For the Dutch Republic, 1672 proved calamitous, becoming known as the "disaster year" because of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War in which the Netherlands were invaded by France under Louis XIV, England, Münster, and Cologne. Although the Anglo-French fleet was disabled by the Battle of Solebay, in June the French army quickly overran the provinces of Gelderland and Utrecht. William on 14 June withdrew with the remnants of his field army into Holland, where the States had ordered the flooding of the Dutch Water Line on 8 June.Louis XIV, believing the war was over, began negotiations to extract as large a sum of money from the Dutch as possible. The presence of a large French army in the heart of the Republic caused a general panic, and the people turned against de Witt and his allies.
On 4 July the States of Holland appointed William stadtholder, and he took the oath five days later.The next day, a special envoy from Charles, Lord Arlington, met with William in Nieuwerbrug. He offered to make William Sovereign Prince of Holland in exchange for his capitulation—whereas a stadtholder was a mere civil servant. When William refused, Arlington threatened that William would witness the end of the republic's existence. William made his famous answer: "There is one way to avoid this: to die defending it in the last ditch". On 7 July, the inundations were complete and the further advance of the French army was effectively blocked. On 16 July Zeeland offered the stadtholderate to William.
William III of Orange could be considered the greatest Stadtholder to ever rule in The Netherlands.The people were pleased with his rule.From an economic perspective, the Republic of the United Provinces completely outperformed all expectations; it was a surprise to many that a nation not based on the church or on a single royal leader could be so successful. This period is known in the Netherlands as the Dutch Golden Age. The Dutch dominated world trade in the 17th century, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world.Also,along with wealth,he bought glory to the nation;William III was also the ruler of England and Scotland.From the Low Countries to Scotland,from Canada to Indonesia,the sun could not ever set of his realm.
Year 1806.The Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country. In 1807 Prussian East Frisia and Jever were added to the kingdom but in 1809, after a British invasion, Holland had to give over all territories south of the river Rhine to France.
Also in 1809, Dutch forces fighting on the French side participated in defeating the anti-Bonapartist German rebellion led by Ferdinand von Schill, at the Battle of Stralsund.
King Louis did not perform to Napoleon's expectations—he tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's—and the kingdom was dissolved in 1810 after which the Netherlands were annexed by France until 1813. The kingdom of Holland covered the area of present day Netherlands, with the exception of Limburg, and parts of Zeeland, which were French territory. East Frisia was also part of the kingdom.
When The Confederation was disolved and the Kingdom of Holland was established it marked a major change in the Dutch society.The term of "equality" was now obsollete,the king beign saught as a supreme leader,rulling the state unconstitutionaly and ilegaly.
Year 1830.United Kingdom of the Netherlands was the name used to refer to a new unified European state created from part of the First French Empire during the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This state, officially called the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", was made up of the former Dutch Republic to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands to the south, and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The House of Orange-Nassau came to be the monarchs of this new state.
The newly formed kingdom was not like the Netherlands during the Republic. By the constitution, King William was granted much more power than the stadthholder in the Dutch Republic.
The Second Chamber of the States-General of the Netherlands had 110 members, of which 55 were chosen by the north and 55 were chosen by the south. The First Chamber consisted of noblemen, old and new nobles, who were granted the position by King William.
The Netherlands had eight ministers who did not have to answer to the Second Chamber, but only to the King himself. In fact they were following his demands. The King also could rule by "Royal Order".
Economically the new state prospered, although many people in the north were unemployed and lived in poverty because a lot of English goods had destabilised the Dutch trade market.
In August 1830, stirred by a performance of Auber's La Muette de Portici at the Brussels opera house La Monnaie , the Belgian Revolution broke out, and the country wrested its independence from the Dutch, aided by French intellectuals and French armed forces.After 9 years of civil war,King William finally recognized the independence of the Kingdom of Belgium,betraying the Dutch people.After years of dictatorship under the royal rulers,the Dutch raised arms and sparked a revolution.After a very short period of time,the royalists were defeated,the king and his son were executed by guilotine and The Oranjke Revolutionary Party became the rulers of the state,instaling a Presidential Dictatorship,finally insuring equality by socialism in the Netherland.Thus the Republic of the Netherlands,Indonesia and Antilles was born.