Bear with me — what is described here is a complex issue and I am a boring fellow: therefore this is a long post, addressing attrition
and its relation with war exhaustion
The game's largest issues stem from the large number of military forces that can be fielded. Since players can
field more regiments than in previous versions, they will
do so, as regiment numbers remains a determinant factor in times of war. Consequently, war exhaustion from attrition has increased so much as to make the maximum level a given at the start of any war against a human opponent. In vanilla, players do not attempt to avoid war exhaustion — they combat its effects by easily reducing global revolt risk, asking friends and family to take care of rebels or doing so themselves.
It isn't uncommon for war exhaustion to increase by more than +3 per month in multiplayer campaigns — this is largely due to attrition, rather than occupation or even battle casualties.
Let's review how attrition dictates monthly war exhaustion increases — the formula is among the simplest in the game:
ΔWEmonth = regiments incurring attrition * attrition rate
The leftmost item refers to the number of regiments in armies which are over supply limits — the rightmost operand is (usually, but not necessarily) the maximum attrition rate one can suffer in provinces (starting from 5%). We suppose you have two armies: a 30 regiments one, safe from attrition and a 50 regiments one, taking 5% attrition due to it being over its hosting province's supply limits. You will gain 0.25 war exhaustion per month. War exhaustion increases will be calculated according to armies' regiments
— not men. The attrition rate
though can actually depend on whether regiments are made of 1000 men or fewer. Army "weight" is compared to the province's supply limits to infer what attrition rate should be applied:
An army of 50 full strength regiments weighs 50 (case a). Assign a level six manoeuvre leader and it will weigh 44 (case b). When it's sitting in a province with 40 supply limits, it will take 5% attrition rate in case a) or 4% attrition in case b) — that's 44 (weight) - 40 (supply limits).
Three observations are obvious:
- War exhaustion from attrition will increase as more regiments can be fielded and are required to overcome adversaries — the longer the game runs, the more regiments become available, the more sizeable war exhaustion from attrition will be.
- The base attrition rate, for land provinces, is 5% — that's usually the minimum amount of attrition one will suffer in foreign lands and — quite often — in one's own provinces. This rate is either present in its full or absent — it seldom floats between 0% and 5%.
- War exhaustion gains from attrition don't scale according to countries. Nepal will gain as much war exhaustion as Russia when they are stationing excess regiments in foreign provinces. More precisely, 25 regiments over supply limits will give the same war exhaustion to a nation fielding hundreds as they do to a nation fielding just this many.
"Omnium Contra Omnes" aims to alter war exhaustion so that its maximum levels are not an inevitable consequence of any war
Three approaches were undertaken:
1) tie war exhaustion gains from attrition to a land force limits — or in layman's terms: the more regiments one can field the lesser the effects of one regiment taking attrition
2) decrease available force limits to a) diminish the overall attrition gains to win a war and b) increase relevance of war time recruitment
3) increase specific supply limits to restore the value of logistics
Blockaded Home Ports:
The second and third point will be discussed in other sections. As for the first point, the optimal solution would be to divide war exhaustion gains (due to attrition) by land force limits. That is, rather than gaining +3 WE per year for 50 regiments taking 5% attrition at any level, one would gain +1.5 WE per year with 100 land force limits — or +0.5 WE per year with 300 force limits.
For technical reasons, this dynamic cannot
be modded in. What can be done, on the other hand, is to decrease war exhaustion on a variable basis, according to force limits — regardless of gains. To do that we need to settle on an acceptable assumption, one that represents how much attrition one can be expected to incur according to variable levels of force limits.
In simple terms, I've assumed that at the very start, when force limits are relatively low, one should be able to field x%
of his force limits in enemy lands without suffering war exhaustion from their attrition. As force limits increase the same player is expected to project fewer regiments in percentage of his maximum force limits. In other terms — force limits are a positive factor in decreasing war exhaustion but provide diminishing returns.
Manpower losses from attrition are not affected.
For those who are curious, the formula that was employed to determine monthly war exhaustion decreases (ΔWE) according to force limits (x) is:
ΔWEmonth = 0.15*ln(x)-0.4
The logarithmic increase flattens out gracefully as x
approaches triple digit numbers: its ceiling is -0.55 WE for 550 force limits (a rare occurrence in the mod).
The war exhaustion discount is only active while at war and when maintenance isn't a concern to armed forces (over 50%) so to avoid those cases when a war will be protracted to burn off WE (other measures were also taken).
As France, at the beginning of the grand campaign, fielding thirty regiments, the concession is that one can project two thirds
of his maximum force and sustain the inevitable
attrition (a minimum of 5%) due to siegeing, moving into enemy provinces and either winning or retreating from a province where a battle has unfurled. As times change and armies increase in size, the assumption is that a lower percentage of them will be subject to attrition due offensive or defensive movements: front lines are only as wide as thirty and there is a finite number of provinces to move from and to.
Technically, the war exhaustion reduction is provided by means of a country modifier, updated monthly. Unlike "triggered" modifiers there isn't a pop up notifying players when they receive it: the idea was to make it as discreet as possible. Figures can be checked in the military panel, where other war exhaustion modifiers show up.
The "land" slider effectively contributes to decreasing war exhaustion for large nations, as it increases land force limits. The same goes for "Grand Army" — which can make a rather substantial difference when the national force limits base is high enough.
The "Holy Roman Empire" crown grants significant war exhaustion decreases while at war — the more countries coexist within the Empire, the larger the Emperor's force limits and thus his war exhaustion decrease. The same goes for vassals — their force limits will contribute to the player's war exhaustion reduction.
Since war exhaustion is predominantly decreased by force limits now — other elements, which previously decreased it as well, needed to reviewed.
The "Defender of the Faith" title doesn't grant a war exhaustion decrease anymore. Its effects were changed and will be discussed elsewhere, events are being added to reward a country boasting such title and actively fighting religious enemies (war exhaustion decreases).
Occupied Home Provinces:
While blockades effects on war exhaustion were increased compared to vanilla, these aren't as dramatic as those determined by occupation. A one province minor being blockaded will witness its war exhaustion increasing by +0.65 every month. It's likely the same minor won't benefit from force limits war exhaustion reductions — thus quickly topping maximum war exhaustion (about three years). Full occupation of the one province minor, on the other hand, would net +1.6 WE monthly.
Blockades consequences depend on the ratio between core coastal tax base and total core tax base. Therefore the +0.65 WE is a remote possibility for all but those states which only feature coastal provinces.
In practical terms, a blockaded France in the 19th century will suffer from +0.18 WE every month — easily shrugged off with the new force limit modifiers. A blockaded Great Britain, on the other hand, would suffer from about +0.5 WE a month, being fully blockaded — that's little more than three years and a handful of months before war exhaustion can reach its maximum.
War exhaustion from blockades was, in conclusion, increased — it still isn't a particularly worrying threat to land nations. Blockades impact on economy was instead increased: a state whose access to seas is negated will lose tariff income and a yearly merchants. The rate, once again, is highly variable on one's reliance on coastal tax base. Tariff income can be halved, in cases like Great Britain — and up to three merchants per year can be lost.
A fully blockaded Great Britain in the 19th century would lose 50% of its tariff income and 2.5 merchants a year. A fully blockaded France would lose about 20% of its tariff income and little less than one merchant.
Please remark that the reduced tariffs income is global — it remains possible to blockade coastal overseas provinces to reduce local tariffs by 100%, as in vanilla.
To make up for the WE decrease due to force limits, occupation's effects were revamped. For the moment I will simply post a table which correlates occupation percentage (cores, not overseas) to monthly war exhaustion gains. Since these increases are linear they can be added.
5% . . . . 0.08 WE
15% . . . 0.24 WE
30% . . . 0.48 WE
50% . . . 0.80 WE
Negative warscore now gives WE. It's necessary with the new force limits system and it speeds up the want for peace in terminal situations. Table follows:
-20 WS . . . 0.10 WE
-35 WS . . . 0.15 WE
-50 WS . . . 0.20 WE
-75 WS . . . 0.25 WE