[Version 1.07c. All settings normal.]
Narrative resumes in 1526, the seventeenth year of the reign of His Majesty King Henry VIII.
The realm consists of all provinces in England, all provinces in Ireland, the three non-capital provinces of Scotland, Calais, Picardie and Caux across the Channel and two small colonies at Nova Scotia and Manhattan.
The realm has been at peace for six years. Civilized Europe is at peace also.
England is in an alliance led by Spain, with Naples, Hanover and Hessen.
And the King is increasing concerned that it will not prove possible for (Spanish) Queen Catharine to give birth to a healthy male heir.
THE KINGíS GREAT MATTER 1526-1530
At the beginning of 1526, Helvetia and Prussia adopted the Lutheran heresy as state religions.
Picardie revolted in April. Brandon put down the rebellion within a week, with the same brutality that had - eventually - crushed all rebel hearts in Caux.
In August, Poland-Lithuania led her allies France, Savoy, Lorraine, Scotland and Navarra into war against the Teutonic Order. The war was confined to the shores of the Baltic, ending on 6 January 1528 when the Order ceded Tula and Memel to Poland-Lithuania, also paying 110 in reparations.
At the beginning of 1527, Hanover adopted the Lutheran heresy at their state religion, and were unceremoniously cast out of the Spanish Alliance. The same happened to Hessen at the beginning of 1528. But otherwise they were left alone. Perhaps the Spanish were content to allow them to make their own path along the road to hell. Perhaps the Spanish were distracted by their war against the Aztecs (whoever they were), declared on 20 September 1527 and in which the other members of the Alliance were not invited to participate. Or perhaps they did not have enough troops in the Netherlands to take any action, even if they had a mind to. Certainly there were no Spanish troops over the border from Calais, in Flanders.
On 26 June 1528 Crimea, supported by her allies Turkey, Tunisia and (to the surprise of many) Portugal declared war on Georgia. (On 6 August Iraq declared war on Georgia also, though as the realms lacked a common border this can only have been to curry favour with her other enemies). The war was brief; on 1 February 1529 Georgia ceded Georgia province to Turkey and paid 185 in reparations and on 29 October the capital province, Sochi, was annexed by Crimea.
All this time, the King had been casting around for a way to put aside the Queen and remarry. He sought to have the marriage annulled. This could only be done by the Pope. Cardinal Wolsey was deputed to procure it. But he could not. Quite apart from spiritual scruples, the Pope was in temporal awe of the power of Spain. And with good reason; to the south of Rome, Naples was a firm ally of Spain and to the east, Spain ruled Romaga (note 1). When the Papal States were added to the Spanish Alliance in 1528, all hope of help from that quarter was lost. So the King put aside Cardinal Wolsey, and looked for another policy. He soon came to see the desired result could be achieved by embracing the Lutheran heresy as the state religion, and denying the Pope any power over the Church in England. This would enrage Spain twice over. But Spain was over the seas. The only risk to the realm from Spain was to Calais from the Netherlands - and this could be removed by allying with Hanover and Hessen to their east. This approach was supported by many other advisors, who coveted the wealth of the Church.
As for France, they had always hated the realm and always would; and their allies the Scots hated us ten times more. Nothing we could say or do would change that and therefore a change of faith could not make relations with them any worse [both at -200 and both with permanent CB].
Wooing of Hanover and Hessen began in earnest in 1529. Their rulers were bombarded by personal gifts and letters of introduction. They relished the prospect of mutual defence against any threat from Spain [Hanover +94 to +115 to +124; Hessen -50 to -37 to +25 to +93 to +105]. Prospects of success were only enhanced by Swedenís conversion to (what we must now call) the Lutheran faith at the beginning of the year, and even more so by the news from Poland-Lithuania. In rapid succession at the beginning of October came news
- of civil war
- of the creation of the new state of Ukraine (comprising Ukraine, Poltava and Krementjug; capital Kiev; state religion Orthodox).
- of a new government in Poland-Lithuania, embracing the Lutheran faith (note 2)
The wooing of Hanover and Hessen continued in 1530 [Hanover +123 to +130 to +200; Hessen +105 to +116 to +120]. The King also wrote a most eloquent letter to the King of Spain, explaining that the good of the realm required him to take a new wife and pledging to treat Queen Catharine with respect if she would but accept this [relations with Spain +132 to +140] (note 3). The army were equipped with arquebuses [Land Tech 5 - Early Arquebus]. Parliament, and the Bishops, were summoned for late summer.
REFORMATION AND AFTER 1530-1539
Before Parliament met on 1 September, the King addressed the Privy Council. He was resolved upon this course and would brook no opposition. Those who disagreed were free to retire to their homes and stay there. Opposition would be treated as treason 'and treated as rebellion is in our realm of France' - a threat lost on none.
The arguments put to Parliament were less threatening. The King was resolved, for the good of the realm, to reform the abuses of the Church. As part of this, it was necessary to repudiate the pretended authority of the Pope, to cease all payments from the Church in England to Rome and to take the wealth of the Church for the common good. Having been squared well in advance, Parliament obeyed.
The Bishops, meeting in Convocation, were persuaded first to repudiate the authority of the Pope and second to declare the King's marriage null and void.
As for the wealth of the Church, some of it was spread among the Kingís advisors but more of it was spent building up the military and pacifying the realm [all investment to stability]. Before it departed, Parliament declared full support for the Governmentís policies [random event Good Government Policies on 10 December; stability up by one (to -2) and investment in trade and infrastructure]. The only public dissent was a rebellion in the bogs of Munster. An army sent from Meath put it down, with the utmost brutality, in a week.
No attempt was made to regulate private belief, only public behaviour [=full toleration of Catholicism] (note 5). This distressed many adherents to the new faith, who believed toleration of the old to be consorting with sin. From this time onward came a regular flow of volunteers to make a new life overseas.
From Spain came words of sorrow but no action. Indeed, the first diplomatic contact was an invitation from Brandenburg to join their Alliance with Bohemia and Saxony. This was politely declined. It was a powerful alliance, but a long way away from the Netherlands. The next was an offer of a Royal Marriage from Prussia, in February 1531. The King found an obscure cousin for the purpose. He already had a lady in mind for himself (note 6).
One unexpected consequence of the change of faith was the desertion of the diplomatic corps. It was not for six months that a diplomat could be found to voyage overseas, by which time Hanover had allied themselves with the Hanse, who had become Protestant at the beginning of 1531. Hessen were still unattached, and a new alliance was forged with them in March 1531, followed by a Royal Marriage in September. Royal Marriages with the Hanse and Poland-Lithuania followed in March and September 1532. The Palatenat became Protestant in 1533 and a Royal Marriage was arranged with them in March of that year.
On 5 February 1532 Crimea declared war on the new realm of Ukraine. Ukraine was without allies; Crimea was supported by Turkey, Tunisia and Portugal. The war was resolved in April 1533 when Ukraine paid 250 reparations to Turkey, of which 41 had been contributed by Crimea!
[Game Status April 1533:
Points (ignoring missions, which Iíve switched off):
Poland +9 ]
At the beginning of 1534, Thuringen and Kleves became Protestant. Chief Judges were appointed in Grampian and The Highlands and, from the remaining wealth of the Church, a refinery was commissioned in Kent. Despite the stifling effect which the realmís concentration on peace and stability above all had on innovation, significant advances were made in trade in November and in infrastructure in December [both the level 4: early Baroque].
February 1535 saw the first rebellion in Caux for many years. It was put down in a fortnight, with the usual brutality. The diplomatic offensive continued, with Royal Marriages to Sweden in April and to Kleves in May (note 7). By August the realm had reached a fair level of stability [up to zero].
In January 1536, Lord Admiral Fitzwilliam took command of the Home Fleet [random leader?]. He was destined to die in his bed in December 1540, never having seen action.
Every year since the change of faith, settlers had embarked for Nova Scotia. In a dedication ceremony for the new Refinery in Kent in January, the King declared the main settlement a city. Orders were given to construct a rudimentary fortress. The next year, a tax collector was appointed.
In February, Kleves joined England and Hessen in alliance.
Just when everything seemed to be going well, there was dissension among the merchants in March [random event - half investments in trade lost].
The remaining years of the decade could have passed for tranquil, with increasing stability [+1 in May 1537 +2 in January 1539], new colonies at Fundy (a bare land without natives) in July 1537 and Isle Royale in June 1538 and the expansion of the English Alliance to embrace Brandenburg in November 1537 and Saxony in January 1539. Meanwhile, the private war between Spain and the Aztecs reached a truce in June 1537 when the Aztecs ceded Michoagon and paid 250 in reparations.
On 8 July 1539 came the beginning of the end for Ukraine when Poland-Lithuania declared war, supported by the Hanse, Hanover and the Teutonic Order. On 6 October 1540 Ukraine ceded Krementjug to the Order (note 8). The end came on 22 November when Poland-Lithuania reabsorbed her lost provinces.
Historical and Game Notes
1. The historical position was even worse. Spanish troops sacked Rome itself in 1525.
2. This change to Protestantism in the game has been permanent.
3. Many historians argue that Henry VIII would have treated Queen Catharine and their daughter Mary better if she had been prepared to accept a divorce (eg: Lady Antonia Fraser in 'The Six Wives of Henry VIII'). Our virtual history assumes this happpened.
4. As Iíve said a while ago in another post, the change to Protestant in EU combines what in England was the Break with Rome (around 1532) with the seizure of Church assets and the dissolution of the monasteries (around 1535-6), so our virtual history has to merge them together - a little earlier than actually happened. The nearest to a rebellion was the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1538, usually seen as a reaction to the dissolution. As for the Kingís, speeches, theyíre my artistic licence.
5. This is totally unhistorical - a gameplay decision.
6. Anne Boleyn of course. Bear with me - I canít write all six wives into the game.
7. Anna of Kleves? Weíre getting ahead of history again - I think she was 1540.
8. Now thereís a split country!!!