that was a bit nasty, but you seem to have done well enough despite the loss - this post convinces me that every Paradox game encourages its players to engage in 'wailing on France' as almost a core game mechanic
Chapter XIV - The Cantabrian Campaign (193 BC)
A. The situation in Iberia (250 - 194 BC)
When Rome set foot on Iberian soil in the year 250 BC, the largest part of the peninsula was inhabited by unorganized Tribes in small villages.
There were only two exceptions. In the north settled the Cantabri, who had managed to expand south into the valley of the Duero River and subdue the Vaccaei in the early 3rd Century. However, the whole southern coast belonged to the Carthaginian colonial empire, that had expanded along the western coast, when the area of settlement of the Lusitanian tribe was conquered in the 260`s BC.
Rome quickly realized the political conditions, but obviously felt no need to be active besides colonizing Volcae (247) and Cassetani (241) in order to secure the back country of Emporion. During the next decades, this situation didn`t change.
It was in the early 2nd Century, when Rome decided to increase its influence in Iberia. Crucial for this decision were two factors. Firstly the experiences from the Gaul War may have led to the insight, that Rome`s position along the Pyrenees was not strong enough. But probably more important was the fact, that Carthage, despite the ongoing war with Pontus(56), had established new colonies in southern Iberia.
To counter this development, Rome began to colonize Aquitania (198), Ilergetes (194) and Vascones (194). This brought them in contact with the Cantabrian territory, that now blocked further expansion westwards.
Fig. 14: The Iberian peninsula in 194 BC
Since Rome could not risk, that the northwest of Iberia fell to the Carthaginians, it decided to attack the Cantabri.
Governor of the Region Tarraconensis was Tiberius Brutus, an outstanding and still rather young man(57), who decided to personally lead the campaign. He commanded the rebuild Legio IV Martia.
He immediately marched westward toward Cantabri, the main settlement of the Cantabrian tribe. He arrived there in mid February, and a few days later the city surrendered when faced with Tiberius` superior power.
But Tiberius could not properly exploit this initial success, since the Cantabrian force hid in the mountains and avoided a field battle. Although he split his force, it required the whole summer of constant maneuvering, until Tiberius could involve the Cantabri into two battles, that ended in unendangered, but little glorious victories(58).
Finally he could reunite his Legion and march toward Pallantia(59), that surrendered after about three months of siege. With the capture of the main city in the former tribal area of the Vaccaei, the campaign was over.
It is undisputed among historians, that the Cantabrian Campaign was the beginning of the "Race for Iberian Soil" between Rome and Carthage. At this point of time, Rome probably didn`t want to engage Carthage itself. But chances are, that the Senate had realized, that a confrontation would be probably inevitable in the long run. Thus it tried to gain a strategic position, that was as advantageous as possible.
(56) According to roman reports there were skirmishes even in Iberia.
(57) In 193 BC, he was 28 years old. The more remarkable fact is, that he was appointed to be Governor at age 19 in the same Province his father Spurius Tiberius Brutus governed until he died in 213 BC.
(58) Sutonius, who only roughly describes the campaign, states, that Tiberius "put the Cantabri off the battlefield", which is not exactly the same as destroying the enemy force.
(59) Probably today`s Palencia
Every other state is a threat to the existence of the Roman republic, meaning that all whom we counter we enslave?
The inevitable war with Carthage sure looks ike t's going to be a slugfest. Better make sure you have a bigger fleet and a commander with better martial then theirs.
yes ... thats a really skilled deployment of the "we need to conquer them to save them from some one else" casus belli
There one positive feature as boundaries is that at least everyone can work out where the frontier is. If your feet are wetter than normal you are almost abroad.....
On a separate note, really good series of updates.
Exile in the East - a Helleno-Varangian CK AAR (Part 28 posted 03 January 2012)
AARland Choice AwAARds - CK historybook winner Q3 & Q4 2011
Showcased 09-Sep-2011, Character writer of the week 28-Mar-2011
Fan of the Week 07-Feb-2011 & 03-Jul-2011
Border rivers where used but not as much as the ones in the interior.
The economical system was different then now. There was alot of trade in the empire and only minimal in the borderregions.
Owner of a cookie of Awesome Communist Guessing! ●
Chapter XV - The 3rd Tylic War (191 BC)
"In the second year of the consulate of Gaius Junius Bubulcus, Marcus Fabius Licinus seized Tylis."(59)
In the year 191 BC, Rome finally destroyed the last remnants of the Tylic realm. Oddly enough, neither Sutonius nor Flavius, the other main source for the 2nd Century BC, report anything about it beside the time of the campaign and its commander.
Accordingly we have only vague knowledge about the whole war. Marcus Fabius Licinus is primarily known to us via his father(60). Allegedly due to the influence of his family he was appointed to be Governor of Thracia in 192 BC. When the Senate decided to invade Tylis, he took command of the Legio VII Ferrata, that was stationed in Iamphorynna(61).
We have no knowledge about the progress of the Campaign, but it is most probable, that it was very short. After the 2nd Tylic War, Tylis sank into total economic and political insignificance and was merely a country by Rome`s grace.
But how come, that roman authors nearly completely ignored this event? Some Historians argue, that Sutonius and Flavius felt no need to further explain the occurrence. Either because Tylis had been an enemy in the past, so it was "logical" to fight against them until complete surrender. Or maybe because it was not "proper" even by roman standards to invade a meaning- and helpless country without having been provoked in any way(62). Finally some authors point out, that the whole event was of no importance.
Goldberg contradicts such an opinion(63). He admits, that the inclusion of Thracia was not substantial in economical terms and that the final campaign to conquer it did not involve any nameable events. The relevance of it was of symbolic nature. With the control of the Bosporus and now being literally "in sight" of Pontus, Rome expressed its claim to power over whole Greece and its determination to confront any power, that doesn`t acknowledge said claim.
(59) Sutonius, "Annals", Vol. XXXII
(60) Caelus Fabius Licinus had been Consul from 201 - 199 (when he personally lead the VII. Legion during the 2nd Tylic War) and served as Legate of the Legio II during the Gaul War thereafter, but with more success than his colleague Zoticid. In 191 BC, he was one of the two roman Censors.
(61) Despite all efforts, this capital of the Maedi tribe has not been located yet.
(62) We should, despite Rome`s aggressive imperialism, not underestimate Rome`s desire to depict its wars as "just" in terms of defending itself against an unprovoked or even potential threat .
(63) Daniel Goldberg; "The new hegemon: Roman expansion into Greece", 2004
Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 08-02-2011 at 13:34.
I like the idea that the casual destruction of a tribal society would go unmentioned in Roman histories ... after all Empires don't tend to see the world from the point of view of their victims. So you're butting up against the Pontic and Punic threats, hopefully you can deal with them separately.
Now you only have to wait until one of the Greek citystates asks your help against their neighbor!
Chapter XVI - The Tiberian Expedition (180 - 179 BC)
A. Iberian Developments (193 - 180 BC)
After the conclusion of the Cantabrian Campaign, Governor Tiberius Brutus focused on colonizing more of Iberia, but made slow progress. He could claim more soil southwards with the establishment of the colonies in Sedetani (189) and Ilercavones (182).
Meanwhile, a serious event occurred in Carthage. Although we have little knowledge about the details(64), there was a political infighting in the Carthaginian Senate concerning the ongoing war with Pontus. The Populist party had gained enough support to demand an immediate peace, but the Hawks in the Senate obviously denied.
It seems to be, that this conflict broadened, when the debate suddenly covered the whole society, that was weary and exhausted from decades of war and additional burdens due to numerous unrests(65). Finally, one of Carthage`s generals, Metallo Setnid, associated with the Populists and dared to start a revolt.
Although the main support for this revolt came from Lybia, there were also Iberian cities desperate enough to join the cause and dissociate themselves from the Government in Carthage.
Fig. 15: The Iberian peninsula in 180 BC
B. The Expedition
It is valid to call the following events an expedition, since they started as an enterprise caused by a single man.
Tiberius Brutus, being around 40 years at that moment, was one of the most powerful officers within the Republic. He was Governor of the whole roman territory in Iberia and had two full Legions at his disposal. There is no clarity about his motivation, but he decided to start a military campaign without being ordered to by the Senate or wait for its approval.
In late 180 BC he left Ilercavones with the IX. Legion heading south, passed Saguntum and arrived at the gates of Mastia(66), that surrendered after a few days. Only now he send an official message to Rome to inform the Senate about his plans.
Then he split his force. While he lead one half personally toward Corduba, he assigned 10 Cohorts to his Mentor Appius Sempronius Tuditanus in order to seize Sexi(67). In the summer of 179, these two cities were captured and the remaining enemy forces surrendered to Tiberius` Legion, while he declared the conquered territory to be part of the Republic.
The so-called "Tiberian Expedition" is one of the most fascinating episodes of roman history due to its high symbolism. Many view Tiberius as the first forefather of the type of generals, that will bring the Republic down at the end of the 1st Century BC, although he strives to serve and expand the Republic instead of altering it according to his own template.
A lot of reasoning was spend on his motivation. Most authors answer boils down to a stunning display of opportunism. Leaving all ethics aside, Tiberius realized the chance to get a strong foothold in southern Iberia and, by doing so, secure Rome`s claim for supremacy in the whole eastern half of the peninsula. Also it resulted in the control of the eastern approaches to the Strait of Gibraltar. Thus, his campaign gained Rome a much stronger strategic position.
A second reason that is cited often, is plain selfinterest. In 193 BC, Tiberius lead the campaign versus the Cantabri, but couldn`t come to fame. In the next 10 years he administrated his region without outstanding results. In 180 BC, he wasn`t in his prime anymore and maybe he thought, that this enterprise was his last chance to gain enough prestige to get elected into a higher office.
But no matter, what his thoughts were, it is obvious, that he put the Senate on the spot. Without any doubt, this action meddled into internal Carthaginian affairs and was no less than an act of war. Additionally it confronted the Senate with the drawbacks of accrediting Governors with military authority.
After all, the Senate`s reaction was a compromise. Of course it acknowledged the conquest of these territories. Had it acted otherwise, it would have admitted, that it was not in full control of its officers. Finally it surely saw the strategic benefit of these provinces too.
On the other hand, it couldn`t allow Tiberius to be honored. Although he met the requirements, he wasn`t granted a triumph. And Appius Sempronius, his best friend and commander, was transferred to the northern border(68).
Despite the fact, that Tiberius assumed the right to pursue his own foreign policy, he remained a persona grata within the Republic. One year after the campaign, he was once again confirmed as Governor and his forces increased by another Legion(69).
(64) The following summary according to the interpretation in W.S. Priestley`s study "The political establishment in Carthage", 1989
(65) Priestley proves more than a dozen revolts, primarily in Numidia and Lybia.
(66) Today Cartagena
(67) Today Almunecar
(68) Where he immediately eliminated the threat of an invasion by the Calucones.
(69) The Legio XI Minerva. Flavius mentions a fleet of about 40 Triremes too, but Historians are not sure, if Tiberius could command it at will.
Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 11-02-2011 at 07:31.
that was neatly done ... and well rationalised.
also must help that Carthage is embroiled in civil wars
Private wars eh? The republic is getting a little too big for a decentralized institution like the Senate to control everything at once and keep everyone in line. Did this war make the Carthaginians sign peace with Pontus finally or not?
Now that is evil. Any casus belli? 'We did it because we could'?
Chapter XVII - The Lanciensian Campaign (175 BC)
A. The situation in Iberia (179 - 176 BC)
Flavius, who had draped himself in deafening silence concerning the Tiberian Expedition, eloquently describes the events of the next three years.
Despite the fact, that the separatist territory in southern Iberia had been annexed by Rome, a small rebellious force seems to have escaped westwards. Since it faced no opposition by loyal troops, it could seize other cities in the south and west, until Carthage send an Army to counter this new threat. The next two years, these two forces fought over the Carthaginian territory without decision.
Finally, in 176 BC, the tribe of the Lanciensi(70) set foot on Carthaginian area and began to move southward, leaving a trail of plundered cities behind, until it reached Gadira(71). On their way south, they must have destroyed the rebellious forces, since they reached an agreement with Carthage, that let the Lanciesi build an own realm in the provinces of Turdetani and Turduli.
According to Flavius, a delegation from the city of Malaka arrived in Rome shortly after in order to seek help, since they were unwilling to obey to their new masters. The Senate agreed to it and ordered an immediate assault on the Lanciensian territory.
Fig. 16: The Iberian peninsula in late 176 BC
B. Progress of the campaign
Rome detailed the IX. Legion, that was stationed in Oretani, for this campaign and appointed the previously transferred Appius Sempronius Tuditanus to be its commander again(72).
Appius marched toward Malaka and reached it in mid March 175 BC. The Lanciensi had already stationed a small garrison in the city, so Appius had to start a siege and began to build battlements around the city. About a month later, the Lanciesian relieve troops arrived and tried to break the siege, but they were repelled at heavy casualties(73).
After the defeat of the relieve force, the Garrison in the city surrendered. Appius immediately made a move northward. He probably wanted to engage the remnants of the Lanciensian army, but couldn`t detect it. Instead he marched toward Turduli and took it by storm after short preparations.
With the two main cities taken, the Lanciensian realm, that had existed for less than one year, was destroyed and incorporated into the Republic.
The Lanciensian Campaign was another successful step towards eliminating the Carthaginian influence in Iberia and divided the Carthaginian territory in two pieces. Rome`s dominance over Iberia became even larger due to the fact, that the Carthaginian population and infrastructure had suffered from years of warfare. Thus, their ability to expand their own territory was seriously crippled.
Some authors doubted Flavius` information concerning the Malakan delegation, but the more recent statements argue, that such an event was quite probable due to the fact, that the inhabitants of Malaka found themselves let down by Carthage and delivered to a primitive tribe. Being ruled by Rome was apparently the more civilized option.
Finally, this Campaign was a success for the Senate. Although Tiberius Brutus still administrated the largest part of Rome`s Iberian territory, it established two new regions and allocated one Legion to each of the new Governors, thus shaping a system of checks and balance between the Governors, that was intended to keep their ambitions at bay.
Carthage, however, was the definite loser in this process. Although the Civil War ended with a victory of the Hawks and the unity of Carthage was restored, it had lost an essential part of its influence in Iberia, while the "Centennial War" still raged on.
(70) Their original area of settlement was in northern Iberia, probably in today`s Asturias
(72) His appointment is considered to be a revealing fact. Either he was completely rehabilitated or, which is the more probable possibility, his deployment to the northern border was merely a fake pawn sacrifice in order to conciliate the critics of the Tiberian Expedition, that in fact had a lot of supporters in the Senate. In any case he was in the Senate`s favor again, who granted him a Triumph after this campaign.
(73) Flavius admits, that the Roman troops clearly outnumbered their enemies. Allegedly about 8.000 Lanciensi died in the battle. Historians estimate the total force to be about 12.000 - 14.000 men strong.
Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 11-02-2011 at 20:12.
Fair play. There are no losers, they shall be integrated.