army. By now, he hasn't taken action on the political scenario of the country but he may eventually turn into a viable choice for the right-wing politicians.
General, influential, national hero and a strong anti-communist; perfect credentials for any right movement wishing to gain traction.

Time will tell how each one manages his hand in this complex game.
I already have screenshots for the next part and the next chapters, but I'll have this week a bit busy so I'll probably take some time to post the next update BUT I'm also returning to classes on Monday sooo, I'll have fewer time...
But do not worry :p I'll try to stay active AND the best thing about returning to college is I'll have access again to the books and there's one I would find quite useful for this AAR about Korea. :p

So, expect the next update between today and the Friday, I hope.
Chapter III: Cleaning the House. (Part II)
Chapter III: Cleaning the House. (Part II)
"Different times need different types of leadership." - Park Geun-hye, former president of the Republic of Korea.
Gyeongmudae, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ~ February 16th, 1952.

President Cho Bong-am was quite uncomfortable about being in the same office where Syngman Rhee had been shot. Everything was in order but it was still strange, he wasn't getting used to it yet. At least he stayed in there only to receive reports, most of his time was spent outside of Gyeongmudae; being at the National Assembly or traveling through the country in an attempt to spread hope and improve the population's morale.

He was reading the latest reports regarding research, Park Chung-hee along the american advisors was improving the army's doctrine. The country was at peace but it had two colossal enemies at the borders, the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union, both were aiming their guns towards Korea at least until americans left the peninsula but he also thought everything could be different.

"Perhaps if we follow a strict neutrality path we'll be able to appease the leaders at both countries, we are already united and our only threat are those two. They hate us not for our system, we are a threat to them until we expel the american forces from the peninsula." - he thought and for him, that made so much sense-. "I'll talk it soon with them, they should see the advantages of a neutral Korea, I'm sure China will continue to be a threat but perhaps if we extend our recognition to them they'll stop; we could be the asian Finland. It would be the best solution for the countries involved."

He was sure about the complications that idea could create, expressing that kind of ideas to other members of the government could be dangerous to say the least, specially if members of the army heard of his plan. That was the reason behind his idea of talking to the ambassador first, it was a political issue and military officers wouldn't be able to understand the complex system behind it. While Chief of Staff, Park Chung-hee, hadn't shown interest in politics yet he was an influential figure and he was highly regarded by the korean people.

"One mistake could be an opportunity for a man like him, but at least the people supports me. They know I'm their best choice and I won't fail them." - Cho Bong-am was thinking about an idea to gain more support from the population, after all, they were his strongest allies. - "This could work...it may also draw loyalty from the army, a better economy means better payment too, americans would be glad as they would be able to slowly reduce their funding of the country."

He kept thinking while he reviewed the latest reports, the military was getting modernized; both in doctrine and equipment. However, that wasn't the only thing, the industries at the north of the peninsula were slowly being rebuilt with american aid and technical support was flowing towards it too, improving the industrial efficiency at those state-owned factories. It was an interesting development, some goods produced at the north of the peninsula were bought by Japan as they tried to rebuild and restore their country too. At this point, they were far better than Korea but there were still things to restore over the home islands. While, at the same time, Korea was trying to negotiate with Japan regarding the status of the Zainichi Koreans (those who chose to stay at Japan after the Second World War finished) and the situation going on with the Mindan organization.

Picture 05.jpg

The ongoing research projects were focused on improving the military performance and also the economic situation in the peninsula, the steel production was slowly growing and also fabric production was recovering.

Modern History: Korea. - Wade Barnett.

Picture 08.jpg

The Four-Year Economic Plan was president Cho's main project, he felt that it was the perfect tool to get the best position in Korean Politics. It caused concern in Washington as some viewed it as a similar project to those carried on by the communist regimes, however, the subsidies offered by the government towards private companies eased the worries about the project.
President Cho Bong-am announced the beginning of the Four-Year Economic Plan on March 20th, 1952. Several points in the project were considered too radical by many right-wing politicians, causing a severe rupture in his Great Coalition. Many thought that he was going to privatize the factories and industries in the north of the peninsula, however, Cho Bong-am agreed on that issue with his predecessor; the state had to control those lucrative factories to keep influence and balance in the nation's economy and development.

His project meant that most of the foreign aid that Korea was receiving would be funneled towards the state industries and the merging of other companies under the government's banner. Prime Minister Chang Myon expressed his opposition towards the new policies insisting that private property was threatened by the leftist government. However, his complaint was basically ignored through the country; several right-wing politicians refused to support him as long as he was associated with Rhee's allies, the army stayed away from the issue but privately many agreed with the president as many munition factories (previously built by Japan) were opening once again in the north, while the civilian population wholeheartedhly chose to support the charismatic president as he was seen as the best figure to bring prosperity to the country.

At the start, many articles on his project were considered to be quite radical on their role for giving the government a strong position and control of the economy. Nonetheless, there were also sections mentioning government subsidies towards private companies, while the circumstances weren't clear enough it relieved the wealthy class and those owners of small factories. It was clear that president Cho wasn't trying to give the government the whole control over the economy, he was interested on a guidance role rather than controlling everything in the country and that would be an important pillar for his successors to work on.

Most of the foreign aid was getting invested on education, the infrastructure and now the Four-Year Plan. Factories were slowly regaining their full capacity and small workshops were springing up thanks to the government's support, unemployment was reducing at a fast rate thanks to the government projects. However, it raised concern from some american economists as they started to think that the Korean Economy could overheat before having a reasonable level of development. It's important to say it, Korea was still a backwards country, it can be considered a third-world country at this point of her history but it's also important to mention that all of the reforms and projects implemented were slowly placing the foundations for their future.

Picture 09.jpg

On August 5th, 1952 the korean government chose to unify several electric companies into the state-owned Korean Electric Power Corporation, nowadays known as KEPCO.
President Cho Bong-am clarified that the state-owned character of the corporation was temporal, he expressed that before privatization the main priority was development. "Otherwise, we'll have a crumbling economy." - he famously said at the National Assembly.
Today the Korean Government owns (directly and indirectly) a 52% share of KEPCO, however, the first years of the company were under the government's thumb much to the annoyance of his detractors. The situation was gradually improving and at the same time worries were getting higher from those rightist elements in the Great Coalition.

They felt that the government was intervening too much on the economy, they felt it was a planned economy as the one used by the soviets. It was the Electric Enterprises Act the one that cleared prime minister Chang's mind, he figured out that he no longer needed the support from those previously aligned to Syngman Rhee. Several right-wing politicians weren't happy at the perceived government's control of the economy, he publicly spoke against Syngman Rhee, some of his worst decisions and even his former allies on August 9th, 1952.

The second rupture towards Cho's Great Coalition took place on that day. It's important to study it as it caused one of the major fractures in the coalition, many moderates chose to align with Chang Myon while most of the right-wing politicians flocked to his side as well, still lacking a charismatic figure to rally behind. Cho Bong-am was still popular, he was respected by everyone in the political arena as an effective leader but the opposition was starting to get organized behind Chang Myon.
Nonetheless, those who supported Rhee didn't stay in the shadows.

An active campaign to find a right-wing figure started, they left out Park Chung-hee of their list as he was part of the current government, they also felt that Park was a man they wouldn't be able to control.

It was at that moment that some former collaborators chose to contact the american embassy, however, the Truman administration was decided to respect the new government in Korea. United States didn't agree with the policies taken by president Cho, however, they preferred his stable rule over the chaotic mess that Rhee caused in the peninsula.

Picture 10.jpg

Cooperation between the United States and Korea led to the formation of the Republic of Korea Marine Corps, a new branch to the armed forces. The government felt it was a proper way to improve the national security and also to gain favour from the military after the second rupture took place.
On November 27th, 1952 the ROK Marine Corps was formed.
President Cho Bong-am thought it was a great idea after listening to Park Chung-hee, the general's proposal was inspired by the Inchon landing that took place during the Korean War.

The success of the ROK Army during the offensive against the north has been widely attributed to the Inchon Landing ordered by general Douglas MacArthur. He declared that the landing wasn't planned as it should have been, "It was rushed, logistics could've been awful, weather could've been in favour of the communists.", but at the end it worked and it allowed the ROK Army to gain the initiative against the KPA.

After taking that into consideration, it's easy to understand why modern Korea values the Marine Corps so much. They are the reason for their freedom and every year they honour those who died during the battle for Inchon, it's impressive, there's one day for those americans who died defending Korea but Inchon's marines have another one too.

4:33 a.m. over here, but here it is, Part II.
Next part will be quite short as 1953 was a dead year for Korea, but Chapter IV will focus on those foreign events I haven't really touched yet.

I hope you enjoy it.
plz Korean paratroopers too :)
Korea needs them as well.

By now it's too early to think about establishing a totally modernized military as Korea is still riding political issues and trying to improve the economy, however, when the time comes Korea will have a small but efficient army.
I'm already planning on some events regarding that, tech teams and the structure I'll adopt for the army when my economy allows some of the most expensive units.
The Domestic politics, if a little fraught, mostly sound heartwarmingly domestic, as it were.

Nice to see the marines "arrive" as it were.
I was going to write the next update but I suddenly chose to start a game at the Modern Day Scenario.
It has been quite fun, United States beat the crap out of Ecuador, Cuba and Venezuela.
Meanwhile, I annexed Somalia (Temporal colony, until I manage to build some factories over there), while Laos is my puppet and I also launched an invasion of Taiwan :p it was sucessful as USA never attacked me.

Anyways, next update will probably be out on sunday.
I was going to write the next update but I suddenly chose to start a game at the Modern Day Scenario.
It has been quite fun, United States beat the crap out of Ecuador, Cuba and Venezuela.
Meanwhile, I annexed Somalia (Temporal colony, until I manage to build some factories over there), while Laos is my puppet and I also launched an invasion of Taiwan :p it was sucessful as USA never attacked me.

Anyways, next update will probably be out on sunday.

Good luck to you with this. I'm looking forward to your new masterpiece
Good luck to you with this. I'm looking forward to your new masterpiece

I was thinking about doing a MDS AAR too, but I should first finish with this one. :p I'm still unsure about when will this one end.
Chapter III: Cleaning the House. (Part III)
Chapter III: Cleaning the House. (Part III)
"We must regain the confidence and drive to decide our own destiny." - Roh Moo-hyun, former president of the Republic of Korea.
Hanoi, Democratic Republic of Vietnam. ~ December 14th, 1952.

Commander Võ Nguyên Giáp was one of the responsible for the unification of Vietnam and the expulsion of the french forces. All the world got shocked after Vietnam managed to repel the french forces in the country in 1950, it even impulsed the fear among Western countries that the communists were decided to take the whole of Asia. Their quick victory at Vietnam caused fear and it eventually forged the american decision to stop them at Korea finally.

China and the Soviet Union were worried about the destruction of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, specially China as they now had a border with an American vassal, as they saw it. The Soviet Union rejected the chinese plan to renew hostilities in Korea during the chaotic year of 1951, they felt that a war between China and the United States would eventually see the use of nuclear weapons and Stalin knew that the USSR hadn't enough weapons to threaten America if China started to lose.

However, Mao was decided to dislodge the americans from Korea, he thought that creating another conflict would force them to leave Korea alone, giving China the opportunity to strike to at least restore the DPRK, in the best case, they would be able to take the whole peninsula. Stalin agreed to the plan, it would allow him to expand the influence of the Soviet Union but it would be seen strictly as a chinese action, allowing him to stay away from the conflict.

"Commander, the president has decided to go along the Soviet-Chinese operation. Supplies will start to flow towards the country, the Soviet Union also promised to help developing our economy. It's an important offer we can't refuse, China and the Soviet Union are basically offering us aid to invade Laos and Cambodia and that was already something we needed to do. A free Indochina will be stronger along our communist allies, I don't trust China but the Soviets are more willing to help us." - said president Ho Chi Minh. - "We must be ready, the imperialist powers will eventually intervene against us, specially the United States, that general Eisenhower won't accept the Indochinese freedom."

It was a dangerous plan, specially as the republicans had won the White House. General Eisenhower criticized Truman's management of the Korean War, the fall of China to communism and the defeat of the French Forces in Vietnam. It was an election dominated by foreign policy and Stevenson hadn't enough credentials to beat Eisenhower, specially after general MacArthur expressed his concern about the policy taken so far by Truman regarding Korea. The republican victory made it clear for every communist country, communism would be halted once and for all, but no one was ready for the operation Vietnam was preparing with soviet-chinese help.

Modern History: Korea. - Wade Barnett.

Picture 11.jpg

Korea continued modernizing and researching new technologies. By 1953 one of the most important priorities was improving the army's fighting capacity along improving the economic situation and using in a better way the factories at the north and the resources found there.
Chief of Staff Park Chung-hee thought that the best way Korea would be able to retain her independence was having a strong army, he knew that a big army could be expensive for the country and the economic situation wouldn't be able to sustain it. But he decided to look towards other countries, Germany during the Second World War hadn't a bigger army than the soviets but their forces were superior in training and their officers were more prepared than the soviets ones after the purge.

He insisted that american military advisors were the best option for the ROK Military, they were able to improve the military doctrines giving Korea an opportunity to get enough strength through organization and morale. Nonetheless, he also knew that equipment was important, that's why he tasked the development of new equipment. At the moment Korea couldn't produce her own equipment or supplies, but by studying the american designs one day they would be able.

Meanwhile, synthetic oil production was considered to be important. While the north of the peninsula had abundant resources, the south didn't and it was important for president Cho's economic plans to improve the situation over the whole peninsula. American engineers soon started to help Korea to improve her situation, many factories were restored by January of 1953. Some remained damaged, but several were reopening, however, Cho Bong-am was undecided regarding how would he use those factories.

President Rhee nationalized them, wishing to maintain the upper hand and Cho Bong-am agreed on keeping them as state-owned industries. But he also wanted to develop the economy and that was the main issue, at the moment Korea's factories output was barely efficient. Trade with Japan was quite limited as the relation were practically non-existent, they only traded by America's orders. United States wanted to form the Shield of Liberty, specially president Eisenhower as he considered that the Chinese-Soviet-Vietnam bloc in Asia could be dangerous to other nations. However, Cho Bong-am was opposed to establishing relations with Japan, there was a strong anti-japanese in the peninsula.

That was another point he shared with his predecessor and also the prime minister, Chang Myon. However, one of the important figures emerging in Korea didn't have anti-japanese credentials as the president and prime minister did. Park Chung-hee thought that only through cooperation with Korea's neighbour would the country improve, he was slowly thinking more and more about politics. But he chose not to interfere on that ground, he kept his attention in the army, strengthening Korea was his main priority but he was also starting to suspect the president's foreign policy plans.

Park Chung-hee was a strong anti-communist and he knew Cho Bong-am had been a founding member of the Communist Party of Korea years ago. He chose to ignore that fact but he was suspectful about the foreign policy Korea would employ, after all, Cho Bong-am hadn't speak about it yet. He was focusd on improving the situation at the peninsula in domestic affairs, he seemed to think that domestic and foreign issues were quite different. But Park didn't think the same.

General Park thought that communist meddling could disrupt Korea's domestic situation. He thought that only through a strong foreign policy the country would be able to stop the communist interference over the country. He felt that the alliance with United States was the best tool Korea could use against the two countries at Korea's borders. There were rumours about president Cho Bong-am saying that only neutrality would keep Korea stable and safe from the chaotic international stage.
Park disagreed, neutrality meant a chance to invade, at least for him.

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Infrastructure Development Act brought numerous benefits to the Republic of Korea, several routes were repaired and new ones were built by 1953. One of the most important was National Route 1 as it went through Mokpo in the South towards Sinuiji in the North.
By January, 1953 the first infrastructure project was completed.
Several routes were repaired and new ones were built allowing the country to get connected easily and giving the army and easier way to mobilize through the country. The most important was National Route 1 as it basically went from north to south, improving the economic situation, however, another important one is Freedom Route 1.

Freedom Route 1 was named after those fallen during the Korean War, it connected Busan towards Seoul, Inchon and it went north until hitting Ganggye and Pyeongyang. Similar to National Route 1 but starting at Busan instead of Mokpo and finishing at Ganggye instead of Sinuiji. This one was mainly built for the army, as it connected several military facilities through the country. The strategic city of Busan to the most important city (in military terms) in the north; Ganggye.

The benefit of having new infrastructure was evident through the country, transport capacities improved. And it helped to continue the reconstruction of the north after the USAF's bombing raids. It was too soon, but everyone knew that the Infrastructure Development Act would be a massive benefit for the Republic of Korea. Today it is widely considered to be a success of Cho Bong-am, while the right strongly opposes that, claiming that it was Rhee's project.

Opinions are divided, some recognize it was Rhee's idea but Cho Bong-am as the one to make it true.

When the first infrastructure plan was finished in 1953 controversy arose in Seoul.
President Cho Bong-am wanted to rebuild those bridges connecting China and Korea, he expressed that only through friendship with her neighbours would Korea stay independent and at peace. It eventually triggered the alarms from those in the right-wing and also from the Americans. But that wasn't all, there were moderates who disagreed with him too, thinking that China and the Soviet Union were threats and would never stop to be threats to Korea's independence.

Modern historians claim that it was president Cho's speech at the National Assembly on February 2nd, 1953 the main cause behind General Park's interest in politics.
Archives show that after president Cho's speech the popularity of Chang Myon went up, but they also reveal that american advisors started to consider Park Chung-hee as the best option to keep Korea stable and aligned to America.

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The National Education Investment Act is widely known to be created by Syngman Rhee, it's ironic how many people remembers NEIA as Rhee's project but they forget he was responsible for the infrastructure projects as well. Today, even those that criticize former president Rhee consider that his Education Act was the cornerstone for Korea's modernization.
I feel that today's update is shorter than the usual ones, I know, but 1953 was such a booooring year.
Nothing interesting happened and I didn't make many events for it either...

The next chapter will be focused on some foreign affairs.
I'm close to returning to classes so I'll have less time and I still need to create more events.

Chapter IV will be: Foreign Events.
And Chapter V may be focused too on foreign events.
I'm planning to have 1954-1955 as important years in foreign events but not quite impressive on domestic ones for Korea.

So we would probably return to Korea until Chapter 6 taking place in 1956.
1956 is a promising year as:::
1) Four-Year Plan ends.
2) Eleeeections.

I hope you enjoy the update and tell me what do you think about my plans for future chapters!
The ROK Marine Corps, protecting your freedom since 1952! I hope they will be used to liberate the people living under the communist yoke.
I promise that we'll see them in action, but it will take a few time until we get to that point.

As some of the future-hints show, there's a big fight waiting us against Red China.
Quite lot of important developments even for a "quiet" year