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Victoria 3 - Dev Diary #32 - Colonization

16_9.jpg

Good evening and welcome to this week’s dev diary! Today’s topic is colonization, which in Victoria 3 terms means the process of establishing and expanding colonial states in regions owned by Decentralized nations.

The pith helmet became popular among British forces following the Anglo-Sikh wars, being widely adopted in tropical regions. The helmet has become synonymous with 19th and 20th Century colonial conquests and expeditions.
DD32 1.png

To establish colonies, you must have researched the Colonization technology, a tier 1 technology common to many recognized powers at game start. This unlocks Colonization laws as well as the Colonial Affairs Institution, which affects how quickly your colonies will grow.

In 1884 the Berlin Conference initiated the Scramble for Africa. Hungry for new resources and global dominance, the great powers divided the continent between themselves and began a relentless campaign of conquest and colonization, establishing colonial governments to oversee their new domains.
DD32 2.png


You can establish colonies in strategic regions where you have declared an Interest, and within those strategic regions you can colonize a state region in which at least one state is controlled by a Decentralized nation. Once you’ve selected a location, one of the provinces in that state region will be the starting point for your colony. Having a colony in a state region does not give you a monopoly on it; other colonial powers can create competing colonies, resulting in split states and messy borders that are sure to generate diplomatic tensions in the future.

Colonial States are a special kind of state that is created by establishing a colony in a Decentralized nation or conquering territory from an Unrecognized power. A Colonial State that borders a non-colonial state belonging to the same country will lose its colonial status and become a regular unincorporated state. Colonial States have a bonus to migration attraction and are affected by certain modifiers from colonial laws and the Colonial Affairs institution. Since Colonial States cannot be incorporated, your institutions do not apply there, and pops living in these states cannot be taxed and will have very little political power to contribute to Interest Groups.

Now, why would you want a colony? Primarily, you’d want colonies to gain access to more natural resources that you may be lacking at home, especially goods required for more advanced manufacturing Production Methods like rubber and dye. Once your colony expands enough that it’s the largest State in its State Region, it will become part of your National Market, giving you direct access to the goods it produces assuming that you ensure market access. Many European powers have little opportunity for aggressive expansion in their homelands, as wars there could become very unpredictable and destructive. And of course, any territory you don’t colonize yourself may fall into the hands of your rivals!

A handy progress bar lets you know how soon your colony will expand, with the corresponding tooltip and nested tooltip breaking down in increasing detail exactly why it is growing (or not growing!) at the current rate.
DD33 3.png

DD33 4.png


The rate of Colonial Growth is determined by your incorporated population, and modified by your Colony Growth Generation Speed (primarily affected by your investment in Colonial Affairs) as well as by local conditions in the State Region.The more colonies you have growing at once, the less quickly each colony will develop, though you can selectively pause and resume Colonial Growth in a state. Once a colony grows, it will expand into neighboring provinces owned by a Decentralized nation within its state region.

Early in the game, the colonization of most regions will be a very long and painful process due to the prevalence of malaria and other hostile conditions. The technology of the time did not allow the European colonial powers to penetrate far into Africa, but with the development of quinine and malaria prevention techniques this would cease to be the obstacle it once was. In Victoria 3, you will need to develop your medical technology and invest in your institutions to overcome harsh penalties to colonial growth in the most inhospitable regions.

Now of course you can’t expect to claim and exploit vast swathes of land without some resistance from the people who live there. While a colony is growing, it has a chance to generate Tension with neighbouring Decentralized nations. If Tension rises too high, the Decentralized nation will begin a Native Uprising - a kind of Diplomatic Play - against you to retake their homeland and expel the invaders. Tension will slowly decay, but on average you can expect the factors advancing Tension to eventually outweigh its decay rate. Though it is very likely that the native inhabitants will be technologically outmatched by a colonial power, there are some factors that give them a fighting chance. Firstly, the colonial power needs to manage the logistics of transporting an army to the region while the Decentralized nation has the home advantage. Secondly, other nations with an Interest in the region can join the Diplomatic Play on either side. If France, for instance, has their own designs for dominance over West Africa they might decide to support Kaabu in their struggle against British encroachment.

Colonial laws are typically supported by the Armed Forces due to their Jingoist ideology, which causes them to advocate for an aggressive and expansionist foreign policy. The Industrialists, ever seeking new sources of profit, especially favor Colonial Exploitation, while the Rural Folk fear for their livelihoods if their agricultural jobs are replaced by cheap colonial labor.
3neT-frlXmAX3kEB8sw7ABgULE-BnLWuFAiJ4PlEOQXwYJEpM2Dz-Xx0xjwkAXeMAQ2wpEOfcHLXdorUEE7hzlZsuPGnIhYvvRJW_KOpI9aLEybOWe5qo4BMrEhStkTUhTayZV4Q

One of the most important factors affecting Tension decay is your colonial policy. Colonial powers can choose between Colonial Resettlement, which encourages migration to colonies, and Colonial Exploitation, which improves building throughput in colonial states at the expense of reduced Tension decay and Standard of Living for pops in those states.

Let’s sum this up: once you have the appropriate technology and laws, you can start a colony in a Decentralized nation and it will slowly expand over time. The rate of growth is determined largely by your level of investment in Colonial Affairs and the population of your incorporated states. As your colonies grow, they generate Tension with nearby Decentralized nations which can eventually lead to a Native Uprising.

Next week I’ll be handing you over to Ofaloaf of Monthly Update video fame, who will talk in more detail about the Decentralized nations of Victoria 3’s world map.
 
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This comment is reserved by the Community Team for gathering Dev Responses in, for ease of reading. ✨

cb30001 said:
Will the Congo have extra events attached, like the congo conference or will it follow normal colonisation?

There will be content for the exploration and colonization of the Congo, but that doesn't replace the normal colonization mechanics. At no point is anyone awarded "free" colonial states.

lnCarvalho said:
Are there Journal Entries that 'encourage' you to colonize?

We have a Journal Entry called "Scramble for Africa"!

Funnybunny said:
I assume colonization of the two Americas will be far easier then Africa?

Large portions of Africa are very difficult to colonize due to malaria etc, so for the most part decentralized nations in the Americas are much easier to colonize.

LucasG21 said:
Ah, so this is where split states come into play, then!

Anyways, are there any laws you can pass to reduce Tension growth or increase decay? There were advocates for an "ethical" colonialism at this time, such as the Liberal Imperialists of Britain; will their policy preferences be represented?

Colonial Resettlement improves your tension decay compared to Colonial Exploitation. We also have some content for the EIC and Dutch East Indies inspired by historical attempts to do, with heavy quotation marks, "ethical colonialism", but that's not related to the mechanic of colonizing decentralized nations.

Freger said:
Is it correctly understood that 'growing a colony' is practically expanding it to more provinces within said state?

And what is the economic costs to expanding a colony? Could I make one with let say Lübeck?

Enska said:
Can you give us some estimate how expensive colonizing and maintaining colonies is? Do you need large/medium size economy to do that, or is it feasible for minors as well?

That's correct, colony growth is based on province-by-province expansion into a state region.

The economic cost is represented by the cost of maintaining the Government Administrations that generate the Bureaucracy used to invest in the Colonial Affairs Institution. This is scaled to your population, which is good for small countries because they can invest about as easily as a large country, but also bad because the impact is also scaled to your incorporated population, meaning small countries ultimately still colonize at a slower rate.

The Goldfinch said:
Do military expeditions play any role in colonial expansion? They absolutely should

The military role of colonial expansion is represented partially by the need to respond with force to native uprisings in decentralized nations, and partially by invasions of the centralized countries in Africa. More on which countries are which next week!

cloudwasher said:
What limits are there on how many colonies you can start at once? Is it cost restricting it or some sort of hard cap number?

You can start as many colonies as you like, but your total growth will be split between each colony. So starting a large number of colonies will make each one grow painfully slowly, which increases the time until you're able to add the state to your national market, increases the chance of generating tension, and leaves more time for your rivals to start up a competing colony.


Wizzington said:
Right, I'm going to jump in with some clarifications about Colonial States here (and my bad for missing this when reviewing the DD internally): The old design worked exactly as @neondt outlined, but we recently made some changes. Specifically, we unified the concepts of Colonial and Unincorporated States (as the line between colony and territory is more than a little blurry) and we made it possible to Incorporate any State, though with a varying amount of time and resource investment based on cultural ties (while a State is being Incorporated, you pay all the costs for it and receive only partial benefits). Sorry for the confusion!

Wizzington said:
There's no longer a distinction between Colonial State and Unincorporated State, so no, this isn't a thing. Whether an Unincorporated State is more of a colony or more of a loosely administrated territory depends on the country's policies.
 
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A glimpse into uprisings and rebellions, turns out those are linked with Dip Plays
 
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Do we have any control over in which direction the colonial provinces expand to? Or is it completely autonomous what will be the next province to get colonised?

I do like the autonomy of expansion from a historical perspective, as it does represent ''exploration of the ''unknown'' regions'' and the lack of control central governments in Europe sometimes/often had over their colonial expansion.

But understand it could be a bit frustrating from a gameplay perspective.
 
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Ah, so this is where split states come into play, then!

Anyways, are there any laws you can pass to reduce Tension growth or increase decay? There were advocates for an "ethical" colonialism at this time, such as the Liberal Imperialists of Britain; will their policy preferences be represented?
 
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Is it correctly understood that 'growing a colony' is practically expanding it to more provinces within said state?

And what is the economic costs to expanding a colony? Could I make one with let say Lübeck?
 
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Wow, this looks excellent. Can't wait to start colonizing! I especially love how much info these tooltips give us.

Guess I'll have to invest in a colonial fighting force as well.
 
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View attachment 801589
Good evening and welcome to this week’s dev diary! Today’s topic is colonization, which in Victoria 3 terms means the process of establishing and expanding colonial states in regions owned by Decentralized nations.

The pith helmet became popular among British forces following the Anglo-Sikh wars, being widely adopted in tropical regions. The helmet has become synonymous with 19th and 20th Century colonial conquests and expeditions.
View attachment 801590

To establish colonies, you must have researched the Colonization technology, a tier 1 technology common to many recognized powers at game start. This unlocks Colonization laws as well as the Colonial Affairs Institution, which affects how quickly your colonies will grow.

In 1884 the Berlin Conference initiated the Scramble for Africa. Hungry for new resources and global dominance, the great powers divided the continent between themselves and began a relentless campaign of conquest and colonization, establishing colonial governments to oversee their new domains.
View attachment 801591


You can establish colonies in strategic regions where you have declared an Interest, and within those strategic regions you can colonize a state region in which at least one state is controlled by a Decentralized nation. Once you’ve selected a location, one of the provinces in that state region will be the starting point for your colony. Having a colony in a state region does not give you a monopoly on it; other colonial powers can create competing colonies, resulting in split states and messy borders that are sure to generate diplomatic tensions in the future.

Colonial States are a special kind of state that is created by establishing a colony in a Decentralized nation or conquering territory from an Unrecognized power. A Colonial State that borders a non-colonial state belonging to the same country will lose its colonial status and become a regular unincorporated state. Colonial States have a bonus to migration attraction and are affected by certain modifiers from colonial laws and the Colonial Affairs institution. Since Colonial States cannot be incorporated, your institutions do not apply there, and pops living in these states cannot be taxed and will have very little political power to contribute to Interest Groups.

Now, why would you want a colony? Primarily, you’d want colonies to gain access to more natural resources that you may be lacking at home, especially goods required for more advanced manufacturing Production Methods like rubber and dye. Once your colony expands enough that it’s the largest State in its State Region, it will become part of your National Market, giving you direct access to the goods it produces assuming that you ensure market access. Many European powers have little opportunity for aggressive expansion in their homelands, as wars there could become very unpredictable and destructive. And of course, any territory you don’t colonize yourself may fall into the hands of your rivals!

A handy progress bar lets you know how soon your colony will expand, with the corresponding tooltip and nested tooltip breaking down in increasing detail exactly why it is growing (or not growing!) at the current rate.
View attachment 801592
View attachment 801593


The rate of Colonial Growth is determined by your incorporated population, and modified by your Colony Growth Generation Speed (primarily affected by your investment in Colonial Affairs) as well as by local conditions in the State Region.The more colonies you have growing at once, the less quickly each colony will develop, though you can selectively pause and resume Colonial Growth in a state. Once a colony grows, it will expand into neighboring provinces owned by a Decentralized nation within its state region.

Early in the game, the colonization of most regions will be a very long and painful process due to the prevalence of malaria and other hostile conditions. The technology of the time did not allow the European colonial powers to penetrate far into Africa, but with the development of quinine and malaria prevention techniques this would cease to be the obstacle it once was. In Victoria 3, you will need to develop your medical technology and invest in your institutions to overcome harsh penalties to colonial growth in the most inhospitable regions.

Now of course you can’t expect to claim and exploit vast swathes of land without some resistance from the people who live there. While a colony is growing, it has a chance to generate Tension with neighbouring Decentralized nations. If Tension rises too high, the Decentralized nation will begin a Native Uprising - a kind of Diplomatic Play - against you to retake their homeland and expel the invaders. Tension will slowly decay, but on average you can expect the factors advancing Tension to eventually outweigh its decay rate. Though it is very likely that the native inhabitants will be technologically outmatched by a colonial power, there are some factors that give them a fighting chance. Firstly, the colonial power needs to manage the logistics of transporting an army to the region while the Decentralized nation has the home advantage. Secondly, other nations with an Interest in the region can join the Diplomatic Play on either side. If France, for instance, has their own designs for dominance over West Africa they might decide to support Kaabu in their struggle against British encroachment.

Colonial laws are typically supported by the Armed Forces due to their Jingoist ideology, which causes them to advocate for an aggressive and expansionist foreign policy. The Industrialists, ever seeking new sources of profit, especially favor Colonial Exploitation, while the Rural Folk fear for their livelihoods if their agricultural jobs are replaced by cheap colonial labor.
3neT-frlXmAX3kEB8sw7ABgULE-BnLWuFAiJ4PlEOQXwYJEpM2Dz-Xx0xjwkAXeMAQ2wpEOfcHLXdorUEE7hzlZsuPGnIhYvvRJW_KOpI9aLEybOWe5qo4BMrEhStkTUhTayZV4Q

One of the most important factors affecting Tension decay is your colonial policy. Colonial powers can choose between Colonial Resettlement, which encourages migration to colonies, and Colonial Exploitation, which improves building throughput in colonial states at the expense of reduced Tension decay and Standard of Living for pops in those states.

Let’s sum this up: once you have the appropriate technology and laws, you can start a colony in a Decentralized nation and it will slowly expand over time. The rate of growth is determined largely by your level of investment in Colonial Affairs and the population of your incorporated states. As your colonies grow, they generate Tension with nearby Decentralized nations which can eventually lead to a Native Uprising.

Next week I’ll be handing you over to Ofaloaf of Monthly Update video fame, who will talk in more detail about the Decentralized nations of Victoria 3’s world map.
Hm, so if colonial state neighbouring an incorporated state becomes unincorporated one, would it mean that when Ottomans annex Egypt (I hope would be possible to do it at once through Oriental Crysis?) then Egypt and Egyptian Sudan would become unincorporated states immidiately, just like Syria? And Egyptian Crete would remain a colony, as it doesn't have land connection?
 
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Can you give us some estimate how expensive colonizing and maintaining colonies is? Do you need large/medium size economy to do that, or is it feasible for minors as well?
 
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