+ Reply to Thread
Page 7 of 11 FirstFirst ... 5 6 7 8 9 ... LastLast
Results 121 to 140 of 218

Thread: The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic

  1. #121
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Chapter XXIV - The Punic-Sesonic War (135 - 134 BC)

    A. Causes

    In 136 BC, 16 years of peace since the Punic War had not eradicated the roman resentments towards Carthage. Rather the opposite. In this period, Carthage had managed to maintain peace, secure control over its territory and increase social stability within its realm.


    Fig. 27: Carthage in 136 BC


    Even more irritating must have been, that it rebuild its armed forces including a navy, that continuously grew in strength(109). This, together with the fact, that Carthage still controlled the islands in the western Mediterranean, increased Rome`s mistrusts about the renewed bipolarity in the region.

    Rome`s worries climaxed, when it learned about a Carthaginian Alliance with the Gaul tribe of the Senones(110). Since the last Gaul War in the year 160 BC, the Senones had subdued the last independent tribes in today`s Normandy and Bretagne and now controlled vast areas within Gaul.


    Fig. 28: Gaul in 136 BC


    Obviously, this Alliance was directed versus Rome and a potent threat for its supremacy in Gaul and Iberia. Probably sometime in late 136 BC, the Senate came to the conclusion, that another conflict couldn`t be avoided. However, Rome used a quarrel between Roman and Carthaginian merchants in Alexandria as pretence to escalate the diplomatic situation and finally declare war.

    B. Progress

    The following war took place in three theatres.

    Within half a year, Corsica, Sardinia and Malta were occupied, followed by the Balearics in mid autumn 135 BC. The speed of these actions and the lack of any battle report are another evidence for the theory, that the size of the Carthaginian navy as stated by roman authors was completely false.

    In Iberia, Carthage had still holdings in today`s central and northern Portugal and a sizable Army stationed. Although being outnumbered(111), the Carthaginian commander decided to advance on roman territory to gain the initiative. Somewhere along the Guadiana, probably a little south of today`s Badajoz, he encountered the IV. Legion, that was commanded by Decius Tiberius Brutus. In the following battle, Tiberius Brutus accomplished to clearly defeat Carthage`s forces at rather low casualties(112).

    After this victory, Tiberius Brutus pursued the remaining Carthaginian forces, but his opponent successfully avoided another large battle and switched to a delaying tactic, that forced the IV. Legion to follow him instead of seizing Olissipo(113). This strategy came to an end, when Tiberius Brutus was reinforced by the XII. Legion, that had seized the territory of the Lusitani. In early 134 BC, the remnants of the Carthaginian Army surrendered. With the capture of Olissipo in March, the last Carthaginian stronghold in Iberia was captured.

    One year earlier, the Senones attacked roman territory, when they learned about Rome`s declaration of war. But in the battle of Gergovia(114), most of the Senonic force was destroyed, pursued, and the survivors killed in a last stand near Bibracte. Thus, after maybe two months, the Senonic realm was almost defenseless and at Rome`s mercy. In autumn 135 BC, nearly the whole Senonic territory was occupied by Rome. Only Suindinum(115) resisted for almost one year, before it had to open its gates in May 134 BC(116).

    C. Results

    Strategically, Rome had achieved its war goals by occupying all enemy territories north of Africa. The Senonic realm was completely occupied. Their Chief Bellicianus had to accept a humiliating peace, that reduced his territory to a meaningless size with no access to the sea. Also Carthage suffered another defeat and had to accept the loss of the Balearics and Malta.


    Fig. 29: Gaul in 133 BC


    In a giant effort, that probably occupied half of the whole roman army, Rome largely expanded its territory, established the uncontested supremacy in Gaul and consolidated its dominance in the western Mediterranean.

    Although Carthage still controlled Corsica and Sardinia, the naval supremacy was obviously on Rome`s side. The combined efforts of Carthage and a relative powerful Gaul tribe were more or less easily repulsed by a Roman Republic, that finally decided the quarrel for the western Mediterranean for its own benefit. For Carthage, the Punic-Sesonic War was another landmark in its slow, but constant decline of power.


    (109) Flavius describes the Carthaginian navy as "vast", Cornelius Asina as "equal to the roman". Both descriptions are refuted as exaggerations in order to stress out an imminent danger.
    (110) Findings in Bibracte and Avaricum (Bourges) unveiled numerous items of Carthaginian origin. Although there is no evidence of the Alliance mentioned by roman authors, the probability of such a connection is at least average.
    (111) The Carthaginian force is estimated to about 20.000 soldiers, while Rome`s forces had about three times the size.
    (112) Estimations are about 7.000 dead Carthaginians compared to about 2.000 killed romans.
    (113) Lisbon
    (114) Today the small village of Gergovie near Clermont-Ferrand. Flavius reports 15.000 slain Gauls.
    (115) Le Mans
    (116) Cornelius Asina states, that only a few inhabitants had survived. Allegedly they had even permitted acts of cannibalism, although we have no evidence for it. The surviving women were sold into slavery, the men were crucified as cautionary tale.
    Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 08-03-2011 at 12:11.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  2. #122
    Human Enewald's Avatar
    52 games registered

    52

    200k clubArsenal of DemocracyHearts of Iron 2: ArmageddonCrusader Kings IIDarkest Hour
    Deus VultDungeonlandEast India Company CollectionEU3 CompleteDivine Wind
    For The GloryFor the MotherlandHearts of Iron IIIHearts of Iron III CollectionHOI3: Their Finest Hour
    Heir to the ThroneImpireEuropa Universalis III: In NomineIron CrossLeviathan: Warships
    The Kings CrusadeMagickaMajesty II CollectionMarch of the EaglesEU3 Napoleon's Ambition
    Victoria: RevolutionsEuropa Universalis: RomeRome GoldSemper FiSengoku
    Victoria 2Victoria II: A House DividedVictoria II: Heart of DarknessRome: Vae VictisWarlock: Master of the Arcane
    War of the RosesEU Rome Collectors EditionEU3 Collectors Edition500k clubEuropa Universalis IV: Pre-order
    EUIV: Wealth of NationsEUIV: Conquest of ParadiseEUIV: Res PublicaCrusader Kings II: Legacy of RomeCrusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
    Crusader Kings II: Sunset InvasionCrusader Kings II: The RepublicCrusader Kings II: The Old GodsCrusader Kings II: Sons of AbrahamCrusader Kings II: Rajas of India

    Join Date
    Oct 2007
    Location
    Hellsinki,Finland
    Posts
    22,838
    Makes no sense that the game mechanic does not allow states to be annexed completely.
    Or it purposefully prolongs the needless bloodshed.

  3. #123
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Quote Originally Posted by Enewald View Post
    Makes no sense that the game mechanic does not allow states to be annexed completely.
    Or it purposefully prolongs the needless bloodshed.
    I like to humiliate my enemies...again...and again...MUAHAHAHAR
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  4. #124
    Field Marshal loki100's Avatar
    Rome GoldWarlock: Master of the ArcanePride of NationsRise of PrussiaCK2: Holy Knight

    Join Date
    Jul 2008
    Location
    Scotland
    Posts
    7,561
    so the Western Med turns slowly Red.

    There's an English alternative history book called '1066 & all that' (sadly long out of print) the purports to be the most accurate history of England as it contains only those things people remember (it has for example just 2 dates,one of which is indeed 1066). One chapter deals with English imperialist wars in the nineteenth C & gives the reason for each. At the start these are lengthy, towards the end, the Zulu war is described as being caused by the "Zulus not already being conquered" & another as 'to cheer Victoria up'. I somehow fear your next CB will be rather similar.
    Remember, whatever the question, the answer on 18 September is Yes ...

  5. #125
    Crazy Cat Person. Meow! Moderator Qorten's Avatar
    61 games registered

    61

    200k clubArsenal of DemocracyCities in MotionCities in Motion 2Crusader Kings II
    DungeonlandElven Legacy CollectionEuropa Universalis 3Europa Universalis: ChroniclesDivine Wind
    For The GloryGettysburgHearts of Iron IIIHearts of Iron III CollectionHeir to the Throne
    Europa Universalis III: In NomineKing Arthur IILeviathan: WarshipsThe Kings CrusadeLost Empire - Immortals
    MagickaMajesty 2March of the EaglesEU3 Napoleon's AmbitionNaval War: Arctic Circle
    SengokuShip Simulator ExtremesSword of the StarsSword of the Stars IISupreme Ruler 2020
    Victoria 2Victoria II: A House DividedVictoria II: Heart of DarknessRome: Vae VictisMount & Blade: Warband
    Warlock: Master of the ArcaneMount & Blade: With Fire and SwordWar of the RosesPride of NationsRise of Prussia
    CK2: Holy KnightEU Rome Collectors EditionKnights of Pen and Paper +1 Edition500k clubEuropa Universalis IV: Pre-order
    Teleglitch: Die More EditionWarlock 2: The ExiledEUIV: Wealth of NationsEUIV: Conquest of ParadiseEUIV: Res Publica

    Join Date
    Feb 2007
    Location
    Lost in time and space
    Posts
    4,018
    It's indeed rather annoying that you can't conquer tribals in one or at least two wars if they're really too big for one. And now it's waiting I guess for the inevitable clash against Egypt/Seleucids, while conquering a bit more Greeks and Britons?


    When I use this color I am speaking as a Moderator.

  6. #126
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Quote Originally Posted by loki100 View Post
    so the Western Med turns slowly Red.

    There's an English alternative history book called '1066 & all that' (sadly long out of print) the purports to be the most accurate history of England as it contains only those things people remember (it has for example just 2 dates,one of which is indeed 1066). One chapter deals with English imperialist wars in the nineteenth C & gives the reason for each. At the start these are lengthy, towards the end, the Zulu war is described as being caused by the "Zulus not already being conquered" & another as 'to cheer Victoria up'. I somehow fear your next CB will be rather similar.
    This reminds me of a TV-documentary about the not-always-that-great command of english of my fellow german citizens. Well, some years ago, the television network SAT.1 advertised with the motto "Powered by emotion". They changed it, when surveys found out, that some people translated it into "Kraft durch Freude".
    Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 24-02-2011 at 22:35.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  7. #127
    Patron Saint of Suenik Iain Wilson's Avatar
    Deus VultFor The GloryRome Gold

    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Milton Keynes, UK
    Posts
    2,364
    Blog Entries
    3
    Well, that looks like Carthage is finally back in its box and the Senones happily neutralised!

    Quote Originally Posted by loki100 View Post
    One chapter deals with English imperialist wars in the nineteenth C & gives the reason for each. At the start these are lengthy, towards the end, the Zulu war is described as being caused by the "Zulus not already being conquered" & another as 'to cheer Victoria up'. I somehow fear your next CB will be rather similar.
    I found something similar when researching my Oranjes AAR. The British annexation of Natalia in the 1840s basically amounted to "...because we're bigger than you."

    Ahhh. The good ol' days
    ~~ My Current AARs ~~
    The Sleeper - an EU3 Narrative
    These Oranjes Are Not For Eating - Fun and Games in the Orange Free State
    Favourite Comedy Victoria AAR: Q1 10 Q2 10 Q3 10 Q4 10 Q1 11 Best Character Writer: 28th Feb 10; 5th Jul 10 WritAAR of the Week: 6th Mar 10
    For AARs past and present please visit my Ink Well


  8. #128
    Basileus Romaion Nikolai's Avatar
    Hearts of Iron 2: ArmageddonCrusader Kings IIDarkest HourDeus VultEU3 Complete
    Divine WindFor The GloryFor the MotherlandHearts of Iron IIIHeir to the Throne
    Europa Universalis III: In NomineMagickaMarch of the EaglesEU3 Napoleon's AmbitionVictoria: Revolutions
    Europa Universalis: RomeSemper FiSengokuSupreme Ruler: Cold WarVictoria 2
    Victoria II: A House DividedVictoria II: Heart of DarknessRome: Vae VictisMount & Blade: WarbandCK2: Holy Knight
    EU Rome Collectors EditionEU3 Collectors Edition500k clubEuropa Universalis IV: Pre-orderEUIV: Call to arms event
    EUIV: Conquest of ParadiseCrusader Kings II: Legacy of RomeCrusader Kings II: Sword of IslamCrusader Kings II: The RepublicCrusader Kings II: Sons of Abraham

    Join Date
    Jun 2001
    Location
    Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
    Posts
    10,044
    Blog Entries
    1
    You need to make those borders right. Complete control over the world would be optimal.
    Fear not, for I am with you; Be not dismayed, for I am your God. -Isa 41:10

    For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. -John 3:16
    -------------------------------

    My machine specs: i7 2600 @ 3.4 GHz, 16 GB DDR3 RAM, Radeon HD6870 with 1 GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit

  9. #129
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Chapter XXV - The 2nd Punic-Sesonic War (126 BC)

    A. Causes

    The first Punic-Sesonic War underlined the general political development in Gaul and the western Mediterranean, without providing an ultimate solution. Although the Sesones had lost large parts of their realm, they were still an independent realm with its own foreign policy and army. Carthage had lost influence in the Mediterranean, but was still a major power and able to build up significant armed forces. Additionally, the last War saw no naval battles, so the Carthaginian Navy was unharmed and expanded further during the next years.

    Rome must have monitored these developments with a feeling of unease. In 127 BC, it send Gaius Sempronius to the Senones in order to split up the still existing link between them and Carthage. The current Chief of the Senones was Bolgios. We don`t know anything about him beside his name and have no reports about his intentions. But the negotiations with Sempronius were not successful. Shortly after the roman Delegation had left the country, his forces advanced to the east into roman territory(117).

    B. The War in Gaul

    The Sesonic main force had advanced into Republican territory and were besieging Andematunnum, when the II. Legion arrived in the region. The Sesonic commander marched toward the roman force and surprised them in a woody area a little north of the city. Although the II. Legion suffered serious losses(118), its commander retreated in order northward, while the Sesones returned to the west.

    In the meantime, two other roman Legions had seized Avaricon and Lutetia and were proceeding to occupy the rest of the Sesonic realm. The Sesonic Army arrived a few days too late in the vicinity of Cenabum(119), for the VIII. Legion under the command of Titus Vodenosus Asina had engaged and destroyed a small detachment shortly before. In the ensuing battle, Rome suffered another defeat, although it was probably a Pyrrhic victory for the Senones, who suffered high casualties either.

    The tide turned, when the Sesonic commander decided to pursue the VIII. Legion northward. In a final battle, the Sesones were driven off the battlefield, but not ultimately defeated. Nevertheless, this gave the Romans the needed time to seize Cenabum and Bibracte.

    Although there were still Sesonic forces roaming around, the Gauls had lost the war. In late summer 126 BC, Bolgios had to accept a peace, that reduced his realm to a tributary region around Bibracte, while the rest of his territory became part of the Republic.

    Fig. 30: Gaul in 127 BC and the territories occupied by Rome during the 2nd Punic-Sesonic War


    C. The War in the Mediterranean

    In the 6th Century BC, a new ship type, the Trireme, evolved from its predecessor, the Bireme(120). These rowing vessels initially had the advantage to be not dependent on the winds and could reach high speeds during combat for a short time. Thus, the most popular tactic in a battle was to ram an enemy vessel.

    When the Roman Republic build their first ships, it changed its purpose and used Archers and Catapults aboard. Instead of ramming ships, they tried to board them. This tactic was adopted by other seafaring nations. This lead to a development to increase the ship`s size in order to transport more troops and Catapults. These ships needed larger oars too, since the amount of oars couldn`t be increased anymore. But these larger oars had to operated by more than one rower. To represent this increased amount of rowers, following ship types were called Quadrireme, Quinquereme and Hexere.

    In the year 126 BC, the Trireme was the most important weapon in the struggle between Rome and Carthage. It began, when a small fleet disembarked the XIII. Legion on Corsica and was surprised by a Carthaginian fleet. The roman unit tried to disengage, but still lost 7 ships, that were sunk.

    Shortly after, a larger roman fleet under the command of Numerius Valerius Falto arrived from Sicily and managed to engage the Carthaginians, who tried to flee, but were caught up near the coast of Sardinia. Being outnumbered, the Carthaginian fleet was completely destroyed and the roman supremacy in the central Mediterranean restored.

    In the meantime, the roman Legions seized Corsica, Sardinia and Carthage`s Iberian possessions. When the last Carthaginian harbor in Iberia was captured, the Carthaginian squadron stationed there tried to break through the Strait of Gibraltar in order to return to Carthage. But the Strait was controlled by another roman fleet and the Carthaginian unit was destroyed in a short, but fierce battle(121).

    Being defenseless at sea, the Carthaginian Senate agreed to a fast peace in late autumn 126 BC and ceded the area around Olissipo to Rome.

    Fig. 31: Carthage in 127 BC
    (X = Naval battles during the 2nd Punic-Sesonic War)


    D. Results

    The 2nd Punic-Sesonic War was a continuation of the first in order to implement Rome`s expansionist ideas. Gaul was nearly completely subdued and the last independent Gaul realm turned into a vassal. With Carthage`s Navy destroyed, Rome was once again the uncontested ruler in the western Mediterranean and had reduced Carthage`s influence in Iberia to a small region in today`s northern Portugal. Thus, Rome`s intention to control western Europe on its side of the Limes was quasi accomplished.

    (117) Several authors like Vogondy and Wittmann support the theory, that he tried to push toward the Rhine in order to instigate the Germanic tribe of the Suebi to join his cause and assault the Roman Republic, but we have no evidence for any engagements along the Danube.
    (118) Estimations are between 2.000 and 4.000 dead. The remarkable thing about this battle was, that the roman Legion probably outnumbered their enemies about 2:1.
    (119) Orléans
    (120) The names derive from the 3 respectively 2 rows of oars on each side.
    (121) Although Cornelius Asina`s descriptions of the naval battles are very naturalistic, his information concerning roman losses are rather thin. Estimations are, that the Romans lost a little more than 10 ships and Carthage about 50 Triremes.
    Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 08-03-2011 at 12:12.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  10. #130
    So you didn't take territories from Carthage?
    Owner of a cookie of Awesome Communist Guessing!

  11. #131
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Quote Originally Posted by Middelkerke View Post
    So you didn't take territories from Carthage?
    But...but...I did write it.

    Being defenseless at sea, the Carthaginian Senate agreed to a fast peace in late autumn 126 BC and ceded the area around Olissipo to Rome.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  12. #132
    Patron Saint of Suenik Iain Wilson's Avatar
    Deus VultFor The GloryRome Gold

    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Milton Keynes, UK
    Posts
    2,364
    Blog Entries
    3
    So, the next logical step is to start reducing Carthage's holdings in North Africa? How's the rest of the world looking?
    ~~ My Current AARs ~~
    The Sleeper - an EU3 Narrative
    These Oranjes Are Not For Eating - Fun and Games in the Orange Free State
    Favourite Comedy Victoria AAR: Q1 10 Q2 10 Q3 10 Q4 10 Q1 11 Best Character Writer: 28th Feb 10; 5th Jul 10 WritAAR of the Week: 6th Mar 10
    For AARs past and present please visit my Ink Well


  13. #133
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Quote Originally Posted by Iain Wilson View Post
    So, the next logical step is to start reducing Carthage's holdings in North Africa? How's the rest of the world looking?
    That`s my current problem. The whole east is a nightmare of Alliances. This network is so tight, that nobody does anything. I guess, as soon as I DoW anyone, they completely gang up on me. On the other hand: What`s the alternative? Okay, bring down Carthage. But I`d still prefer Asia Minor. Have to think about it. Being Emperor...ehm...Consul is a tough job.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  14. #134
    Human Enewald's Avatar
    52 games registered

    52

    200k clubArsenal of DemocracyHearts of Iron 2: ArmageddonCrusader Kings IIDarkest Hour
    Deus VultDungeonlandEast India Company CollectionEU3 CompleteDivine Wind
    For The GloryFor the MotherlandHearts of Iron IIIHearts of Iron III CollectionHOI3: Their Finest Hour
    Heir to the ThroneImpireEuropa Universalis III: In NomineIron CrossLeviathan: Warships
    The Kings CrusadeMagickaMajesty II CollectionMarch of the EaglesEU3 Napoleon's Ambition
    Victoria: RevolutionsEuropa Universalis: RomeRome GoldSemper FiSengoku
    Victoria 2Victoria II: A House DividedVictoria II: Heart of DarknessRome: Vae VictisWarlock: Master of the Arcane
    War of the RosesEU Rome Collectors EditionEU3 Collectors Edition500k clubEuropa Universalis IV: Pre-order
    EUIV: Wealth of NationsEUIV: Conquest of ParadiseEUIV: Res PublicaCrusader Kings II: Legacy of RomeCrusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
    Crusader Kings II: Sunset InvasionCrusader Kings II: The RepublicCrusader Kings II: The Old GodsCrusader Kings II: Sons of AbrahamCrusader Kings II: Rajas of India

    Join Date
    Oct 2007
    Location
    Hellsinki,Finland
    Posts
    22,838
    Aww. How about conquering Qart Hadasht?
    Doing it like a man? With one big war?

  15. #135
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Quote Originally Posted by Enewald View Post
    Aww. How about conquering Qart Hadasht?
    Doing it like a man? With one big war?
    I`ve send your proposal to the Senate, but the subcommittee for resource-efficient warfare raised objections, so it will be a topic during the next session of the mediation committee. But the chairman is mercantilist, so don`t hold your breath.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  16. #136
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Chapter XXVI - Struggle for a strategy (126 - 114 BC)

    A. State of the Republican policy

    After the war of 126 BC, Rome controlled nearly the entirety of west and southwest Europe. During the next decade however, the Republic did withdraw back into itself. Although the sources for this period are scarce, it seems to be, that a political tug war within the Senate crippled the foreign policy of the Republic.

    Basically, there seemed to be two factions. One of them favored a continuation of the expansionist policy of the last decades(122), while the other advocated an "isolationist" stance, that circled around increased trade and improved infrastructure. That these Isolationists finally dominated Rome`s policy for more than ten years, was made possible by a single man.

    B. Marcus Cornelius Rufinus

    Although part of one of the oldest families in Rome, the Rufini represented a rather small and little meaningful branch of it. Marcus Cornelius was born around 190 BC in a small village in Thracia. Little is known about his youth, but in 160 BC he was Tribune in the II. Legion and part of the campaign versus the Eburones. When the war was over, he stayed in Atrebates and gained control over large parts of the area, especially the trade routes to Britannia.

    Shortly after he appeared in Rome and quickly rose to the top of the Mercantile Faction within the Senate. For the next forty years he was one of the most influential persons, that promoted a policy of coexistence and economic development(123).

    Another reason, besides his wealth and large clientele, why he rose to the top of the political Rome and is still known among the academia was his popularity among the people due to his brilliance as orator. Characteristic for the situation of this decade was his speech "In A.P. Albinus" (versus A.P. Albinus), a political prosecution speech held in 118 BC in order to discredit the stance of his rival Aulus Postumius Albinus.

    "...Carthage? What is Carthage, I ask you? A threat for our community? A burden for our country? A rival for our ambitions? No, I tell you, Carthage is as much a reason to worry as a mouse for a giant. And there can be no doubt, that the Republic is the giant and all other countries are living in our shadow, anxiously avoiding to kindle our tempers...because it corresponds with our nature. The Punic and Greek race enjoy other advantages than we do. Although it is clear as the day, that our society is superior to theirs, we can`t deny, that the Punic race excels in the ability to produce and trade goods and the Greek race in philosophy?...therefore we must not destroy them, since this would mean to eliminate the last scales to take measurements at. And as much as the Gods favor us today, they loathe unbounded human arrogance, that finally leads to moral decline and finally downfall of our society"

    Marcus Cornelius paints a picture of a Roman Republic being the moral and power political leader of the known world, but also warns about exorbitance concerning the own ambitions that may lead to moral degeneracy and destruction of the roman society, since there would be no corrective left. All in all he warns his fellow citizens about themselves, since nobody than them can bring down Rome.

    C. Valuation

    In the 19th century, historians concentrated on the conflict between Marcus Cornelius and Aulus Postumius and the alleged victory of the Cornelian, that lead to a decade of peace.

    This has changed during the last decades and historians carved out other factors. The common opinion today is, that the "peaceful" period between 126 and 114 BC was equally a result of a struggle between two factions as a simple reaction to pragmatic requirements.

    The 2nd Century saw a vast expansion of the roman territory in Iberia, Gaul and Britannia. Regions, that were conquered, but not yet pacified. It is probable, that all factions saw the need to consolidate Rome`s power in these territories and incorporate them into the economic and cultural sphere in order to concentrate on other European theatres later on without distractions from rebellious movements.

    But although there might have been a consensus about the necessary measures to secure Rome`s rule in the conquered territories, there was also a struggle between different factions about the configuration of Rome`s future policy, that increased in intensity over the years.

    (122) But there were two subgroups, who couldn`t agree on whether to expand to the west versus Carthage or to the east versus Macedonia.
    (123) One should keep in mind the limitations of such designations. "Coexistence" still meant "roman supremacy in foreign relations". Also one must not confuse restraint foreign policy with pacifism. Although Marcus Cornelius didn`t pursue an expansionist policy during his first Consulate (145-143 BC),the 2nd Punic-Sesonic War occurred during his second term (127-125 BC).
    Last edited by Stuckenschmidt; 08-03-2011 at 12:12.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  17. #137
    pictures or it didn't happen!
    Owner of a cookie of Awesome Communist Guessing!

  18. #138
    Human Enewald's Avatar
    52 games registered

    52

    200k clubArsenal of DemocracyHearts of Iron 2: ArmageddonCrusader Kings IIDarkest Hour
    Deus VultDungeonlandEast India Company CollectionEU3 CompleteDivine Wind
    For The GloryFor the MotherlandHearts of Iron IIIHearts of Iron III CollectionHOI3: Their Finest Hour
    Heir to the ThroneImpireEuropa Universalis III: In NomineIron CrossLeviathan: Warships
    The Kings CrusadeMagickaMajesty II CollectionMarch of the EaglesEU3 Napoleon's Ambition
    Victoria: RevolutionsEuropa Universalis: RomeRome GoldSemper FiSengoku
    Victoria 2Victoria II: A House DividedVictoria II: Heart of DarknessRome: Vae VictisWarlock: Master of the Arcane
    War of the RosesEU Rome Collectors EditionEU3 Collectors Edition500k clubEuropa Universalis IV: Pre-order
    EUIV: Wealth of NationsEUIV: Conquest of ParadiseEUIV: Res PublicaCrusader Kings II: Legacy of RomeCrusader Kings II: Sword of Islam
    Crusader Kings II: Sunset InvasionCrusader Kings II: The RepublicCrusader Kings II: The Old GodsCrusader Kings II: Sons of AbrahamCrusader Kings II: Rajas of India

    Join Date
    Oct 2007
    Location
    Hellsinki,Finland
    Posts
    22,838
    Aww. Do you have trade with foreigners?

  19. #139
    Lt. General Stuckenschmidt's Avatar
    Crusader Kings IIRome Gold

    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Germany
    Posts
    1,596
    Blog Entries
    2
    Don`t worry, pals. The next one will be a bloody mess. Literally.
    Earth Invasion : Los Angeles

    The Alien Invasion is here. Los Angeles is lost, unless a few good Paradoxians (and a bunch of Marines) throw them back in the ocean. Rules. Data. Map.

  20. #140
    Field Marshal loki100's Avatar
    Rome GoldWarlock: Master of the ArcanePride of NationsRise of PrussiaCK2: Holy Knight

    Join Date
    Jul 2008
    Location
    Scotland
    Posts
    7,561
    good to see that although Rufinus is a bit of a whimp when it comes to using the legions, he doesn't lack for feelings of cultural superiority or belief in the divine role of Rome to rule over everyone. So its a means to the end debate really? But its reasuring that the Republic reverts back to faith in the Gladio rather than the sesterce.
    Remember, whatever the question, the answer on 18 September is Yes ...

+ Reply to Thread
Page 7 of 11 FirstFirst ... 5 6 7 8 9 ... LastLast

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts