330 BCE: Megas Alexandros conquers Persia. Beginning of implementation of policies regarding Hellenic Colonization of the East. Parmenion appointed Satrap of Ecbatana, his son Philotas sent to Media to oversee the creation of Hellenic military colonies in the region.
319 BCE: Megas Alexandros dies, poison is suspected to be the cause of his death. He leaves behind several legitimate children by Roxana and Stateira, and several ilegitimate ones widely acknowledged to be his. His son Alexandros IV is blinded in an accident and following unrest he is taken by his mother and loyal retainers to Cyprus.
318 BCE: Diadokhoi crysis starts in earnest. Beginning of the division of the Empire.
312 BCE: Seleukos I Nikator and Ptolemy I Soter defeat Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedon in the Battle of Gaza. Beginning of Seleukid Era and creation of Arche Seleukeia.
305 BCE: Seleukos I Nikator founds Seleukeia on the Tigris, his new capital.
303 BCE: Seleukid Conquest of Sindhia. Chandragupta Maurya becomes a Seleukid vassal.
300 BCE: Founding of Antiocheia by Seleukos I Nikator, western capital of the Empire.
298 BCE: The Hieronid Agathocles of Syracuse unifies Sicily under his rule and marries Ptolemy's stepdaughter Theoxena. Kyrene is brought under Ptolemaic control.
292 BCE: Lysimachus, Basileus of Thrakia campaigns beyond the Danube, but he is defeated and taken prisoner by the Dacian king Dromichaetes. Lysimachus is set free after the marriage of Dromichaetes with Lysimachus' daughter. Hellenic influence over Dacia increases.
289 BCE: Agathocles of Siracusa dies and a succession struggle ensues. Mercenaries calling themselves Mamertines - The Sons of Mars, take over Messana and the Northeastern part of the Island.
287 BCE: Pyrrhus defeats Demetrius Poliorcetes and is proclaimed King of Macedon.
285 BCE: Ptolemy I Soter abdicates in favor of his son Ptolemy II Philadelphos. The Pharos of Alexandria is completed. Pyrrhus is driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus with Dacian help.
283 BCE: Antigonus, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes becomes King of Macedon in name only as Lysimachus controls the Kingdom. The Great Canal between the Red Sea and the Nile is reopened by Ptolemy II Philadelphos.
281 BCE: Battle of Corupedium: Seleukos kills Lysimachus in battle, but is assasinated by Ptolemy Keraunos. He is succeeded by his son Antiochus. Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Heraclea and goes on to besiege Rome itself.
279 BCE: A Celtic Army under Brennus invades Greece. They defeat a Makedonian army under Ptolemy Keraunos but the Spartans temporarily hold Brennus at Thermopylae. Brennus retreats to the North only to defeat the pursuing Spartans in a battle near Mount Othrys. He then presses on and conquers Delphi, before retreating northwards. The Celtic hosts splits, and a Celtic Kingdom of Tylis is founded under Cerethrius. Part of the host moves Northwards to establish a kingdom in Pannonia, under Bolgios. Celtic Singidunum is founded. Brennus crosses the Helespont and overruns Bythinia.
Pyrrhus defeats the Romans at Asculum. Peace is negotiated, with Rome acknowledging his dominion over Magna Graecia.
278 BCE: Brennus is defeated by Antiochus Soter near Ankyra. He acknoledges Seleukid sovereignty and the majority of his Celts are settled in Galatia, many of the Celtic warriors taking up service with the Seleukid Basileus. Beginning of Seleukid policy of establishment of Celtic military colonies, from Asia minor to Bactria and Sindhia.
277 BCE: Daco-Celtic War, following Scordisci invasion of Dacia. Defeated, Bolgios King of the Scordisci marries Darava, the daughter of the Dacian King and retires to Singidunum. Beginning of the Daco-Celtic alliance.
276 BCE: Ptolemy II marries his own sister Arsinoe. They become known as Philadelphoi - Brother-Loving.
273 BCE: Ashoka the Great, Satrap of Sindhia defeats the Seleukidai in battle near Pataliputra. Following the Treaty of Taxila Eastern Sindhia becomes a quasi-independent kingdom under his direct rule. He marries the Seleukid princess Olympia as part of the peace negotiations.
272 BCE: The Spartans under Areus I defeat Pyrrhus in the Battle of Argos, and Pyrrhus is killed. Areus I is proclaimed King of the Hellenes, while Antigonos II Gonatus manages to regain the Macedonian throne. Following the Treaty of Corinth Antigonos II is acknowledged as King of Makedonia, while Sparta retains the entire Peloponesus.
270 BCE: Romans drive out the Mamertines from Rhegium and restore it to its Greek citizens. Mamertines retreat to Sicily.
269 BCE: Hieron II of Siracusa defeats the Mamertines near Mylae. The defeated Mamertines accept his sovereignty and Hieron II becomes King of the entire island.
264 BCE: Carthaginians invade Sicily. Hieron II asks for Roman support. Beginning of First Punic war. Hieron II acknowledged as King of Sicily by the Romans. Beginning of the Roman-Siracusan Alliance.
262 BCE: Supported by the Ptolemaic navy and army, Athens rebells. Antigonos tries to besiege the city but is defeated and forced to acknowledge an independent Athenian state. Eumenes I of Pergamum defeats Antiochus and founds an independent kingdom.
260 BCE: Qin overruns the state of Zhao. The Great Western Exodus follows, with several hundred thousand Zhao citizens migrating to the West, eventually making it into Central Asia and Bactria, where they become Hellenic subjects.
255 BCE: Diodotus, Satrap of Bactria rebells and establishes an independent Kingdom. His dominions are expanded with the help of Galatian and Zhao refugees military colonies.
246 BCE: Diodotus marries the sister of Seleucus II Callinicus as his dominion over Bactria is confirmed.
243 BCE: Agis IV reforms the Spartan state under a new Lycurgan model. The entire Peloponesus is turned into a militaristic state with all Hellenes gaining citizenship and with all young men being enrolled into the new Agoge system. A defensive alliance is formed with the Athenians against potential Makedonian invasion.
241 BCE: Carthage is defeated by the Roman-Siracusan alliance in the Battle of the Aegates Islands. The First Punic War ends, Carthage renouncing all of its claims on Sicily. Siracusan dominion of Sicily is confirmed. An Eternal Alliance Treaty is signed between Rome and Siracusa and a Roman legion, supported by Siracusan taxes, is stationed in Sicily.
237 BCE: The Parni King Arsaces invades and conquers the Seleukid Satrapy of Parthia. Seleukos II Callinicus is taken prisoner.
230 BCE: Attalus I Soter of Pergamum defeats the Galatian invasion of Pergamum. He marries the Galatian princess Berena and an alliance is formed between the Galatians and Pergamum.
228 BCE: Attalus I Soter and his Galatian allies defeat Antiochus Hierax near Tarsus. Anatolia and Cillicia are divided between Atallus and his allies.
227 BCE: Queen Teuta of Illyria acknowledges Roman overlordship. Illyria becomes a client kingdom of Rome.
223 BCE: Euthydemus I, Satrap of Sogdiana rebells against his Bactrian Overlord, founding a great Hellenistic kingdom centered around Marakanda. Part of his army is composed of Helleno-Zhao troops.
222 BCE: Antigonus III attacks Athens, but is defeated by a Spartan-Athenian coalition in the 2nd Battle of Marathon. Antiochus III marries Laodice the daughter of Mithridates II of Pontus and an alliance is formed against Pergamum and the Galatians.
219 BCE: Hannibal besieges Saguntum, an ally of Rome. Beginning of the 2nd Punic War.
216 BCE: Philip V of Macedon invades the Roman client state of Illyria. Beginning of the First Macedonian War. Hannibal defeats the Romans at Cannae.
215 BCE: Atallus I Soter of Pergamum occupies Antiocheia. Antiochus III sues for peace and acknowledges Atallus's conquests and regains Antiocheia in the following peace treaty. Philip V, with the help of his Dacian and Scordisci allies defeats a Roman army near Apollonia in Illyria.
213 BCE: Emperor Qin Shi Huang orders all Confucian writings destroyed. Renewed Chinese emigration to Hellenistic Central Asia, Confucian scholars find refuge in Marakanda.
212 BCE: The Celtic Kingdom of Tylis allies with Rome against Philip V of Macedon. Syphax, Numidian King of the Masaesyli allies himself with Rome against Carthage.
Antiochus III campaigns in India and establishes Seleukid control over the region. His campaigns see him reach Sri Lanka, and he is proclaimed Megas by his troops following the utter destruction of the army of a coalition of Southern Indian princes in the battle of Suvarnagiri. Meanwhile in the west, his sister Antiochia is married to King Xerxes of Armenia.
211 BCE: Sparta, Athens and Pergamum join Rome in their war against Philip V of Macedon.
209 BCE: Antiochus III conquers Hecatompylos, the Parthian capital and defeats Arsakes II in the Battle of Mount Labus. Arsakes II is forced into an alliance with Arche Seleukeia. Modu Chanyu, Emperor of the Xiongnu pushes into China, renewed Chinese emigration towards Central Asia.
208 BCE: Megas Antiochus III becomes titular Overlord of Bactria and Marakanda, receiving the submission of their kings. Seleukid princesses married to the heirs of Bactria and Marakanda.
206 BCE: Publius Cornelius Scipio defeats the Carthaginians at Ilipa and drives them out of Spain. Masinissa, the Numidian King of the Massylii joins the Roman cause, but is more concerned with fighting his fellow Roman ally Syphax.
Megas Antiochus's legendary campaign into China. Founding of Antiocheia Eschate. End of the Qin dynasty following capture of Emperor Ziying, last ruler of the Qin Dynasty, by Liu Bang, leader of a popular revolt. China is in civil war as the Seleukids enter it from the West and the Xiongnu attack it from the North.
205 BCE: First Macedonian War ends with Philip V emerging victorious in the 2nd Battle of Apollonia. Large parts of Illyria are ceded to Macedon.
Philip V conquers Crete and attacks Rhodes. Antiochus III campaigns in China.
202 BCE: Philip V conquers Rhodes but allows the local Apollonios dynasty, supposed descendants of Apollo to remain in power as his clients.
Roman victory in the Battle of Zama. Hannibal is defeated by the Roman-Siracusan-Numidian coalition lead by Scipio, now receiving the surname Africanus. End of the 2nd Punic War, marking the decline of the Carthaginian state.
Peace between Megas Antiochus and Liu Bang. Formation of the Great Seleukid Chinese Satrapy
of Antiocheia Escate.
201 BCE: Philip V conquers Chios and installs the Lysimachid prince Alexandros as a client ruler. He then invades Pergamum, in spite of a Roman ultimatum warning against it. Beginning of the Second Macedonian War.
197 BCE: Philip V marginally defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. A peace is signed with Rome.
196 BCE: Megas Antiochus crosses the Helespont into Europe. War with Rome. The exiled Hannibal arrives at his court. Sparta and Athens fearing Seleukid conquest ally with Rome. A vast Hellenic coalition including Philip V joins with Rome against Megas Antiochus.
191 BCE: Megas Antiochus defeats a coalition army near Amphipolis, but is forced to retreat over the Helespont in order to deal with a Galatian threat to Syria.
190 BCE: The Allies defeat the Seleukid fleet at Eurymedon and Myonessus. Galatians besiege Antiocheia. Widespread rebellion throughout the Seleukid Empire. The Eastern Satrapies declare independence.
189 BCE: Megas Antiochus defeats the Romans in the Battle of Magnesia in a pyrrhic victory. He then turns his attention East against his rebellious Satraps.
187 BCE: Megas Antiochus is assassinated while praying in the great temple of Alexandros-Ammon in Seleukeia on the Tigris, on the orders of Antialcidas Parmenion, Satrap of Ecbatana.
185 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos of Marakanda converts to Buddhism. His conversion to Buddhism and his reliance on a Confucian bureaucracy of Zhao origin is used by King Diodotus III of Bactria as a pretext to invade Marakanda in order to restore proper Hellenic rule. Diodotus III is defeated, taken prisoner and forced to become a vassal.
184 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos campaigns in India.
182 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos proclaimed Megas Basileus of India. Establishment of a new Empire ruled from the newly founded city of Demetria, near Ujjain. The Buddhist Demetrius I Aniketos rules India with the help of his Zhao Confucian bureucracy and the might of his Indohellenic armies. Hellenic and Gallic military towns are established throughout his dominion in order to maintain control.
180 BCE: Demetrius I Aniketos assassinated on the orders of Apollodotus I Soter, the Satrap of Taxila. Apollodotus I Soter proclaims himself Basileus of Sindhia taking control of the Western part of the Empire. Diodotus IV of Bactria regains independence, while Marakanda acknowledges Antimachus the second born son of Demetrius I Aniketos as King. Demetrius II, the rightful heir of the Empire rules over the East from his new capital at Pataliputra.
179 BCE: Philip V of Macedon campaigns against the Galatians. He famously dies leading a Hetairoi charge against the Galatian left flank in the Battle of Ancyra. Following his death his son Perseus makes peace with the Galatians, and reconfirms the Roman-Macedonian alliance.
177 BCE: Perseus marries the Seleukid princess Laodice before embarking on a campaign against Galatia.
172 BCE: Eumenes II of Pergamum asks for Roman help against Perseus. Beginning of Third Macedonian war.
171 BCE: Perseus defeats the Roman consul Publius Licinius Crassus in the Battle of Callicinus and proclaims himself Hegemon of the Hellenes.
170 BCE: Antiochus IV Epiphanes invades Egypt but allows Ptolemy VI to continue as a puppet ruler, as he is forced to return to Judaea to deal with a large Jewish Rebellion.
Eucratides Arianos the Satrap of Aria founds an independent Kingdom centered around Alexandria Areion. He marries the daughter of Antimachus Hephaistionos, the Satrap of Gedrosia and descendant of Hephaistion, Alexandros's favored companion. Gedrosia becomes part of the newly formed Basileia of Aria.
169 BCE: Perseus defeats the Romans at Tempe, the Roman consul Quintus Marcius Phillipus is captured, treated with the highest honors, and then released by Perseus.
168 BCE: A Romano-Hellenic coalition army led by Lucius Aemilius Paulus defeats Perseus at Pydna. Perseus is wounded and captured in battle as his Hetairoi cavalry failed to break the Spartan force on the Roman right flank. In spite of grievous wounds Perseus survives and is brought to Rome to take part in Lucius Aemilius Paulus's triumphal procession. Macedon becomes a Roman client kingdom with a legion stationed at Pella.
Ptolemy VI asks for Roman help against the Seleukids and Antiochus IV invades Egypt. As his forces camp outside Alexandria, the Roman ambassador Gaius Popillius Laenas presents Antiochus IV with an ultimatum that he evacuate Egypt immediately. Popillius draws a circle around the king with his walking stick and demands a clear answer before Antiochus leaves the circle. Antiochus withdraws from Egypt.
167 BCE: Angered by Seleukid Hellenization policies, the Jews led by the High Priest Mattathias ben Johanan rise up in revolt. Antiochus IV tries to suppress the revolt in blood, half of the population of Jerusalem being butchered.
166 BCE: Antiochus IV is forced to leave Judaea in order to deal with a Parthian invasion. Mattathias, dies and his third son, Judas Maccabeus is proclaimed king. The rebels rout the Seleukid army at the Battle of Beth Horon. Following another Seleukid defeat, at the Battle of Emmaus, Judas Maccabeus gains full control of Judaea, except Jerusalem still held by a strong Seleukid garrison.
165 BCE: Antiochus IV is forced to turn West to fight an Armenian invasion. Parthians are left to continue their advance unopposed. Following a great victory outside Antiocheia, Artaxias of Armenia is captured by Antiochus IV Epiphanes and is forced to recognize Seleukid sovereignty over Armenia.
164 BCE: Ptolemy VI Philometor is exiled from Alexandria by his brother Ptolemy VIII Euergetes and flees to Rome to ask for support support. Antiochus IV is assasinated on the orders of his chancelor Lysias who becomes Regent for his son Antiochus V Eupator.
Judas Maccabeus defeats Lysias at the battle of Beth Zur. Judas Maccabeus enters Jerusalem in triumph and purifies the Temple. He destroys the idols erected there by the Seleukids and restores the sacred service in the Temple.
163 BCE: Romans intervene in Egypt and partition the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Ptolemy VIII Euergetes receives Cyrenaica and Ptolemy VI Egypt. Lysias confirms Judas Maccabeus as King of Judaea. Timarchus Epigonos leads a rebellion against Lysias and establishes an independent kingdom in Media.
162 BCE: Judas Maccabeus lays siege to Acra, a fortress within Jerusalem that faces the Temple Mount still held by a Seleukid garisson. Lysias invades Judaea and defeats Judas Maccabeus at the battle of Beth-zechariah, and Judas is forced to withdraw to Jerusalem.
Lysias lays siege to the city but is forced to withdraw as the Seleukid prince Demetrius arrives in Antiocheia and claims the Seleukid throne with Roman support.
161 BCE: Timarchus occupies Babylonia. Demetrius defeats Lysias and sends an army under Nicanor to deal with Judas Maccabeus, but Nicanor is defeated in the battle of Adasa, near Beth-horon. Judas Maccabeus sends envoys to Rome asking for support.
160 BCE: Demetrius accepts the submission of Timarchus who is confirmed as Satrap of Babylonia, while the Parthian King Mithradates I invades Media. Judas Maccabeus defeats a Seleukid army in the Battle of Elasa. Rome intervenes on behalf of the Judaean King and Demetrius is forced to accept Judas Maccabeus as King of Judaea.
158 BCE: Demetrius invades Kapadokia and removes Ariarathes V from power who flees to Rome and asks for Roman support.
157 BCE: Demetrius rejects a Roman ultimatum to restore Ariarathes V on his throne. A Roman-Galatian coallition forces Demetrius to retreat from Kapadokia, and Ariarathes is reinstated.
155 BCE: Punicus the King of the Lusitani defeated in battle by Lucius Mummius accepts Roman sovereignty and Lusitania becomes a vassal kingdom. Menander, Megas Basileus of India completes the conquest of Lanka.
154 BCE: Menander campaigns into China and enters Antiocheia Eschate in triumph. His brother Alexandros is made Satrap of the Great Chinese Satrapy of Antiocheia Eschate. Capitalizing on the Rebellion of the Seven States, a Treaty of Eternal Friendship is signed with Emperor Jing of Han, confirming the borders of the Hellenic Satrapy of Antiocheia Eschate.
153 BCE: Romans try to install Alexandros Balas Seleukos, a bastard son of Antiochus IV by the Argeadai princess Olympia, as Seleukid Basileus. Demetrius is forced to withdraw from Antiocheia as Alexandros Balas is installed Basileus by a Romano-Galatian-Judaean coalition.
150 BCE: Cato urges the Destruction of Carthage following its war with Rome's ally Numidia. Demetrius defeats Alexandros Balas in battle outside Antiocheia, only to be assassinated by a Jewish mercenary upon entering the city in triumph. Alexandros Balas is restored as Basileus of Arche Seleukeia.
149 BCE: Third Punic War begins. Viriathus, King of the Lusitani proclaims himself independent from Rome.
147 BCE: War for Arche Seleukeia between Demetrius II and Alexandros Balas.
146 BCE: Carthage conquered by Scipio Aemilianus.
145 BCE: Demetrius II and Ptolemy VI Philometor defeat Alexandros Balas in the Battle of Antioch. Ptolemy VI dies in battle, while Alexandros Balas flees to Nabatea.
144 BCE: Parthians take control of Babylonia. Viriathus fights the Romans to a draw near Numantia. Following the Treaty of Saguntum Viriathus is confirmed as client king of Lusitania.
141 BCE: Beginning of Tocharian Exodus to Bactria. Demetrius II defeated in battle by Mithridates, King of the Parthians becomes his prisoner. Beginning of Seleukid Anarchy with several Seleukid princes proclaiming themselves Basileus.
134 BCE: Epander, Megas Basileus of India conquers Burma and establishes the Satrapy of Epanderia Eschate. Atallus IV of Pergamum becomes a Roman vassal.
129 BCE: Antiochus VII Sidetes killed in the battle of Ecbatana by Menander Parmenion, now a vassal of Phraates II. Seleukid control over the East collapses entirely. Demetrius II recovers the throne of Syria with the support of Phraates II of Parthia.
128 BCE: Tocharians defeated by a Hellenic Coalition led by Alexandros Soter of Marakanda. Defeated Tocharians resettled throughout the Indohellenic states.
126 BCE: Seleukos V Philometor succeeds his father Demetrius II, asssasinated on the orders of Cleopatra Thea who acts as regent before having Seleukos V assassinated in turn. Cleopatra Thea and her son by Demetrius II, Antiochus VIII rule jointly.
124 BCE: Artabanus I of Parthia killed in battle against the Saka, after the Hellenic Kings of Marakanda, Bactria and Aria had allowed a new wave of Saka to pass through their lands into Persia. Kingdom of Sakastan founded in Eastern Persia.
118 BCE: Jugurtha becomes King of Numidia and begins expanding his kingdom throughout North Africa.
112 BCE: Roman-Numidian War begins. Jugurtha establishes a vast North African Empire.
111 BCE: Nam Viet collapses under a joint invasion by Epander of India and the Han Empire.
105 BCE: Jugurtha defeated in battle by a Roman led coalition, featuring Siracusan and Ptolemaic troops. Together with his vassal Bocchus of Mauretania Jugurtha acknowledges the sovereignty of Rome and Numidia and Mauretania become client states.
104 BCE: Alexandros II Aniketos of Marakanda establishes a vast Empire in Central Asia. His Empire stretches from Marakanda to China. Tocharians and Sakas play an important role within the military of Marakanda.
103 BCE: Tigranes II of Armenia proclaims himself King of Kings and establishes the Armenian Empire following his conquest of Atropatene.
100 BCE: Following Peasant Rebellions against Emperor Wu of Han, Alexandros II Aniketos of Marakanda invades China from the West and Epander II of India from the South West. Beginning of the legendary Katabasis of Alexandros II Aniketos to the Pacific.
98 BCE: Changan falls to Alexandros II Aniketos.
97 BCE: Ariarathes VII of Kapadokia becomes a vassal of Mithridates VI of Pontus. Various campaigns of expansion by Tigranes II of Armenia.
96 BCE: End of the Legendary Katabasis of Alexandros II Aniketos as he reaches the Pacific. Alexandros II weeps as he states that "There are no more worlds left to conquer". A new Alexandreia Eschate founded on the Pacific Coast, at the mouth of the Yellow River.
94 BCE: Legendary Hellenic expedition to Japan. A force under Hephaistion Epigonos, Satrap of the new Chinese Satrapy of Alexandreia Eschate lands in Japan. A whirlwind campaign sees Hephaistion subdue the western part of the archipelagos.
Tigranes II of Armenia turns Kapadokia into a vassal state, Pontus is forced to acknowledge this state of affairs.
92 BCE: A Roman anti-Armenian coalition under the generalship of Sulla fights Tigranes to a draw in Kapadokia. A second coalition army, under the leadership of Lucullus, mainly composed of Roman clients, Galatians and Spartans invades Armenia. Tigranes is forced to retreat to deal with this threat.
90 BCE: Mithridates VI of Pontus defeats Nicomedes IV of Bythinia, and occupies his kingdom. Nicomedes flees to Rome.
88 BCE: Roman Civil War between Sulla and Marius. The Scordisci of Singidunum under Bolgios V, attack Illyria and expand their dominions within the region. Mithridates receives the submission of the Hellenes of Asia Minor then invades Greece. He occupies Macedon, has himself crowned Megas Basileus in Pella before advancing South. He defeats a Spartan-Athenian army near Pydna. The Spartan King Areus IV is killed in battle refusing to retreat. The Spartan force rallies around their dead King refusing to forsake his body. The Spartans refuse to surrender and are killed to a man. Mithridates weeps as the body of Areus IV is brought to him.
87 BCE: Mithridates captures Athens. A new Spartan army is dispatched to guard the Isthmus of Corinth against Invasion. Mithridates shifts his focus towards Epirus.
86 BCE: A Roman-Siracusan Fleet under Sulla retakes Athens and lands an Army behind Mithridates's lines. A Spartan army under Areus V advances Northwards to link up with the Romans, only to be met by a returned Mithridates at Pagae. The Spartan King Areus V is killed in the ensuing battle.
Dardanians under Bardyllis III allied with the Scordisci invade Illyria.
85 BCE: Mithridates narrowly escapes an assassination attempt and is left incapacitated. His army under Archelaus is defeated at the battle of Orchomenus by Sulla and forced to retreat. Sulla is forced to march to the North West to face a Dardani incursion into Greece. A peace is signed with the Dardani King Bardyllis III near Lamia, and the Dardani are payed off.
83 BCE: Sulla returns to Italy and defeats Gaius Norbanus at the Battle of Mount Tifata. Mithridates VI recovers from his injury. The Seleukid Antiochus XIII Soter defeats Tigranes II Emperor of Armenia near Antiocheia ad Taurus. This battle is considered to be the beginning of the Seleukid Renaissance. A series of whirlwind campaigns follow.
82 BCE: Sulla enters Rome in triumph. Burebista becomes High King of the Dacians and starts building a centralized Dacian state. Antiochus XIII Soter wins the battle of Tarsos, establishes Seleukid control over Cilicia.
81 BCE: Sulla is Roman Dictator. Bardyllis III of Dardania and Areus Bolgios of Singidunum attack Dacia and are thoroughly defeated by Burebista. Bardyllis and Areus Bolgios are captured and ritually sacrificed by the Dacian king. Antiochus XIII Soter advances into Kapadokia, besieges Mazaka.
80 BCE: Sertorian War in Hispania. Quintus Sertorius defeats a Sullan army under Quintus Metellus Pius in the Battle of the Baetis river. Antiochus XIII receives the submission of Commagene.
78 BCE: Antiochus XIII campaigns in Sophene. Further victories over the Armenians.
76 BCE: Salome Alexandra assasinates her husband the Maccabean David III and becomes queen of Judaea, her baby son being relegated to heir to the Kingdom. She reestablishes the Sanhedrin and begins a policy of foreign expansion. Roman control over Illyria is reestablished.
75 BCE: Mithridates defeats a Roman Fleet in the Battle of Chalcedon. Antiochus XIII besieges Tigranokerta.
74 BCE: Mithridates defeats Lucullus in the Battle of Cyzicus. Fall of Tigranokerta to Antiochus XIII Soter. Tigranes II escapes to the East. Megas Basileus Epander III of India establishes his authority over the Malayan Peninsula, now called Epanderia.
73 BCE: Rebellion of Spartacus. Quintus Sertorius finally accepts peace. He remains in control of vast regions in Hispania. Antiochus XIII continues his dismantling of the Armenian Empire as he chases Tigranes II from province to province.
72 BCE: Mithridates marches on Athens. He defeats a Helleno-Roman coalition near Marathon, then turns West to face a new Roman army marching on him from Epirus. He routs the Romans at Amphissa.
71 BCE: End of the Rebellion of Spartacus. Marcus Licinius Crassus sent against Mithridates.
70 BCE: Marcus Licinius Crassus defeats Mithridates near Thermon, after the right wing of the Pontic army defects to the Romans. Mithridates is wounded but escapes with his life being hauled off by his bodyguards from the battlefield in spite of his protestations. Antiochus XIII conquers Kabalaka.
69 BCE: Mithridates stops the Roman advance in the Battle of the Helespont. Antiochus XIII defeats Armenian loyalists in a great battle near Artaxata. He advances into Atropatene.
68 BCE: Antiochus XIII turns south west and defeats an anti-Seleukid coalition army at Arbela, but is forced to march west as news of the Judaean Invasion of Syria by Salome Alexandra reaches his camp.
67 BCE: The Warrior Queen Salome Alexandra of Judaea is killed in battle near Antiocheia by Antiochus XIII Soter. Mithridates marches into Greece once more. Antiochus XIII campaigns against Judaea. In the East the Great Satrap Antimachus Craterus of Turpiana, a descendant of Alexandros's great general, defeats the Xiongnu at the Battle of Jushi.
66 BCE: Tigranes II negotiates peace with Antiochus XIII. He remains as vassal King in Armenia, Antiochus marries his daughter. He continues his campaign against Judaea. Pompey defeats Mithridates at the Battle of Pella, following the arrival of an allied army under King Deiotarus of Galatia to the rear of the Pontic Army. Mithridates barely escapes with his life.
65 BCE: Antiochus XIII besieges Jerusalem. Aristobulus II of Judaea sues for terms and is confirmed as client King of Judaea. Antiochus XIII Soter enters Jerusalem and the Jews pay lip service to him as a new "Messiah" after he confirms their freedoms and allows the Jewish state to continue on as his autonomous vassal. Pursued by the Romans, Mithridates flees to the Kingdom of Cimmerian Bosphorus, where his son Machares rules as Regent.
64 BCE: Pompey installs Mithridates VII as client King of Pontus before embarking on his expedition against Cimmerian Bosphorus. Following a decisive battle outside Panticapaeum, Mithridates flees and is killed by his own son who brings Pompey his head. Pompey executes Machares, and orders Mithridates's body sent back to Pontus to be interred with honors in the Royal Necropolis. Asander is made client King of Bosphorus.
63 BCE: Pompey campaigns in the Levant against the Seleukids, as Antiochus XIII is campaigning in the East. Aristobulus II ousted by Pompey and replaced with his brother Yohanan. Judaea comes over to the Roman side and is turned into a Roman client kingdom. 12000 Jews massacred on the Temple Mount by Roman troops as Pompey tries to secure Yohanan's power over Judaea.
62 BCE: Antiochus Theos, the Seleukid client king of Commagene is defeated by Pompey near Antiocheia. Antiochus XIII returns from his Eastern campaign only to find Pompey besieging his capital. Upon hearing news of a Galatian army under Brogitarus approaching from the North West, Antiochus XIII sues for terms. Pompey allows him to retain Syria and his Eastern conquests in exchange for renouncing all of his western claims from Cilicia to Kapadokia and recognizing Judaea as a Roman client.
61 BCE: Antiochus XIII Soter begins his Anabasis to Seleukeia on the Tigris. In a great battle near Dura Europos Antiochus XIII kills Phraates III of Parthia. The Parthians are in dissaray.
60 BCE: Antiochus XIII Soter enters Seleukeia on the Tigris in triumph after Philotas VIII Parmenion, the Satrap of Ecbatana opens the city gates without a fight and acknowledges Antiochus XIII as sovereign. King Asander of Cimmerian Bosporus expands his dominions on the Northern Shore of the Pontus Euxinus and comes into conflict with the Dacian King Burebista.
59 BCE: Burebista fights Asander to a draw near Histria. A Treaty of Friendship is concluded between the two Kingdoms, Asander marries Burebista's daughter Boriava. Antiochus XIII Soter campaigns in the East. Several Hellenistic Satraps including Timarchus III Epigonos acknowledge him as Megas Basileus.
58 BCE: Burebista expands his Dacian empire. The Gallic kingdoms of Singidunum and Tylis confirmed as clients.
57 BCE: Burebista's western campaign into Germania. Antiochus XIII besieges and conquers Hecatompylos.
56 BCE: Antiochus XIII Soter defeats Orodes II in battle near Antiocheia Margiana, but dies leading a Hetairoi charge against the Parthian Immortals. Caesar campaigns in Gaul.
49 BCE: Roman Civil War begins as Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Peace between Arche Seleukeia and Parthia, Antiochus XIV and Orodes II sign a Treaty of Eternal Friendship. Pompeian forces in Spain surrender to Caesar. Lucius Afranius pardoned, remains in control of Ilerda. Caesar appointed Dictator in Rome.
48 BCE: Pompey defeated at Pharsalus, flees to Egypt. Ptolemy XIII takes him prisoner and attempts to hand him over to Caesar. Pompey flees to the Court of Antiochus XIV. Caesar arrives in Egypt to link up with his Ptolemaic ally. Cleopatra VII becomes his mistress. A Roman-Egyptian force starts its advance towards Syria.
47 BCE: Caesar arrives outside Antiocheia only to find Antiochus XIV and Pompey had left the city. Caesar is forced to turn North West and march against the rebellious king Pharnaces II of Pontus who threatens Roman interests in Asia Minor. Caesar's army supplemented by a Galatian host destroys the Pontic army at Zela. Pharnaces II flees to Panticapaeum. Asander has him killed. The young Pharnaces III set up as king in Pontus as a Roman puppet.
46 BCE: Caesar defeats Antiochus XIV near Epiphania. Pompey dies in battle. Antiochus XIV retreats to Seleukeia on the Tigris. Caesar returns to Egypt, installs his mistress Cleopatra VII as Queen and exiles Ptolemy XIII to Kyrene. With the help of Juba, client King of Numidia Caesar defeats the Optimates at Ruspina and Thapsus.
45 BCE: Caesar campaigns against Antiochus XIV. Antiochus refuses to give battle and retreats East. A peace is negotiated with the Seleukid King accepting to pay Caesar large war reparations. Caesar returns to Rome.
44 BCE: Caesar assassinated in Rome. Dacian High King Burebista assassinated near Argidava.
43 BCE: Roman Civil War. Octavian and Marcus Antonius reconcile.
42 BCE: First and Second Battles of Philippi. Marcus Antonius and Octavian lead a coalition army of Romans, Makedones and Spartans to victory against Marcus Brutus. Marcus Brutus killed, Cassius flees to Antiocheia.
41 BCE: Marcus Antonius goes to Egypt to raise Ptolemaic support for a campaign against Syria. He is seduced by Cleopatra VII. Marcus Antonius becomes the tutor of young Caesarion. Rather than pursue the war against Antiochus he remains in Egypt with his mistress.
38 BCE: Marcus Antonius finally moves against Antiochus XIV. Herod the Great installed as King of Judaea. Antiochus XIV pays off Marcus Antonius and moves Northwards against Amyntas King of Galatia, now in control of Kapadokia and threatening to invade Syria. Amyntas defeats Antiochus XIV in battle near Mazaka. Antiochus XIV torn to pieces by the Galatians. Amyntas advances towards Antiocheia.
37 BCE: Amyntas besieges Antiocheia. Amyntas abandons the siege and campaigns in Armenia. Decaeneus, Priest King of Dacia institutes far ranging reforms trying to turn Dacia into a militaristic theocracy.
34 BCE: Artavasdes II of Armenia acknowledges Amyntas as sovereign. Amyntas campaigns East into Atropatene. Marcus Antonius arranges the bethrotal of his son by Cleopatra, Alexandros Helios to Berenice Seleukos.
32 BCE: War between Octavian and Marcus Antonius, as it is revealed that Marcus Antonius wishes to establish himself as Megas Basileus of the East. Amyntas Sovereign of Atropatene.
31 BCE: Marcus Antonius defeated by Octavian at Actium. Amyntas campaigns against Parthia. Alexandros III Seleukos joins Octavian in his war against Marcus Antonius.
30 BCE: King Malchus of Nabatea attacks Egypt in support of Octavian. Marcus Antonius commits suicide. Cleopatra VII and her children flee South into Nubia. Octavian reinstates Ptolemy XIII as client King of Egypt.
29 BCE: Octavian granted the cognomen Augustus. Amyntas defeats Phraates IV of Parthia near Hecatompylos. The Galatian King enters Hecatompylos and proclaims himself King of Kings. 7 days later he is dead, in mysterious circumstances.
(to be continued)