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ManoDeZombi

Content Designer - HOI4
Oct 23, 2019
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Olá everyone and welcome to another dev diary for La Resistance! Let me begin by introducing myself: My name is Manuel, I’m from Spain and I joined Paradox as a Content Designer for HOI a couple of months ago (just on time to attend PDXCON, yeah!).

I’ve been working on the implementation of Portugal for La Resistance. The original design of the focus tree was made by Portuguese professor Pedro Santos. He came with what I consider to be a really interesting idea, where the political branch of the tree has multiple possible interactions with the Spanish Civil War.

While I worked on Portuguese Events and Decisions, the whole tree was implemented by our producer, Vachon (big kudos to her!). We tweaked the design of the Focus Tree a little bit, specifically the communist branch, which we felt was a bit dull compared to others, and the SCW-related branches to make them properly interact with Spain. Now I’m the one who will polish the tree and will attempt to get rid of all those lovely bugs our great Betas are reporting. Talking about Betas, our freelance artist @Indyclone77 is the one to blame for all the wonderful Portuguese event pictures and new icons you are about to see in the focus tree and national spirits, he has done an amazing job not only in making all that cool art, but also in providing crucial feedback during the development, so big kudos to him as well!

Before going on, please note that balancing is still a work in progress, so there may be changes in what you are about to see.

So I’d like to start talking about the National Spirits Portugal will start with in 1936:
  • Unreliable Army: Representing the poor state of the Portuguese army during the period of the First Republic, which historically led to a major reorganization in 1937, it provides some penalties to Division Organization, Recruitable Population Factor, War Support and Division Attack, so you want to get rid of this before entering any conflict (probably not the best idea to join the Spanish Civil War only to see how your disgusting Spanish enemies defeat your unprepared troops and occupy your precious mainland in a blink...).

  • Unstable Republic: During its 16 years, the First Portuguese Republic saw the inauguration of nine presidents and 44 cabinet reorganizations. Even during the Ditadura Militar there were several failed coup attempts. In 1933, after Salazar’s creation of the Estado Novo and the new Constitution approved in a referendum, Portugal’s stability slowly increased (maybe the censorship system and the different police forces that repressed all kinds of dissidents also helped a little bit with that). So another no-good spirit applying penalties to your Daily Political Power Gain, Stability and Construction Speed. You will be able to remove it through the different political branches, and you will probably want to do it ASAP.
01 Initial NSs.png


Now let’s look at the Portugese Focus Tree and talk about the different paths a player can choose from:

02 Focus Tree.jpg


As you can see, the general structure varies a little bit from the standards of other trees, where you have clear separate branches for industry, military forces and politics.

Let’s start with the colonial branch, shall we?

Through the first focuses, Portugal will receive big bonuses to non-core manpower that will prove really useful in the early stages, since Portugal’s initial manpower is really low. The player can then choose between integrating the African colonies (which will also provide some extra manpower), or allowing them to form their own governments and puppeting them (something that will be appreciated by other democracies in the world).

There is also a sub-branch that joins the industrial one, developing industry and infrastructure in the African colonies.

03 Colonial Branch.png


Regarding Industry, by continuing the public works initiated by Salazar’s regime around the early 30s, Portugal will gain access to the first focus that will provide her first extra research slot (take into consideration that Portugal starts with only two research slots, so it seems just fair for her to get an early focus to fix that). The player can also choose between a fast development of the civilian industry receiving more factories or, with a slower approach, invest in future development getting some nice bonuses to industry research and construction speed.

Portugal can also improve infrastructure and resource extraction industries on the mainland and, of course, there is a focus representing the construction of dams, something Iberian dictators liked very much to do.

And then we have the military industry sub-branch, where the player can get (much needed) military factories and some useful bonuses to production and research for aircraft, vehicles and artillery. Make sure you don’t miss the extra research slot “hidden” between all these industrial focuses!

04 Industrial Branch.png


The first focus on the Naval Branch will unlock decisions to buy ships from either The United Kingdom or Italy. If they accept to build your ships (make sure you have good relations with them before activating the decision!), you will then be presented with three different options to choose from.

05 Purchase Ships Decisions.png


06 Purchase Ships Event.png


The central and left sub-branches focus on Convoy protection and submarine warfare, providing a number of research bonuses for destroyers and submarine warfare, as well as adding a couple of dockyards to boost your naval production. These sub-branches then merge, eventually leading to a focus that unlocks Portugal’s third and last research slot (for a total of five).

The right side of the naval branch is focused on the production of the big ships, as well as fortifying the vulnerable Portuguese possessions in the Atlantic Ocean and Asia.

07 Naval Branch.png


The Army Branch, although fairly small (don’t worry, you will find more military focuses under the Political Branch), will help Portugal to get its army in shape for the conflicts to come. The first focus removes that nasty Unreliable Army National Spirit and leads to some research and production bonuses in the next focuses. Finally, you will have to choose between building heavy fortifications in Lisbon, or creating a light fortification line along the coast.

08 Army Branch.png


Now, let’s take a general look at the whole Political Branch before getting deeper into each of the sub-branches:

09 Political Branch.png


As you can see, you can choose between Popular Front and Estado Novo. The first focus leads to the Communist branches, the latter to the Fascist and Monarchist ones, and both of them lead to the Democratic one.

If you choose to go with Popular Front you will unlock the National Communist branch (to the left). This sub-branch starts with the training of socialist militias, followed by focuses that will help make your people see the benefits of living in a Communist society. Nationalize Industry will get rid of the private capital draining your country, putting you in control of new civ factories, but also hurting your stability. After the Reorganization of the Communist Party, your country will be ready and willing to have a Communist government, and the Soviet Union will receive a nice opinion modifier boost on you, which should help you joining the Comintern via the next focus.

The Popular Front also unlocks Support the Republic, allowing you to support the Republicans and send volunteers to the Spanish Civil War, it leads to two different sub-branches:
  • To the left, we have a “radical” approach to the Spanish Civil War. Workers of Iberia, Unite! will trigger a Civil War in Portugal, in which both sides will instantly join their Spanish counterparts (I mean, you do not have a proper civil war unless you have 6 different tags fighting in it). After (presumably) winning the SCW along with your comrades in Spain, you will be able to unify the Iberian Peninsula, annexing the Spanish Republic. Finally, you will be able to create your own faction and appeal to the Latin American countries to join you.
10 Workers of Iberia NS.png

  • In the right, we have the “cautious” approach to the Spanish Civil War. Here you won’t be able to join the SCW until you have swapped to a communist government. It’s a much slower approach, but after the war, you can pick different focuses to interact with foreign countries, including one that will grant you a war goal against Spain, in case their ideology is no longer desirable for you.
11 Fight Alongside  the Republic Decision.png


If you go with Strict Neutrality you won’t be able to interact in the SCW, but you will gain some nice boosts to your industry, production and Democracy support via the British, as well as some recurrent decisions to purchase equipment from them.

11 bis Democratic Leader.png


You will then allow free elections, swapping to a Democratic government and unlocking not only focuses to join the Allies, but also some shared focuses with the communist branch and the right-wing shared focus Iberian Summit, which unlocks the decisions by which Portugal and Spain can jointly send a petition to join the Axis or the Allies together.

12 Iberian Summit Decisions.png


13 Iberian Summit News.png


In case you go with Estado Novo, you will have to choose between Strict Neutrality (mentioned above), Support the Nationalists and the Monarchist branch.

Support the Nationalists, as its Republican counterpart, will allow you to support Nationalist Spain and send volunteers in the Spanish Civil War. You can join the SCW against the Republic in further focuses, and also intervene in Spain after the civil war if the Spanish government does not match your ideology.

13bis Fascist Leader.png


National Syndicalism will pave the way to become Fascist, leading to some interesting focuses: You can either join the Axis, or claim that Portugal will be the nation that finally unites the entire world under the same rule, ideology and faith (this will provide a powerful National Spirit, but it will also annoy some people around the globe).

Refuse the Naval Blockade unlocks a decision for countries at war with the United Kingdom, by which they will use some of your convoys to carry supplies where they cannot reach, increasing their War Support and, of course, diverting the production of one of their factories to meet your needs.

14 Refuse Naval Blockade Decision.png


From there, you can claim the African territories between your Angolan and Mozambican colonies (righting the humiliation of the British Ultimatum of 1890), recover the East Indies and Brazil, and even declaring war on a threatening Japan!

Last but not least, we have the Monarchist Branch. You will start by uniting the Brazilian and Portuguese royal houses (wedding bells ringing in the distance). After that, your goal is to restore the Monarchy not only in Portugal, but also in Brazil, some recurrent decisions will help you in that matter. Once you succeed in that, you will be able to politely ask Brazil to submit under your rule, re-establishing the Empire of Portugal and Brazil.

15 Empire of Portugal and Brazil.png


In the case of a Carlist Uprising happening during the Spanish Civil War, you can support your Monarchist friends in Spain and join the war against all those misguided souls that refuse to bow to the god given rights of monarchs to rule the people.

16 Carlist volunteers NS.png


And that’s all from me, I hope you enjoyed the dev diary and make sure to stay tuned for the next one. Anyways, we wish you all a merry Christmas and very happy New Year. See you all in 2020!

xmas.jpg
 
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podcat

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Looking good. I wasn’t really interested in Portugal at first but this diary has definitely sold me. Out of interest will there be a stream today and if so at what time? Also, on the matter of garrisons will garrison units be needed in colony states?
game start colony states? Generally no, their compliance is high and resistance low for the most part but I think there are some exceptions.
There is a stream at 16 today where France play is continued
 

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Since the strict neutrality branch leads to Portugal joining the Allies, does this mean we'll see them participate in the war even with historical focuses on?
Ai isnt force to take focuses as fast as it can
 

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ManoDeZombi

Content Designer - HOI4
Oct 23, 2019
105
1.413
LOOKS AMAZING!

Just one question....if you are Italy or the UK and Portugal purchases a ship....what exactly happens?
Will a ship be removed from you, or will you get a mission to build a ship for them?
And that off-map civ....will it be a permanent reward for building that ship?

Thanks and looking forward to that DLC!

If Italy / the UK agrees on building ships for you (Portugal), then a mission representing the construction progress will be activated. Depending on the deal you chose, the duration will be different. So during this time, you will be "paying" an off-map civ to the builder (both countries also receive an opinion modifier bonus). Once the mission is completed, Portugal will receive brand new ship/s (ship design depending on current builder technology). If the mission fails (for example, you enter a war against your builder) then the deal is cancelled, the opinion modifier removed and you get your civ back.

Since the strict neutrality branch leads to Portugal joining the Allies, does this mean we'll see them participate in the war even with historical focuses on?

Actually, Portugal was not strictly neutral at all... They sent an observation mission, organized a force with around (at least) 8k volunteers to fight alongside the Nationalists (Viriatos), and played a crucial role supplying the rebels.
So, to answer your question, historical Portuguese AI will go with Support the Nationalists and Observation Mission, but will not go further in the branch (nor will go through the National Syndicalism branch).
 

ManoDeZombi

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Oct 23, 2019
105
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Ok, this sounds interesting. How exactly does this work? Will you get cores on all of Spain this way? Inherit their navy, etc.? I assume there's also going to be a cosmetic tag or name change there aswell, as seeing PORTUGAL written across all of Iberia would be weird

You will get cores on all Spanish already-cored territories . There will probably be a cosmetic tag (WIP) for this, and it shall look epic!

Where did the Popular Front come from in 1936 Portugal?
This was an authoritarian right-wing state, isn't so?
A very bad feature of the diary is the lack of historical commentaries.
The origins of many alternatives are not clear.

The Portuguese Popular Front comes from the Spanish one, where left-wing parties and groups (from Communists and Anarchists to moderate leftish democrats) will join together opposing the Dictatorship of Salazar. I agree with you, there's a lack of historical commentaries here to explain why there is a Popular Front here, for example. I already felt the DD was getting long and didn't want to spend more time on it, so I kept working on more features/fixes instead. Anyways, will be aware of that for next time (I really like to get that hostorical background)!

I love the new National focus trees! Can there be some way to sort/view focuses by how the historical AI will take them? I don't necessarily care about the *exact* ordering, but I unfortunately don't always know what happened IRL for some countries (like I know Portugal stayed neutral, but don't know if they went with Popular Front or Estado Novo). I realize specifically Nationalist and Republican Spain will be a bit harder since several of the choices were both taken, since it's really more choosing which side of the civil war you're on.

Can we get ships from both The United Kingdom and Italy? I'm not seeing something to limit us to just one or the other, aside from possibly cost of factories

Also, Since I can't hover over the requirements until the expansion is released: there is a long series of dots running from "Join Comintern" to "Send Assistance" and while I'm fairly sure I can't join Comintern and then send Nationalist Intervention or Join the Allies, I'm not sure if I can join them and then "Protect Chinese civilians" or "Intervene in Spain"

Theres a file COUNTRY_TAG_historical_strategy_plan where you can see the focuses the AI will take in order (there's also another file for the different alt-hist paths). Note that the even in the historical AI strategy there might be several non-historical focuses (maybe Salazar didn't invest that much in Military Research Facilities, but Portugal AI really needs that extra research slot the focus gives).

If you actually get the ships from Italy, you cannot purchase them from the UK later. You can't purchase ships from one country while already purchasing ships from another.

And regarding the long line of dots................. yeah, hard to place those focuses to get a proper visual feeling. I'll think about it during Christmas though! Btw, Join the Comintern allows you to get to Protect Chinese Civilians. The Popular Front allows you to go to the right (Join the Allies being the limit).
 

IlDoge

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Hi, here is Pedro, the nerdy professor who did the initial design for this Focus Tree, which then Vachon and Manuel did a fantastic job implementing. In fact, I teach Game Design and Game AI at the university, and this Focus Tree was done during a stay working at Paradox.

I would like just to give some extra historical context, most of it available online. Maybe it will help to understand some of the design choices which were made.

Lets start with the initial National Spirits.

The First Republic (1911-1926), notwithstanding its progressive ideals, was a very chaotic period. It witnessed the inauguration of eight presidents, 44 cabinet re-organisations and 21 revolutions. Revolution in Portugal became a byword in Europe. The cost of living increased twenty-fivefold, while the currency fell to a 1/ 33 part of its gold value. Portugal's public finances and the economy , in general, entered a critical phase. In 1926 a military coup took place, supported by a coalition of Conservative Republicans, Catholics, and Monarchists. With Portugal nearing bankruptcy, the generals invited in 1928 António de Oliveira Salazar (a young public finances university professor) to become Finance Minister, a function which he accepted only on the condition of having control and veto power over all state expenses. Within one year, he managed to balance the budget and became indispensable to the new regime. In 1930 he created a new party “União Nacional” (National Union) to be a support structure to the regime. Contrary to the fascist movements in Italy and Germany, this party was created top-down by the regime.

The constitution approved in 1933 formally ended the military dictatorship period and institutionalized the “Estado Novo”, a conservative catholic dictatorship, with the motto: "God, Fatherland, Family", and corporativism as socio-economic mode of organization. But the Estado Novo of the 1930s was not as stable as people usually think. There were several coup attempts, both from the left and the right. For instance, there was a failed Military pro-democratic coup occurring in 26 Aug 1931. In 1934, the nascent fascist movement (MNS) is extinguished by Salazar, and its leader Rolão Preto is exiled. Rolão Preto tried to return and staged a failed coup in Feb 1935.

In September of 1936, a communist group called Organização Revolucionária da Armada (Revolutionary Organization of the Fleet) organized a mutiny in which two ships were taken over by the sailors and tried to depart Lisbon port, only to be put out of action by the shore batteries. The plan was very ambitious and involved more ships, according to an Australian newspaper article: "the officers were to be put under arrest at midnight and control of the ships secured. The ships were then to get up steam, and, with the support of the revolutionaries on shore to demand the surrender of the Dictatorship."

Also, in July 1937 an attempt on Salazar's life was made via a bomb planted on his way to Mass. So all this instability is represented by the initial Focus "Unstable Republic", which can be removed by choices in the early political Focus.

The Portuguese military forces were in a very debilitated state when Salazar took power. Most of the old republican military leadership was more interested in politics than in military affairs. Because his regime was supported by the Army, Salazar had to thread carefully, between Monarquic, Republican and Communist sympathies. A rebellion in Madeira in 1931 made it clear that a country like Portugal, with islands and overseas territories, could not survive without a capable and adequately equipped Navy. In 1931 a plan divided in two phases was approved, that included 2 Cruisers (5000ton) 12 Destroyers (1500ton), 4 Sloops (2000ton), 8 Sloops (1000ton), 10 Submarines (800ton) and a Seaplane Carrier, at a cost of 12 million pounds. Of the two phases, only the first was executed with some vessels ordered in Italy (submarines, later cancelled), and some in Britain. In the end, the Navy received 4 Sloops, 2 destroyers and 3 submarines built in Britain and 2 Sloops and 3 destroyers built in Portugal.

While the Navy was minimally re-equiped by 1936, the army continued in a dismal state, in equipment, organization and Military Service absentees. Salazar wanted to reform the army only after being certain of the supremacy of (his) civilian rule over the military. These conditions were met in 1936, after instituting the Portuguese Legion, a voluntary armed militia, and removing from power Military Officers not sympathetic to the regime. Salazar assumed the Ministry of War and prepared a sweeping reform of the army and of the recruiting laws, which was consigned into law in 1937.

So, I hope it is now a bit more clear the historical context of those two initial National Spirits. In the next post, I hope to talk a little about the different political paths, and why they are arranged that way.
 

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As promised I will try in this post to give some historical and game design context for the political branch of the Portuguese Focus Tree for HOI4.

Because Portugal has a presence in almost every continent, it can allow for very different experiences than when playing a primarily European power. I also wanted to give the player playing Portugal a feeling of the problems that any leader governing Portugal in that time frame would have to deal with.

As a disclaimer, please note that I did the initial design for the tree, but implementation and playtesting might have seen the need to change some things. So do not take my words in any way as final.

The first big political decision the Player faces is supporting Estado Novo, the corporativist "New State" that historically gathered right-wing Republicans, Monarchists, and Fascists under the leadership of Salazar, or join the opposition. The main organized opposition to the government was the Communist Party who, inspired by the Popular Front victories in Spain and France (and following the Comintern's Popular Front policy), in 1936 historically formed, together with some left-wing republicans, the short-lived Portuguese Popular Front.

A second big decision has to do with the reaction to the events in Spain. When the civil war starts, an event similar to the Swedish winter war event should pop-up, allowing Portugal to support the initial steps of the civil war (by sending armament and/or volunteers). While it is not clear if there were any active Portuguese involvement in the start of the Civil War, the fact is that Portugal started immediately after to assist Franco financially, by supplying arms and volunteers and being a port of passage for Italian and German aid. It also isolated the border areas in control of the republicans, arresting all that crossed the border and turning them on to Nationalist forces, where most faced execution. Salazar also sent in July of 1936 a trusted army officer, Captain Henrique Galvão, who passed as a journalist, to contact the sublevated forces and assess the situation. He wrote seven letters from August 2 to August 17th, describing talks with commander Castejón, and the generals Queipo de Llano and Franco. He was very critical of the slow conduct of the military operations by the nationalists.

The Focus decisions represent the long term policy towards the civil war. Historically, Salazar supported the nationalists, and Portugal became an entryway for armament and supplies to the nationalist cause. He also sent several envoys and high-level observation missions with members from all three branches of the Portuguese military from 1937 onwards with the dual objectives of protecting the interests of Portuguese foreign volunteers and collating information on the lessons learned in the civil war. The Mission officially had a non-combatant role but its airforce contingent took part in combat missions. The number of Portuguese volunteers that fought integrated in nationalist units has been estimated between 6000 and 12000.

A player that wants to try a Pro-democracy playthrough can follow instead the position of Britain and France and enforce Strict Neutrality and the Embargo on arms sales, therefore winning favor with the Western Allies. This option is open to both the Estado Novo and Popular Front paths.

A Player wanting to follow a Pro-Communist playthrough can at this point support the Republic. This opens an interesting Revolutionary path where the Portuguese Popular Front joins the civil war, in practical terms spreading the civil war to Portugal. As I mentioned in the previous post, historically there was a failed sailor revolt in September 1936, whose objective, according to the regime investigation, was to join the Spanish Republic and the civil war. This Focus allows the player to explore that possibility.

Of course, the third big political decision is which path to war. Strategically, "New State" Portugal had no interest in entering any conflict, unless there was danger of a Communist victory in Spain or losing its colonies. In territorial terms, Portugal (contrarily to Spain) still had most of its colonies, so it had no need for further territorial expansion. Entering the war on Britain side would invite an invasion by the Axis Powers, entering the war on the Axis side would immediately make Portugal lose access to its overseas territories. Moreover, Salazar was a fan of balanced budgets, which are not very compatible with waging wars. Salazar considered Britain a strategic ally and helped her much more than is usually acknowledged, betting (correctly) on an ultimate Allied victory.

After Italy entered the war and the French collapse in May-June 1940, the possibility that Spain and Portugal would enter the war was seriously considered by the Allies. In Britain, the CoS produced a plan to occupy Portuguese colonies with the help of South Africa, India, and Rhodesia, if Portugal became hostile; The only British operational division after Dunquerque was earmarked to occupy the Azores. Cape Verde and Azores were to be occupied if either of these conditions would occur: (i) Hostility from Portugal or Spain; (ii) Certitude that one of these countries will enter the war; (iii) If the Germans pass the Pyrenees (iv) if the objectives of economic war are not attained; The attacks were to be launched by surprise, and no resistance was expected.

On 29 of July 1940, an additional protocol was signed with Spain, reinforcing the Iberian Pact. Meanwhile, Spain was playing a four-sided game, negotiating with the Axis its entry into the war, that could include the occupation of a Neutral/Allied Portugal, and negotiating with France and Britain to increase its share of the Morocco Protectorate.

Portugal started to quietly support the British war effort. For instance, tracking stations were allowed on the islands; in July 1940 2,500 evacuees from Gibraltar were shipped to Madeira. Also on 29 Jul 1940 an agreement was signed between the Banks of Portugal and England guaranteeing unlimited credit to British companies and the State for purchases of goods in Portugal, valid while the war lasted. Several small combat ships (naval trawlers) were built and loaned to Britain. At the same time, Portugal was trading with Germany. So Salazar's strategy was betting (and quietly helping) on a British victory, but do not give any reasons for either the Allies or the Axis to want to attack Portuguese territories.

Of course, if one plays Portugal, this historical strategy is not the most fun to play. So I tried to give Portugal several interesting and believable (albeit some of them improbable) paths to intervene in the war, not only focusing in Europe, but also in Sub-Saharian Africa, South America, and East Asia.

Finally, I would like to address the concern some here expressed, that there is no "Historical Path" that allows Salazar to stay in power. In fact, Salazar stayed in power exactly by not committing to any political path but balancing the different forces of his coalition. He adopted some ideas from Fascist Italy, but never let the movement get out of hand. He appeased the Monarchics, by giving them high government posts, supporting the royal marriage and returning some estates. He gave them some hope of restoring the Monarchy up until the 1950s, but never actually allowed the heir to return. And he managed to stay in good grace with both the Western Allies and the Axis powers.