Victorious through God’s grace: de Hautevilles’ chronicle
Table of content
List of Main Characters
1187 >>>> 1212 >>>> 1237 >>>> 1262 >>>> 1287 >>>> 1312 >>>> 1337 >>>> 1362 >>>> 1387 >>>> 1412 >>>>>>> 1452
Tancred (b 1135, d 1190); Count of Lecce 1149-87, Duke of Apulia 1187-90.
Roger V the Maniac (b 1170, d 1220); Tancred's son, Duke of Apulia 1190-1220.
Guillaume IV (b 1185, d 1226 - suicide); Roger's brother, Duke of Apulia 1220-26.
William V the Just (b 1208, d 1244); Guillaume's son, Duke of Apulia 1226-44.
Hugh (b 1227, d 1291); William's son, Duke of Apulia 1244-91.
Stephen the Winter Prince (b 1251, d 1292 - assassinated); Hugh's son, Duke of Apulia 1291-92.
Godfrey the Prudent (b 1269, d 1315); Stephen's son, Duke of Apulia 1292-1315.
Athanasios (b 1287, d 1318 - suicide); Godfrey's son, Duke of Apulia 1315-18.
Alexios the Grand Duke (b 1308, d 1369); Athanasios' son, Duke of Apulia and Calabria 1318-69, Athens 1327-69, Urbino 1347-69, Titular Doge of Pisa 1354-69, Defensor civitatis Beneventi 1359-60 and 1362-69, Protector of the Kingdom of Sicily 1368-69.
Theophilos (b 1344, d 1370 - killed in battle); Alexios' grandson, King of the Two Sicilies 1369-70.
Isaakios the Great (b 1363, d 1408 - dead by plague); Theophilos' son, King of the Two Sicilies 1370-1408, King of Egypt 1381-1408, King of Italy 1387-1408.
Ashot the Plagued (b 1386, d 1412 - dead by plague); Isaakios' son, King of the Two Sicilies, Egypt and Italy 1408-12.
Theodoros the Magnanimous (b 1407); Ashot's son, King of the Two Sicilies, Egypt and Italy 1412-onward.
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Chronology of the Duchy of Apulia
Preludes: #1 #2 #3 #4 #5
1187: Tancred promoted to Duke of Apulia by King William II.
1190: Tancred dies, succeeded by his inept son as Roger V of Apulia.
1196: Widower of Sophie, Roger V remarries with Berenguela, sister of William I of Castile-Leon.
1203: Taking part in the Third Crusade, Roger V takes Maan and instates his younger brother Guillaume as count.
1211: Duke Roger V runs into madness; Apulia governed by his closest women.
1220: Roger V dies hopeless during the war to liberate Roma, succeeded by his brother Guillaume (IV).
1226: Widowed and marred by popular discontent, Guillaume IV commits suicide at age 41, succeeded by William V.
1236: During the war against Libyan pirates, William V acquires the province of Hellas, one of their most dangerous dens.
1244: William V "the Just" prematurely dies surrounded by popular affection, the year after King Geoffroy II's departure.
1244-48: Just ascended to the Duchy of Apulia, Hugh launches successful expeditions to conquer Bari and Athens. Uncle Humbert is appointed Count of Hellas.
1255-58: The inheritance of Naxos by Hugh's son Stephen and the conquest of Thessalia secure the Hauteville link with Greece.
1260: Undeserved suspicion on public behaviours and private beliefs causes Pope Dietrich to excommunicate Hugh of Apulia.
1275: Only after 15 years Pope Dietrich's successor, Pere II, lifts the Church's ban on Hugh of Apulia.
1287: The expedition of Humbert (Hugh's cadet son) to be appointed podestà of Pavia succeeds, but King Richard of Sicily keeps the town for himself. As a compensation for the lost benefit, Hugh names Humbert Count of Bari.
1291: Feeling death coming, Hugh arranges marriages to strengthen the dynasty's power, and dies in the love of God and people.
1292: The ambitious and wily Stephen "the Winter Prince" is assassinated by a killer hired by his foe, Leo of Durazzo.
1292-95: Godfrey inherits Stephen, focusing in the first years in office on consolidating his internal authority.
1306: After roughly a decade spent in leisure at Naxos, Godfrey returns home to provide for his sons Athanasios and Tancred.
1307-08: During the succession stage from Richard to Henry, Godfrey of Apulia conquers El-Arish for his own son Tancred.
1310: Godfrey profits from the magnate rebellion to annex Taranto to the ducal demesne.
1311-14: Through subtle deals, Godfrey manages to gain the Duchy of Calabria for his grandson Alexios and Salerno for himself.
1315: Prince Godfrey dies at the zenith of his power, succeeded by Athanasios.
1315-18: Athanasios rules only three years until suicide, provoked by the loss of his dears killed by pulmonary typhoid.
1318: Athanasios' son Alexios, already Duke of Calabria, inherits also Apulia and merges the two in his person.
1324: Alexios' minority regency ends in 1324, during a period in which Apulia is hard hit by an epidemic of pulmonary typhoid.
1326-27: Alexios usurps the title of "Prince of Athens" from Boghos after a successful raid on Alexandria.
1327-28: David (Alexios' brother) becomes marshal and boosts military improvements, also thanks to the support of the Scottish affines.
1339-47: Through force and diplomacy, Alexios manages to extend his sway over Central Italy (Urbino, Siena and Ancona) and Corfu island.
1353-54: Trade competition with the Pisans turns into a violent skirmish and, with a short expedition, Alexios gets the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea to Apulian vessels and becomes titular Doge of Pisa.
1359-60: Alexios comes to help Benevento but then has to stand the terrible devastation brought by the Khwarizmian hordes, with Taranto and Salerno cruelly besieged. Only the killing of their Sultan Zartosht stops the advance towards Lecce!
1362: Alexios recovers Benevento and gets the allegiance of the count of Arborea (Northern Sardinia).
1368: Alexios becomes Protector of the Kingdom; since this year, affairs (and chronology) of Sicily and Apulia become intertwined.
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Chronology of the Kingdom of Sicily
1202: Influenced by Innocenzo III and Bohemond de Poitou, William II supports the Third Crusade. Also Roger V of Apulia sets sail from Brindisi in June.
1204: William II dies, succedeed by Geoffroy I.
1209-10: Pope Hartwig's assault on Napoli brings out a war that ends with the brutal sack of Roma by the Siculo-Norman army.
1223: Geoffroy I intervenes again in Roma to free the city from Muslim yoke. The Apulian post of Maan is lost the following year.
1226-28: Quick series of royal successions: Geoffroy I dies in 1226, succedeed by Osbert who in a short span is followed by his 5-year son Geoffroy II.
1230: Geoffroy II returns Roma to the Pope, but cannot keep his own court safe from the intrigues of the Guelph faction.
1237-41: Geoffroy II crushes Libyan piracy in Central Mediterranean and takes over North African coast.
1254-55: King Aubrey resumes the campaigns of Geoffroy II, conquering Cairo and consolidating the Siculo-Norman grip on Egypt.
1268-70: War against the Sultanate of Khwarizmian arrests King Aubrey's conquest of Syria before he can consolidate any gains.
1283: Aubrey is succedeed by Richard, while the whole Sicilian Kingdom - and Hugh's Apulia in particular - continues to prosper.
1297: Hard pressed by Emperor Ernst and his successor Ulrich, the Sicilians have to abandon Pavia after ten years of rule.
1308: Herman of Roma leads a revolt (not supported by Godfrey of Apulia) against Henry, the new King of Sicily.
1337: David (Alexios' brother) liberates Jerusalem during the Sixth Crusade, but Osbert of Cairo takes over the Holy City, making pretence of being the highest lieutenant of Mauger of Sicily.
1343-50: Mauger suffers terrible defeats at the hands of the Swabian Emperor Folkmar and the Khwarizmian Sultan Zartosht.
1355-58: Mauger sees his capital Messina sacked by a surprise Khwarizmian raid; three years later he dies, succeeded by the incompetent Abelard.
1363-68: The disgraceful King Aberlard "the Mule" conducts a foolish campaign in the Levant which leaves the motherland exposed to Khwarizmian attacks. In December 1368 Alexios finally imprisons and deposes Abelard assuming power as Protector of the Kingdom.
1368-69: In his last 5 months in charge as Protector, Alexios vigorously re-establishes royal control and reforms the government apparatus.
1369-70: Theophilos succeeds as King of the Two Sicilies but dies in battle just nine months after his coronation.
1370-72: Given the heir Isaakios' minority and the many threats facing him, a regency under the sway of his uncle Alexios is set up at once.
1370-88: Isaakios' regency and then reign are most severely beset by the Black Death, which he also would contract but survive in 1388.
1379-83: Isaakios proceeds to the conquest of Egypt, establishing there a new Hauteville kingdom and countering the Muslim raids.
1383: Messina is relieved from Muslim occupation while the Tuscan Republic pledges allegiance to King Isaakios.
1384-87: Isaakios claims and gets for himself and his successors the Iron Crown of Italy after defeating the last Swabian supporters.
1388-89: After recovering from plague, Isaakios must rush to Sicily to deal with rebellions while malcontent grows in the whole realm.
1389-92: Ignited by noble opposition to the king's harsh policy, a civil war erupts; Lecce and other royal cities must undergo terrible sieges.
1392-97: Isaakios endures several years of unrest before being able to stabilise a somewhat diminished kingdom.
1402-04: Isaakios backs the Chersonid emperors in the internecine strife which wracks Byzantium and gains Ephesos and Abydos.
1408: In April Isaakios patronises the Pope's return to Roma after 150 years of captivity in Galicia. The great king dies of plague in July.
1408-12: Ashot the Plagued's four years of rule record few relevant facts: among them, there is the Sicilian conquest of Famagusta (è1411).
1412: Queen Mother Anna becomes regent for Theodoros with the strong and interested backing of Pope Louis II.
1416-19: The Byzantine assaults (also directed at the Apulian coasts) represent a major risk during Theodoros' younger years.
1420-27: At this time the kingdom enjoys the blessings of peace and plenty. Lecce hosts the council of 1425, called to reform the Church.
1428-34: Theodoros weds Beatrice, sister of the French King. Another war with Byzantium (1429-34) results in the acquisition of Buhairya.
1430s-50s: The rays of Humanism and Renaissance flare upon the splendid kingdom of Theodoros.
1452: Campaign is over, Theodoros is still king amidst domestic acclaim and international praise.
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1188-89: Alfons II of Aragon takes Cordoba, while Guy of Jerusalem routs the Emir of El-Arish and expands his domains southward.
1192: Having defeated the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, the Prince of Armenia Minor Leon Rubenid rebels against his Byzantine master.
1192-93: Castile absorbs the Kingdom of Leon. The Iberian crusaders capture Cadiz and Valencia from the Moors.
1195-99: The Moors are finally driven out of Iberia by Christian crusaders. Castile-Leon incorporates Navarra.
1199: In Constantinople, Theodoros of Cherson deposes Alexios III, the last of the incompetent Angelid Emperors.
1201: Pope Innocenzo III proclaims the Third Crusade to relieve the Kingdom of Jerusalem, among mixed reactions from Latin kings.
1202-34: The Burgundian (1202-08) and Thirty Years (1207-34) wars oppose Philippe II of France to Holy Roman Empire and Angevin England, respectively. The Capetian kingdom comes out severely diminished and disrupted from this long period of warfare.
1207: The Latin soldiers of the Third Crusade capture Alexandria, while the Byzantines occupy Medina and Mecca.
1216: The death of the great Heinrich VI Hohenstaufen leaves the Empire in chaos for decades.
1228-35: Emperor Werner leads the Fourth Crusade to save Jerusalem from the Muslims, but efforts do not pay off. Odon de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, is taken prisoner and then ransomed, with his realm severely reduced in size.
1231: Rastko the Great, already King of Serbia, defeats Ladislav Asen and annexes Bulgaria.
1237-47: Mongol raids in Europe and the Levant begin, led by Genghis Khan's generals Subotei and Yegu Omar: Crimea, Novgorod, Kiev and Caucasus are stormed and sacked, thousands people are put to the sword.
1248: Civil war in the Holy Roman Empire ends with Augustin's victory, but leaves Hohenstaufen central authority much weakened.
1248: Portugal and Aragon encircle and beat William of Castile-Leon-Navarra. Deprived of sizeable land, the Castilian star fades.
1256: The Fifth Crusade led by French and Scots ends with the capture of Tunis, but without any progresses in the Levant.
1257: The treaty of Toledo sanctions the fall of the Castilian ruling branch of Borgonha (replaced by the House of Lara) and the forceful ascent of King Henrique II of Portugal.
1260-82: Mongol internal strife brings to the dissolution of the Ilkhanat and the arrest of the Golden Horde's tide in Europe under rulers Gughlug and Chilagun.
1263: Yves of England takes Bourges, the French capital, but in the ensuing decades his successors must cope domestically with the Barons' War.
1273-84: The Castilian civil war and the First Aragonese-Portuguese war confirm the predominance of Aragon in Iberia.
1289: Duly restored by Augustin (King of Italy 1220-61, Emperor 1248-61), the Holy Roman Empire annexes Denmark after his successor Ernst's triumphant campaign.
1296-98: Marred by internecine bloodshed between the two brothers Bartan and Yegu, the Golden Horde collapses in few years.
1303-06: After a century of English domination, Charles IV retakes Paris. The Treaty of Saint Blaise confirms the Angevin retreat.
1318-22: With the deeds of great leaders as Torbjorn and Trian, North Europe starts to fear the power of Norway and Scotland.
1321: After the progresses under Charles IV, the levies imposed by Louis VIII plunge France into several years of civil strife.
1325: Upon death of Pope William, another Hauteville pontiff, Osmond, comes to power in the Holy See of Santiago de Compostela.
1335-68: The Great Northern War ends with the defeat of the last Angevin King of England (Henry V) and the triumph of Ruadrì of Scotland.
1348-50: Crippled by dynastic crises, Portugal is defeated again by Aragon and gives up vast territories.
1351-62: Rudger, the last Holy Roman Emperor, falls to a terrible combination of internal and external foes. In 1360 the "Renunciation of Nice" sanctions the dismantling of the imperial power and the creation of the German Confederation.
1354-66: Venice, Austria and Bohemia are the biggest winners of the Hohenstaufen rout, getting the lion’s share of the ex-imperial domains.
1358-73: Pope Richard III acquires by evil means the Duchy of Santiago but is then defeated by King Alvaro of Aragon.
1376-93: Ruadrì of Scotland dies childless in 1376 and the dynasty of Aed follows, but consolidates only in the early 1390s with Duncan III.
1395-1407: The kings of Aragon Ramiro III and Garcia I defeat Portugal, Castile and the Papal States in a row, forming the Spanish nation.
1400-01: The falls of Acre (in which the last Lusignan ruler, Eriprando, is killed) and Tyrus mark the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1422-28: In Spain the line of Aragon extinguishes with Bernardo, the crown passing to Affonso de Borgonha. Six years later Affonso takes over Portugal and joins it in a personal union with Spain.
1427: The French invasion of Spanish Rosello leads to the War of the Auld Alliance, one of the first examples of patriotic wars.
1437: After a long Milanese leadership - now decayed - the German Confederation reshuffles focusing on its German-speaking core.