In my game as US. I was fighting the Ottomans.(I owned the Suez Canal and had sphered Egypt) I have 15/30 Naval Techs and Ottomans have 7/30 Naval techs. I'm using Ironclads and Monitors. They have Monitors! yet don't have requisite tech.
Also is national stockpile like the military maitenance in EU3. The reason I ask is Otto's had better Org than me and I had better tech. I loaded as them just to see their budget. I noticed theirs was always to right. Their Military spending wasn't as high as mine.