The House of Habsburg 1749-1769
The Vagaries of War
From the unofficial "He was a good king, and that was a good thing" Students' Notes (Vienna University Press, 1982) dealing with the Franco-Imperial war of 1746-1753, utilising the revolutionary good news/bad news mnemonic technique for easier retention.
- Good news: The war went better than the Empress feared
- Bad news: The war went worse than the Empress expected
- Bad news: What was intended as an alliance peace with the Netherlands became a separate Prussian-Dutch peace giving up Zeeland and Friesen, due to a Prussian diplomatic failure. This was to prove VERY unfortunate.
- Bad news: Poland invaded Prussia, got beaten badly, and refused peace
- Bad news: Denmark and Sweden claiming Prussian aggression in not peacing Poland - at a time when Poland was refusing white peace offers, despite Prussia having a 40% warscore on it - invaded Prussia
- Bad news: France got exceptional amounts of funds from shady foreign financiers
- Bad news: In a number of epic battles counting upwards of 400K-600K men around Paris, De Saxe saved France
- Bad news: the Netherlands, shielded by French forces, laid siege to the Austrian lowlands
- Bad news: Despite having a 41-46% victory score against her, France refused all offers, including white peace, for several years, preferring to stay at -3 stability
- Bad news: Spanish auxiliary troops went around in France, killing the rebels spawned by the aforementioned stability hits
- Good news: Despite being defeated in the initial Austrian counterattack by De Saxe and a sudden influx of funds to France, new armies were raised in due course and the war continued unabated - though somewhat more carefully
- Good news: The Ottoman Empire accepted Military Access so it could station some observers near the front to menace France [See also Downfall of the Ottoman Empire]
- Bad news: The observers killed a rebel group by mistake. Austria-Italia is the sole force which can legally kill rebels in Austria-Italia and protest this unsporting slaughter [First Criminal Court of War]
- Bad news: When finally France agreed to an alliance white peace, after the 3rd? (4th? thereabouts, anyway) failed invasion, the Empress realised too late that France did not count that as peace with Prussia, since Prussia had made separate peace with the Netherlands, splitting the wars (see 3 above)
- Bad news: France promptly invaded Prussia and the Prussian gains against the Netherlands were reversed. Only under threat of Austria-Italia reentering the war did France not claim further gains
- Bad news: Four manufactories were burned down during the war
- Bad news: Approximately 2,000,000 Austro-Italian soldiers were killed during the war (what can I say - quality=2 and land=10 gives an awful lot of manpower)
- Good news: Despite everything, France's war aims were foiled, as she gained nothing
- Bad news: The Empress was again confirmed in the belief that the powers that be will never allow Austria-Italia and Prussia to win a war against France, even when it is France attacking
- Best news: The Empress no longer have that awful blue blob of Bavaria spoiling the map. That is something, at least.
The Diplomatic Fallout
The Empress' state of mind was of prime concern in the Imperial Court and the study of Theresianetics was a science in itself. The Court Astrologer, commenting on the mind of the Empress in the wake of the great Franco-Imperial war of 1746-1753, revealed the following results of applied Theresianetics in his memoirs:
Conclusion: Walk softly and carry a big stick.
- ....Very pleased with the good and just rulership of King Friedrich II of Prussia. The North of the Empire is well defended
- ....Concerned with the Portuguese support for the Dutch cause
- ....Wary of the east, as the Sultan has a large army on his hands after ending the civil war, yet pleased with the religious tolerance shown by the Turk.
- ....Most displeased with the Spanish support for the French cause during the recent war, but somewhat mollified by the creation of the Catholic Guard consisting of 25,000 Imperials and 25,000 Spanish to guard Rome. With both Spanish and Imperial troops guarding Rome, the Vatican should be safe from aggression. She accepts Spanish control of the Roman countryside so long as the Vatican remains firmly under the Church's control, which the Spanish king has promised.
- ....Hoping to better relations with France to end the eternal French attacks on the Holy Roman Empire. First steps have been taken with an exchange of gifts, military access in Africa, and the royal marriage of Prince Pomme-de-Terre of France (49th in the line to the throne) and Princess Termagent Flieghafen-an-de-über-unter-vorn-und-hinter-Wittelsbach (one of only three survivors of the unfortunate Wittelsbach mass poisoning of 1750 caused by eating spoiled fish). Unsure whether this is just a French ploy to map West Africa preparatory for yet another attack on the Empire, but willing to take the chance to avoid yet another futile war. She's not demobilizing the Imperial Armies just yet, though.
- ....Displeased with Sweden for attacking Prussia at a time when the Empire itself was under attack by the French hordes.
- ....Very Displeased with Denmark for attacking Prussia at a time when the Empire itself was under attack by the French hordes. If the king of Denmark and Duke of Holstein thinks that he can wantonly attack his fellow princes of the Empire whenever he feels like it, he should ponder the fate of Bavaria. The Wittelsbachs were under the same delusion.
- ....Very angry with Poland for attacking Prussia (again) at a time when the Empire itself was under attack by the French hordes and for dragging that war out for years even after it was lost. Given the repeated attacks of the Polish kings, a border with Russia would be preferable.
- ....Of the firm belief, that the Dutch are the most annoying nation with which to conduct diplomacy and, quite likely, in league with the devil, as their leaders seem content to commit all seven deadly sins on a regular basis though with special preference for avarice, and she has decided to turn away any and all Dutch envoys until they learn that attempted coercion, manipulation of figures, and bazaar tactics are not accepted in the Imperial Court. Should the Dutch, yet again, attack the Holy Roman Empire, the second priority after the defense of the Empress will be the obliteration of the Dutch nation. She also looks with equanimity on future attempts by any other nation to conquer the Dutch and is willing to extend military access to any nation that needs it to achieve that goal. Only an honest and complete reversal of Dutch goals and diplomacy will now change her mind.
The Claim on Poland, 1767
Following the Polish invasion of Brandenburg, 1686, Krakow was occupied by Imperial forces and kept as war reparations. With improving relations over the next few years and a declared intent from the Polish king to lay aside his seemingly eternal invasion plans of the Holy Roman Empire in Brandenburg, Krakow was returned to the Polish crown in 1700. For many years, this seemed a wise solution - but times change. With Poland again invading the Holy Roman Empire at its leisure, killing good imperial citizens as a mercenary bought with Dutch gold, it became obvious to the Empress Maria-Theresia of the Holy Roman Empire that Stanislas II Poniatowski believed friendship and cooperation a thing of the past. As such, she reasserted the Austro-Italian claim to Krakow in an open missive to the Polish King. Many of the Polish-Lithuanian magnates began packing the bare essentials and removed to their winter estates in the far east
The Strategic Decision Regarding Denmark, 1768
The Danish king was, as Duke of Holstein, a prince of the Empire. An old title, and honourable, and one that had been much abused by the Danish kings throughout the years. The sight of Danish armies marching south through Holstein on their way to attack Prussia, at a time when the Empire itself was under threat, had not amused the Empress. A strategic decision was taken regarding Denmark that loyal princes would be encouraged to deprive the Danish king of the duchy.
For Your Eyes Only - Manpower 1769
Following the conclusion of the Franco-Imperial war of 1746-1753 and with the furious 1723-1762 Imperial Conscription Centre Program completed (aka. The Omega Solution), the Imperial War College commissioned a great study of the forces of Europe. The following snippet was obtained at great cost from the secret archives of the Imperial War College, 1769
Note that figures indicated by italics are very unliked to be reached as the nations concerned are deemed too weak financially to build the required 80-100 Conscription Centres needed in the near future. It should be noted, however, that for both the Ottoman Empire and Russia, manpower is mainly concentrated in a few provinces with an exceedingly large amount of cannon-fodder, and thus they should be able to produce a significant amount of their maximum manpower with relatively few conscription centres
Nation Manp. CCs Manp(CC) Manp(MaxCC) DP Quality Manp(CC,dp) Manp(MaxCC,dp)
Denmark 23.25 8/10 55.00 57.50 -15% Low(3) 46.75 48.48
France 108.00 18/36 182.50 261.00 0% High(9) 182.50 261.00
Habsburgs 100.75 27/33 216.50 235.50 +40% Low(2) 303.10 329.70
Netherlands 16.00 4/4 36.00 36.00 -50% High(10) 18.00 18.00
Ottomans 112.75 15/100+ 162.25 400.00+ 0% High(10) 162.25 400.00+
Poland 63.25 7/21 96.75 151.50 0% High(10) 96.75 151.50
Portugal 16.00 4/4 36.00 36.00 -50% High(10) 18.00 18.00
Prussia 40.50 5/13 65.00 94.00 0% High(10) 65.00 94.00
Russia 88.25 0/100+ 88.25 300.00+ +20% Medium(6) 105.90 360.00+
Spain 67.25 25/25 168.00 168.00 +5% High(9) 176.40 176.40
Sweden 30.00 8/30 56.00 92.00 0% High(10) 56.00 92.00
United Kingdom 34.00 9/20 64.75 88.00 -40% High(8) 38.85 52.80
Manp Manpower adjusted for population in 1769
CC Conscription centres built/possible
Manp(CC) Manpower adjusted for conscription centres
Manp(MaxCC) Manpower should the nation build all conscription centres
DP Percentage-wise adjustment for current domestic policies
Quality Quality of troops
Manp(CC, dp) Current Manpower/year after all adjustments
Manp(MaxCC, dp) Manpower/year after all adjustments should all CCs be built